In any organization, stakeholders when at the verge of making important decisions at some point disagree. This happens because each of them has different personalities and has been cultured differently (Zartman, 2015). However, they have to make decisions together and agree if the incident of interest is to succeed. It is not always easy for them to make the decisions because each of them has different viable ideas all well intentioned for their organization. Certainly, even those with different opinions from others have the best interest at heart and are after the truth.
In the face of such conflict, the final report and its findings may be not reliable because of the disagreements among the members of the managerial team or the stake holders. Therefore, steps should be taken to ensure that despite the conflict, the final report has the right information, which is presented in the right way (Kerzner, 2013). This would include; “the guilty party” being allowed to give their opinion and the opinion should be properly looked into by others and it could be integrated with their ideas to yield excellent results. Conflict management training also would be effective for decision makers to be equipped with basic concept of conflict and knowledge on how to deal with it (Zartman, 2015). In doing so, each of the stake holders would not feel left out and the findings would be given to them all for approval and corrections before the final report is produced.
Conflict of interest could be defined as situations where there is perceived, potential or actual conflict. Ethically, any conflict of interest that arises should be properly addressed and the associated risks carefully considered. The expectations, risks and the alternatives then explained clearly to avoid further conflict (Frederickson, 2015).
Frederickson, H. G., & Rohr, J. A. (2015). Ethics and public administration. Routledge.
Kerzner, H. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
Zartman, I. W. (2015). Preventing deadly conflict. John Wiley & Sons.
Term Paper: Education Paper on Reflections from TESOL Practicum free college essay help
Term Paper: Reflections from TESOL Practicum
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) practicum experience is an important part of training for all TESOL students. This experience offers an opportunity for all students to develop self-awareness on some of teaching practices in a natural environment. In this practicum, I took part in observing English class undertaking ELL class in a high school. I spent up-to 80 hours while working with students in this class in order to learn and apply some of the theories I had learnt earlier. There was time to incorporate a number of teaching and non-teaching activities that helped in my self-awareness in terms of the theories in place and appropriate classroom practices. This report contains some of the theories that I have developed during the practicum, showing ways of applying them in order to be effective as an ESL teacher. On the same note, I discuss some of the points that all ESL teacher students must know in order to be effective, as advised by the practicum experience. I also share some of the difficulties I faced while teaching ESL. Indeed, the practicum has changed me in many ways. This paper shows some of the changes I have experienced from the practicum. Lastly, this paper enumerates some of the lesson from this TESOL program, especially towards being an effective ELL teacher.
Theories of Learning and Teaching
Studies have exposed me to a number of theories various methods of approaching teaching English to speakers of other languages. However, I had never developed the ability to identify myself with a specific one. Numerous study materials present many ways of approaching training ELL students. After a careful reflection, through a process of self-awareness, I realize that the first theory that I identify with is the Natural Approach Theory, as advanced by Stephen Krashen. This theory puts more emphasis on developing interpersonal relationship between the instructor and the student (Nath, 2010). Such a relationship helps in creating an environment where both parties communicate in a manner that helps building confidence in the learning process. According to Xia (2014), the teacher is responsible for coming with appropriate comprehensible that student can grasp easily. During my practicum, I realized that I had to remodel my communication to the level where the students could easily comprehend. By doing this, it was easy to create ease of comprehension because of the input. It becomes difficult for the student when the teacher does not develop a language that is in line with ELL level.
Learning is made difficult in an environment with much anxiety and unease. Natural Approach theory encourages “low affective filter in order to enhance the learning process” (Xia, 2014). I am a person who likes making everyone around feel at ease in order to make communication easy. For this reason, I tend to create an atmosphere where every student is free make expression irrespective of his or her levels of English comprehension. Such an environment enhances chances of the students to grasp and comprehend the English language and the ability to communicate with each other.
Natural Approach theory is effective because it approaches learning from an understanding of the common experiences in an environment. In order to make this real, I employ other teaching methods like group work that help students express themselves as they make contributions towards an issue or topic. On the same note, other activities like role-plays, skits, and games make this theory very practical in teaching ELL students. The controlled environment creates an avenue where the students easily practice the use of language in a given setting, something that prepares them to use English in a natural setting. Therefore, Natural Approach theory is a way of teaching students of other languages in a setting that exposes them to much reading and practice, an interaction that can be used in other classes or in the natural life settings (Nath, 2010).
Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development is another theory that I can identify with, besides the theory of Natural Approach. This theory seeks to connect the student’s “actual cognitive capacity verses the level of potential development” (Xia, 2014) During my ELL teaching, I like making informal and formal assessment of my students in order to find out their cognitive capacity and their developmental potential level when it comes to learning and comprehending English language. I do this by making informal interaction with the students in the natural setting as well as planning some formal question-answer method that give me a sense of their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Such awareness helps in developing learning materials that does not fall way below ZPD or way above it (Shehadeh, & Coombe, 2010). Such an approach makes me prefer the theory as one of the ways of developing teaching materials for the ESL teaching. In order to make the theory more fruitful, I ensured that students who were more advanced in English would seat with those with less comprehension in order to develop peer support during classes.
What an ESL Teacher Must Know
Speakers from other languages come from diverse backgrounds, requiring an in-depth understanding on the part of the instructor. An ESL teacher must first develop the ability to deal with multicultural backgrounds. In most cases, the teacher should have background information on the various cultures of the students in order to be sensitive on various aspects of the same. Such information is important in helping the ESL teacher know how to manage a class of multicultural students. For this reason, it would be a requirement for all ESL teachers to undertake multicultural education training to develop skills on management. Many teachers are likely to fail in their practice due to lack of class management skills, especially when it comes to multicultural settings. Major problems may arise from the fact that what is sensitive in one culture may never be so in another culture. Therefore, a class with students from various cultures may have tension that may cause barriers to the learning process, especially if the teacher does, ignores them.
The teacher must learn and understand the various learning theories, including principles related to the learning process, cognitive and child development. Such knowledge helps in developing management skills as well as effective teaching methods. All ESL teachers must realize that achieving success in practice will depend on the ability to convert the learnt theories and principles into real classroom practice. Therefore, knowledge is not enough but applying the same into daily practice. In addition, classroom management may entail helping the students develop certain characters that are essential to the general development and communication in the country. I realized that majority of ELL students have never had formal education, meaning that they lack basic concepts and order to coexisting in a class setup. The teacher is responsible of developing all necessary characters in the learner. Some of these characters may include respect to each other and class order.
Background information of individual students helps in developing learning materials that consider various factors in place. For instance, I realized that some of the students under the program had earlier lived as refugees in various camps. This came to my attention after identifying certain students who appeared reserved, never wanting to interact with the other colleagues. In an attempt to find out what the problem may have been, I came to realized that their behaviors were product of their earlier lifestyles. Some of these students had never attended formal, if so, very little. They had little courage to participate like the rest because of the difference when it comes to the learning concepts. The teacher has the responsibility of identifying such cases and working out a way of helping out.
Supervision of the learning process by the teacher is essential. Otherwise, there may be certain little problems when it comes to grouping of students to perform tasks. Group work should be able to enhance multicultural existence. Pairing a girl and a boy from the Muslim background may lead to certain challenges on gender discrimination. For instance, a Muslim boy may hold the notion that a Muslim woman is not capable of performing certain tasks or experiments. Therefore, the ESL teacher is responsible for explaining to all students that women are capable of doing experiments that men can do. There should be equal opportunity to all students when it comes to the learning activities.
Difficulties in Teaching ESL
Working with the older ELL students provides a challenge to the teachers. During my TESOL practicum, I realized the difficulty balancing the need to teach the older students the basic concepts language that should help them effective in English-speaking society and graduation requirements. In the normal setting, most of these older students are forced to undertake high level content rather than taking time to learn the basics. According to the state laws on education, a student can only graduate with high school diploma after achieving 24 credits. For this reason, all foreigners who come to the US when older have to accelerate their learning process in order to achieve the necessary credits before they turn 21 years old. It becomes more tasking if the students never enrolled for high school education in their native countries. Credit transfers are possible for those who studied in their countries. It is important to note that mastery of English is important in order to understand and comprehend other subjects. Therefore, it becomes strenuous for the teacher to balance between have comprehensive learning and the enhancing learning in order to graduate, without taking time to learn basic English-speaking skills.
