Introduction The State of the Art: Survey Results Key Concerns Recommendations Conclusion Bibliography
Today, concerns pertaining to the management of human resources in the public sector are of particular importance. Human resource management must shift its emphasis from administrative methods to the implementation of personnel policy, which is based on the system of civil servant and government agency interests (Bozeman and Su, 2015). Therefore, there is a need for the most recent scientific information and effective technologies in the field of human resource management, techniques of workforce development and management, and the research of novel technologies in dealing with staff. The application of current technologies for human resource management is a potential trend for the development of human resources in state and municipal government service. Using the example of the Westonwich District Council (WDC), which delivers a variety of local government services to a primarily rural community, the possibilities of their application will be illustrated in the section that follows.
The State of the Art: Survey Results
The WDC employee poll revealed troubling trends: 54% of respondents are actively seeking alternative work. This finding demonstrates the fundamental ineffectiveness of WDC's incentive and retention tactics and approaches. The conclusions can be classified as follows: responsibility, involvement, and advancement; work-life balance and workplace stress; financial reward and incentives; corporate culture and diversity. Despite the fact that certain categories have relatively positive outcomes, others suggest severe issues. The best results were obtained in the category of responsibility, participation, and promotion: 61% find their work rewarding, 44% are satisfied with the variety of work, and the level of satisfaction with the level of responsibility, as well as employees' perception of promotion opportunities, are high and correspond to the best standards even in commercial organizations; 71% and 70% of WDC employees are satisfied by these parameters, respectively (Wilkinson, Armstrong and Lounsbury, 2017). Nevertheless, even in this category, problems are evident: only 32% of employees are satisfied with their training and development opportunities, indicating not only a lack of proper corporate training, talent management, and workforce development, but also an improperly constructed system of promotion that is not based on employees' professional growth. This will certainly lead to problems with the promotion system in the future, as the system is not based on employees' competitive advantages and already represents missed opportunities and benefits as a result of not maximizing organizational performance potential.
WDC employees are unsatisfied with the excessive workload; 89% think their employment have been more stressful over the past few years, and 90% say they 'sometimes feel worried' at work. This is a key warning indicator for WDC, needing quick action to balance employee work duties and workload, restructure teams, implement effective business procedures, and enhance corporate information systems (IS). In addition, 55% are satisfied with their work-life balance, which is a somewhat surprising outcome given the two previously mentioned factors. Nonetheless, this allows for team formation and training within the context of organizational changes throughout business process reengineering and corporate IS alterations. To account for the fact that only 15% of WDC employees believe change is managed well, an acceptable change model should be selected prior to planning and implementing any changes, based on its theoretical implications and application to WDC-specific circumstances.
Culture and diversity within an organization might be defined as ambiguous. Some indices are quite satisfactory: 61% of respondents find their work gratifying, and 13% enjoy it "greatly"; 59% are satisfied with their physical work environment, and 88% are pleased with the council's equality and diversity practices. Similarly, only 28% believe they are "listened to at work," while 37% are content with the "amount of discretion" they are permitted to exercise in their jobs. Although these parameters can be attributed to the first category – responsibility, participation, and promotion – in the context of WDC HRM practices research, it is more expedient to consider them under the category of organizational culture, as it is one of the most important factors in today's motivational systems in all organizations, in both the private and public sectors. Analyzing the results for this category of responses reveals that the good characteristics of organizational culture and diversity are more often the result of statutory requirements for organizations in the public administration sector than the efforts of WDC executives. They are required to offer employees with ergonomic workspaces and adhere to diversity quotas, but it is clear from the survey results that the company does not utilize the benefits and possibilities of diversity to enhance organizational performance, as do commercial firms. Moreover, only 36% of employees are satisfied with their job security, which is significantly lower than the acceptable number in private sector businesses and is unusually low for public administration organizations (Esteve and Shuster, 2019). Being 'catalyzed' by low engagement and dissatisfaction with material incentives (21% are satisfied with their pay and benefits, but no one says they are'very satisfied'), this situation can lead to a catastrophic staffing situation in WDC and, as a result, the inability to provide adequate services to the covered population.
On the basis of the brief analysis presented above, it can be concluded that the most important issues to address are our lack of talent management and well-organized business procedures, which constitute two fundamental approaches to the treatment of employee motivation. As a branch of psychology, motivation is founded on a definite psychological and scientific machinery. The study of human resource management examines two categories of theories of motivation: substantive and procedural. According to substantive theories, human wants are ranked in numerous ways. Maslow, with his notion of the hierarchy of needs, McClelland, and Herzberg, as well as other American psychologists and scholars, are among the proponents of this theory (Garley, 2015). Nonetheless, procedural theories favor taking into account factors other than the individual's requirements as the foundation for the construction of the reward system. They imply that the work and organizational behavior of employees is heavily influenced by internal attitudes and expectations. These theories seek to identify why an individual chooses a particular action and how to modify the factors that impact this decision (Garley, 2015). Proponents of procedural theories of motivation argue that an employee matches the challenge with his or her own objectives, motives, and expectations, and then chooses a particular form of conduct (Vokic and Hernaus, 2017). He/she establishes objectives based on the tasks provided, but decreases and alters them based on personal value orientations.
A poll reveals that motivating and encouraging personnel is the biggest difficult issue at WDC. The majority of employees are unsatisfied with the compensation system, and in their responses they highlighted its flaws, namely the lack of non-material incentives. Due to the organization's limited material resources, it must rely on non-material methods of motivation, which have long been acknowledged to be more effective on the long-term strategic plane than purely financial motivation tools.
