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The Role Of Community Based Organizations Within Development College Essay Help Free




Create a SWOT analysis of the location you have chosen for your Case Study Project. A SWOT analysis is an assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats facing this city/ town. Feel free to look up examples of SWOT analyses online to help you with this project. This analysis will become a part of your final project, so it would be wise to heavily invest in the process of creating this SWOT. In your bibliography, be sure to include any resources that you found helpful in explaining the SWOT analysis. This may help your peers who are struggling with creating their own SWOT analysis, and it will help you all as you approach the final stage in your case study project.


The SWOT Analysis of Metro Memphis Although transportation and co-ordination speak to the first conspicuous and dominant industry cluster within the locale, most of Metro Memphis’s key industry clusters have maintained substantial development rates, outpacing national development for their segments in numerous cases. The region’s a dependable balance in accuracy therapeutic gadget fabricating recognizes it and offers potential roads for new opportunity and growth. The specialized medication division within the locale developed 238 percent from 1980-2011, outpacing the national development rate for that region of medicine. The Metro Memphis therapeutic advances division, which incorporates restorative gadget fabricating and inquire about and advancement related with such innovations, expanded by 300 percent over the same period, compared to the national development rate of 32 percent. Of its domestic industry clusters, Metro Memphis’s transportation and co-ordination cluster are the most characterizing and energetic. Transportation, co-ordinations, and related administrations contain Metro Memphis’s most famous group, generally giving 127,000 occupations and creating $15.2 billion worth of financial yield in 2011. As measured here, the cluster accounted for 20 percent of the region’s employment and 28 percent of its economic return that year. The measure of the group, relative to the rest of the economy, makes Memphis one of the foremost specialized large co-ordination economies within the United States, with a concentration of business about four times the national normal. The cluster characterizes the nearby economy to such a degree that many other nearby industry clusters infer much of their competitive advantage from their capacity to move products from Metro Memphis to distant flung places quickly. The Metro Memphis manufacturing segment utilized 44,600 specialists in 2011 and delivered $6.1 billion worth of economic output. As a share of the nearby economy, fabricating has relentlessly declined over a few decades. It accounts for approximately 14 percent fewer employment relative to the national economy and 11 percent less output. However, if the share of occupations and yield-related to co-ordination’s and transportation evacuated from the calculations, the percentage of both that’s based on fabricating exercises are somewhat higher than the national average. Manufacturing, in this situation, accounts for approximately 9 percent more of local non-logistics work relative to the country and 25 percent more of local yield. In addition, the locale has experienced later victory in drawing in three modern fabricating plants over the final two a long time. Electrolux and Mitsubishi Electric are presently operational and contracting in Metro Memphis. Given the resurgence of fabricating underway over the U.S., that drift seems other open opportunities for recharging and developing the region’s fabricating base. The skills and ability required by Metro Memphis’s producers vary from national standards for fabricating divisions. Over the United States, generation specialists’ account for approximately 42 percent of add up to manufacturing business and engineers account for another 6 percent (University of Memphis Planning Department Plan 2015). In Metro Memphis, generation workers’ share is less, at 37 percent, and engineers account for only3 percent of all business. In a changing economy, laborers alter occupations more habitually. Work and aptitude necessities change at a more fast pace. Focused on consideration must be paid to specific portions of the labor advertise and employments as ability bungles and labor showcase disturbance happen habitually, particularly during the first move from the more seasoned economy to the modern economy. New labor market instruments are regularly required to empower proficient development of specialists among occupations, firms, and businesses. Laborers need not as it were to update their aptitudes ceaselessly but moreover to be able to record their skills through recognized certifications, conjointly to discover openings for deploying them. Bosses got to be able to distinguish and survey candidates with the foremost pertinent abilities and involvement efficiently, often on a brief time allotment. Those changes in work markets require preparing and education systems to operate at an available level of market center and nimbleness, altering their programs to preserve arrangement with showcase demands. Therefore, the opportunities that help the Metro Memphis developed is the characteristics of another economy call for the next era of financial put making: keen, focused on speculations that combine economic movement and built situations in more nuanced and specialized ways to drive long-term development and reshape communities. The region’s economy will be more spatially efficient and productive if firms, laborers, shoppers, and pertinent teach are found in reasonable proximity to one another or are well associated. Thick, mixed-use communities with fabulous transportation and virtual associations decrease exchange costs for bosses, laborers, and shoppers. They moreover cultivate wealthy systems and financial intuitive and bolster the move to a beneficial, maintainable, and overall economy. Employment process within the region is profoundly decentralized, with as it were almost one-quarter of employment concentrated in identifiable work centers. Whereas 81 percent of territorial occupations found in Shelby District, two-thirds of later regional development has happened in rural counties. Approximately 7 percent of workers have concentrated close the airport, 6 percent within the Southeast Memphis stockroom zone, 4 percent within the Central Commerce Area, 4 percent within the Downtown Restorative Center and 3percentin the East Memphis Therapeutic Area. Nearly 2percentof the region’s employment concentrated around Tunica Province gaming facilities. More than three-quarters of work is scattered all through the locale with few determinable work concentrations. Reacting to territorial challenges and opportunities, Center: A Guide for Changing the Metro Memphis Economy calls upon accomplices from all through the locale to seek after a new course, actualizing seven techniques that, working together, will construct cooperative energy and force toward another economy within the locale. Metro Memphis will set its position as a pioneer in worldwide co-ordination by building on its center qualities and broad discuss, rail and stream connections (Beyer 2018). Therefore, this will include taking more noteworthy advantage of the region’s existing conditions as a pioneer in messengers& conveyance occupations, cargo course of action, inland water transportation, and warehousing — the investigating of openings past low-skill rules in the back or regulatory administrations. Developing and competitive businesses, such as gadgets get together and repair, are co-ordination subordinate but offer the higher ability and higher wage stages.









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Twelve Years a Slave Artistic Discussion writing essay help: writing essay help

Prompt:


Take the artistic piece that is named below and: deconstruct it, critique it, compare it, analyze it, using the methodological tools of analyzing racism.


The art piece is the movie: Twelve Years a Slave


Theories are: White privilege, structural racism, Race as social construct, the racial contract, racial moral cognitive dysfunction/double standards of morality and empathy based on race, epistemology of forgetfulness…


Watch the movie and choose two of theories above to be the central piece. They are the lenses by which you will analyze the artistic pieces. Some names of readings are listed below (you can search them in Google), which you can back to readings and choose some that can help you in depth to support your understanding of the theories.


3-5 pages, 12 font, at least two sources, any style of citation is allowed, pay more attention in argument when you write the paper


 


 


Readings:


Feagin’s Systemic Racism,


Gobineau’s Inequality of the Human Races


Huxley’s Emancipation…


Charles Mills Racial Contract


howard zinn A People’s History…


Blackmon’s Slavery by Another Name


Cone’s The Cross and the Lynching Tree


 


Just choose the readings which to help support your theories that you selected based on movie!


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Goldman Sachs operated with 40 to 1 leverage reseach paper essay help cheap

Goldman Sachs operated with 40 to 1 leverage.”


This statement is consistent with which of the following:


Select one:


a. Goldman Sachs borrows 40 dollars for each dollar of capital.


b. Goldman Sachs must borrow 97.5% of total asset value.


c. Capital constitutes 2.5% of assets.


d. 2.5% loss in value would wipe out shareholder value.


e. All of the above.


 


This particular bond is considered to have no default risk.


Select one:


a. AAA rated corporate bonds


b. sovereign wealth bonds


c. zero risk bonds


d. US Treasury bonds


 


 


 


 


 



 



 


The figure above shows the interest rates (sometimes called yields) for two types of bonds: US 10-year Treasury bond and a risky corporate bond. The gap (i.e., vertical distance) between the US 10-year Treasury bond (red) and risky corporate bond (blue) lines is called:


Select one:


a. risk premium


b. yield gap


c. premium spread


d. default zone


 


 


 


An investor has $50,000 in cash to put a $5,000 down payment on 10 different homes valued at $50,000 each and will finance the rest of the investment. Soon after buying the homes she sold all 10 homes for $60,000 each and  earned a profit of $100,000 – an astounding 100% return on investment. This scenario is an example of:


Select one:


a. risk-return


b. interest rate spread


c. financial liquidity


d. leverage


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Integrating Reading, Writing, And Math Into A Science Lesson free essay help online: free essay help online

Integrating Reading, Writing, and Math into a Science Lesson


Science requires reading, writing, and math skills, in addition to critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. When teachers contextualize learning and integrate that context across all subjects, students are typically more engaged in learning and are able to make connections.


Locate and review a science or health lesson plan. Consider how you would revise the lesson plan to include integration of reading, writing, and math skills. In addition, include suggestions for technology integration and differentiation.


Use the “5E Lesson Plan Template” for your revisions. Include the link to the original lesson plan.


Include a 250-500 word rationale explaining your choices.


APA Style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.


This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.


DUE BY SATURDAY, JUNE  , 2019


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The Great War And America history essay help




The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the immediate cause of World War I. But the events that led to the Great War go further back into the nineteenth century. As with the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part.


Analyze how the forces of nationalism, imperialism, and militarism irrevocably led to World War I. Pay particular attention to the rise of Pan-Slavism in Eastern Europe and the corresponding rise of nationalism in German-speaking states. Analyze how the alliance system contributed to the ultimate outbreak of war.


Then analyze the events that drew the United States into World War I. Clearly discuss why America first remained neutral between1914-1917. What role did ethnicity play in America’s neutrality? Then identify and analyze the specific events that led to America’s entrance into the war. Evaluate America’s contribution to the war effort and to what extent America’s entry contributed to the end of the war. Finally, analyze the events that led to the defeat of the Treaty of Versailles. What effect did this have on America’s role in the world during the 1920s and 1930s? Pay particular attention to the role of President Woodrow Wilson both during and after the war, in particular, his efforts to establish the League of Nations.


This paper must be five to six pages in length (not including the References page) and utilize no less than four academic quality sources. Margins should be no more than one inch (right and left) and the essay should be composed in an appropriate font and size. Sources must be documented and cited using APA format.









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ESSAY on PowerPoint Presentation Civil Liberties Civil Rights: melbourne essay help




Unit II PowerPoint Presentation Civil Liberties v. Civil Rights: Create a PowerPoint slide show explaining what Civil Liberties and Civil Rights are. Your slide show should consist of 10-14 slides (not including a title slide and reference slide which you must have) and should include, but not be limited to:  Definition of civil liberties and discuss how these rights are protected on a federal and state level  Definition of civil rights and discuss how these rights are protected on a federal and state level  Two cases involving civil liberties taken up by the Supreme Court from 1800-2005  Two cases involving civil rights taken up by the Supreme Court from 1800-2005  One case involving civil liberties ruled on by the Supreme Court in the last 2 years  One case involving civil rights ruled on by the Supreme Court in the last 2 years  One leader of civil liberty causes  One leader of civil rights causes (within the last 5 years)  Two pictures  Explanation of how each of these Supreme Court decisions have influenced minority groups, and the effects they have had on the struggles for equal rights  The status of equal rights today You may include additional information you feel is relevant, but do not create more than 14 slides. Remember that you must include a title slide and proper APA reference slide in addition to the 10-14 slides. Use your creativity, and organize the material in a logical and understandable manner. Please feel free to use the notes portion of each slide as well.









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National Response Framework write essay help: write essay help




This unit’s reading focused on the National Response Framework (NRF) and public-private partnerships. The NRF requires extensive coordination from federal, state, and local agencies. It is a strategic document ensuring everyone is involved for a given response effort. The NRF builds from a set of core principles. For this unit’s assignment, explain what the NRF is, the five core principles the NRF is built from, and how these principles are applied to critical infrastructure protection response efforts. What are the challenges to applying these principles? The criteria below should be met in your assignment. The introduction should engage the reader in the topic and clearly present a summary of the main points. The discussion should be appropriate and provide evidence of critical thinking. Discuss how information can be communicated to build public and private relationships for infrastructure protection. Discuss the five main mission areas of the NRF. The organization should be clear and present logically arranged points. The writing should be clear and concise with correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Your assignment should be a minimum of three pages in length and should be in APA format. You must include a minimum of two sources.









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Discuss the differences that exist between social insurance programs college essay help near me


1.)Discuss the differences that exist between social insurance programs and public assistance programs. What is your opinion regarding how far the government should go in providing assistance to those who need these programs?Your response should be at least 200 words in length.  You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response.  All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying in-text citations.


2.)


Explain how the federal government promotes business, labor, and agriculture in the United States. Also, describe how the federal government uses its monetary policy as an economic management tool.


Your response should be at least 200 words in length.  You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response.  All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying in-text citations.


3.)Discuss the various ways federal, state, and local governments attempt to promote education as equality of opportunity. What are the some positives and negatives you see in the involvement of government in the education system?Your response should be at least 200 words in length.  You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response.  All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying in-text citations.


4.)Discuss how government intervention promotes efficiency and equity in the economy. Be sure that you include restraint of trade, indirect costs, deregulation, and overregulation within your analysis.        Your response should be at least 200 words in length.  You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response.  All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying in-text citations.


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American Lives Mary Pickford assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney


Research Project On History paper “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu


HIST 100: United States History to 1877


San Bernardino Valley College


Spring 2017


Research Project


Worth: 300 points


Overview


The research project will give you a chance to explore a topic in the course more in-depth. After


you conduct research on your topic, you will put together a ten-minute presentation to deliver to


the class at the end of the semester, using a program such as PowerPoint or Google Slides. I will


be offering a workshop during my office hours demonstrating how to use these programs for


anyone wanting to learn the basics of these programs.


I encourage you to select a topic within this period of American history that is either of interest


to you or somehow relates to your major. This way, it will make the research process seem more


relevant and engaging.


You will have to locate a minimum of one primary and one secondary source for the project,


which will have to be submitted on a Works Cited page on the day of your presentation.


To ensure everyone stays on task with their project, there are required deadlines – with


associated points – that count towards the final score for the project. The breakdown is as


follows:


The topic for the project 15 points


Works Cited page 25 points


Mini report on your project 35 points


Presentation Up to 225 points


TOTAL PROJECT 300 points


Please do not hesitate in seeking me out for guidance at any point and time for assistance on this


project or any other in this course. I am always willing to offer any assistance or guidance.


 


Parts of the Project


Topic Selection


You will select a topic relevant to the course and submit it to me for approval and/or suggestions.


A partial list of suggested topics is provided on the next page. The topic MUST PERTAIN TO


UNITED STATES HISTORY. Failure to do will affect your grade negatively.


 




 


Source Selection


Once you have selected your topic, you must locate a minimum of two sources – one primary


and one secondary source – relevant to your topic. You must submit your sources on a Works


Cited page to me for any recommendations.


A primary source is an original document from the era of the topic you are researching. Several


examples include:


– Diaries


– Journals


– Letters


– Memorandums


– Photographs


– Newspaper clippings from the era


– Magazines from the era


A secondary source is a historical document which interprets the story of a historical actor or


event. Examples include:


– Biographies


– Monographs (books on events or people)


Mini Report on Project


Towards the end of the course, you will be writing up a two paragraph (minimum four-sentence


per paragraph) report on how far you’ve gotten with your project. You should be honest and


candid in this report. If you have encountered “roadblocks” in your research – you can’t find


information, or the information you find constantly seems to contradict itself – say so. All these


details are part of the learning experience.


One the due date of the mini report, you will be divided into small groups in class to share your


reports and discuss the various findings you have made. You will likely find you have many


common experiences with your classmates.


Research Project


The final part of the project involves you presenting your project to the class. I will present you


with a basic rubric of what I will be looking for in your presentation. You will be expected to


present a finalized list of resources you used on the day of your presentation.


Alternative Project


If you suffer from “presentation anxiety” – I understand completely as I used to fall into this


category – I offer you an alternative choice: you may write a research paper on your topic.


 




 


It must be a minimum of five pages in length, include a cover page and include a works cited


page. It should be double-spaced and in 12-point Times New Roman font. It should include


citations in MLA format to indicate where you got all your information from.


Resources


For guidelines on MLA format, use this link:


https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/


 


Topic Suggestions for Research Project


– Roanoke Island


– George Washington


– Sally Hemmings


– Thomas Jefferson


– Jefferson-Hemmings Affair


– Jamestown


– Transcontinental Railroad


– Trail of Tears


– Pontiac’s Rebellion


– The Salem Witch Trials


– Fredrick Douglass


– The Abolition Movement


– The Civil War


– The Battle at Gettysburg


– Jefferson Davis


– General Ulysses S. Grant


– Stonewall Jackson


– Manifest Destiny


– California Gold Rush


– The Oregon Trail


– Kit Carson


– Junipero Serra


– The Louisiana Purchase


– The Declaration of Independence


– The Quakers


– John Adams


– Ralph Waldo Emmerson


– Abraham Lincoln


– The Emancipation Proclamation


– Harriette Tubman


 


https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/


 


– The Underground Railroad


– Andrew Johnson


– The Pueblo Revolt


– Pueblo Bonita


– Cahuilla


– Serrano


– Diegueno


– The Great Awakening


– The Second Great Awakening


– San Manuel Band of Mission Indians


– The Westward Expansion


– The Donner Party


– The Mormons


– Joseph Smith


– Brigham Young


– Collis P. Huntington


– Erie Canal


– Charles Crocker


– Theodore Judah


– Leland Stanford


– The Whig Party


– The Lowell Factory


– Mark Hopkins


– Florida


– New Mexico


– California


– Connecticut


– Pennsylvania


– William Penn


– Nat Turner


– The Stamp Act


– Sam Houston


– Benjamin Franklin


– John Hancock


– “Negro” spirituals in the antebellum South


– Nat Turner’s Rebellion


– Uncle Tom’s Cabin


– The Boston Tea Party


– The Battle of Saratoga


– Republican motherhood


 




 


– The Whiskey Rebellion


– The Texas Revolt


 


OR ANY TOPIC YOU CAN FIND!


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 




 


Presentation Grading Rubric


Name of Student:____________________________________________________


Title of Presentation:_________________________________________________


__________________________________________________________________


Format of Project: ____ Presentation ____ Research Paper


RESEARCH PAPER PRESENTATION


Basic Information Basic Information


Length: __________ Over □ Length: __________ Over □


MLA format: Yes □ No □ MLA format: Yes □ No □


 


Area of


Competency


Description Score/Points


Possible


Percentage of


Grade


Subject The topic does not deviate


from the approved topic.


 


/25 11%


Citations The project includes clearly


evident citations.


/40 18%


Grammar The project has been


thoroughly checked for


proper word choice and


major grammatical errors.


/50 22%


Clarity The topic is presented clearly


and coherently, with visuals


used to enhance the


presenter’s message.


 


/50 22%


Preparation The presenter demonstrates


thorough preparation on the


topic, is easy to follow for


the audience and follows a


logical progression from a


beginning to an end.


 


/60 27%


 


Grade


 


/225


 


100%


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British colonies in North America revolted extended essay help biology




THE ASSIGNMENT IS TO REVISE A 3 PAGE ESSAY. TO ADD WHAT IT LACKS. I WILL ATTACH THE PAPER ONCE I HAVE ACCEPTED SOMEONES OFFER. THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE 3 PAGE ESSAY ARE THE FOLLOWING:


According to the British King and bureaucracy, the colonists were acting like spoiled children. According to the colonists, the British were overbearing, over-taxing, and ignoring their grievances. Take the perspective of American colonists, and explain why the British colonies in North America revolted.