The number of non-English speaking immigrants to the United States continues to increase each year. Consequently, the number of students joining ELL program in the institution continues to grow. During the observation, 120 students had enrolled for the English class, all working towards graduating. On the other hand, only three ELL teachers and two paraprofessionals had been employed to teach these students. It was obvious that these teachers were overwhelmed by the workload. However, it was good to note the close working relationship among the teachers in order to achieve their work schedule goals. Due to the high number of students and scheduling challenges, many of the students at the beginning level of learning English are forced into mainstream classes that lack ELL focus. Mainstream English classes lack the focus that is required for the ELL students.
It is important to appreciate the hard work by the TESOL in the institution; however, they are overwhelmed by the workload. Therefore, budgetary constraints make it difficult for the employment of more teachers. Many ELL students fail to graduate of fewer teachers employed to offer personal and focused attention on the learning process. In order to provide a remedy, maybe the ELL teachers and paraprofessionals should work towards developing tutoring classes for those students who require more focused attention. Such a program should be on a voluntary basis in order to improve success rates for the willing students.
Developing as a Teacher
One can never be a master teacher the first time he or she teaches; teaching skills are developed with time. This statement became a reality when I enrolled for the TESOL practicum. Other the training in class to be an ELL teacher, I had not entered into a natural class setting in order to teach and observe a class. The first time I entered into a class, I found myself struggling with some of the tenses. My inability to pass the required to the students was evident. I am happy because of the ELL teachers I interacted with during the practicum. Their mastery of their subject was obvious, having developed the ability to connect with their students and pass the correct information. It was admirable to see the students create various communication components after the introduction by the teachers.
In my second class, I realized that I developed some order and flow when it came to passing of information to my students. I never mixed the tenses and the students had a better understanding of my topic matter. On the same note, I realized that holding on to one theory might not work in all cases. Certain students respond well to some theories and principles than others. Therefore, the practicum gave me the opportunity to experiment with various theories and principles in order to become more effective in class. I had the opportunity to change specific methods that never worked in order to model teaching methods that suited the occasions. I also realized that the ELL teachers at the institution never used the same methods all the times they went to classes. In one of the chats with one of them, I came to realize that a teacher develops the ability to read the students and adopt the method that works at the instant.
According to Molina, Cañado, & Agulló (n.d), all teaching methods have something to offer in the learning process. A motivated teacher has the ability to use various methods in order to pass information. On the same note, motivated students will work hard in order to learn new concepts. A good teacher should develop skills that help in motivating students to learn new concepts. I also realize that students respond well to those teachers who are patient and empathetic with them. Therefore, teaching skills can evolve with time, depending on the experience. I struggled as I started the ELL practicum; however, I opened myself to other teaching techniques and principles that have helped me improve my skills. I hope to continue learning and applying various theories to be more effective.
Knowledge Gained from TESOL Program
This TESOL practicum is one of the best things in this course. I find out that all the TESOL courses are essential when it comes to the actual practice. Some of these courses are intercultural communication, methods of teaching foreign languages, Applied Linguistics for ESOL Teachers and English as a Second Language in Content Areas.
Intercultural Communication: I realized that communication is an important component of teaching ELLs. The importance of the course comes from the fact that TESOL entails dealing with students from different backgrounds, something that requires care (Shehadeh, & Coombe, 2010). This course helped me understand how to understand different approaches and perspectives when it comes to communication by different cultural groups.
Methods of teaching foreign languages: this course had various theories that helped in developing content for teaching. It entailed a section that required of us to develop a teaching material in a foreign language in order to present to the class. Therefore, during the practicum, I was able to think of some of the techniques that could be applied in each context. Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS) was a method we had been taught in this course that I used during my practicum in order to teach English and help the students develop their mastery of the language.
