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Write phrases or comments you have about each part of the Nahuatlisms in New Mexico, explain why?

Question: Write phrases or comments you have about each part of the Nahuatlisms in New Mexico, explain why?Write phrases or comments you have about each part of the Nahuatlisms in New Mexico, explain why?








Show transcribed image textNew Mexican Spanish alludes to assortment of Spanish spoken espanol neomexicano, the United States in New Mexico and the southern piece of the province of Colorado. It incorporates a Traditional lingo spoken commonly by the Hispanos of New Mexico, re…View the full answerTranscribed image text: NEW MEXICO SPANISH by Dr. Walter Archuleta, Northern New Mexico College Introduction The Spanish language of la Nueva México has been continuous for over 400 years when the first settlers arrived to col- onize New Mexico in 1598 under the lead- ership of Don Juan de Oñate. The language which arrived in New Mexico came from different provinces in Spain. The original New Mexican Spanish was the 15th and 16th century Spanish spoken by the early settlers from Castilla, Andalusía, northern Asturias, León and Galicia. That Spanish, by today’s standards, is an archaic form of the Spanish language that developed from Latin. Archaic forms are still the norm for the dialect. An archaism is the mixture of ancient or antiquated words with modern language. Traditional New Mexican Spanish is the variety of Spanish that the early colonizers brought with them over 400 years ago. Their descendants belong to a linguistic community that continues to speak this variety to the present day. However, not many speakers remain. Many no longer speak Spanish, preferring to speak the English language. We must differentiate Traditional New class with a certain level of formal educa- tion, the so-called norma culta of some regions of Latin America. Aurelio Espinoza In addition to archaisms, Traditional New Mexican Spanish has been subject to a number of influences. Spanish-speaking New Mexicans borrowed heavily from Náhuatl, the Aztec language in Mexico. Borrowing has also taken place, to a limit- LLUMISVIME TUT Mexican Spanish from Standard Spanish. Standard Spanish implies “uniform.” Hidalgo observes, “…in some Latin American countries, the speech variety spoken in the national capital represents the ideal linguistic norm and a model wor- thy of imitation” (Hidalgo, 1990). As Hidalgo notes, a fairly common selection of a “standard” as “the best there is” has been the variety spoken by an elite upper in the way wave pove, wa ed degree, from the Indians of New Mexico. During the 1930’s and 1940’s, Spanish was also influenced by a Hispanic subculture, the Pachucos. However, a major influence on New Mexican Spanish has been the English language. Mexican Spanish has been a second major influence. Finally, we must not forget the phenome- non of code-switching (or Spanglish), which is alive and well in 140 Traditional New Mexican Spanish. Sporadic changes are also a common char- acteristic of Traditional New Mexican Spanish. Archaic Spanish One of the most interesting aspects of the Spanish spoken in New Mexico is the archaic characteristic of the language. The archaic usages reflected in Cervantes’ Don Quijote have survived and been preserved, due to the isolation of this region from the rest of the Spanish-speaking world. The following are examples of archaisms: vide came from the Latin first person singular perfect vidi, meaning “I have seen.” Vide is used in contemporary New Mexico Spanish as simple past tense. Truje is more like 16th century Spanish than standard traje. Onde in New Mexican Spanish comes from Latin ande, but has changed to standard donde. In New Mexico Spanish, the letter “h” is fully aspirated in words such as hallar (to find), huir (to flee), hiel (bladder) and hondo (deep). Náhuatlisms in New Mexican Spanish When the Spaniards arrived in the New World, they encountered flora, fauna, food, utensils, customs, other items and other phenomena for which they had no termi- nology. The Spaniards began to accept new vocabulo many Náhuatlisms for example: pozole (hominy), atole (corn mush) and nixtamale (fine white corn flour for making panocha). The most common Aztec word endings that were hispanicized were “tl” and “li”. They became “te” and “le”. Some exam- ples are: metatl>metate (stone for grinding corn), zacatl>zacate (grass), papalotl> papalote (kite, engine fan), chilli>chile (chile) and tamalli> tamale or tamal (tamale). New Mexico Indian Language Influence Only an insignificant number of words from the Pueblo and Plains Indians survive. Kercheville (1934) lists tosayes what is commonly heard today as tasajos (strips of ripe pumpkin which are dried). Tasajo in Standard Spanish is beef jerky. Other words attributed to the indigenous groups