Below are some of the items to consider:


 



The colonial relationship to the British before/after the French and Indian War
The acts passed by the British government
The grievances stated in the Declaration of Independence
The events that escalated the division between the Crown and the Colonists.

 


Choose one of the two perspectives to defend in an essay (American colonists or British government). Complete a 3-4 page (the reference and title page does not count) paper according to APA REQUIREMENTS. Each paper should include at least four paragraphs: an introduction, a body with at least two fully developed paragraphs, and a conclusion.  At least 3 sources are required. Don’t forget to include in the paper all the items above.









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African American Musical From The 1970 To The Present Day admission college essay help: admission college essay help




 Research the history of the African American musical from the 1970 to the present day. The research need to focus on the musicals in which the music or book (script) was written by African Americans. Some musicals may be included that did not have African American collaborator, such as Dreamgirls. Audiences

 


It is important to discuss the origin and history of the topic. Also cover the historical and cultural significance of the topic as it relates to African American theatre.


Important musicals from the 1970s to present.


Musical revues and their impact on African American Theatre.


How the African American musicals changed throughout the decades from the works of    Vinnette Carol, to the ground breaking Passing Strange


 


 


5 – 7 pages









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The reception on Hind Swaraj essay help cheap


THE RECEPTION OF HIND SWARAJ


The initial reception of Hind Swaraj, except in the case of Tolstoy, was


hostile. The sage of Yasnaya Polyana wrote to say that the question of


passive resistance raised in the book was ‘of the greatest importance not


only for India but for the whole of humanity’ (CW10: 505). In March 1910


the Government of India reacted by banning the book for fear of sedition.


Shyamji Krishnavarma wrote a blistering attack in his The Indian Sociologist


(October 1913): Gandhi, ‘an admirer of Jesus Christ’, wrote the admirer of


Herbert Spencer, was trying to put into practice ‘the extreme Christian


theory of suffering’. W. J. Wybergh, though more respectful, was no less


critical. (For the text of Wybergh’s letter, see below, pp. 139-49.) Even


Gokhale thought that Gandhi had written in haste and that, upon


reflection, he would revise the book’s philosophy.


Only in 1919 did Hind Swaraj become widely known in India. It was


then treated as the manifesto of the Gandhian revolution by most


Indians. But there were critics from the right and from the left. The


pioneers of Indian Marxism, such as S. Dange, in his Gandhi vs Lenin (1921)


 




 


Introduction * lix


and M. N. Roy, in his India in Transition (1922), saw the significance of the


book, only to dismiss it as representing ‘Christian piety’ and mere


humanitarianism, and as being ignorant of the ‘laws’ of class struggle.


Sir Sankaran Nair, one of India’s outstanding legal minds and a


former president of the Congress, castigated Gandhi in his Gandhi


and Anarchy (1922) for the alleged anarchical tendencies inherent in


satyagraha. From the 1930s onward B. R. Ambedkar became one of


Gandhi’s severe critics. But strangely enough, he did not confront Hind


Swaraj as such.


By contrast, the reception of Gandhi in the United States was warm


and enthusiastic. An American edition of Hind Swaraj under the title


Sermon on the Sea (1924) was edited by Haridas T. Mazumdar and intro-


duced by John Haynes Holmes, the leading American Christian liberal


of the day. Gandhi became a lively topic of debate on such issues as mass


production and centralisation vs decentralisation (Pearson 1924, 948-9;


Frank 1925, 568-72; Penty 1925, 79; Kapur 1992).


The first serious appraisal of Hind Swaraj by British writers took place


in the September 1938 issue of The Aryan Path. The reaction ranged from


enthusiasm to respectful criticism. Among the participants were G. D. H.


Cole, John Middleton Murry, Frederick Soddy and Gerald Heard.


In 1945 Gandhi had his celebrated debate with Nehru on the social


policy suitable for a free India. And Hind Swaraj was the point of departure


of this historic encounter. (For the text of the debate, see below,


pp. 149-56.) In October 1973 Gandhi Marg, the official journal of Gandhi


Peace Foundation, published a scholarly symposium on the book. While


most articles were favourable to Gandhi, R. C. Majumdar’s was critical of


his stand on modern civilisation and the Hindu-Muslim problem. In 1985


a substantial volume, Hind Swaraj: A Fresh Look (Prasad 1985), appeared. It


reviewed the book’s impact on modern Indian politics and proposed ways


of increasing it in the future.


So much for works concerned specifically with Hind Swaraj. It remains


to be added that all serious studies and biographies of Gandhi, whose


number is now legion, unfailingly recognise that this book is the


indispensable tool for the study of Gandhi.



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Personal Development Reflection persuasive essay help

Learning from direct experience can be more effective if coupled with reflection—that is, the intentional attempt to synthesise, abstract, and articulate the key lessons taught by experience.

(Di Stefano 2014)


In this assignment you are asked to reflect in more detail on your experience during this unit, the theories and practices you have learnt, and how this influenced your professional and personal development.


Consider the following points to get you started:



How have your Future Work Skills developed as part of your experiences in this unit as a consumer, producer and sharer of online sources of information? Provide examples from your experiences in this unit to demonstrate.
How has the development of an informational resource (your PowerPoint or video), or your work in the discussion board, helped you understand how to evaluate the credibility of online sources in an academic environment?
Your progress towards your unit and course goals, as well as the factors which have helped and/or hindered this progress.
What are the implications for your future endeavours (both academic and in your career)?

Use relevant literature from various sources to back up your writing.


Related learning outcome

This assignment assesses the following unit learning outcome:


4. Reflect on self as a learner.


Please note: COM10003 uses both Swinburne Harvard and APA referencing style. Please use the appropriate style for your discipline. Contact your eLA if you are unsure which style you should use.


————————————————————–


Work through the following steps to complete this assignment:



Reflect on the development of your Future Work Skills. Reflect on how your awareness of the online environment has changed.
Reflect on how the learning in this unit may positively affect your work in other units during the life of your course as well as in any future workplaces.
Don’t forget to include an introduction and conclusion.
Find relevant sources to back up your arguments, citing these within the body of your reflection and including a full Swinburne Harvard or APA reference list (not included in word count).
Compile and edit your reflection in a single Word document and submit as below.

The ideas that you generate as part of this process will help prepare your draft.


The following structure may help you to organise your work. Word counts for each section are approximate (as long as the total word count is between 1350 and 1650 words).



Introduction (150 words).
Main Point 1: How one to two of my Future Work Skills have developed since the beginning of the teaching period, the experiences and concepts that have helped and hindered this progress, and how this learning will impact my future studies and career (300 words and two paragraphs).
Main Point 2: How my ‘current knowledge of the online environment’ section has developed since the beginning of the teaching period, the experiences and ideas from sources that have helped or hindered this progress, and how what I have learnt about myself as a learner as part of this experience will impact my future studies and career (300 words and two paragraphs).
Main Point 3: My progress towards one to two of my unit goals, the experiences and ideas from sources that have helped or hindered this progress, and how achieving these unit goals will impact my future studies and career (300 words and two paragraphs).
Main Point 4: My progress towards one to two of my course goals, the experiences and ideas from sources that have helped or hindered this progress, and how achieving these unit goals will impact my future studies and career (300 words and two paragraphs).
Conclusion (150 words).

There is flexibility in how the information is sequenced, provided that essay-writing conventions are followed, the key points are covered and that the word count requirements are addressed.


Remember to draw on themes and readings from this unit to help support your ideas. Use Metzger’s criteria when selecting sources.


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The literacy genre and the structure and the argument of Hind Swiraj devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help


THE LITERARY GENRE, THE STRUCTURE AND THE


ARGUMENT OF HIND SWARAJ


Hind Swaraj is written in the literary genre of dialogue: a dialogue


between a newspaper Editor and a Reader. It is significant that Gandhi


chose for himself the role of a newspaper editor – a very modern figure –


not that of a traditional figure, the guru. The Reader is a composite of


‘modern’ Indians including the expatriates he had met in London in 1906


and 1909. According to the Foreword, this particular genre was chosen to


make the reading ‘easy’; and according to the Preface, it was chosen


because ‘the Gujarati language readily lends itself to such treatment’ and


because it was considered ‘the best method of treating difficult subjects’.


It may be noted in passing, however, that the dialogue form common to


 




 


Introduction * li


traditional Indian philosophical discourse is not mentioned at all as a


reason for the choice.


The dialogue form gives the careful reader certain general guidelines


of interpretation. A dialogue does not contain a blueprint; as such, Hind


Swaraj may not be looked upon as a blueprint (Sethi 1979, 5-27).


Dialogues, especially those on ‘difficult subjects’, remain open-ended


affairs, requiring an attitude of give and take from the participants. There


is little room for dogmatism, and this should be kept in mind when


interpreting the controversial issues in the book, including the topic of


modern civilisation. Even when the argument seems conclusive, it is open


to further discussion by other people at other times. Being open to each


other’s point of view is of course the hallmark of a true satyagrahi.


The book is divided into twenty short chapters. Eleven of these deal


with historical reflections, while the rest deal with philosophical ones.


The historical reflections begin with an assessment of the contributions


of the Indian National Congress towards the rise of Indian nationalism


(ch. 1). The Congress has made a good start, but its conceptions of swaraj


need rethinking. The partition of Bengal has caused much excitement


which requires to be directed in non-violent channels (chs. 11 and in).


There follows an analysis of the causes and the consequences of British


rule in India (chs. v n – x n ) . The causes, briefly, are on the one hand


the commercial and power interests of the British, and on the other, the


political and moral decay of Indian society: ‘it is truer to say that we gave


India to the English than that India was lost’. The consequences are


an uncritical attitude towards modern civilisation and the rise of an


uncaring middle class – the ‘doctors’ and the ‘lawyers’. India must get out


of the quagmire in which she finds herself, but she can best do so with the


help of the moral and intellectual resources available to her in her own


traditions. The examples of Britain, Japan and Italy are considered but


rejected as being unsuitable for India’s condition (chs. v and xv).


Philosophical reflections begin with a preliminary statement on the


nature of swaraj (ch. iv), followed by a revised statement (ch. xiv). A


similar two-step examination of the nature of civilisation follows (chs. vi


and xi 11). With chapters xvi and xvn we reach the high point of the


 




 


lii * Introduction


book – the futility of violent revolutions and the need to use ethically


sound means (satyagraha) to attain independence. Additional means of


attaining independence – educational reforms (ch. xvin) and a tech-


nology appropriate to India’s needs (ch. xix) – are discussed. Chapter xx


makes a series of practical proposals to the Moderates, the Extremists, the


new middle class and the English.


The argument of Hind Swaraj may be outlined briefly as follows.


Political life has the potential of becoming the highest form of the active


life. However, it can become such only when it is practised within the


framework of an updated dharma – i.e., a dharma suited for life in


the modern world of liberty, equality and prosperity. If, and only if,


Indians can develop and implement such a dharma will they be able to


integrate within their own culture whatever is good in colonialism and


modern civilisation.


Civilisation can be a help or a hindrance in this process of personal and


national reintegration, depending on its ethical orientation. Indian


civilisation in its present unrenovated condition is as much a hindrance


as is the modern civilisation that has emerged from the industrial


revolution. Only an innovated Indian civilisation can help India attain


swaraj. Such a civilisation, Gandhi believes, would contribute towards the


reduction of political violence, the moderation of greed, the increase


of compassion, the advent of economic prosperity, and the spiritual


integration of the individual.


The attainment of swaraj is the immediate task facing colonial India.


But here Gandhi draws a subtle distinction between swaraj as self-rule


and swaraj as self-government or home rule. Swaraj as self-rule is the rule


of the self by the self. More precisely, it is the rule of the mind over itself


and the passions – the passions of greed and aggression, in particular.


Self-rule enables one to pursue ariha and kama within the bounds of


dharma.


Swaraj as self-government or home rule is the rule of the nation {praja)


by the nation. It is the founding and maintaining of the good state


(surajya). The good state or good self-government is possible only if Indians


acquire the capacity for self-rule; but self-rule itself can flourish only


 




 


Introduction * liii


within an appropriate political community. That community in modern


times is the nation-state. In Hind Swaraj Gandhi defends the view that


India is a nation deserving self-government. That India is a nation was a


contested issue at the time Gandhi was writing Hind Swaraj. He enters into


the debate by claiming that India is a praja, the word he uses for nation.


India was a praja already in the pre-Islamic period; the ancient acharyas


(teachers of Indian philosophy) contributed immensely towards the


consolidation of the idea of praja. The places of pilgrimage they estab-


lished in the South and the North, the East and the West of India were


important pra/a-building centres. Moreover, pre-Islamic Indian Culture


was characterised by its openness to outside values and by its assimilative


capacity. It therefore was able to assimilate the assimilable values of Islam


and other religions. The recent Hindu-Muslim hostilities are therefore


resolvable within the context of the notion of praja. In other words, the


traditional notion of praja offers a basis upon which the new edifice of a


modern, composite Indian nation-state could be built.


The Gujarati text uses the same word, swaraj, for self-rule and self-


government. The English text, by contrast, uses two different words to


convey these two different meanings – ‘swaraj’ (now used as an English


word) for self-rule; and ‘home rule’, for self-government. It is axiomatic in


Hind Swaraj that the good of self-government or true home rule that India


achieves will be in proportion to the good of self-rule that Indians achieve.


In other words, true self-government requires persons who rule them-


selves. That is why Britain cannot give self-government to Indians; they


must fit themselves for it by undergoing a suitable degree of self-


transformation. Once Indians have undergone such self-transformation,


they will refuse to use violent means to obtain self-government or home


rule. Satyagraha will appear to be a legitimate means available to those


who enjoy self-rule. The Reader in Hind Swaraj mistakenly believes that


the end of the Raj will automatically bring swaraj. The Editor replies that


this is not so: it may bring mere home rule (the rule of the modern


coercive state) but not true home rule (the rule of the just, limited state);


in any case it will not bring about self-rule. The dispute between the


Editor and the Reader (and all future readers of Hind Swaraj) centres on


 




 


liv * Introduction


the crucial question of whether there can be true home rule or self-


government without self-rule.


It becomes clear by now that self-rule cannot be acquired without the


acquistion of a stable character, which can be acquired in turn only by


the practice of certain virtues. The chief among them are (1) temperance/


chastity (brdhmacharya), (2) truth or truthfulness (satya), (3) justice or free-


dom from possessiveness and greed, and (4) courage or the capacity to


overcome fear, including the fear of death. Moreover, swaraj as self-rule is


something that is capable of being experienced within oneself. Such


inner experience of self-rule enables the citizens to reinforce their


political ethics by their aesthetic feelings, their political action by


political symbols. Gandhi invented and used with great effect the symbol


of the spinning-wheel. Its invention, which occurs just prior to the


writing of Hind Swaraj, was owed in great measure to his experience of self-


rule at the aesthetic level. The spinning-wheel remained for him a symbol


of many things – of spiritual dynamism, of the importance of manual


labour, of solidarity between the rich and the poor, of the protest against


the tyranny of modern ‘machinery’ (technology) and the economic


exploitation of the poor by the rich.


According to Hind Swaraj, a major obstacle to Indian self-government is


the sectarian nationalism fostered by certain sections of both Muslims


and Hindus. The solution to this evil lies in the development of a


moderate, liberal nationalism, based on the concept of praja, reintro-


duced into the political vocabulary by Hind Swaraj. In an effort to free


religion of the evil of sectarianism, Gandhi introduces his famous


distinction between religion as organisation and religion as ethics and


spirituality. Underlying all organised religions there is a universal ethic


and spirituality (ch. vin) which teaches the unconditional love of God


and the neighbour. At the same time religion as organisation serves as a


convenient means of maintaining a certain type of pre-political identity,


and as a means of reaching certain, much yearned for spiritual ends. As


such, every organised religion has legitimacy. It follows that organised


religions ought to practise toleration towards each other. Hind Swaraj


teaches that there are good religious reasons for practising toleration.


 




 


Introduction * lv


If colonial rule in India is to be brought to an end, what Indians need


is the right means to bring it about. The constitutional approach of


the Moderates is politically ineffective and the violent approach of the


Extremists is morally repugnant. That leaves satyagraha as the only


morally acceptable alternative.


The Reader believes that the adoption of the modern state is sufficient


for achieving self-government. Gandhi disputes this. He believes that the


modern state without swaraj as self-rule would only replace the British


Raj with an Indian Raj. In Hind Swaraj’s striking phrase, such a rule would


produce Englistan not Hindustan, ‘English rule without the Englishman’,


‘the tiger’s nature, but not the tiger’ (ch. iv). The tiger is Gandhi’s


metaphor for the modern state: all tigers seek their prey, and it makes no


difference whether the tiger is British or Indian. Hind Swaraj offers a


greater challenge to the Indian elite aspiring to be the new rulers of India


than it does to the old British elite actually ruling India. The point of this


greater challenge is one of the lasting lessons of the book.


Gandhi’s teaching on non-violence is another of the book’s lasting


lessons. Though it has its roots in Indian metaphysics, it is used in Hind


Swaraj as a political, not metaphysical doctrine. Its exercise has to be


guided by prudence, not metaphysics. Circumstances modify the way in


which the principle is applied. Casuistry, in the good sense of that term,


is part and parcel of Gandhian moral reasoning on non-violence. More-


over, the theory of non-violence forms part of Gandhi’s general theory of


ends and means in politics. Means have to be morally as defensible as


the ends themselves. The analogies that he employs in chapter xvi to


illustrate this point are worth close scrutiny.


Three strands of thought on non-violence are present in Hind Swaraj.


The first is that involuntary violence is consistent with Gandhian non-


violence. ‘Going to the root of the matter’, Gandhi writes, ‘not one man


really practises such a religion [of ahimsa] because we do destroy life. We


are said to follow that religion [of ahimsa] because we want to obtain


freedom from liability to kill any kind of life’ (ch. x). In other words, what


the ethic of non-violence seeks is the freedom from moral culpability for


the sort of necessary involuntary violence that ordinary embodied life


 




 


lvi * Introduction


entails. The second strand concerns intention: for an act to be violent in


the Gandhian sense, an intention to harm another living being has to be


present. Thus, for example, the act of restraining a child rushing into a


fire is only apparently violent. ‘I hope you will not consider that it is still


physical force, though of a low order, when you would forcibly prevent


the child from rushing towards the fire if you could* (ch. xvi). The third


strand has to do with legitimate self-defence: self-defence within the


limits of natural justice is consistent with non-violence. Gandhian non-


violence expects the just state to be the guarantor of internal peace and


external security. What is inconsistent with non-violence is the principle


of raison d’Etat that refuses to recognise the higher law of dharma,


namely the behaviour of the modern state when it pursues policies on the


basis of an allegedly autonomous ‘national interest’ {prajano swarih,


ch. xvi).