English as a Second Language in Content Areas: I love teaching languages; therefore, this course helped me understand the power of language in the learning process. Teaching native English speakers content subjects can never be the same as teaching non-English students (Molina, Cañado, & Agulló, n.d). Therefore, English as a second language in content areas has helped me understand how to be effective in teaching other content areas to the students who learn English as their second language. During the practicum, I have been able to understand that I have the responsibility of training other content area teacher become effective while teaching their subjects to the students who learn English as second language. Content teachers have to understand the basic language to use in passing information while training or teaching. This course has been essential in training on how to develop teaching methods for the content teachers. One of the methods includes Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol Model.
Applied Linguistics for ESOL Teachers: this course is based on the development of semantics, syntax, and pronunciation of English language. After my training, I got the chance to put into practice, during the practicum, how to develop English pronunciation by use of phonetics. Mr. Audrey gave a chance in one of his sessions in order to teach a class on the same. I had to rely on the course content in order to successful, and I am happy I did my best. While at the practicum, I found out some of the errors that occur when it comes to the teaching students who learn English as second language. I was able to think of various ways of avoiding pronunciation errors while communicating.
TESOL program has exposed me to the real teaching environment, something that has built my knowledge and experience. I believe that growth is a process that I will cherish, especially in my line of career. I realize that different learners prefer different methods; therefore, I will have to continue studying in order to equip myself with necessary skills in order to be effective while teaching ELLs.
Molina, G., Cañado, M. L., & Agulló, G. L. (n.d). Current approaches and teaching methods.
Bilingual programmes. Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of Jaén.
Nath, B. (2010). Major Language Theorists influencing Learning of Mathematics. Department of
Education University of Calicut.
Shehadeh, A. & Coombe, C. (2010). Introduction: From Theory to Practice in Task-Based
Learning, Journal of Applied Linguistics.
Xia, Y. (2014). Language Theories and Language Teaching—from Traditional Grammar to
Functionalism. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5 (3), pp. 559-565.
HR Management Assignment paper on Strategic Human Resource Management essay help: essay help
Strategic Human Resource Management
The human resources function is one of the most important functions in any organization. The role of the function is to ensure that the available human resources in an organization are utilized optimally for the success of the organization. Many studies conducted in the past have shown that the human resources department, if managed strategically, can enhance organizational performance greatly. In particular, the concept of strategic human resources management is currently considered as one of the core organizational practices that can boost productivity among employees while at the same time enhancing the overall performance of the organization. The practice of strategic human resources development is linked to effective management in the organizational context as well as to a variety of challenges. At the same time, it has specific goals within any organization and achieving those goals depends on the level of interaction between the SHRM function and the other organizational functions.
Understanding how SHRM works can be an essential starting point for boosting effective competency utilization in any organization. This begins with understanding what the goals of SHRM are and how they help the function to realize the organizational goals and objectives. The ensuing paper explores the practice of SHRM in organizations with the objectives of:
Explaining the goals of strategic HRM in an organization
Providing an overview of the role of strategic HRM in the organization
Explaining how strategic HRM impacts organizational performance
Highlighting some of the challenges faced in the practice of HRM in an organization and the potential for solution
To explore how technology has changed the practice of HRM in organizations
These objectives will be accomplished in three major sections of the paper which include an overview, literature review section, and the results and recommendations section. The literature review section will help to formulate hypothesis for the paper and subsequently to find a clear course of discussion for the same.
The Human resources function performs the role of personnel management in any organization. This role include practices such as advertisement of organizational vacancies, recruitment and hiring of employees, training of employees, assignment of employee roles and responsibilities, management of employee complaints and management of employee behaviors among others (Cania, 2014). With these practices, the HRM function can be said to be in control of the organizational behavior and as such, has the power to influence the organizational culture. Because of these roles in the HRM function, it is considered to be an essential driver of organizational performance both in terms of behavior and in terms of actual asset outcome. Effectiveness of the HR function determines the overall productivity of the work place as well as the discipline of the employees. Where the HRM function does not perform its initiatives optimally, achieving organizational goals can be a challenge as productivity can be reduced. The roles of the HRM function are also interlinked to each other. For instance, the recruitment process may be successful but if the role assignment does not consider the key competencies of each member of the organization, the function may not utilize all the available competencies optimally. Wrong employee placement results in reduced productivity due to lower capability to handle assigned roles (Cania, 2014).