of New Mexico are medicinal herbs such as oshá, coyaye and estafiate. Oshá (Porter’s Lovage) is used for sore throats and colds and makes an excellent cough syrup. It is also used to ward off rat- tlesnakes (víboras). Coyaye (rattlesnake weed) is another medicinal herb used for stomachaches or as a tea. It is also referred to as escoba de la víbora. Estafiate (fringed sage) is a grayish plant with small vocabulary from the Indians and to incor- porate it into their own language. The pre- dominant language was Náhuatl, which was used throughout the Aztec Empire. Since New Mexico’s settlers arrived before the full impact of Náhuatl being felt by the Spanish-speaking in Mexico, Náhuatlisms appearing in New Mexico Spanish are not as numerous as those in Mexico. New Mexico Spanish includes fringed leaves. It is boiled as a tea and used for the treatment of colds, as a diuretic and for stomach pains. Other Indian terms that have figured in the language of New Mexicans of Spanish descent are: cachinas (ceremonial dolls), teguas (Indian buffalo- skin sandals) and cunques (coffee grounds). 141 Pachuquismos Pachuquismos found in New Mexico Spanish resulted from a subcultural group known as Pachucos, which originated in the 1930’s. The organized gangs of pachu- cos did not surface until the 1940’s. The Pachuco dialect had a significant impact on the Spanish language, especially among the younger generation. Many of the pachuquismos among northern New Mexico youth have disappeared. Some popular forms of address were ese bato and órale carnal. However, the more prevalent forms nowadays are ese bro and órale bro. Other pachuquismos used in New Mexico Spanish are the following: chavala (girl), calcos (shoes), lisa (shirt), jaina (girl- friend), ranfla (car) and cantón (house). Quote from María Gutiérrez Spencer in Según Yo: “People perceive reality through their language. When a person forgets his native language, part of him dies. Part of that reality ceases to exist. Yet, in the new language he does not have depth. He is like a cardboard per- son.” Anglicisms The most significant external impact on Many words for which the natives had no equivalents were adopted as though they had always been part of the local speech. Some of these terms are easily rec- ognized since they are given a Spanish enunciation. Examples are: cloche (clutch), flate (flat), gaselín (gasoline), garache (garage), telefón (telephone), güinchil (windshield), reque (wreck). Other vocabulary includes borrowed terms and expressions from English: bloque (block), buen tiempo (good time), correr (to run for public office), Crismes (Christmas), sute (suit), daime (dime), pene (penny), escuela alta (high school), greve (gravy), pinates (peanuts), troca (truck), yela (jelly) and lonchar (to lunch). The Traditional Spanish term for ice cream is leche nevada, whereas the Anglicism is aiscrim. The learned form helado is spoken primarily among those who have a college degree. In the 20th century, English was the lan- guage of prestige while Spanish has been relegated to the home and the neighbor- hood. In recent decades, Traditional New Mexico Spanish, the Spanish inherited from the original settlers, is being aban- doned entirely, and the children of New Mexican Spanish has been the 160 years of contact with the English language. When New Mexico became a territory of the United States in 1848, Americans from the East and Midwest started moving into southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. The impact of English has been profound throughout New Mexico. It is clear that shift to English has gained momentum for many native New Mexicans. Hispanic heritage are growing up as English monolinguals. Those who speak Spanish in New Mexico nowadays tend to be first-generation Mexican immigrants and their children. Modern Mexico Influence The transformation of Spanish under English influence and Mexican influence is the final current of history that will likely determine the future form of New Mexican Spanish. Modern Mexican Spanish 142 has had an enormous influence. This enor- mous influence has been a result of mas- sive immigration from Mexico between 1910 and the Depression (especially the late 1920’s through the 1930’s), and again following World War II and continuing to the present. There is deep Mexican pene- tration into Traditional New Mexico Spanish in the following forms: chaba- cano/chabacán instead of albaricoque/ albarcoque for apricot, vestido instead of túnico for dress, blusa instead of cuerpo for blouse, falda instead of naguas for skirt, enfermera instead of nodriza for nurse, lata instead of bote or jarro for tin can, escuelero instead of estudiante/alumno for student and estafeta instead of casa/oficina de correos for post office. The Mexican influence is spreading due to the influx of Mexican immigrants and the formal