What is being defended in Hind Swaraj, then, is the relative moral


superiority of non-violence over violence: ‘at least in the majority of cases,


if not, indeed, in all, the force of love and pity is infinitely greater than the


force of arms’ (ch. xvi). Non-violence, according to Gandhi, has its source


in soul-force (atmabal), and violence in body-force (sharirbal). He uses


a number of terms to describe the qualities of soul-force: love-force


(prembal), truth-force (satyabal), compassion-force (dayabal), suffering-


force (tapbal) and justice-force (nitibal). The soul is able to exercise these


forces natural to it only when the mind is able to exercise control over


itself and the passions. Ultimately then, the success of the ethic of non-


violence depends on the state of the soul, the mind and the passions – in


one word, on self-rule.


The success of a non-violent social order depends also on an appro-


priate system of education and an appropriate technology. Part of the


fascination of Indians for modern civilisation arises from the uncritical


attitude Indians have developed towards the existing educational system


and towards ‘machinery’. And it should come as no surprise that Hind


Swaraj should repudiate Macaulay’s ‘Minute on education’.


The attitude that Hind Swaraj exhibits towards ‘machinery’ is


controversial, to say the least. In the course of time, Gandhi moderated


 




 


Introduction * lvii


his stand. But even in Hind Swaraj, as a close study of the similes he uses


for ‘machinery’ would suggest, his stand is not at all onesided. True,


similes such as ‘Upas tree’, ‘snake-hole’, ‘whirlwind’, ‘drift-net’ and ‘craze’


point to the harmful potential of modern technology. But these are not


the decisive similes of the book: the decisive simile is ‘curable disease’.


‘Machinery’ no doubt tends to produce cultural diseases; but such


diseases need not be fatal, provided a competent doctor (Gandhi himself,


presumably) can be found in good time.


Gandhi has no doubt that technology can make a positive con-


tribution. But it can do so only if it is informed by a moral vision of the


human good. For him that vision can be found in dharma – dharma not


as a subjective legitimising device, but as something rooted in truth


(satya) itself and discoverable by the natural power of the soul. That truth


stipulates that the technology that is appropriate for India should meet


the needs of the masses of India. Modern technology does not stipulate


this; historically it has tended to reward the skilled and the powerful and


to marginalise the poor and the weak. Gandhi wants to modify this trend.


He wants a technology for India that would improve the material welfare


of all, not just that of the rich and the highly educated, and improve it


without undermining the process of self-rule. His debate is not on


whether India needs technology; his debate is on the kind of technology


that India needs. In any case, he sees very clearly the connection between


truth, swaraj, the moral vision of the human good, technology and


economic development.


In Hind Swaraj, he says, he ‘took it as understood that anything that


helped India to get rid of the grinding poverty of her masses would in the


same process also establish swaraj’ (CW 39: 389). That being the case, to


give an ascetic interpretation to Hind Swaraj, and indeed to his political


philosophy, as some critics tend to do, is to do a great injustice both to the


book and its author. Gandhi wants Indians to be well fed, well housed,


well clothed, well governed, well read, and cognisant of the place and


function of aesthetics and art in life. It is therefore absolutely essential to


separate the asceticism peculiar to Gandhi as an individual from the


humanism that he promotes as a social and political philosopher. If there


 




 


lviii * Introduction


was one thing that pained him more than anything else, it was the


poverty of the Indian masses. His asceticism is a penitential expression of


that pain: he wanted to suffer voluntarily in his person what the multi-


tude suffered involuntarily in their persons – so that their pain may be


brought to a quicker end.


Finally, the political theory enunciated in Hind Swaraj is a theory of,


and about, practice. Such a theory requires that the theoretician be


simultaneously the practitioner. Whoever enjoys self-rule transforms


himself or herself in some measure. Self-rule without self-transformation


is not Gandhian. Hence swaraj is not, and is not intended to be, a Utopia.


‘Do not consider this swaraj to be a dream. There is no idea of sitting still*


(ch. xiv). Swaraj is not a dream in the sense that each individual must


attempt to improve himself or herself. It is not a dream in a second sense


in that it contributes towards the achievement of true home rule and the


introduction of necessary institutional changes.



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The intellectual context on Indian sources grad school essay help


THE INTELLECTUAL CONTEXT: INDIAN SOURCES


It is Indian philosophical thought that enables Gandhi to integrate the


ideas he gathered from the West into a coherent whole. The process of


the discovery of his Indian philosophical identity begins in a conscious,


technical, way in London in 1888 and reaches its critical stage in South


Africa. We have already referred to the philosophical roots of nineteenth-


century vegetarianism, and the religious aspects of theosophy. Gandhi


 




 


xlviii * Introduction


began reading texts of Indian philosophy in London with The Song Celestial


– Sir Edwin Arnold’s translation of the Gita. This was followed with books


relevant to religions associated with India: The Light of Asia, the biography


of the Buddha, also by Sir Edwin Arnold, Life of Mahomet and His Successors


by Washington Irving, Carlyle’s life of the Prophet in Heroes and Hero


Worship, and a book of the Parsee religion, The Sayings ofZarathustra.


But the thinker who was most influential in guiding him in the


development of his thought in Indian philosophy was Rajchandra


Rayjibhai Mehta (1868-1901), a Gujarati Jain, mystic and diamond


merchant. In 1894, Gandhi underwent what may be described as a major


intellectual crisis. He expressed the chief elements of this crisis in his now


famous 27-point letter to Rajchandra (CW 1: 90-1). What is the nature


of the soul (atma), God (Ishwar), liberation (moksha), the Vedas, the Gita,


animal sacrifice, the religion of the Aryans, Christianity, the Bible,


theistic devotion (bhaJeti), the doctrines of transmigration, incarnation,


and trinity (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva)? Rajchandra’s response (CW 32:


593-602; Hay 1970, 29-38) was lengthy, and drew heavily on Jain phil-


osophy. The soul is the indestructible, non-material, eternal substance


whose essence is consciousness, knowledge, bliss and freedom. God is but


the soul in its absolute perfection. Humans, being caught in their bodily


existence, are in need of liberation from passions, which is attainable


only through rigorous asceticism, self-purification and withdrawal from


the world. And since this is not easily achieved, humans have to pass


through a countless series of births and rebirths.


As regards the other religions, Rajchandra expounded the Jaina


doctrine of ‘the many-sidedness’ of religious truth (anekantavada). The


human mind can only acquire fleeting and fragmentary understanding of


truth, and therefore it is presumptuous for any human group to claim to


have possession of absolute truth.


Rajchandra also explained the meaning of that elusive notion,


dharma. ‘Dharma does not mean any particular creed or dogma. Nor does


it mean reading or learning by rote books known as Shastras (sacred texts)


or even believing all that they say’ (CW 32: 11). Rather, dharma is ‘a


quality of the soul’ present in every human being. ‘Through it we know


 




 


Introduction * xlix


our duty in human life and our true relation with other souls . . . dharma


is the means [sadhana] by which we can know ourselves’ (ibid.). No


organised religion is a special repository of dharma. ‘We may accept this


means [sadhana] from wherever we get it, whether from India or Europe


or Arabia’ (ibid.). Rajchandra recommended several books for further


reading: among them, Panchikaran, Maniratnamala, Mumukshu Prakaran of


Yogavasishta, and Mokshamala. Gandhi followed this up by a study of the


classics of Indian thought – the Upanishads, Patanjali’s Yogasutra, the Code


ofManu, the Tulsidas Ramayana, and the Gita.


Although Gandhi never accepted Rajchandra as his spiritual guru (nor


anyone else for that matter) there is hardly any doubt that his notion of


the many-sidedness of truth had a lasting influence on the Mahatma. His


idea of a ‘religion which underlies all religions’ (ch. v in) also has its


source in Rajchandra.


However deep Rajchandra’s influence might have been in the 1890s,


Gandhi went beyond the intellectual horizons that Rajchandra had


opened up for him: already by the first decade of the century his spiritual


life was focusing more and more on the Gita and the Tulsidas Ramayana.


These classics, in contrast to the Jain classics, were theistic in orientation.


Tulsidas is quoted in chapters xiv and xvn, and the technical definition


of swaraj as self-rule, understood as the rule of the mind over itself and


the passions is derived from the Gita. The sihiihaprajna, ‘the man of steady


mind or steady wisdom’ {Gita 11, 54-72) is Gandhi’s ideal of the person


who strives to attain inner swaraj. The notion of the self underlying


Gandhi’s political philosophy is derived from the Gita. The latter draws a


fundamental distinction between self as atman (the imperishable,


eternal, spiritual substratum of the being of every individual) and self as


dehin (the embodied spatio-temporal self, composed of body, senses, mind


and soul). The self that is directly involved in politics – in the pursuit of


swaraj – is the dehin. Though the dehin’s ultimate end is self-realisation or


atmadarshan, it is the intermediate ends of the dehin, comprehensively


summed up under the headings of artha (power, property and security)


and kama (pleasure and the avoidance of pain) that are the proper objects


of the active life. But the proper pursuit of these ends requires that they


 




 


1 * Introduction


be pursued within the framework of dharma. But the dehin can do so only


if the mind maintains its freedom and exercises control over itself and


the senses. Thus the mind emerges as the key faculty in Gandhi’s political


philosophy, swaraj being the rule of the mind over itself and the passions


(ch. xx). The possession of a disciplined mind – free from an inordinate


desire for property, pleasure and power – is the prerequisite for the


proper practice of satyagraha, the non-violent way of achieving home


rule. But, as Gandhi argued, the ideal of swaraj can be achieved in


modern times only in a united Indian nation or praja. Swaraj and home


rule must meet in a newly constituted Indian praja.


Thus by 1909 Gandhi had integrated all the essential ingredients of his


political philosophy into a coherent whole, ingredients that were derived


from the East and the West. He had by then acquired a definite philo-


sophical vision which enabled him to assess the relative significance of


things that concerned him – the problem of the self, of the Indian praja,


the nature of Indian nationalism, the modern industrial civilisation,


colonialism, the extreme selfishness of the Indian middle class, racialism,


the spectre of rising violence in India and the legitimation of terroristic


violence by extreme nationalists. It is from that vision that the basic


argument of Hind Swaraj emerges.



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The intellectual context on western sources writing essay help: writing essay help


THE INTELLECTUAL CONTEXT: WESTERN SOURCES


The intellectual context of Hind Swaraj is even more diversified than


its historical context. To begin with, it comprehends both Eastern and


 




 


Introduction * xxxiii


Western sources, and within the latter, such diverse fields as juris-


prudence, vegetarianism, theosophy, Christian theology, art criticism,


criticism of the new industrial civilisation, and civil disobedience in its


Socratic and New England forms. The Foreword informs the reader that


the author had ‘read much’ and ‘pondered much’. And the Preface


acknowledges the author’s special debt to Tolstoy, Ruskin, Thoreau,


Emerson and others, besides the masters of Indian philosophy’. Appendix


i lists twenty books which remain the ideal starting points for any serious


discussion of Gandhi’s own thought. In addition, there are other authors


mentioned in the Autobiography and elsewhere in Gandhi’s writings.


Gandhi’s introduction to Western thought began in 1888 with his legal


studies in London. The curriculum in the London Inns of Court then


comprised Common Law and Roman Law. As the Autobiography records, he


took an ‘unflagging interest’ in these. Nine months were spent on the


Common Law of England – on Broom’s Common Law, Snell’s Equity, White


and Tudor’s Leading Cases, William and Edward’s Real Property, Goodeve’s


Personal Property. He even managed to learn enough Latin to go through


Justinian in the original. The impact of the legal training on Gandhi’s


political thought cannot be exaggerated. It deepened in him the idea of a


higher law morally superior to any constitution and positive law, a notion


very much present in chapter xvn of Hind Swaraj. Similarly his great


practical skill in preparing petitions to governments, in drafting consti-


tutions and resolutions for the various political bodies on which he served


both in South Africa and India is unimaginable without an appreciation


of his training in Western jurisprudence. His approach to politics was as


much jurisprudential as ethical.


Vegetarianism with him was more than a fad. He was a careful reader


of books on the philosophy of vegetarianism which by the end of the


nineteenth century had claimed its allegiance to ‘true civilisation’. He


read The Perfect Way in Diet (1881) by Anna Kingsford MD, Vice-president of


the London Vegetarian Society. Originally her doctoral dissertation for


the University of Paris, it advocated a return to the ‘natural and ancient


food of our race’, and connected vegetarianism with ‘the principles of


true civilisation’. The Ethics of Diet (1881) by Howard Williams, a Cambridge


 




 


xxxiv * Introduction


scholar, advanced a similar point of view. Vegetarians, it claimed, were


the pioneers of a ‘truer civilisation’. A ‘humaner and juster civilisation’


would be impossible without vegetarianism. Williams also exploded the


myth that vegetarianism was the ’cause’ of the defeat of Hindus at the


hands of beef-eating foreigners. Only prejudice, ignorance or sophistry


will argue this way, Williams countered. Tolstoy’s First Step, listed in


Appendix 1 to Hind Swaraj, was his introduction to the Russian edition


of Williams’ work. Gandhi’s life-long interest in the subject had a deep


philosophical root and it was linked to his concept of true civilisation. His


critique of modern medicine and modern doctors in chapter xi i becomes


intelligible in this context.


Gandhi’s interest in theosophy was temporary but it played an


important role in his intellectual development. For it made him aware of


the richness of Indian religious literature; it was also instrumental in


bringing him into contact with his life-long friends, Henry Polak and


Hermann Kallenbach. But already in South Africa he had become highly


critical of the ‘humbug’ associated with official theosophy {CW11:64-5).


His interest in Christianity, after his disappointment with the


preachers in rural Gujarat, became deep and intense in South Africa.


There it led him to undertake a serious study, not only of Christianity, but


also of Hinduism and other religions. His attitude towards missionaries


always remained ambivalent: he did not approve of high pressure


evangelism. At the same time he was appreciative of their effort to make


religion socially practical. He learnt from them the art of applying the


principle of disinterested service to the disadvantaged. To begin with, his


first biographer, Joseph Doke, was a Baptist missionary, whose dis-


interested work he greatly admired. And it was from another mission-


ary, Lancelot Booth, an Anglican, that he learnt his much loved art of


nursing: for a whole year, two hours daily, he received training as a nurse


and compounder at Booth’s hospital. His contact with the Catholic monks


and nuns of Mariannhill, outside Durban, was no less beneficial. In 1895


he visited the monastery and wrote a very moving article for the London


Vegetarian, praising the monks and nuns for combining prayer and work,


for treating the Blacks as equals, and for training them in useful arts such


 




 


Introduction * xxxv


as farming, carpentry, shoe-making, book-binding, printing and baking.


He himself sent Kallenbach to the monastery to learn the art of shoe


making. As Pyarelal, his secretary, wrote later, the pattern of life Gandhi


saw in Mariannhill ‘became an inspiring model for his various Ashrams.


He kept harking back to it again and again’ (Pyarelal 1965, 546). Back in


India he would hold out Mariannhill as a model for institutions devoted


to Harijan service: ‘My idea is to have a training institution of this type’


(CW 58: 261).


Gandhi’s acquaintance with Hellenic thought, like that with Roman


jurisprudence, was, as far as we know, limited to one book, Plato’s


Apology, listed in the Appendix. He found in it, as he put it, ‘the qualities


of an elixir’ (CW 8: 174). In 1908 a paraphrase of it was published in a


six-part series in Indian Opinion, and later as a pamphlet under the title


Story of a Soldier of Truth. The major lesson he learnt from this book, a


lesson which was to find its way to Hind Swaraj, was that there was


an irrefragable moral link between the order in the soul and order in


society. Of equal importance was the doctrine of the ultimacy of the inner


conscience and the option to suffer harm rather than to inflict it.


Typically, Gandhi read Plato with Indian eyes: Socrates was ‘a great


satyagrahi’ who practised satyagraha against his own people. The Gandhi


of Hind Swaraj is no doubt the Socrates of modern India. It is not enough


to find fault with the imperialists, he argues. Indians must become self-


critical and examine their own shortcomings. For India’s body politic is


being afflicted by both the external virus of foreign rule and the internal


virus of domestic corruption. It is necessary to make the right diagnosis


and to let the result be known in public. Only then would the body politic


be ‘cured and cleansed both within and without’. If India destroys only


one kind of germ, and not the other kind, the body politic will still be


ruined. The leaders of the Congress are focusing only on the external


malady. They should turn their attention to India’s internal weaknesses


as well. ‘If, through cowardice or fear of dishonour or death, we fail


to realise or examine our shortcomings and fail to draw the people’s


attention to them, we shall do no good to India’s cause, notwithstanding


the number of external remedies we may adopt, notwithstanding the


 




 


xxxvi * Introduction


Congress sessions (we may hold), not even by becoming extremists’ (CW 8:


173).


The influence of Tolstoy on Gandhi is widely recognised. For example,


Martin Green alone has devoted three books to this subject (Green 1978,


1983 and 1986). Gandhi himself directs the readers of Hind Swaraj to read


six of Tolstoy’s works, listed in the Appendix. Between them, they cover


four broad topics: Christianity as an ethical religion, aesthetics and


political action, critique of the new industrial civilisation, and the


colonial question in India.


The Kingdom of God Is Within You, which Gandhi read for the first time in


1894, as the Autobiography records, had ‘overwhelmed’ him. In this work


Tolstoy presents Christianity, not as a dogmatic, revealed religion, but as


an ethical system. At the heart of its teaching is the ethic of the Sermon


on the Mount, which, according to Tolstoy, teaches the doctrine of non-


violence and the ultimacy of the conscience. This admittedly facile view


of the New Testament disregards many troubling questions that the New


Testament raises – questions regarding daily temptations, doubt, agony,


death and resurrection, and above all, Pilate’s troubling question of


‘What is Truth?’ But Tolstoy thought that he had found in the New


Testament an answer to at least one question – the question of violence in


the world, namely ‘how to settle the conflict between people who now


consider a thing evil that others consider good, and vice versa’ – and


a workable solution for it. Either one must find ‘an absolute and


indubitable criterion of evil’, or one must not ‘resist evil by violence’. The


first solution had been tried but was found wanting; the second solution,


taught by Christ, is the only viable one (Tolstoy 1935, 58).


But two major obstacles stood in the way. The first was posed by


institutional Christianity, which justified the state, endorsed the theory


of just war, and condoned military service. This, in Tolstoy’s view, was due


to the corruption of Christianity, for ‘Christianity in the true sense puts


an end to the state’ (ibid., 281). The second obstacle was posed by modern


social scientists. They tended to reject the primacy of the conscience,


inner illumination and inner change in favour of external or institutional


changes. According to Tolstoy, however, religion is ‘the faculty of seeing


 




 


Introduction * xxxvii


prophetically the true meaning of life’; as such it is an indispensable


source of all sound political theory. But moderns such as Renan, Strauss,


Comte, Spencer and Marx either reject religion as superstition or value


it only for its social or psychological uses. They insist that human


betterment is effected ‘not by moral efforts of individual men towards


recognition, elucidation, and profession of truth, but by a gradual


alteration of the general external conditions of life’. They believe that


‘the chief activity of man who wishes to serve society and improve the


condition of mankind should be directed not to the elucidation and


profession of truth, but to the amelioration of external political, social,


and, above all, economic conditions’ (ibid., 401-2). ‘Let all those external


conditions be realised’, responds Tolstoy, ‘the position of humanity will


not be bettered’ (ibid., 411). It can and will be bettered, contends Tolstoy,


if both internal and external changes occur, when humans learn to listen


to their true Christian conscience in which alone is revealed the Kingdom


of God, which is a kingdom of love and non-violence.