Due to the enormous complexity and unpredictability of motivational elements and associated processes, it is not always possible for modern scientists and practitioners to establish effective working techniques to motivate and stimulate personnel. However, researchers on this issue agree that the interest of staff in achieving high labor results is a source of increasing the organization's functioning efficiency, a prerequisite for the implementation of its strategy, and a guarantee of an increase in potential and competitive status (Wilcox, 2016). The reality of this issue is supported by research findings: motivation increases labor productivity by up to 1.5 times (while demotivation decreases it by several times), reduces delays by 90 percent and absenteeism by 18 to 50 percent (Sparrow, 2015). 70% to 80% of a worker's professional potential and competencies are realized when he or she is highly motivated, compared to 20% to 30% at best when motivation is low. By improving employee motivation, it is feasible to increase their output by two to three times (Garley, 2015). Due to the scarcity of most types of material, technical, raw materials, financial, and other resources, effective motivation enables the achievement of high-performance indicators of the organization through the activation of human capital, i.e., without large investments, which makes the problem of motivation particularly pertinent for WDC.
Specifically, employee involvement represents the degree to which the employee's beliefs align with those of the organization. The effectiveness of this exercise can only be evaluated based on the contentment and participation of the workers. Engagement is the most essential social aspect of a team (Garley, 2015). Essentially, it resembles the economic attribute of its producing activity: labor productivity. Engagement has a direct effect on an organization's performance, such that with least financial and time input, an ideal result is attained (Niranjan and Thomas, 2018). A competent person is devoted to the organization; for him or her, work is the most essential aspect of life, and he or she constantly seeks growth and development, enjoys responsibility, and is able to create and fulfill goals.
In result, an effective talent management system may assure a high level of employee engagement. The term "talent" in the notion of talent management refers to an employee's abilities and personality qualities, knowledge, skills, and experience, motivational attributes, including motivation for learning, and professional growth and development (Rozman, Treven and Cancer, 2017). Such a system of characteristics makes it possible to achieve a result of labor that is differentiated by uniqueness, high quality, and social relevance, and it must match to the qualities and substance of the subject's professional activity, as well as the organization's strategic goals. Consequently, the talent management process is a deliberate action designed to establish in an organization a system for recruiting, developing, and retaining workers who can provide high-quality, unique, and socially significant work results (Sheridan, 2015). In addition, talent must be evaluated in light of the organization's strategic objectives, its corporate culture, and the overall backdrop of its activities.
One may claim that talent management is becoming a more vital factor in enhancing organizational success. As one of the strategic HRM approaches, it interacts with the other management functions, focusing on one of the organization's core resources — the people who implement the organizational strategy. Talent management is the implementation of an integrated strategy for managing numerous HR operations, including as hiring, onboarding, development and training, performance management, leadership, and career planning (Greene, 2020). Likewise, talent management activities are unachievable in the absence of well-defined and well-adjusted business procedures, under conditions of organizational instability or excessive workload, which hinders employees from working on their growth and demonstrating initiative and engagement. Innovative approaches promote HR operations to interact in real-time with an organization's business activities.
Without exaggeration, the workload of the employees is a reflection of the company's health. It should be kept in mind that even if one individual in the chain is loaded for eight hours while others are overloaded or underloaded, this might be considered a business process failure requiring correction. In this context, the primary objective of business process reengineering is to significantly enhance all performance metrics of the organization. Consequently, this procedure should result in optimal efficiency in the work of all corporate components, whether personnel or machinery (Bhaskar, 2017). At the same time, it is essential not to overburden personnel to the point where they are continuously in emergency mode and completing infinite activities, but rather to define all functions for pre-built business processes (Mavetera et al., 2015). Each employee should have specific instructions about how to accomplish the actions. It should be built with the work of estimating the time spent executing a certain function and time for rest in mind, which is also required to increase the quality of certain actions.
When a business has created all work procedures, employee engagement emerges and is the spark that ignites inspiration. Among the methods for talent management in the public sector, the following activities stand out: "social elevators," the option to study abroad and specialized programs for the training and retraining of public officials, and the establishment of a staff reserve (Deters, 2017). In addition to the exclusive instruments, the following inclusive ones are employed: The institution of mentoring, personnel rotation mechanisms, and the concept of a new model of civil service are forming an instrument for evaluating and rewarding civil workers based on performance, which is closely tied to talent management. One of the responsibilities of talent management is to prevent talent loss and establish optimal working environment. Talented team members must be assigned engaging tasks and provided with opportunity for additional training and professional advancement. The most significant aspect of professional and career advancement, together with professional atmosphere and recognition.
The development of a talent management system begins with the recruitment of high-potential specialists. To do this, HR managers must study and implement HR marketing techniques. They will promote a positive image of the company and recruit team members with values compatible with the corporate culture. Staff development is an essential component of a talent management program. In order to get better outcomes and more benefits, it is crucial not only to utilize the specialist's innate skills, but also to guide his or her development in the appropriate path. This is made possible by the organization of people training and advanced training in any style, be it mentoring, training, or course. This aspect of the talent management system can assist in retaining specialists, motivating them, and developing a career development plan. Moreover, the image of a firm that invests in its team is created through caring for talented individuals.
As part of the talent management system, employee progress might involve not only climbing the career ladder but also participating in new, promising projects and assuming greater responsibilities. At the same time, the organization gains the consequence of maximizing the utilization of employees' creative ideas, experience, and competencies. Career counseling also appears appropriate, since it will assist the employee in navigating the circumstance, developing an attitude towards what is occurring, and determining his or her own development and learning plan. Numerous companies have already implemented their career management systems. However, it is ineffective without career guidance because it does not touch the individual on a deeper level (Cauvier, 2018). One of the tasks of career coaching is working with intrinsic motivation, identifying the potential of a talented employee, and identifying ways to realize it. An employee's intrinsic drive rises when he or she is aware of
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