instruction in high schools and universities. Traditional New Mexico Spanish forms are disappearing from the lexicon of young native New Mexicans. The Mexicanization of the standardization process is taking its toll on Traditional New Mexican Spanish. Code-Switching (or Spanglish) Code-switching is characteristic of many parts of the world, including New Mexico, where two or more speech com- munities live in close contact. Gumperz defines code switching as “the juxtaposi- tion within the same exchange of passages (Inter-sententially) “No pudo entrar pa’ limpiarla y estaba retaplena’o. I don’t know how they’ll clean it” (Bills, 1990). (Intra-sententially) “Yo, a mí se me hace que yo fui muy afor- tunada because I went to school in a very small town” (Fernández, 1990). English-Spanish switching is a creative style of bilingual communication that accomplishes important cultural and com- municative work. Communication in English, or Spanish, or both, responds to complex social and linguistic variables and demonstrates a skill. Code-switching (or Spanglish) represents the creation of a new language. Traditional New Mexico Spanish speakers need to refer to “Spanglish” as a positive way of identifying their code- switching. Code-switching is a way of say- ing that you belong to both worlds and should not be forced to give up one for the other. Switches to Spanish are attempts to touch home base, a resistance to being overwhelmed by English. Sporadic Changes Sporadic changes are another common feature of New Mexico Spanish. Some of these changes are the following: (1) The disappearance of second person plural verb form in all conjugations (the vosotros form). New Mexicans use the ustedes form only. Cal belonging to two different grammatical systems or subsystems” (Gumpers, 1982). This means that during the same sentence two different language systems are used. Code switches can occur at the boundary of complete sentences (inter-sententially) or within sentence boundaries (intra-senten- tially). Examples appear below: (2) The change of the verb endings in the second person singular of the preterite tense from Standard Spanish, – aste,-iste,-iste, either to -ates,-ites, -ites or to astes, -istes -istes. Some examples are:hablaste>hablates, comiste> comites and dijiste>dijites. 143 (3) The transfer or substitution of the first person plural ending -emos of the second conjugation to the same person in the third conjugation, bebemos (beber), vivemos (vivir). (4) The shift of accent and substitu- tion of the form -nos for -mos of the Standard Spanish forms in the first person plural forms of the present subjunctive: (Traditional Spanish) háblenos; (Standard Spanish) hablemos. The particle -nos also replaces the Standard Spanish endings of the first person plural of the imperfect indicative: (Traditional Spanish) hablá- banos, (Standard Spanish) hablábamos. The -nos also occurs in the first person plu- ral form of the conditional, hablaríanos (Traditional Spanish); hablaríamos (Standard Spanish). (5) The loss of intervocalic -d at the end of the past participle of -ar verbs (bus- car, hablar, tomar, etc.) and in adjectives derived from these verb forms: busca’o (Traditional New Mexico Spanish); busca do (Standard Spanish); habla’o (Traditional New Mexico Spanish), hablado (Standard Spanish), toma’o (Traditional New Mexico Spanish), tomado (Standard Spanish). Another sporadic change is metathesis, which is where letters are transposed with- in words. Some common words that have ach), (Standard Spanish) estómago, (Traditional New Mexico Spanish) probe for poor, (Standard Spanish) pobre and (Traditional New Mexico Spanish) fuites for you went, (Standard Spanish) fuiste. Conclusions Today’s New Mexicans have been in continuous contact with different ethnic groups over the past 409 years. Those con- tacts have influenced language change and development. The quality of Traditional New Mexican Spanish has drastically dete- riorated for the past 160 years, with the arrival of the English language and the enormous influence of Modern Mexican Spanish. Unless there is a major revitaliza- tion effort in place in the next two genera- tions, the Traditional Spanish of New Mexico will undergo dialect extinction within the next 50 years. Traditional New Mexican Spanish will continue to evolve whether by revital- ization efforts, by becoming Modern Mexican Spanish, by becoming a mixture of Spanish-English (Spanglish) or by extinction. which undergone metathesis in Traditional New Mexican Spanish are: (Traditional New Mexico Spanish) pader for wall, (Standard Spanish) pared, (Traditional New Mexico Spanish) cabresto for rope, (Standard Spanish) cabestro, (Traditional New Mexico Spanish) virdio for glass, (Standard Spanish) vidrio, (Traditional New Mexico Spanish) estógamo for stom-

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