The Kingdom of God Is Within You was mandatory reading for members of


the Phoenix Settlement, and later Gandhi had it translated into Gujarati.


With Tolstoy’s What is Art?, which he also arranged to be translated


into Gujarati, we enter into what was for Gandhi an unsuspected new


intellectual terrain. For contrary to popular belief Gandhi had a deep


understanding of the connection between aesthetics, symbols, ethics and


political action; he derived his basic ideas on this point from Tolstoy and,


as we shall see shortly, from Ruskin as well.


To begin with, Tolstoy rejects the doctrine of an autonomous art – of


art for art’s sake. According to him art is a very important form of human


activity; but it is an activity connected to other forms of human activity.


It does not enjoy a privileged position in respect to goodness and truth.


The separation of the claims of aesthetics from those of goodness, for


which he blames Nietzsche, the French Decadents and the early Oscar


Wilde, is contributing greatly to the corruption of life in modern times.


What passes for art today tends to pander to the hedonistic instincts of


the people, especially the wealthy. All authentic art for Tolstoy springs


from an inner experience of the ‘religious’ perception of the meaning of


 




 


xxxviii * Introduction


life. ‘Art is a human activity consisting in this, that one man consciously,


by means of certain external signs, hands to others feelings he has


lived through, and that others are infected by these feelings and also


experience them . . . To evoke in oneself a feeling one has once


experienced and, having evoked it in oneself, then by means of move-


ments, lines, colours, sounds, or forms expressed in words, so to transmit


that feeling that others experience the same feeling – this is the activity


of art’ (Tolstoy 1924, 173). Thus he distinguishes between the internal


criterion of art and the subject matter of art. The internal criterion, by


which all art must be judged in the first instance, is the ability to evoke


feelings. But art has an external criterion as to its subject matter: the


external criterion by which art is judged in the second instance is art’s


ability or the lack thereof of promoting feelings of love and human


solidarity. According to Tolstoy art has an indispensable role to play in the


great task of counteracting the hedonistic tendencies of modern culture.


Its task today, as to its external criterion, ‘is to make that feeling of


brotherhood and love of one’s neighbour now attained by only the best


members of society, the customary feeling and instinct of all men’ (ibid.,


332).


Tolstoy’s emphasis on experience and feeling, on the religious origins


of great art, on the need to communicate feeling through appropriate


symbols, evoked a deep response in Gandhi. Hind Swaraj (ch. xiv) under-


lines the importance of the need to have an inner experience of what swaraj


means; only then would one be able to communicate to others one’s


concern for them with credibility and authenticity. Moreover, the


invention or perhaps more accurately, the reinvention, by Gandhi of


the symbol of the spinning-wheel (ch. xx) was an artistic invention of the


first order. Through that symbol alone – there were many others that he


used with great effect – he communicated values of solidarity between


the rich and the poor, of manual labour, and what we would now describe


as appropriate technology.


Three other of Tolstoy’s works listed in the Appendix – How Shall We


Escape?, The Slavery of Our Times and The First Step – are essentially criticisms


of the various aspects of the new industrial civilisation. They deal with the


 




 


Introduction * xxxix


evils of exploitation of the workers, the degradation of the peasants, the


absence of the virtue of moderation, and the rampant consumerism


characteristic of modern life.


Finally there is the controversial Letter to a Hindoo, referred to above. At


the heart of the Letter lies Tolstoy’s explanation of colonialism in India.


Indians are as much responsible for it as are the British, if not more: ‘it is


not the English who have enslaved the Indians, but the Indians who have


enslaved themselves’. If the English have enslaved Indians it is because


the latter ‘recognised, and still recognise, force as the fundamental


principle of social order*. In accord with this principle ‘they submitted to


their little rajahs’, and on their behalf struggled against one another,


fought the Europeans and the English. For the Indians to complain about


the English is like the alcoholic complaining about the wine merchants.


If Indians renounce the law of violence, Tolstoy concludes, ‘not only will


hundreds not enslave millions, but even millions will be unable to


enslave one individual’ (Tolstoy 1987, 55-6). What India needed was not


revivalism (‘by your Vivekanandas, Baba Bharatis, and others’, ibid., 60),


but a practical commitment to non-violence. In 1909/1910 Gandhi


published both the English and the Gujarati versions of the Letter intro-


ducing them with two significant prefaces. These share with Hind Swaraj


a common ideological outlook.


In addition, Gandhi read a large number of nineteenth-century British


critics of the new industrial civilisation, among them Carlyle, Ruskin and


others mentioned in the Appendix. It is from Ruskin that Gandhi derives


the basic principles of his economic philosophy. The first of two books by


Ruskin which affected Gandhi – A Joy for Ever and Its Price in the Market – was


originally the text of two lectures delivered at the famous Art Treasures


Exhibition held in Manchester in 1857, and published in the same year


under the title The Political Economy of Art. It was reissued under its new


title in 1880, and the inspiration for the change came from Keats’ famous


line ‘A thing of beauty is a joy for ever’, the motto of the Manchester


Exhibition. This work marks the beginning of Ruskin’s critique of the


industrial civilisation. One of the defects of the latter, he pointed out, was


its disregard for aesthetics. True political economy, unlike the one


 




 


xl * Introduction


accepted by modernity, is the proper management of the nation’s labour.


Now the proper management of the nation’s labour ought, Ruskin urged,


to provide for both ‘utility and splendour’. In other words, it should


provide for the basic needs for food, shelter and clothing, pleasant objects


of minimum luxury, healthful rest, and serviceable leisure – and in that


order. When labour is well managed, it would be able to provide for all


these. However, while the new political economy provides for the luxury


of the few, it does not seem capable of satisfying the basic needs of the


many. Ruskin’s view is that ‘blankets’ must come before ‘silk laces’: ‘as


long as there are cold and nakedness in the land around you, so long there


can be no question at all that splendour in dress is a crime . . . as long as


there are any who have no blankets for their beds, and no rags for their


bodies, so long it is blanket-making and tailoring we must set people to


work at – not lace’ (Ruskin 1911, 59). There can be little doubt that Gandhi


adapts Ruskin’s dictum to India in the form of his doctrine of appropriate


technology.


But it was the second book of Ruskin’s, Unto This Last (i860), that had


the more profound impact on Gandhi. The Autobiography speaks of ‘the


magic spell’ of this book which he read in 1904 on a night journey from


Johannesburg to Durban. It produced an almost instantaneous change in


him. The following is the account of what he learnt from that book:


‘(1) That the good of the individual is contained in the good of all. (2) That


a lawyer’s work has the same value as the barber’s, inasmuch as all have


the same right of earning their livelihood from their work. (3) That a life


of labour, i.e., the life of the tiller of the soil and the handicraftsman, is


the life worth living. The first of these I knew. The second I had dimly


realised. The third had never occurred to me . . . I rose with the dawn,


ready to reduce these principles into practice’ (CW 39: 239).


The reading of Unto This Last produced two immediate results. The first


was Gandhi’s decision to establish the Phoenix Settlement, a community


of friends who shared in his newly discovered convictions. It remained


the prototype of the three other communities or ashrams he founded later


in his life, the Tolstoy Farm outside Johannesburg, the Sabarmati Ashram


outside Ahmedabad, and Sevagram outside Wardha. And the second was


 




 


Introduction * xli


to serialise a nine-part paraphrase of Ruskin’s book in Indian Opinion, and


later to publish it as a pamphlet under the title Sarvodaya, a name which


he also gave to his newly formulated economic philosophy. The title Unto


This Last came from St. Matthew 20: 14. Gandhi gave it the title of


Sarvodaya for the sake of ‘Indians who do not know English’. Other


adaptations also followed. Ruskin had postulated ‘social affection’ as the


basic principle of a humane economy, in place of ‘self-interest’ and


‘competition’ postulated by modern political economy. Gandhi under-


stood ‘social affection’ in terms of the Hindu concept of daya (com-


passion). Ruskin wanted to moderate the forces of the market by the


principle of honour: If the clergyman or the soldier could work for


honour, not profit, why not the businessman or the industrialist? And


Gandhi understood honour in terms not of obligations of status, but of


equality and of saVya (truth). Finally, Ruskin saw the value of handicrafts


even in an industrial society; Gandhi saw the value of the spinning-wheel


and handicrafts for the whole of India.


The last chapter of Sarvodaya reads like a prelude to Hind Swaraj. As


Gandhi recognised, the Indian middle class was clamouring for swaraj,


which it identified with political power – to be gained by driving out the


British by force – and with economic prosperity – to be brought about by


rapid industrialisation. Gandhi found such a notion of swaraj totally


unacceptable. He felt that even if the British were expelled violently and


economic development achieved, it would still not bring any real swaraj


to India. Real swaraj required not only political power and economic


prosperity but also, and above all, a certain moral development among


the people, especially the middle class. ‘Real swaraj consists in restraint.


He alone is capable of this who leads a moral life, does not cheat anyone,


does not forsake truth and does his duty.’ And the new Indian middle


class, in his opinion, had not yet reached that level of moral development.


‘We must have industry’, he agreed, ‘but of the right kind.’ The kind of


industry that emerged in the nineteenth century had levied a heavy toll


on everyone in terms of civilisation. Ruskin had convinced him of that. He


therefore wondered whether India could think of a different pattern of


political and economic development, one hospitable to its civilisation,


 




 


xlii * Introduction


and one that would preserve and promote, rather than destroy its


traditional values. ‘India was once looked upon as a golden land’, he


wrote, ‘because Indians then were people of sterling worth. The land is


still the same but the people have changed and that is why it has


become arid. To transform it into a golden land again’, he concluded, ‘we


must transmute ourselves into gold by leading a life of virtue. The


philosopher’s stone which can bring this about consists of two syllables:


satya [truth]. If therefore, every Indian makes it a point to follow truth


always, India will achieve swaraj as a matter of course’ (CW 8: 373-5).


Gandhi’s concern for modern civilisation and swaraj expressed itself in


his deep interest in the revitalisation of India’s villages. This explains the


inclusion of Henry Sumner Maine’s classic, Village Communities in the East


and West (1871), in the Appendix. Here again Hind Swaraj breaks new


ground. No Indian thinker had a better grasp of the truth that swaraj


would mean little for India if the lives of the poor in the villages saw no


significant improvement. He viewed with alarm the rapid rise of new


urban centres – ‘the real plague spots’ of India, as he called them. In a


country so overpopulated and so heavily dependent on agriculture, the


villages held the key to economic and political development.


It was Maine’s contention that villages in traditional India were


representative institutions, and that the ancient village council had


enjoyed both quasi-judicial and quasi-legislative powers. The intro-


duction of the new utilitarian state, with its new adversarial court


system, led to the ruin of the villages as the ultimate unit of national life,


shifting their economic power to the new urban centres and their quasi-


judicial and quasi-legislative powers to the new breed of lawyers


condemned in chapter xi of Hind Swaraj. As far as Gandhi was concerned,


this was one of the worst consequences of the introduction of modern


civilisation into India. The life of the Indian peasant had become a


veritable hell. He had become prey for the greedy urban middle class.


Gandhi used Maine’s thesis for two purposes. First, he used it to


support his argument that Indians in South Africa should be allowed to


vote, since, as Maine had shown, they were inheritors of a civilisation that


had representative institutions (CW 1: 93,152,154; CW 3: 332, 341). And


 




 


Introduction * xliii


back in India he used Maine’s thesis in his life-long campaign on behalf of


the Indian village (CW 28:108; CW 48:197; CW 85: 79).


A good deal of Hind Swaraj’s scepticism regarding the new industrial


civilisation comes from the authors he had been reading in South Africa


and London – Edward Carpenter, Max Nordau, Godfrey Blount, Thomas


Taylor and Robert Harborough Sherard – not household names today, but


names (listed in the Appendix) that carried some weight at the turn of the


century. Carpenter’s Civilisation: Its Cause and Cure, originally a lecture


delivered in 1889 to the Fabian Society, is mentioned in chapter vi.


Carpenter viewed civilisation in historicist terms (something which


Gandhi does not): civilisation is a stage through which every society


passes, just as having measles is a stage through which every individual


passes. Hence Carpenter’s use of the metaphor of’disease’ for civilisation.


Gandhi retains the metaphor but modifies its use – modern civilisation is


a curable disease, and Gandhi presumably its doctor, at least as far as India


is concerned.


Blount’s pamphlet, A New Crusade (which was also the name of an


organisation he founded to counteract the ill effects of modern civilis-


ation), was summarised in Indian Opinion in 1905. Its motto, ‘simplicity,


art, aspiration’, appealed to Gandhi greatly. Its principles did so even


more: the betterment of society begins with the betterment of the


individual; country life is the best form of the good life; handicrafts and


agriculture are conducive to human well-being; machinery is ‘the Devil’s


instrument’; politics can only seal, never initiate, social reform; life


without work is guilt, while work without art is brutality; work is a form


of liturgy, etc. Blount anticipates, as it were, Gandhi’s crusade for the


homespun khadi: members of the ‘new crusade’ were to wear homespuns


and use only hand-made boots, crockery, furniture, and so on (Blount


1903).


Taylor’s Fallacy of Speed was also summarised in Indian Opinion (CW 10:


379). Divided into three short chapters – ‘Speed and population’, ‘Speed


and profit’ and ‘Speed and pleasure’ – the book challenges the prevailing


assumption that ‘faster is better’. He had in mind the railways (see Hind


Swaraj, ch. ix), the shift of population from rural areas to new ugly, urban


 




 


xliv * Introduction


centres, the dwindling of opportunities for leisure and relaxation. Life is


being lived ‘on a high-speed basis’ regardless of whether ‘the results in


their sum total are beneficial’. Taylor reaches the pessimistic conclusion


that ‘on the whole’ healthy conditions are less readily available under the


reign of speed than they were under the reign of a slower pace: ‘there is


something about the age in which we live which militates against leisure


in considerable sections of the community . . . Does quick locomotion


finally tend more to give leisure or to destroy it?’ (Taylor 1909, 63).


Max Nordau is included in the Appendix as being the author of


‘Paradoxes of civilisation’. This obviously is an error, since there is no such


work in any Nordau bibliography. But Nordau did write Conventional Lies


of Civilisation (1895) and Paradoxes (1906). Gandhi may have read both;


there is sufficient internal evidence in Hind Swaraj to suggest that


Conventional Lies of Civilisation is the book that is relevant here. Hind


Swaraj’s pessimism about modern civilisation is attributable to a


large extent to Nordau. Pessimism, Nordau held, was the keynote of


nineteenth-century European civilisation, as piety was that of the


civilisation of the Middle Ages – pessimism in art, literature, religion,


economics and politics (Nordau 1895, 6). The reason is the opposition


between thought and action, and ‘the lack of truth in our lives’. The


contrast Gandhi draws in Hind Swaraj between modes of modern life and


the earlier modes of life with respect to clothing, food, dwellings and so


forth is reminiscent of what Nordau writes in his chapter ‘The economic


lie’. In earlier civilisations clothing was coarser, dwelling-places less


comfortable, the food more primitive, the utensils fewer in number.


Today the cities grow at the expense of the farming population, and the


attitude of the moderns towards manual labour is reprehensible (Nordau


1895, i86ff.). The modern liberal professions, especially those of modern


lawyers and doctors, are parasitic since they draw on both the rich and


the poor (ibid., 206-14).


Pessimism is also the dominant note of White Slaves of England: Being a


True Picture of Certain Social Conditions in the Kingdom of England in the Year


1897, written by Robert Harborough Sherard (1861-1943), son of an


Anglican clergyman and a great-grandson of William Wordsworth, and


 




 


Introduction * xlv


biographer of Oscar Wilde. The book contains a harrowing account of the


life of the average industrial worker in England at the turn of the century


– the alkali workers, the nail-makers, the slipper-makers and tailors, the


wool-combers, the white-lead workers, and the chain-makers. They share


a common ‘horrible slavery’, the landlord’s tyranny, poor wages and poor


health care. The condition of women in the new factories is unimaginably


appalling – a fact noted by Gandhi in chapter vi.


Sherard’s point is that the affluence which the industrial civilisation


has produced has not improved the lot of the vast majority of humankind,


nor is it likely to do so unless there is a moral change on the part of the


rich and the powerful. And there is little sign of such change occurring,


since affluence has not lessened the extent and intensity of want among


the rich and the powerful, and since science and technology per se seem


incapable of doing anything about it. Sherard invokes in support of this


pessimistic view T. H. Huxley’s testimony. ‘I do not hesitate to express the


opinion’, wrote the great scientist, ‘that there is no hope of a large


improvement of the condition of the greater part of the human family;


if it is true that the increase of knowledge, the winning of a greater


dominion over nature, which is its consequence, and the wealth which


follows upon that dominion, are to make no difference in the extent and


intensity of want, with its concomitant physical and moral degradation


amongst the masses of the people, I would hail the advent of some


kindly comet which would sweep the whole affair away as a desirable


consummation’ (cited by Sherard 1897, 241). Gandhi would have agreed


with Huxley’s analysis though not with his pessimism. Pessimism is never


normative to Hind Swaraj; on the contrary, the book is hopeful that the


advent of a moral revolution in the hearts and minds of the rich and


the powerful, i. e., the advent of real swaraj, would still be a possibility.


Hind Swaraj has its American, or rather New England, sources as well.


Henry David Thoreau is mentioned in the Appendix, and Ralph Waldo


Emerson in the Preface. Also worthy of mention is William Maclntyre


Salter whose Ethical Religion Gandhi had paraphrased and published in an


eight-part series in 1907 in Indian Opinion. The authors mentioned or


discussed in this book included John D. Rockefeller, Jeremy Bentham,


 




 


xlvi * Introduction


Wendel Phillipps, Daniel Webster, Matthew Arnold, Ralph Waldo


Emerson, St Francis Xavier, St Theresa and Charles Darwin (to whom


Gandhi devoted a chapter). Thoreau remained a source of life-long


inspiration for him, though the genesis of satyagraha had occurred


independently of him. Gandhi did find in him ample confirmation


for his new philosophy. His Principles of Civil Disobedience was para-


phrased and published in 1907 in Indian Opinion. He was heartened to


read that conscience, not majorities, should have the ultimate say in


judging what is politically right and wrong, that while it is not one’s duty


to eradicate evil, it is certainly one’s first duty not to give support to it,


that even one person’s action counts although the multitude may be


opposed to it, that in an unjust political regime the prison is the right


place for the just person, that only that state is worthy of obedience which


recognises the just individual ‘as a higher and independent power’ from


which the state’s own power is ultimately derived. As for Life Without


Principle, also listed in the Appendix, it too confirmed many ideas


germinating in Gandhi’s mind. He would have agreed with Thoreau’s


dicta that politics without virtue is ‘a kind of vegetation’, that good


manners cannot be a substitute for civic virtue. What modern politics


lacks and what it needs most is ‘a high and earnest purpose’, and an


appreciation for ‘culture more than for potatoes’.


He read Emerson’s Essays, and read it very carefully; how carefully may


be gathered from the instructions he gave to Maganlal Gandhi, his deputy


at Phoenix: the latter was to read Emerson by marking important


passages first, and later by copying them out in a notebook {CW 9: 209).


This gives us a clue to Gandhi’s own reading habits. He read Emerson in


early 1909, in the Pretoria jail {CW 9: 240), but unfortunately we are


not told which essays or in which edition. The 1903 edition, first series,


available in South Africa, contained such essays as ‘History’, ‘Self-


reliance’, ‘Spiritual laws’, ‘Heroism’, ‘The over-soul’, and ‘Art’. In any case,


Gandhi saw in Emerson’s essays, as he put it, ‘the teaching of Indian


wisdom in a Western garb’ (ibid.).


Readers of Hind Swaraj may wonder what nineteenth-century Italy has


to do with colonial India and why Italy deserves a chapter (ch. xv) in


 




 


Introduction * xlvii


Gandhi’s book, and why Giuseppe Mazzini should appear in the


Appendix. The reason is that Italy’s struggle against Austria and the


history of its unification had an almost normative standing in late


nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Indian consciousness. Already in


the 1870s the Bengali intelligentsia were reading Mazzini, and Savarkar,


as noted earlier, had translated one of Mazzini’s works into Marathi.


Besides, Sir John Seeley’s influential Expansion of England (1883), which


Gandhi had read before 1903 (CW 3: 383), deliberately compared the way


Italy achieved its unification with the way India was trying to achieve its


own. By listing Mazzini’s Duties of Man in the Appendix, Gandhi was


sending a signal to the Indian nationalists that he was to be interpreted


in strictly ethical and non-violent terms, and not in militaristic terms, as


the Indian revolutionaries had done.


A glimpse into Gandhi’s Western intellectual sources should go a long


way towards correcting the view held by some that the Mahatma was


opposed to Western civilisation as such. Such a view is so simple as to be


false. As Sir Ernest Barker puts it, he was ‘a bridge and reconciler’ (Barker


*949> 58). The breadth and depth of his knowledge of Western intellectual


sources suggest that his attack was limited to certain unhealthy tenden-


cies in modern Western civilisation and that the attack was not motivated


by any consideration of narrow nationalism or anti-colonialism. On the


contrary, in Hind Swaraj he joins forces with many concerned Western


thinkers in the defence of true civilisational values everywhere, East and


West. He hoped for the day when England would reintegrate modernity


within the framework of traditional British culture (ch. xx).



 


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Paper That Carefully Explores The Original english essay help




Assignment Instructions

This will be a 10-12 page (MLA FORMATT) paper that carefully explores the “original” context, message, and meaning of a specific passage of the New Testament.  Generally, a passage is longer than just a few verses, but is not longer than a chapter.


 


At a minimum, the paper will consist of:


 



The correct identification of the passage (where the passage begins/ends, its placement within the book, its placement within the Bible, etc.), giving specific reasons for each of your conclusions,
An analysis of the literary style and characteristics of both the passage and the book in which it is found (citing specific references),
The cultural and historical background of your chosen passage,
A detailed and thoughtful application of the appropriate exegetical approach suggested during the course,
Identification and explanation of any unique and/or significant phrases used in the passage,
A concluding section on the modern relevance and/or application of the passage, and
Specific references from at least five sources.   Please note:


Sources must be in addition to the Required Texts, and
Although Wikipedia.com can be a good starting point to look for other web sites or resources, it is not an acceptable academic resource as authorship is anonymous.

 


All conclusions/opinions must be supported and documented with relevant and appropriate evidence and/or examples.


 


Please note that originality of submissions will be verified by Turnitin.  Both you and your instructor will receive a copy of the originality report.










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Designing and Developing an e-Learning Course professional essay help: professional essay help




Assignment 4: Designing and Developing an e-Learning Course – Part 2


Due Week 8 and worth 200 points


Preparation:


Click here to access the CourseSites Tutorial Series.


Go to the Course sites Website and go through the tutorials to help familiarize yourself with Blackboard. Additional links and tutorials may be available in the course shell. You will use this Website to create your course. https://www.coursesites.com/webapps/Bb-sites-course-creation-BBLEARN/pages/getstarted.html


Scenario:  In this assignment, you are required to design, develop, and implement a  mini-online, six (6) week course, using the Course Management System  (CMS), Blackboard. The subject matter of the course must be approved by  the class instructor provided in feedback of Assignment 3: Proposed  Course for Development Part 1.


Write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you:


Part A Course Content – Described



Revise Assignment 3 based on feedback from your professor.
Name the course and provide an ID.
Provide a course description with three (3) goals and a welcoming announcement.
List  one (1) or two (2) required instructional materials for the course and  at least three (3) supplemental materials (in APA format), providing a  rationale for each.
List three to five (3-5) learning outcomes for the first three (3) weeks of instruction.
Recommend three to four (3-4) instructional strategies to be used in the course, providing a rationale for each.
Design  a weekly schedule for these first three (3) weeks that includes: (a)  Topic(s) and (b) learning outcomes that are aligned with the topics.
Include in the weekly schedule (a) two (2) discussion questions for each of the three (3) weeks and (b) required activities.
List two (2) assignments: (a) a five (5) -question quiz and (b) a writing assignment.

Your written assignment must follow these formatting requirements:



Be  typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with  one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA.  Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include  a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s  name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover  page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment  page length.

Part B Blackboard Shell – Developed


Directions:



Go to coursesites.com.
Click on the Sign Up link (top right corner) and choose option “As Instructor.”
Complete the Sign Up process.
Choose Create New Course.


Name the course (e.g., John Smith_Introduction to Social Science).
Provide Course ID (e.g., JohnSmith_ISS100).
Provide a course description with three (3) goals.

Directions:



In the Enrollment Options, select the option “Instructor-Controlled”
Click on the link “Save and Continue” link (green color)
Skip Invite Students. Click on Customize Course link (green color)


Provide  a welcoming announcement on the Home Page in the course site you just  created by clicking on the “more announcements” link at the bottom of  box titled “My Announcement.”
Build  three (3) content areas using the Content area in the main menu on the  left side of the screen: (hover mouse over “+” > click on Content  Area), naming the content areas: Week1 Content, Week 2 Content and Week 3  Content (Make sure you check the box “Available to users.”) .
Create  one item in each content area that has an attached three to four (3-4)  completed PowerPoints slides pertaining to the content of your  mini-course.

Directions:



Go to the Information link (Left Course Menu) and create the required course elements listed next:


List  the one or two (1 or 2) required instructional materials and at least  three (3) supplemental materials. Name this item “Instructional and  Supplemental Materials.”
List  three to five (3-5) learning outcomes for the first three (3) weeks of  instruction. Name this item “Learning Outcomes: Weeks 1-3.”
Build  a weekly schedule for these three (3) weeks that includes: (a) topic(s)  and (b) learning outcomes that are aligned with these topics. Name this  item “Weekly Schedule: Weeks 1-3.”

Directions:



Go to the Discussions area in the left course Menu.


Create a Forum in the Discussions area and name it Week 1-3 Discussion.
Post two (2) discussion questions by creating a new thread for each question.

Directions:



Create  another Content Area (hover mouse over “+” > click on Content Area)  in the Left Course Menu and name it Assessments (Make sure you check the  box “ Available to users.”).  Then use the Assessments drop down menu  to create a quiz by choosing Test and a writing assignment by choosing  Assignment.


Create: (a) a five (5) question quiz and (b) a writing assignment in the Assessments link.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:



Design an online learning experience.
Plan the resources required to support an online learning experience.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in theory and practice of e-Learning.
Write clearly and concisely about theory and practice of e-Learning using proper writing mechanics.








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technology video and social media reseach paper essay help




video-http://www.nytimes.com/video/us/100000003841604/blacktwitter-after-ferguson.html


 


1.



How did technology(video) and social media (twitter, Instagram tumbler, Facebook) help to enable the black lives matter movement?


2. How did the three people highlighted become activists?


 


3. What does Zellie Imani mean when he says we don’t rely on the mass media. we rely on ourselves


 


4. what did u learn from the video?


 


other question : What role is social media playing in the growing divide between police and African Americans?


2.Do you agree with colin kaepernick refusal to stand for the playing of the Nathen anthem? Explain why or why not?


 


3. After a season of high-profile protesting, san francisco 49ers quarterback colin Kaepernic has revealed that he did not voted in the 2016 presidential election. In your opinion , does his refusal to vote make him a hyprocrite? Explain Why or why not.










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Assignment onLiberty Challenged in Nineteenth Century America Thesis a level english language essay help




Assignment 2.1: Liberty Challenged in Nineteenth Century America Thesis and Outline

Due Week 7 and worth 50 points


America became a free independent nation. With the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the former mother country, England, recognized that its children, the colonies, were now on their own. A constitutional republic was birthed, thus the challenges began. Slavery, the “Peculiar Institution,” was a monumental issue facing the country. Would it die or would it survive and possibly take a nation divided with it? This sectionalism followed Americans up into the Civil War. Dissect this crisis by addressing parts I and II below.


For the next part of this assignment you will create an outline of the main points you want to address in this paper. This will serve as the basis for your Assignment 2.2 Final Draft. (Note: Please use the Purdue Owl Website to assist you with this assignment; this website can be accessed at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/2/2/55/


Part 1:



Write a thesis statement that is one to two (1-2) sentences long in which you:

State your thesis on the significance of this slavery issue, as exemplified in your research. Justify your response.



For the first part of this assignment you will create a thesis statement. A thesis statement is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your main idea to the reader. The body of the essay organizes the material you gather and present in support of your main idea. Keep in mind that a thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. (Note: Please consult the Purdue OWL Website with tips on how to construct a proper thesis; the website can be found at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/01/


Part 2:

For the next part of this assignment you will create an outline of the main points you want to address in this paper. This will serve as the basis for your Assignment 2.2 Final Draft. (Note: Please use the Purdue Owl Website to assist you with this assignment; this website can be accessed at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/2/2/55/


2. Write a one to two (1-2) page outline in which you:




Describe two (2) outcomes of the 3/5ths Compromise, Missouri Compromise of 1820, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott Decision. Note: Be sure to provide two (2) outcomes for each legislation.
Suggest three (3) reasons why slavery was and is incompatible with our political and economic system.
List three to five (3-5) driving forces that led to the Civil War.
Use at least three (3) academic references besides or in addition to the textbook. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.


Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:



Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:



Recognize the main factors that led to America’s early development.
Identify and discuss the different ways that the heritages of slavery, the Civil War, and Reconstruction have shaped America’s history.
Summarize and discuss the ways that formal policies of government have influenced the direction of historical and social development in the United States.
Examine how changes in social and economic conditions and technology can cause corresponding changes in the attitudes of the people and policies of the government.
Specify ways that women and minorities have responded to challenges and made contributions to American culture.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in American History to 1865.
Write clearly and concisely about American History to 1865 using proper writing mechanics








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The politics of expatriate Indians devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help


THE POLITICS OF


EXPATRIATE INDIANS


Expatriate Indians at the turn of the twentieth century were a motley


crowd of university students, recent graduates and budding intellectuals


who had gone abroad – to England mostly, but also to the United States,


 




 


Introduction * xxv


Canada, the Continent, and even Japan – to prepare themselves for


modern careers in science, technology, law, medicine, and the like. A


significant number of them were drawn together by their nationalist


fervour and by their disenchantment with the Indian National Congress.


They were attracted to various European revolutionary movements and


ideas – terrorism, Russian nihilism, Marxism, the ideologies of the Irish


home rule movement and the the Italian risorgimento. Some of them were


active supporters of such Indian secret societies as the Abhinav Bharat of


the Bombay Presidency and the Anusilan Samiti of Bengal. While abroad


they continued their support of these societies by engaging in gun-


running and by sending to India manuals for making bombs and other


weapons of destruction. To Gandhi they appeared to be misguided


Indians fully committed to ‘modern civilisation’ who wished to fashion


India on the model of Great Britain, Italy or Japan. Even a superficial


glance at Hind Swaraj will be enough to make the reader realise that


Gandhi had this group very much in mind when he wrote Hind Swaraj. It


is directed as much against them as against the practitioners of imperial-


ism who in his view were violating the norms of the British constitution.


A key figure among these expatriates was undoubtedly Shyamji


Krishnavarma (1857-1930). A Gujarati like Gandhi himself, he was a


gifted linguist brought to England to be an assistant to the Oxford


Sanskritist, Sir Monier Monier-Williams. Graduating from Balliol College,


Oxford in 1882, he qualified for the Bar from the Inner Temple. After a


brief career in India serving under various maharajas, he returned to


England to work full-time for the Indian nationalist cause. As befits a


‘modern’, he came completely under the spell of Herbet Spencer, in


whose honour he endowed an annual lectureship at Oxford in 1905


(which continued until 1910, when the money was returned because of


Krishnavarma’s involvement in terrorist activities). In addition, he


endowed five Herbert Spencer Indian fellowships, each valued at Rs. 2,000,


and a Swami Dayanand fellowship as well. Six other fellowships, each


valued at Rs. 1,000, named after Edmund Burke and Ganesh Vasudevjoshi


of Poona (the founder of the swadeshi movement there) were also


established. In 1909, when Gandhi was still in London, four ‘Martyr


 




 


xxvi * Introduction


Dhingra scholarships’ were established to honour the memory of the


assassin of Sir William Curzon-Wyllie. The object of these educational


endeavours was to bring bright Indian youths to Europe and America for


training in the theory and practice of violent revolution.


Krishnavarma was also the founder of India House (1905) at Highgate


in London to offer residential facilities for these young men. Gandhi


himself stayed there for a few days on his 1906 visit to London and had


long conversations with him on Indian politics and on the philosophy of


swaraj. Even more significant was the founding of a revolutionary penny


monthly, The Indian Sociologist (1905), which Krishnavarma edited and


published from London. It was dedicated to propagating Spencer’s ideas


as being absolutely essential for the modernisation of India. As if


to remind everyone of this, the monthly carried on its masthead two


quotations from Spencer: ‘Every man is free to do that which he wills, pro-


vided he infringes not the equal freedom of any other man’ (Spencer 1893,


46); and ‘Resistance to aggression is not simply justifiable but imperative.


Non resistance hurts both altruism and egoism’ (Spencer 1878,168).


The activities of the extremists at India House became a matter of


public concern and questions were raised in parliament. Suspecting


danger, Krishnavarma left London for Paris in 1907 taking the monthly


journal with him. Towards the end of 1909, following the assassination


of Curzon-Wyllie by Madanlal Dhingra, India House was closed down


permanently.


Though the relationship between Gandhi and Krishnavarma was


friendly – even respectful – in 1906, it had deteriorated beyond repair by


1909. A leading article in The Indian Sociologist of October 1913 denounced


Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence as being ‘utterly subversive of all


ethical, political and social ideals’.


While Krishnavarma was the organising genius of the Indian expatri-


ates, V. D. Savarkar (1883-1966) was the brain of the group. Recipient of a


Shivaji scholarship (one of several established by Krishnavarma),


Savarkar, on Tilak’s recommendation, was brought to London in 1906,


where he lived in India House for a period. His stay in London ended in


early 1910, when he was arrested for revolutionary activities and


 




 


Introduction * xxvii


deported to the Andamans. However, while in London, he produced two


works, one a translation of Mazzini’s Life from English into Marathi, and


the other, the highly imaginative The Indian War of Independence of 1857, a


militaristic interpretation of the events of 1857. Originally written in


Marathi, it was translated into English by ‘diverse hands’ and published


in London in May 1909, only two months before Gandhi’s arrival there.


Chapters of this book were read and discussed by the residents of India


House. The most prominent among the revolutionaries to be influenced


by Savarkar was Madan Lai Dhingra (c. 1887-1909), an engineering


student from Imperial College, London, turned revolutionary (mentioned


in ch. xvi). His assassination of Sir William Curzon-Wyllie, the ADC to


the Secretary of State for India, on 1 July 1909, a few days before Gandhi’s


arrival in London, shook London, the Indian community in England, and


Gandhi himself. It was a modern political act par excellence – terrorism


legitimised by nationalism. ‘Every Indian should reflect thoroughly on


this murder’, Gandhi wrote to his friend Polak. ‘Mr. Dhingra’s defence (by


Indian revolutionaries) was inadmissible . . . He was egged on to do this


act by ill-digested reading of worthless writings . . . It is those who incited


him to this that deserve to be punished’ (CW 9: 302).


It was well known among Indian expatriates living in London that


Savarkar was the man who ‘incited’ Dhingra to commit the murder.


Gandhi had met Savarkar in the autumn of 1909 and shared a platform


with him. On this occasion, they agreed to disagree on the question of


whether the Ramayana taught ahimsa or not. ‘When I was in London’,


Gandhi recalled later, ‘Shyamji Krishnavarma and Savarkar and others


used to tell me that the Gita and the Ramayana taught quite the opposite


of what I said they did’ (CW 32:102). It is difficult to estimate the extent


of Savarkar’s role in the formulation of the philosophy of Hind Swaraj:


D. Keer, the biographer of both Gandhi and Savarkar, goes so far as


to claim that it was written in response to Savarkar. This is clearly an


exaggeration, but there is definitely some truth in it. However that may


be, during the later decades the ideological gap between the two only


widened. Savarkar, who in his London days was a supporter of


Hindu-Muslim unity, later changed his attitude towards the Muslims


 




 


xxviii * Introduction


and propounded the intensely anti-Muslim ideology of hindutva. Not


surprisingly, it was one of Savarkar’s militant supporters who turned out


to be Gandhi’s assassin.


There are two other leading ‘modern’ expatriate Indian revolution-


aries, both Gandhi’s contemporaries, whose activities are worthy of note


here. The first is the remarkable Parsee revolutionary, Madame Bhikaji


Rustom Cama (1861-1936), a pioneer among Indian women in politics.


Her base of operations was Paris, and for a while she and Har Dayal edited


Bande Mataram, a penny monthly named after the now banned Calcutta


Bande Mataram, (once edited by the fiery Aurobindo Ghose). In 1907 she


attended the Stuttgart International Congress of Socialists and moved


a resolution demanding swaraj for India (seconded by ‘Comrade’ H. M.


Hyndman, the British Marxist). The other was V. Chattopadhyaya


(1880-1937?), a brother of the distinguished Congress leader, Mrs Sarojini


Naidu, and a colleague of Savarkar and Krishnavarma. He also attended


the Stuttgart International Congress of Socialists. Between 1909 and 1914


he edited yet another penny monthly, che Talwar (Sword) appearing from


Rotterdam and Berlin. After joining the Communist party in Europe, he


spent the rest of his life in Germany and the Soviet Union promoting


various nationalist and communist causes, before facing his tragic fate at


the hands of a Soviet firing squad sometime between 1937 and 1940.


Cama and Chattopadhyaya were typical of the new generation of Indian


intellectuals who were captivated by whatever was fashionable in Europe


and who embraced one of modernity’s major ideological expressions,


Marxism. It goes without saying that it is with such moderns as these in


mind that Gandhi wrote Hind Swaraj.


Indian expatriate activities were not limited to Great Britain and the


Continent; they were being organised in Canada and the United States as


well. The key figure here is Taraknath Das (1884-1958). A member of the


Bengal secret society, the Anusilan Samiti, Das left India for Canada and


the United States via Tokyo, reaching San Francisco in 1906. In 1908 he


moved to Vancouver and founded a penny monthly, the Free Hindusihan,


modelled on The Indian Sociologist of London and Paris, and carrying the


same two quotations from Herbert Spencer on its masthead. As British


 




 


Introduction * xxix


and American intelligence were on his tracks, Das had to move his


journal from Vancouver to Seattle, and later to New York, being assisted


in this by George Freeman of the Gaelic American of New York and Edward


Holton James, a Seattle attorney (and a nephew of Henry James and


William James).


Das and Free Hindusthan are important in tracing the historical link


between Gandhi and Tolstoy, and the development of some of the


arguments in Hind Swaraj. It was in response to a letter from Das, as


editor of Free Hindusthan, that Tolstoy wrote his famous Letter to a Hindoo


(1908), listed in Appendix I to Hind Swaraj. A typescript of this work was


circulating in Indian revolutionary circles in Paris in 1909, and it fell into


Gandhi’s hands while he was still in London, sent to him from Paris by


his friend Dr Pranjivan Mehta. To verify its authorship Gandhi wrote


directly to Tolstoy who not only verified its authenticity but also granted


permission to publish it in both English and Gujarati. The translation and


the editing took place on board the Kildonan Castle, during the same week


that he wrote Hind Swaraj. Gandhi published both the English and the


Gujarati versions of the Letter in Indian Opinion between December 1909


and January 1910. Almost simultaneously, unbeknown to Gandhi, Das


also published the Letter in the Boston monthly, The Twentieth Century,


together with a searing refutation of Tolstoy’s thesis. V. Chattopadhyaya


wrote his own refutation of Tolstoy in Bande Mataram, which was


serialised in April 1910 in The African Chronicle, a Durban weekly run


by Gandhi’s Indian rivals in Natal. At the centre of these debates was


the question of how India may attain swaraj: Tolstoy argued that non-


violence is the only legitimate means available to the morally upright


conscience. Gandhi, in Hind Swaraj, supported this view while expatriate


moderns such as Das and Chattopadhyaya opposed it.



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Essay on the American Medical Association academic essay help




According to our textbook usability is a product that is used by a user in the correct situation to accomplish a set goal (p. 173). An example of this would be the product of a blood pressure cuff in Walmart that shoppers can stop at to check their blood pressures. Some issues that I have with usability and interoperability in using my health information system is that I have to continually enter the same data so that the system understands what I am trying to accomplish, there are many different places to go to achieve the exact same task and not all of our machines sync to the system such as our wound vacuums. According to our textbook the user wants the system to be effective, efficient, and satisfying (p. 174). According to the American Medical Association it takes awhile to implement a new improvement, but it is recommended to do so because every patient encounter and the physicians ability to proved quality care are affected by the usability of the healthcare system. One suggestion that I could make is to sync our wound vacuums to the Cerner system so that the wound vac. information is automatically loaded into the system, which would make the nurse more efficient and effective with her care and time.


Hebda, Toni L., Patricia Czar. Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals, 5th Edition. Pearson Learning Solutions, 03/2012. [Bookshelf Online].


American Medical Association. (2014). Improving care: Priorities to improve electronic health record usability. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/spa4k/AppData/Local/Microsoft/Windows/INetCache/IE/GHKXZFS2/ehr-priorities.pdf









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Discussion on the politics of South Africa essay help online free: essay help online free


THE POLITICS OF SOUTH AFRICA


The actual development of Gandhi’s critique of modern civilisation takes


an indirect route, for Gandhi entered the world historical stage not in


 




 


Introduction * xxi


India but in South Africa. A grasp of the significance of this fact is


absolutely essential for a full understanding of the teachings of Hind


Swaraj. In the first place, it was in South Africa, not in India, that he first


acquired his vision of Indian nationalism, a fact which differentiates


his nationalism from that of the other Indian nationalists. His idea of


nationalism does not start with the locality and then gradually extend


itself to the province and finally to the nation. Quite the reverse. He was


first an Indian, then a Gujarati, and only then a Kathiavadi. And South


Africa has a lot to do with this. Secondly, it is in the politics of the


Transvaal, not Champaran or Bardoli, that he first developed his unique


political philosophy and political techniques.


The account of his South African experiences – his leadership role in


the Natal Indian Congress and the Transvaal British Indian Association,


his campaigns against discriminatory legislation against indentured


Indian labourers, traders and settlers, the discovery of the techniques of


satyagraha, his career as a lawyer and as a journalist running the weekly


journal Indian Opinion, his ventures into the field of education, and the


establishment of the Phoenix Settlement for the formation of the new


Gandhian personality, his incarcerations, his tussle with General J. C.


Smuts – these and other pertinent matters are treated well in the


available secondary literature (Huttenback 1971; Swann 1985; Brown


1989), so they do not require anything more than a mention here.


However, three issues associated with South Africa need highlighting.


The first is that it was in South Africa that Gandhi for the first time


became aware that modern civilisation was at the root of the colonial


problem. If Lenin connected colonialism to capitalism, Gandhi went one


step further and connected colonialism to modernity itself. The good that


colonialism secured for the colonised – and there is no doubt that it did


secure that – was not intrinsic to it. What was intrinsic to it was com-


mercial expansion, the lust for domination and the glory resulting there-


from. When the two forces – good of the colonised and the glory of empire


– clashed, there was no doubt which would prevail. The first recorded


expression of these insights are found in his after-dinner speech on


Christmas Day 1896. These are given in some detail in the Autobiography:


 




 


xxii * Introduction


how he and his fellow passengers were quarantined in the Durban


harbour, how the white settlers ashore wanted them to be returned to


Bombay, how the captain of the ship invited Gandhi to Christmas dinner


and to make a speech. The topic he chose was Western civilisation. ‘I knew


that this was not an occasion for a serious speech. But mine could not be


otherwise . . . I therefore deplored the civilisation of which the Natal


whites were the fruit, and which they represented and championed. This


civilisation had all along been on my mind . . . I had in my speech


described Western civilisation as being, unlike the Eastern, predomi-


nantly based on force* (CW 39:153-4).


In 1908 Gandhi came back to the theme of modern civilisation in a


lecture to the Johannesburg YMCA. He took this occasion to make the


crucial distinction between Christian civilisation and modern Western


civilisation: ‘I do not mix up or confuse Western civilisation with


Christian progress . . . I refuse to believe that all this [industrial and


technological] activity connotes Christian progress, but it does connote


Western civilisation’ (CW 8: 244). The latter, he averred, rested on two


fallacious maxims: might is right and the survival of the fittest. Moreover,


it lacked, he claimed, a ‘goal’, a telos, being ‘centrifugal’ and merely


‘dynamic’. Indian civilisation, on the other hand, had a goal; it was


‘centripetal’, ‘adaptive’ and ‘contemplative’. ‘A civilisation or a condition


in which all the forces fly away from the centre must necessarily be


without a goal, whereas those who converge to a point have always a goal’


(ibid.).


In the 1920s Gandhi returned to the problem of modern civilisation. In


a remarkable passage in Satyagraha in South Africa (CW 29: 76-7) he wrote


that it was neither vulgar racism nor crass trade jealousy that motivated


the thoughtful opponents of Indians in South Africa: what motivated


them, in his view, was their concern for modern civilisation, of which


they considered themselves the respresentatives, and which they wanted


to protect and promote at all costs. They believed that ‘the nations which


do not increase their material wants are doomed to destruction. It is in


pursuance of these principles that Western nations have settled in South


Africa and subdued the numerically overwhelmingly superior races of


 




 


Introduction * xxiii


Africa/ The colonial community in South Africa believed that they were


the ‘representative’ of Western civilisation, and India, that of Oriental


civilisation. If peoples belonging to such rival civilisations met, they


thought, the result would be an explosion. It is not the business of the


statesman to adjudicate between the relative merits of these civilisations.


His business is to try to preserve his own. Indians are disliked not for their


vices but for their virtues – simplicity, perseverence, patience, frugality


and otherworldliness. Westerners are enterprising, impatient, engrossed


in multiplying their material wants and in satisfying them. They are


afraid that allowing Indians to settle as immigrants in South Africa is


tantamount to endorsing cultural suicide (CW 29: 77).


Gandhi naturally refused to recognise any validity for this argument.


On the contrary, he felt that contact between civilisations would be


healthy and beneficial to the civilisations concerned. In particular, he was


of the opinion that Indian civilisation would benefit greatly from its


contact with Western civilisation.


The second issue associated with South Africa that needs highlighting


is the relative social freedom that it offered to Gandhi to conduct his


social and political experiments for India. He found himself ‘free from


certain restrictions*, as he put it, ‘from which our people suffer in India’


(CW 5: 290). As Judith Brown has pointed out, South Africa enabled him


to play the role of a ‘critical outsider’ in India. The Phoenix Settlement


which he established in 1904 just outside Durban (and where Hind Swaraj


was first printed) would not have met with the success it did had it


not been for this social freedom. It was here that he conducted his first


experiments in developing a sense of all-India consciousness free from the


harmful effects of modern civilisation, undue regionalism, and the worst


manifestations of the caste-mentality.


It was here too that Indian women were able to find liberation from a


number of social taboos to which their counterparts in India were still


subject. ‘Phoenix is intended to be a nursery for producing the right men


(and women) and right Indians,’ he wrote. ‘ . . . whatever energy is put


forth in Phoenix is not so much taken away from India, but it is so much


given to India… Phoenix is a more suitable place for making experiments


 




 


xxiv * Introduction


and gaining proper training. Whereas in India there may be undesirable


restraints, there are no such undesirable restraints in Phoenix. For


instance, Indian ladies would never have come out so boldly as they are


doing at Phoenix. The rest of the social customs would have been too


much for them’ (CW 9: 382).


How painful and radical these experiments were in those days may be


gathered from one or two examples. There is the well-known case of his


quarrel with his wife for refusing to clean the chamber-pot of a low-caste


Indian Christian staying with the Gandhis. Prabhudas Gandhi recounts


how difficult it was for his father, Chhaganlal Gandhi, the Mahatma’s


right-hand man in Phoenix and the Gujarati editor of Indian Opinion, to


dine with Muslims. ‘But since he had surrendered himself to Gandhiji he


did his best to follow Gandhiji’s ideas without protest/ However that


might have been with Chhaganlal, his wife would still ‘cleanse’ the


dinner utensils used by her Muslim friends by ‘purifying’ them (the


utensils) in fire (P. Gandhi 1957, 58).


The third point that needs highlighting is the importance of his


lobbying missions of 1906 and 1909 to London. And it was on these


missions that Gandhi first acquired the diplomatic skills necessary for


dealing with the British political establishment in London. More


importantly, it was on these visits that he came into contact with a very


important segment of the newly emerging Indian middle class, the


expatriate Indians living abroad. These were the new converts to modern


civilisation, and it is their uncritical acceptance of their newly found


secular faith that really bothered Gandhi. Modern civilisation was bad


enough for Britain, but when imported into India and propagated there


by Indians themselves, its potential for mischief became incalculable.



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Lives of Slaves discussion compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

unning Head: DISCUSSIONS 1


2


DISCUSSIONS


Question 1


 


Please respond to the following in a minimum 200 word post.  Be sure to comment (minimum of 150 words) on a classmate’s post


· ONLY USE THE WEBTEXT AND COURSE MATERIALS FOR THIS DISCUSSION–NO OUTSIDE SOURCES!


· Go to Section 3 of this week’s Webtext titled, “Lives of Slaves” and review the videos shown in the section. Next, briefly summarize the day-to-day activities of a typical slave’s daily life. Using resources from this section and the supplemental resource featured this week, determine three (3) differences in experiences between slaves then suggest two (2) reasons why the experiences may have differed.


House of Bondage: Realities of Slavery found at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/albert/albert.html


 


Student example from this discussion……..


The day-to-day activities of a typical slave’s life included terrible working conditions, long hours, beatings, and dehumanization.  While some plantations differed on the treatment of slaves, the overall injustice of bondage was very much the same.


For plantations that did not require quite as much extensive labor, such as rice harvesting, the slaves worked under what was called the task system.  Once their daily chores and duties were completed, they were allowed leisure time with their friends and/or family.


In other places, such as the cotton plantations of the South, life was much more difficult.  The slaves worked in what was known as the “gang system” in which they had slave drivers standing over them to ensure they worked non-stop or they would get beaten and whipped.


In this week’s Supplemental reading of “House of Bondage: The Reality of Slavery,” Aunt Charlotte pointed out some differences between living in Virginia and Louisiana.  In Virginia, she could attend church and have prayer meetings on Sunday which was observed as a day of rest. In Louisiana, Sunday was not observed as a day of rest and they were not allowed to worship or pray or else they would be beaten.  They did not have the freedom that was allowed on some of the other plantations.


One of the biggest reasons why slaves were treated differently is based on the religion of the master.  It seems the Protestants wanted to share the teachings of the Bible with the slaves, even if only to make themselves feel better about the situation.  The Catholics in the Deep South did not observe the Sabbath on Sundays, and they did not allow or practice the teachings of Christianity amongst the slaves they owned.  They would be punished if caught worshipping at all.


Another reason is based on the type of plantation and cash crop being grown and harvested and the amount of greed and power held by the master.  The bigger the plantation, the more slaves that were needed to work the fields.  They were driven hard and not allowed very much time for them.  If the master leaned toward the idea of paternalism, they were more likely to be allowed a little bit more freedoms during their down time.


 


 


QUESTION 2


Top of Form


“Eyes on the West” Please respond to the following in a minimum 200 word post.  Be sure to comment (minimum of 150 words) on a classmate’s post


ONLY USE THE WEBTEXT AND COURSE MATERIALS FOR THIS DISCUSSION–NO OUTSIDE SOURCES!


Before the American Revolution, England had prohibited colonists from migrating westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains. Explore this week’s Webtext materials; then, discuss five (5) factors that led to further westward expansion. Select two (2) of the five (5) factors you previously stated that you believe were most significant in getting Americans to migrate west. Include emerging federal government policies that were a cause and a result of westward expansion


 


Native American Blog on Manifest Destiny found at http://blog.nrcprograms.org/manifest-destiny/


 


 


 


QUESTION 3


 


“Racism in the Civil War North” Please respond to the following with a minimum of 200 words and be sure to comment on a classmate’s post with a minimum of 150 words


BASE YOUR DISCUSSION ON THE WEBTEXT AND COURSE MATERIALS AND ONLY USE AN OUTSIDE SOURCE SUPPLEMENTALLY AND IDENTIFY IT IN YOUR POST AND COMMENT


After Lincoln officially announceed the Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863, the Civil War enveloped a two-fold purpose: fighting for reuniting the Union, and prohibiting slavery in captured confederate territory. This action set off a chain reaction that led to draft riots, which demonstrated Northern racism and casualties between blacks and whites. Go to Section 2 of this week’s Webtext titled “Why the North Won”, and view the resources provided for the section discussing the New York City Draft iots.  Next explain three (3) ways that these riots supported the ‘myth’ of the anti-racist liberals of the North and the difficulties facing free African Americans.


Be sure to include which Union states held slaves throughout the Civil War and why this was an ongoing problem for Lincoln and the Union.


 


Article on Early Race Relations found at https://www.ravenfoundation.org/racism-in-the-civil-war-north/Bottom of Form


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Equity Class Research Paper write essay help




Final Project Instructions


Create a PowerPoint or Google Slides Presentation showcasing learning, especially highlighting impact of course content on teaching and learning outcomes. Your PowerPoint should include a professional design and relevant, engaging images; it should cover main points from each session of this course. Do your best to present the information in audience-friendly, bullet point format, and refrain from copying/pasting from previous homework assignments.Write a reflection of the entire course including your final project (250 words), specifying impact on teaching practices and your students’ learning outcomes. Include the reflection in the text box provided.


Submission Instructions


Upload your completed presentation file. (For Google Slides, you can paste in the link. Please make sure the settings allow for anyone with the access to the link to have permission to view the document. Need help? Email [email protected])


In the text box, include a 250 word reflection of your experience taking this course. If you forget to include the reflection, your Final Project submission will not be graded and will be reopened.









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Discussion on modern civilization write essay help: write essay help


MODERN CIVILISATION


Modern civilisation forms the broad historical context of Hind Swaraj. Its


critique of that civilisation is one of its main contributions to modern


political thought. In historical terms, it is Gandhi’s apprehensions about


certain tendencies in modern civilisation that made him the thinker and


the political innovator that he is. The tone of his criticism is sometimes


harsh and intemperate and is likely to mislead the reader. It is all the


more necessary therefore to say at once that his attitude towards modern


civilisation, though critical, is not wholly negative. Being critical implies


the desire to improve the object criticised. So it is with Gandhi and


modern civilisation. Thus he welcomes a number of its contributions


– civil liberty, equality, rights, prospects for improving the economic


conditions of life, liberation of women from tradition, and religious


toleration. At the same time, the welcome is conditional in that liberty


has to harmonise with swaraj, rights with duties, empirical knowledge


with moral insight, economic development with spiritual progress,


 




 


xviii * Introduction


religious toleration with religious belief, and women’s liberation with the


demands of a broader conception of humanity.


Gandhi’s admiration for the British constitution helps to put his


attitude towards colonialism in its right perspective. In his Autobiography


he speaks of the two passions of his life: the passion for loyalty to


the British constitution and the passion for nursing (CW 39:140-3). ‘The


history of British rule is the history of constitutional evolution. Under


the British flag, respect for the law has become a part of the nature of the


people’ (CW 4: 322). Specifically, Queen Victoria’s proclamation of 1858


was for him ‘the Magna Carta of British Indians’, ‘a document of freedom


for the people of India’ giving them the ‘full privileges and rights of


British subjects’ (CW 3: 357-8). The British constitution remained the


standard by which to measure the quality of colonial administration:


policies in conformity with it were thought to be good, and those contrary


to it, evil. This was true even in the context of his doctrines of satyagraha. As


he saw it, there was no inconsistency between these and loyalty to the con-


stitution, for, as he said, a ‘love of truth’ lay at the root of both (CW 39:140).


Gandhi has his own definition of civilisation: civilisation is ‘that mode


of conduct which points out to man the path of duty’ (sudharo, ch. xin) .


Barbarism (kudharo) is the absence of civilisation. By modern or Western


civilisation (he often used these terms interchangeably) he meant that


‘mode of conduct’ which emerged from the Enlightenment, and more


exactly, from the Industrial Revolution. ‘Let it be remembered’, he wrote


in 1908, ‘that western civilisation is only a hundred years old, or to be


more precise, fifty’ (CW 8: 374). The Industrial Revolution for him was


much more than a mere change in the mode of production. As he


interprets it, it brought into being a new mode of life, embracing a


people’s outlook on nature and human nature, religion, ethics, science,


knowledge, technology, politics and economics. According to this out-


look, nature was taken to be an autonomous entity operating according


to its own laws, something to be mastered and possessed at will for the


satisfaction of human needs, desires and political ambitions. This outlook


brought about an epistemological revolution which in turn paved the


way for the secularisation of political theory. The satisfaction of the desire


 




 


Introduction * xix


for economic prosperity came to be identified as the main object of


politics. Religion, when it was not dismissed as mere superstition, was


valued only for its social and psychological use. The Industrial Revolution


altered the concept of labour, now accepted mainly for its ability to


produce profit, power and capital. Manual labour was looked upon as


fit only for the unlettered and the backward. With the technological


revolution that followed the industrial revolution, machines, hitherto


allies of humans, seemed to assert their autonomy.


Modern political theory provided the general ethical framework


within which the changes occurring in the scientific, technological and


economic fields were to be integrated. Two types of political theory


emerged, one for the industrialised societies and the other for the rest of


the world. Liberalism and liberal institutions were thought appropriate


for industrialised societies; imperialism and colonialism for the non-


industrialised societies such as India. By the third quarter of the


nineteenth century, the world for all practical purposes was divided into


the industrialised and the non-industrialised, or the ‘civilised’ and the


‘non-civilised’, parts. Even the saint of liberalism, J. S. Mill, accepted this


civilisational partition of the world. He would in all sincerity use the very


doctrine of liberty to justify imperial rule over India.


It was perhaps James Fitzjames Stephen (1829-94), law member of


the Viceroy’s council, who most candidly articulated the meaning of


imperialism in terms of modern civilisation. In his famous essay


‘Foundations of the government of India’ (1883), Stephen argued that


every political theory whatever is a doctrine of or about force. The


foundations of the government of India rest on conquest not consent.


Such a government must therefore proceed upon principles different


from and in some respects opposed to those which prevail in England.


Representative government is a requirement of European civilisation,


while absolute government is that of Indian civilisation. Only by such a


government can any real benefit accrue to Indians. If suttee, other human


sacrifices, infanticide, disability to marry on account of widowhood or


change of religion were to be abolished, as indeed they were to be, only an


absolute imperial government could have done it. Though, generally


 




 


xx * Introduction


speaking, absolute government must be a temporary expedient for the


purpose of superseding itself, in the case of India ‘the permanent


existence’ of such a government would not in itself be a bad thing. For, as


Stephen saw it, India in the last quarter of the nineteenth century gave


little sign of producing the material and moral conditions necessary for


self-government. How then was India to be governed? – by introducing


‘the essential parts of European civilisation’. According to Stephen, the


latter included ‘peace, order, the supremacy of law, the prevention of


crime, the redress of wrong, the enforcement of contracts, the develop-


ment and concentration of the military force of the state, the construc-


tion of public works, the collection and expenditure of the revenue


required for these objects in such a way as to promote the utmost public


interest’. Modern European morality, modern European political


economy, and modern European conceptions of security of property and


person – these, in Stephen’s view, were what India needed. And if


European civilisation, ‘in the sense explained’, is to be introduced into


India, certain consequences followed – the most important, which


included all the rest, being ‘an absolute government, composed in all its


most important parts of Europeans’. An Indian parliament or collection


of Indian parliaments would produce unqualified anarchy: ‘the English in


India are the representative of a belligerent civilisation. The phrase is


epigrammatic, but it is strictly true. The English in India are the rep-


resentatives of peace compelled by force.’ Only a belligerent civilisation


can suppress by force the internal hostilities between Indians and teach


them ‘to live in peace with, and tolerate each other’. The introduction of


such a civilisation into India, the Pax Britannica, was ‘the great and char-


acteristic task’ of Britain in India.


It is in the context of arguments such as Stephen’s that Gandhi devel-


ops his critique of modern civilisation.



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Discussions on Gadhis intentions my assignment essay help london


GANDHI’S INTENTIONS


The book is addressed to a mixed audience: the expatriate Indians greatly


attracted to terrorism and political violence, the Extremists and


Moderates of the Indian National Congress, the Indian nation, and ‘the


English’ (ch. xx). By the Indian nation Gandhi means ordinary Indians,


irrespective of their religious, linguistic, regional or caste differences, as


well as the new emerging middle class, referred to in the text as ‘doctors’,


‘lawyers’ and ‘the wealthy’. And by ‘the English’ he means both the British


ruling class living in India and Britons living in Great Britain.


As to why he wrote the book, there was first of all the question of an


 




 


Introduction * xv


inner illumination and the consequent urge to communicate. ‘The thing


was brewing in my mind’, he wrote to his friend Henry Polak a month


before the actual writing. ‘I, therefore feel that I should no longer


withhold from you what I call the progressive step I have taken mentally


. . . After all they [the ideas] are not new but they have only now assumed


such a concrete form and taken a violent possession of me.’ The Foreword


reflected the same sense of urgency: ‘I have written because I could not


restrain myself.’ Years later he recalled the experience: ‘Just as one cannot


help speaking out when one’s heart is fall, so also I had been unable to


restrain myself from writing the book since my heart was fall’ (CW 32:


489).


Secondly, he wanted to clarify the meaning of swaraj, the concept that


provides the theoretical framework of the book. This is done by intro-


ducing a distinction between swaraj as self-government or the quest for


home rule or the good state, and swaraj as self-rule or the quest for self-


improvement.


Thirdly, he felt it necessary to respond specifically to the ideology of


political terrorism adopted by the expatriates. The book was written in


order to show that they were following ‘a suicidal policy’. He recalled


in 1921 how on his 1909 visit to London he had come into contact with


‘every known Indian anarchist’ there, and how he had wanted to write a


book ‘in answer to the Indian school of violence*. ‘I felt that violence was


no remedy for India’s ills, and that her civilisation required the use of a


different and higher weapon for self-protection’ (CW 19: 277).


Fourthly, Gandhi was anxious to teach the Indians that ‘modern


civilisation’ posed a greater threat to them than did colonialism. They


appeared to him to take it for granted that modern civilisation was an


unmixed blessing, and colonialism an unmixed evil, forgetting that


colonialism itself was a product of modern civilisation. ‘My countrymen,


therefore, think’, states the Preface, ‘that they should adopt modern


civilisation and modern methods of violence to drive out the English.’


This point is further elaborated in the Preface to the second Gujarati


edition of 1914: ‘it is not the British that are responsible for the mis-


fortunes of India but we who have succumbed to modern civilisation . . .


 




 


xvi * Introduction


The key to an understanding of Hind Swaraj lies in the idea that worldly


pursuits should give way to ethical living. This way of life has no room for


violence in any form against any human being, black or white’ (CW 12:


412). And in 1929 he came back to the same idea: ‘The Western civilisation


which passes for civilisation is disgusting to me. I have given a rough


picture of it in Hind Swaraj. Time has brought no change in it’ (CW 40:


300). And in 1939: ‘The key to understand that incredibly simple (so


simple as to be regarded foolish) booklet is to realise that it is not


an attempt to go back to the so-called ignorant, dark ages. But it is an


attempt to see beauty in voluntary simplicity, [voluntary] poverty and


slowness. I have pictured that as my ideal’ (CW 70: 242). ‘I would ask you


to read Hind Swaraj with my eyes’, he exhorts the reader, ‘and see therein


the chapter on how to make India non-violent. You cannot build non-


violence on a factory civilisation, but it can be built on self-contained


villages’ (CW 70: 296).


Fifthly, he wanted to contribute towards the reconciliation of Indians


and Britons. This is evident from the ‘exhortation’ to ‘the English’ in


chapter xx. Modern civilisation posed as much a problem for them as it


did for the Indians. ‘At heart you belong to a religious nation’, he tells


them. And the desire for reconciliation can come about ‘only when the


root of our relationship is sunk in a religious soiF (ch. xx).


Finally, Gandhi believed that through Hind Swaraj he would be able to


give Indians a practical philosophy, an updated conception of dharma,


that would fit them for life in the modern world. In the past dharma


was tied to a hierarchical system of duties and obligations and to the


preservation of status. It gave little or no attention to the idea of


democratic citizenship. Gandhi felt that the time had come to redefine


the scope of dharma to include notions of citizenship, equality, liberty,


fraternity and mutual assistance. And in Hind Swaraj he presents in


simple language his notion of such a redefined dharma, the vision of a


new Indian or Gandhian civic humanism, one that the Gita and the


Ramayana had always contained in potentia, but something which Indian


civilisation had not actualised fully in practice. In Hind Swaraj a conscious


attempt is being made to actualise that potential. ‘This is not a mere


 




 


Introduction * xvii


political book’, he writes. ‘I have used the language of politics, but I have


really tried to offer a glimpse of dharma. What is the meaning of Hind


Swaraj? It means rule of dharma or Ramarajya’ (CW 32:489). ‘We may read


the Gita or the Ramayana or Hind Swaraj. But what we have to learn from


them is desire for the welfare of others’ (CW 32:496).


These are the exalted aims of the book. Yet on a casual reading the


book may strike the reader as being a rather simple one. This would not


be an unwarranted reaction, since Gandhi sought simplicity in all things,


including the way he presented his ideas. But first impressions in this case


can be, and are, deceptive, for the book contains in compressed form the


author’s conception of what modern India ought to become and how


politics may be made into the highest form of the active life. It is there-


fore a book that needs to be read reflectively, the way one would read, for


example, a dialogue of Plato. Such a reading can be made easier if the


reader keeps in view the historical and intellectual contexts within which


the book was written.



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House of Bondage Realities of Slavery descriptive essay help

Question 1


 


 


 


Please respond to the following in a minimum 200 word post.  Be sure to comment (minimum of 150 words) on a classmate’s post


 


·         ONLY USE THE WEBTEXT AND COURSE MATERIALS FOR THIS DISCUSSION–NO OUTSIDE SOURCES!


 


·         Go to Section 3 of this week’s Webtext titled, “Lives of Slaves” and review the videos shown in the section. Next, briefly summarize the day-to-day activities of a typical slave’s daily life. Using resources from this section and the supplemental resource featured this week, determine three (3) differences in experiences between slaves then suggest two (2) reasons why the experiences may have differed.


 


House of Bondage: Realities of Slavery found at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/albert/albert.html


 


 


 


Student example from this discussion……..


 


The day-to-day activities of a typical slave’s life included terrible working conditions, long hours, beatings, and dehumanization.  While some plantations differed on the treatment of slaves, the overall injustice of bondage was very much the same.


 


For plantations that did not require quite as much extensive labor, such as rice harvesting, the slaves worked under what was called the task system.  Once their daily chores and duties were completed, they were allowed leisure time with their friends and/or family.


 


In other places, such as the cotton plantations of the South, life was much more difficult.  The slaves worked in what was known as the “gang system” in which they had slave drivers standing over them to ensure they worked non-stop or they would get beaten and whipped.


 


In this week’s Supplemental reading of “House of Bondage: The Reality of Slavery,” Aunt Charlotte pointed out some differences between living in Virginia and Louisiana.  In Virginia, she could attend church and have prayer meetings on Sunday which was observed as a day of rest. In Louisiana, Sunday was not observed as a day of rest and they were not allowed to worship or pray or else they would be beaten.  They did not have the freedom that was allowed on some of the other plantations.


 


One of the biggest reasons why slaves were treated differently is based on the religion of the master.  It seems the Protestants wanted to share the teachings of the Bible with the slaves, even if only to make themselves feel better about the situation.  The Catholics in the Deep South did not observe the Sabbath on Sundays, and they did not allow or practice the teachings of Christianity amongst the slaves they owned.  They would be punished if caught worshipping at all.


 


Another reason is based on the type of plantation and cash crop being grown and harvested and the amount of greed and power held by the master.  The bigger the plantation, the more slaves that were needed to work the fields.  They were driven hard and not allowed very much time for them.  If the master leaned toward the idea of paternalism, they were more likely to be allowed a little bit more freedoms during their down time.


 


 


 


 


 


QUESTION 2


 



Top of Form



 


“Eyes on the West” Please respond to the following in a minimum 200 word post.  Be sure to comment (minimum of 150 words) on a classmate’s post


 


ONLY USE THE WEBTEXT AND COURSE MATERIALS FOR THIS DISCUSSION–NO OUTSIDE SOURCES!


 


Before the American Revolution, England had prohibited colonists from migrating westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains. Explore this week’s Webtext materials; then, discuss five (5) factors that led to further westward expansion. Select two (2) of the five (5) factors you previously stated that you believe were most significant in getting Americans to migrate west. Include emerging federal government policies that were a cause and a result of westward expansion


 


 


 


Native American Blog on Manifest Destiny found at http://blog.nrcprograms.org/manifest-destiny/


 


 


 



 


 


QUESTION 3


 



 


“Racism in the Civil War North” Please respond to the following with a minimum of 200 words and be sure to comment on a classmate’s post with a minimum of 150 words


 


BASE YOUR DISCUSSION ON THE WEBTEXT AND COURSE MATERIALS AND ONLY USE AN OUTSIDE SOURCE SUPPLEMENTALLY AND IDENTIFY IT IN YOUR POST AND COMMENT


 


After Lincoln officially announceed the Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863, the Civil War enveloped a two-fold purpose: fighting for reuniting the Union, and prohibiting slavery in captured confederate territory. This action set off a chain reaction that led to draft riots, which demonstrated Northern racism and casualties between blacks and whites. Go to Section 2 of this week’s Webtext titled “Why the North Won”, and view the resources provided for the section discussing the New York City Draft iots.  Next explain three (3) ways that these riots supported the ‘myth’ of the anti-racist liberals of the North and the difficulties facing free African Americans.


 


Be sure to include which Union states held slaves throughout the Civil War and why this was an ongoing problem for Lincoln and the Union.


 



 


Article on Early Race Relations found at https://www.ravenfoundation.org/racism-in-the-civil-war-north/Bottom of Form



 


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PowerPoint project assignment   writing essay help: writing essay help

Assignment Instructions


PowerPoint project assignment

Your PowerPoint presentation is to be uploaded as an attachment by Thursday (midnight) of Week 6 — both in the Week 6 Forum Discussion and in the Assignment (here).

Create a Twelve (12) slide PowerPoint presentation; these 12 slides do NOT include your first and last slides. You must have a cover slide (Introduction) and a references (sources) slide (the last slide). The references must be formatted in APA Style on your references slide; however, you are free to use any font or color throughout your presentation; you are NOT limited to Times New Roman 12 font.  Use any font and size you like!

You are required to teach your presentation to the Class and to answer questions, both from your fellow students and from the Professor.  Since your classmates must perform the same assignment, you required to ask at least two questions (as separate postings) in response to their PowerPoint presentations. Questions asked should spark critical thinking.

Your PowerPoint presentation should be one of the following topics:

·       Analyze the characteristics and special needs of victims
·       Identify US Laws that target human trafficking
·       Discuss the Human Trafficking problem within any selected country
·       Discuss Human Trafficking Criminal Intelligence Gathering & Sharing
·       Discuss the long-term effects of Human Trafficking on the economy
·       Identify organizations that are supporting victims and what they are doing to help
·       Discuss the United Nations rule in combatting Human Trafficking
·       Discuss how the Criminal Justice Discipline can support efforts to stop human trafficking
·       Analyze how technology can be used to combat human trafficking
·       Analyze the scope and magnitude of human trafficking

Please don’t wait until the last minute to start working on this project!  PowerPoint presentations look simple to create but they actually take time.  You don’t have much time, so get to it!

This is your opportunity to become a subject matter expert as you share your experience, knowledge, and research about your topic. This activity is designed to build your confidence in presenting Criminal Justice material. Be professional in your postings.


How to create a PowerPoint presentation (website)





Supporting Materials

 APUS APA Style.pdf (524 KB)
 CMRJ401 PowerPoint Assignment Rubric.pdf (152 KB)

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Universal Learning Characteristics college essay help service




Universal Learning Characteristics


In this assignment you will demonstrate your understanding of the learning objective: Identify universal learning characteristics of students with mild to moderate disabilities.  Additionally, completion of this assignment represents an introduction to Course Learning Outcome 3 and MASE Program Learning Outcomes 1, 2 and 6.


Although every child is unique, those with similar categorized disabilities, have universal learning and behavior characteristics.  For example, traditional instruction can be delivered with strategies that have shown to be successful for students identified as having learning disabilities.  Similarly, universal proactive classroom intervention techniques for children with mild to moderate behavior disabilities have also been demonstrated to be a successful approach to addressing these individualized needs.


Instructions

Create a graphic organizer using Popplet ( http://www.popplet.com/ ) or Microsoft Word  (http://culturequest.us/creatinggraphicorganizersa.htm) to demonstrate universal learning and behavior characteristics and strategies for a disability of your choice.  Use table 2.1 “Generally Accepted Categorical Descriptions of Students with Mild Disabilities” and table 2.2 “Summary of Instructional Strategies by Functional Domains” to identify a population and their characteristics.  Here is a model to follow:



Universal Learning Characteristics 

http://popplet.com/app/#/2229785

Content Expectations



Define, in one sentence, the disability you’ve chosen.
Describe at least five universal behavior characteristics for the population of students you’ve chosen.
Explain at least five behavior strategies to support the Universal Behavior Characteristics.
List at least three resources you accessed to identify Universal Behavior Characteristics and strategies.
Describe at least five universal learning characteristics for the population of students you’ve chosen.
Explain at least five instructional strategies to support the universal learning characteristics of the population of student’s you’ve chosen.
List at least three resources you accessed to identify universal learning characteristics and instructional strategies.

Written Expectations



APA Formatting: Use APA 6th edition formatting consistently throughout the timeline.
Syntax and Mechanics: Display meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar.
Source Requirement: Reference the website or video selected in the appropriate section.








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Discussion on Gandhi’s political vision mba essay help: mba essay help


To Rolande


 




 




 


Contents


Acknowledgements [xi]


Editor’s introduction [xiii]


A note on the history of the text [Ixiii}


Principal events in Gandhi’s life [Ixv]


Biographical synopses [Ixixj


Guide to further reading [Ixxv]


Glossary and list of abbreviations [Ixxvij


HIND SWARAJ [1]


SUPPLEMENTARY WRITINGS [127]


Gandhi’s letter to H. S. L. Polak [129]


Gandhi’s letter to Lord Ampthill [133]


Preface to Gandhi’s edition of the English translation of Leo Tolstoy’s Letter to a Hindoo [136]


Gandhi-Tolstoy letters [138]


Gandhi-Wybergh letters [139]


Gandhi-Nehru letters [149]


Economic development and moral


development (1916) [156]


Gandhi on machinery, 1919-47 [164]


Constructive programme: its meaning and


place (1941), 1945 [170]


 




 


x * Contents


Gandhi’s ‘Quit India’ speech, 1942 [181]


Gandhi’s message to the nation issued before


his arrest on 9 August 1942 [188]


Gandhi’s political vision: the Pyramid vs the


Oceanic Circle (1946) [188]


Draft Constitution of Congress, 1948 [191]


Bibliography [194]


Index [200]


 




 


Acknowledgements


In preparing this work for publication I have been very fortunate in


receiving generous help from a number of colleagues from different parts


of the world – Canada, India, Great Britain, the United States and South


Africa – and it gives me great pleasure to express my gratitude to each of


them. T. K. N. Unnithan first encouraged me to undertake this project;


Christopher A. Bayly, Philip Charrier, Margaret Chatterjee, Dennis


Dalton, James Hunt, Bhikhu Parekh and Anil Sethi read various versions


of my introduction and notes and suggested ways of improving them.


Jayshree Joshi, Nathubhai Joshi, Ramanbhai Modi and C. N. Patel spent


many hours with me going over the Gujarati background of Gandhi and


Hind Swaraj. Umesh Vyas very generously checked the references to the


Gujarati text. Richard Bingle, Martin Moir and Edward Moulton helped


me find valuable bibliographical data. Irene Joshi of the University of


Washington Library found for me the Tolstoy-Taraknath Das material.


Hasim Seedat of Durban put at my disposal his private Gandhi library.


I am most grateful to the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute for a Senior


Research Fellowship for the 1990 fall term and to the University of


Calgary for a Killam Resident Fellowship for the 1992 winter term. A


Visiting Fellowship at Clare Hall, Cambridge for the 1994 Lent and Easter


terms helped me greatly in the final stages of this work. Carolyn Andres


of the Department of Political Science, University of Calgary, has been


very diligent in getting the typescript ready.


My special thanks go to John Dunn and Geoffrey Hawthorn for inviting


me to contribute to their series and for their editorial advice.


John Haslam and Anne Dunbar-Nobes of Cambridge University Press


have exercised mahatma-like patience and skill in getting this volume


ready for publication. To them my sincere thanks.


 




 


xii * Acknowledgements


It is with great pleasure that I thank the Navajivan Trust and the Nehru


Trust for their permission to use materials under their control.


Finally I thank my long-suffering wife Rolande who, Kasturba-like,


endured cheerfully my absences from home on visits to India, South


Africa and Cambridge. This work is dedicated to her in partial fulfilment


of my family obligations and abiding love.


 




 


Editor’s introduction


Hind Swaraj is Gandhi’s seminal work. It is also a work which he himself


translated from Gujarati into English: no other work of his, not even


the Autobiography (translated by his secretary), enjoys this distinction. As


such, the English text of this work, which is being presented here,


possesses an authority all of its own. It was this text that Tolstoy and


Romain Rolland, Nehru and Rajaji read and commented upon. It was


through this, not the Gujarati text, that he hoped, as he put it, ‘to use the


British race’ for transmitting his ‘mighty message of ahimsa’ to the rest of


the world (Watson 1969, 176). And it was to this text that he returned


throughout his career as if to the source of his inspiration.


Hind Swaraj is the seed from which the tree of Gandhian thought has


grown to its full stature. For those interested in Gandhi’s thought in a


general way, it is the right place to start, for it is here that he presents his


basic ideas in their proper relationship to one another. And for those


who wish to study his thought more methodically, it remains the norm


by which to assess the theoretical significance of his other writings,


including the Autobiography. It can also save them from the danger of


otherwise getting drowned in the vast sea of Gandhian anthologies. No


wonder that it has been called ‘a very basic document for the study of


Gandhi’s thought’ (M. Chatterjee 1983, 89), his ‘confession of faith’


(Nanda 1974, 66), ‘a rather incendiary manifesto’ (Erikson 1969, 217), ‘a


proclamation of ideological independence’ (Dalton 1993, 16), and ‘the


nearest he came to producing a sustained work of political theory’ (Brown


1989, 65). It has been compared to such diverse works as Rousseau’s Social


Contract (Heard 1938, 450), the Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius Loyola


(Catlin 1950, 215), and chapter IV of St Matthew or St Luke {The Collected


Works of Mahatma Gandhi (hereafter cited as CW) 10: viii). This last


 




 


xiv * Introduction


comparison, though its allusion to Jesus would have embarrassed Gandhi,


still merits attention. Just as it is in these Gospel chapters that we find


Jesus first announcing his messianic mission, so it is in Hind Swaraj that


we find Gandhi first announcing his own life-mission. This is nothing


other than showing the way for the moral regeneration of Indians and the


political emancipation of India.


The very composition of Hind Swaraj has something of the heroic about


it. It was written in ten days, between 13 and 22 November 1909, on board


the ship Kildonan Castle on the author’s return trip from England to South


Africa, after what proved to be an abortive lobbying mission to London.


The whole manuscript was written on the ship’s stationery, and the


writing went on at such a furious pace that when the right hand got tired,


Gandhi continued with the left: forty of the 275 manuscript pages were


written by the left hand. And he wrote as if under inspiration. In the


entire autograph, only sixteen lines have been scratched out and only a


few words changed here and there (Prabhudas Gandhi 1957, 87-8). Critics


speak of Gandhi’s ‘profound experience of illumination’ on board the


Kildonan Castle and compare it to Rousseau’s on the road to Vincennes


(Murry 1949,424). At any event, Gandhi himself felt that he had produced


‘an original work’, for that was how he described it in a letter to his friend


Hermann Kallenbach, the first to know about the book’s completion


(Gandhi 1909-46,1, 94).


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Discussion on economic development and moral development need essay help: need essay help


To Rolande


 




 




 


Contents


Acknowledgements [xi]


Editor’s introduction [xiii]


A note on the history of the text [Ixiii}


Principal events in Gandhi’s life [Ixv]


Biographical synopses [Ixixj


Guide to further reading [Ixxv]


Glossary and list of abbreviations [Ixxvij


HIND SWARAJ [1]


SUPPLEMENTARY WRITINGS [127]


Gandhi’s letter to H. S. L. Polak [129]


Gandhi’s letter to Lord Ampthill [133]


Preface to Gandhi’s edition of the English translation of Leo Tolstoy’s Letter to a Hindoo [136]


Gandhi-Tolstoy letters [138]


Gandhi-Wybergh letters [139]


Gandhi-Nehru letters [149]


Economic development and moral


development (1916) [156]


Gandhi on machinery, 1919-47 [164]


Constructive programme: its meaning and


place (1941), 1945 [170]


 




 


x * Contents


Gandhi’s ‘Quit India’ speech, 1942 [181]


Gandhi’s message to the nation issued before


his arrest on 9 August 1942 [188]


Gandhi’s political vision: the Pyramid vs the


Oceanic Circle (1946) [188]


Draft Constitution of Congress, 1948 [191]


Bibliography [194]


Index [200]


 




 


Acknowledgements


In preparing this work for publication I have been very fortunate in


receiving generous help from a number of colleagues from different parts


of the world – Canada, India, Great Britain, the United States and South


Africa – and it gives me great pleasure to express my gratitude to each of


them. T. K. N. Unnithan first encouraged me to undertake this project;


Christopher A. Bayly, Philip Charrier, Margaret Chatterjee, Dennis


Dalton, James Hunt, Bhikhu Parekh and Anil Sethi read various versions


of my introduction and notes and suggested ways of improving them.


Jayshree Joshi, Nathubhai Joshi, Ramanbhai Modi and C. N. Patel spent


many hours with me going over the Gujarati background of Gandhi and


Hind Swaraj. Umesh Vyas very generously checked the references to the


Gujarati text. Richard Bingle, Martin Moir and Edward Moulton helped


me find valuable bibliographical data. Irene Joshi of the University of


Washington Library found for me the Tolstoy-Taraknath Das material.


Hasim Seedat of Durban put at my disposal his private Gandhi library.


I am most grateful to the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute for a Senior


Research Fellowship for the 1990 fall term and to the University of


Calgary for a Killam Resident Fellowship for the 1992 winter term. A


Visiting Fellowship at Clare Hall, Cambridge for the 1994 Lent and Easter


terms helped me greatly in the final stages of this work. Carolyn Andres


of the Department of Political Science, University of Calgary, has been


very diligent in getting the typescript ready.


My special thanks go to John Dunn and Geoffrey Hawthorn for inviting


me to contribute to their series and for their editorial advice.


John Haslam and Anne Dunbar-Nobes of Cambridge University Press


have exercised mahatma-like patience and skill in getting this volume


ready for publication. To them my sincere thanks.


 




 


xii * Acknowledgements


It is with great pleasure that I thank the Navajivan Trust and the Nehru


Trust for their permission to use materials under their control.


Finally I thank my long-suffering wife Rolande who, Kasturba-like,


endured cheerfully my absences from home on visits to India, South


Africa and Cambridge. This work is dedicated to her in partial fulfilment


of my family obligations and abiding love.


 




 


Editor’s introduction


Hind Swaraj is Gandhi’s seminal work. It is also a work which he himself


translated from Gujarati into English: no other work of his, not even


the Autobiography (translated by his secretary), enjoys this distinction. As


such, the English text of this work, which is being presented here,


possesses an authority all of its own. It was this text that Tolstoy and


Romain Rolland, Nehru and Rajaji read and commented upon. It was


through this, not the Gujarati text, that he hoped, as he put it, ‘to use the


British race’ for transmitting his ‘mighty message of ahimsa’ to the rest of


the world (Watson 1969, 176). And it was to this text that he returned


throughout his career as if to the source of his inspiration.


Hind Swaraj is the seed from which the tree of Gandhian thought has


grown to its full stature. For those interested in Gandhi’s thought in a


general way, it is the right place to start, for it is here that he presents his


basic ideas in their proper relationship to one another. And for those


who wish to study his thought more methodically, it remains the norm


by which to assess the theoretical significance of his other writings,


including the Autobiography. It can also save them from the danger of


otherwise getting drowned in the vast sea of Gandhian anthologies. No


wonder that it has been called ‘a very basic document for the study of


Gandhi’s thought’ (M. Chatterjee 1983, 89), his ‘confession of faith’


(Nanda 1974, 66), ‘a rather incendiary manifesto’ (Erikson 1969, 217), ‘a


proclamation of ideological independence’ (Dalton 1993, 16), and ‘the


nearest he came to producing a sustained work of political theory’ (Brown


1989, 65). It has been compared to such diverse works as Rousseau’s Social


Contract (Heard 1938, 450), the Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius Loyola


(Catlin 1950, 215), and chapter IV of St Matthew or St Luke {The Collected


Works of Mahatma Gandhi (hereafter cited as CW) 10: viii). This last


 




 


xiv * Introduction


comparison, though its allusion to Jesus would have embarrassed Gandhi,


still merits attention. Just as it is in these Gospel chapters that we find


Jesus first announcing his messianic mission, so it is in Hind Swaraj that


we find Gandhi first announcing his own life-mission. This is nothing


other than showing the way for the moral regeneration of Indians and the


political emancipation of India.


The very composition of Hind Swaraj has something of the heroic about


it. It was written in ten days, between 13 and 22 November 1909, on board


the ship Kildonan Castle on the author’s return trip from England to South


Africa, after what proved to be an abortive lobbying mission to London.


The whole manuscript was written on the ship’s stationery, and the


writing went on at such a furious pace that when the right hand got tired,


Gandhi continued with the left: forty of the 275 manuscript pages were


written by the left hand. And he wrote as if under inspiration. In the


entire autograph, only sixteen lines have been scratched out and only a


few words changed here and there (Prabhudas Gandhi 1957, 87-8). Critics


speak of Gandhi’s ‘profound experience of illumination’ on board the


Kildonan Castle and compare it to Rousseau’s on the road to Vincennes


(Murry 1949,424). At any event, Gandhi himself felt that he had produced


‘an original work’, for that was how he described it in a letter to his friend


Hermann Kallenbach, the first to know about the book’s completion


(Gandhi 1909-46,1, 94).



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Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.


Why choose our academic writing service?



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Adenauer and Post-War Germany essay free essay help online

Lesson 6: Adenauer and Post-War Germany
Lesson Essay

When you can accomplish the learning objectives for this lesson, you should begin work on the lesson essay described below. You may use any assigned readings, your notes, and other course-related materials to complete this assignment. Be sure to reread the essay grading criteria on the Grades and Assessments page.


This essay should be about 1000 words long, typed double space with one-inch margins on each side. It is worth 100 points and should address the following:


Discuss the details of the Marshall Plan in comparison with the Morgenthau Plan. What were the reasons that led the United States to implement the Marshall Plan? What were the repercussions of this decision with regard to the denazification of Germany? How did the United States profit from this decision in the post-war period?


 


Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following:


· Briefly summarize the major military events before and during World War II.


· Describe the situation at hour zero in Germany.


· Provide a chronology of the political events that led to the division of Germany and the beginning of the Cold War.


· Explain the reasons for the economic miracle during the 1950s.


Commentary
Events Leading to World War II

Before jumping to the end of the Nazi regime in 1945 and the formation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, I do want to provide a very brief historical overview of the Nazis’ aggressive foreign policy before and during World War II.


After Hitler had secured his dictatorship through the Röhm-Putsch in 1934, he made no secret of his overall intentions to increase Germany’s military power. He violated the Treaty of Versailles by introducing military conscription in 1935 and began to expand the German Wehrmacht into a huge army (in part through conscription, in part by dissolving the SA into the Wehrmacht). In 1936, German troops occupied the demilitarized zone of the Rhineland, while, at the same time, providing military support for General Franco, who became dictator of Spain the same year. Two years later, in 1938, Germany marched into Austria and proclaimed theAnschluss (union) of the two countries. In September of that year, the British Prime Minister Chamberlain appeased Hitler at an international conference in Munich, after which Hitler immediately occupied first theSudentenland (the German-heritage region of Czechoslovakia) and, half a year later, the remaining Czech lands, naming them the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Although France and Great Britain still did not engage the Nazis at that time, they publicly vowed to defend Poland should Hitler dare to invade it as well. Although Hitler continued to assert his peaceful intentions, everybody who had followed his political career or was even vaguely familiar with Mein Kampf knew that war was inevitable. This is precisely what happened on September 1, 1939: Hitler invaded Poland. In response, France and Great Britain declared war against Germany.


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Details of the Marshall Plan and the Morgenthau Plan nursing essay help: nursing essay help

ADENAUER AND POST-WAR GERMANY 1


 


ADENAUER AND POST-WAR GERMANY 2


 


German


Lesson 6


Adenauer and Post-War Germany


 


Details of the Marshall Plan and the Morgenthau Plan


The Marshall plan was an initiative implemented after the Second World War. The primary goal of the plan was to revive economies and also to strengthen democracies of Western and Southern European countries which were destroyed and devastated during World War II. The Marshall plan was implemented in 1948 by George Marshall and was officially referred to as the European Recovery Program. The United States highly sponsored the program. The United States of America provided approximately $ 12 billion in support of the plan’s course (Provan, 2000).


Numerous countries were involved in the Marshall Plan. Some of the countries included Italy, Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Portugal, United Kingdom, Belgium, Greece, and Denmark among others. The plan can be deemed to be one of the most successful economic recovery plans in European history. Research shows that the countries that participated in the plan benefited immensely as their gross domestic product went up by approximately 15%-25%. It also contributed to the revival of major industries in these countries. Some of those that registered high growth included the steel industry, chemical as well as engineering industries.


Morgenthau plan was established in 1944 by Henry Morgenthau. The primary goal of the plan was to ensure that Germany does not engage in war again. It also intended to withdraw all the support mechanisms that could help the Germany to wage war again. The implication of this was that the Morgenthau initiative was somehow meant to punish the country for having participated in the Second World War (Dietrich, 2002).


Various strategies were used to weaken German so that it does not engage in war gains. To begin with, the Morgenthau plan advocated for the destruction of armament industry and all other industries that strengthened the military. The plan also advocated for the destruction of equipment and industrial plants, especially in Ruhr. The plan also aimed at disarming the Germany army so that it does not spark a fresh fight. Another provision of the Morgenthau plan entailed the partitioning of the Country. According to the plan, it is hard to control a united country and therefore the best option to completely destabilize the country, and its army was by dividing it (Dietrich, 2002).


There are similarities and differences between these two plans. One of the most outstanding similarities of the Marshall and the Morgenthau plan is that they were both supported by the United States. Regarding the Marshall Plan, U.S provided financial assistance to rehabilitate wrecked economies while in the Morgenthau plan, the county’s Secretary of Treasury pushed for the plan and oversaw the demilitarization and destabilization of the Germany military force.


However, the two plans contrast in that the Marshall plan sought to rehabilitate and monitor the recovery of the economies and normalcy of the western European countries. The Morgenthau plan, on the other hand, focused on destroying the Germanic armies so that they do not start another war.


Reasons that led the United States to implement the Marshall Plan


The United States was drive by some factors to implement the Marshall plan. One of the primary reasons that led to the United Sates to implement the Marshall policy was that it was the only stable government after the Second World War. It was the only major power that was intact.


Secondly, the United States was losing so much economically because it did not have any countries it could partner with in trade. The primary reason behind this was because most of the other states’ economies had been destroyed. For instance, Britain was almost being declared bankrupt in 1946 and therefore it could no longer participate in trade agreements (Provan, 2000).


Thirdly, U.S implemented the Marshall plan because it was the was in a better position to encourage productivity, membership into labor unions and also to push for the faster adoption of modern and more effective business procedures.


Repercussions of the decision about the denazification of Germany


Denazification is define as the process through which the ideologies of Nazism were gotten rid of. The United States implemented the Marshall plan so as to revive economies that had been destroyed under the ideologies of Nazism. The introduction of international trade activities was one of the consequences supporting of the Marshall plan regarding denazification. Restoration of peace in the country was also another consequence (Provan, 2000).


How the United States profited from this decision in the post-war period


The United States profited greatly from the decision in the post-war period. Firstly, many countries’ economies that had been devastated due to the war revived. The implication of this was that trade agreements could operate smoothly and therefore the United States benefited.



 


References


Dietrich, J. (2002). The Morgenthau Plan: Soviet Influence on American Postwar Policy.


York: Algora Pub.


Provan, J. (2000). The Marshall Plan and its consequences. http://www.george-marshall-


society.org/george-c-marshall/the-marshall-plan-and-its-consequences/.


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Standards and Curriculum Essay college essay help free




Standards and Curriculum (Louisiana is the state)


[WLO: 3] [CLOs: 2, 4]

In general, curriculum includes all of the educational experiences available students. This includes academic areas and subjects (e.g., math, literacy, etc.), as well as the domains of development (e.g., language, cognition, etc.). Since schools and centers are responsible for ensuring children achieve in these areas, standards for achievement are set in place. Standards indicate what children should be able to do within a subject area or domain of development (The Center on Standards & Assessment Implementation, 2018). Standards are a key indicator of student success, yet they vary widely by state. While standards are a guide and do not dictate the curriculum you will be teaching, it is important as educators that we not only know what the standards are for our individual states, but also the role they play in our ability to plan effective instruction.


To prepare for this journal,


· Review the resource Early Learning and Developmental Guidelines (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. https://childcareta.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/public/075_1707_state_elgs_web_final_0.pdfand find your state’s early learning and development guidelines. Read the guidelines for your state.


· Review the resource Standards in Your State (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. http://www.corestandards.org/standards-in-your-state/and find your state’s standards. Read the standards for your state. Note: if your state is listed as not adopting Common Core, go the S. Department of Education (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. https://ed.gov/about/contacts/state/index.htmlwebsite and click on your state to find your state standards.


For your journal,


· Write a reflection on the following questions:


o After reading the standards for your state, how do you feel about your role and ability as an educator to align these standards to the curriculum you will be teaching?


o Why do you feel it is important to use standards as a guide as you plan for children’s learning experiences?


o What are at least two ways you can help families understand the connection between the standards and the curriculum you will be teaching?


Suggested Assignment Length


· One to two double-spaced pages (not including title and reference pages).


Research and Resource Expectations


· Sources are not required for your journal assignments. However, if you need to cite information, you must cite in APA format and include a reference page. Refer to the Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.and Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. resources created by the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..


Writing and Formatting Expectations


· Syntax and Mechanics: Writing displays meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling, grammar, and punctuation.









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