Based on the functions of the HRM department in the organizational context, the function has to perform effectively through any possible strategy. In the contemporary times, the strategy that is encouraged in the organizational context is described as strategic human resources management. This strategy implies that the available competencies are to be utilized to the best of their capacity in order to ensure that organizational goals and objectives are met. Strategic HRM focuses on the use of available opportunities and talents to improve the effectiveness of all the other departments in an organization (Wagh, 2017). This involves various concepts including applying a coherent strategy for the design and management of the organization’s personnel, operations based on an employment policy as well as a work force management strategy; having a workable philosophy underpinning all the systems in operations; matching the function goals to explicit organizational goals and enhancing the organization’s competitive advantage through the use of the available resources (Cania, 2014).
The functions of the HRM department are thus varied and also more capable of resulting in effective or poor organizational performance depending on how the function is managed. The ability to address the challenges faced in the function with effective and sustainable solutions can be the beginning of enhanced organizational performance. The performance of the organization in this regard, is described as the value that can be gained through the organization, both financially and in terms of employee behavior versus relative to the expected value. While the financial value is easy to quantify and to observe, the behavioral value is more difficult to quantify. This brings about a challenge to the HR department in that the organization spends on the employees yet cannot categorize them as assets (Walsh et al., 2010). Instead, the employees appear as expenditures in the company balance sheet yet have great value in the organization, and can even be considered to be the greatest assets to the organization.
Strategic human resource management is applauded as an effective strategy for boosting organizational performance. In the management of organizational personnel, effectiveness in employee handling can translate into better relationships between employees and customers and subsequently greater value in terms of finances. Bagga and Sanjay (2014) assert that the primary goal of strategic HRM is to improve the productivity of employees and to identify operational areas where there is need for long term improvements. The achievement of this goal requires that the HR function be aligned to the goals of the organization making it essential for the function to consider this as one of its objectives. The other key goals of SHRM thus include: to enhance the organizational performance and the management of human capital; to develop a nurturing organizational culture so as to foster innovation, competitive advantage and flexibility in the organization’s operations. Strategic HRM also aims at linking the HR function with the general organizational objectives and goals (Bagga & Sanjay, 2014). Wagh (2017) also describes other goals of the strategic HRM function. These goals include: to create an effective organizational culture; to improve the employee value proposition; and to utilize the available talents and opportunities for the benefit of the organization. Strategic HRM also purposes to emphasize the organizational code of ethics and subsequently enhance employee behavior. At the same time, the function monitors the societal impacts of the business and puts in place strategies to enhance this impact (Wagh, 2017). In its efforts to improve societal impacts, strategic HRM pursues sustainable CSR and also enforces discipline among the work force.
Strategic HRM and Organizational Performance
Organizational performance can be difficult to understand based on the broad definition that is associated with the concept. In all the definitions of the term, it stands as a dependent variable, a function of many organizational features including organizational culture, behavior and the functioning of different departments. At the core of organizational performance, it consists of variables such as behavior and actions that are in alignment with organizational objectives (Cania, 2014). Quantifying organizational performance is thus dependent on the capacity of different functions to perform effectively in aligning the independent functional goals to the overall organizational goals. The organizational performance is evaluated based on a given expected outcome and in comparison to the outcome realized. Cania (2014) defines the outcomes as multidimensional, encompassing the behavioral aspect as well as the results achieved. Monitoring the organizational behaviors is thus a crucial starting point of organizational performance. This is because as the performance evaluation considers the output, directing the organization towards effective performance entails monitoring the system inputs to ensure they can be essential in achieving the desired performance outcomes. Both inputs and outputs are thus important in the organizational performance system.
In tandem with the position provided by Cania (2014), Agarawala (n.d) asserts that the management of organizational performance has to apply a strategy that will be able to check all the business components. Agarawala further describes the key outcomes associated with organizational performance. Such outcomes include: the HR related outcomes such as employee turnover, absenteeism from work, job satisfaction levels and the organizational commitment; the organization related outcomes such as the productivity of employees, service quality, efficiency of service delivery, and customer satisfaction; financial outcomes such as profits return on assets, the sales volumes and returns on investment; and capital market related outcomes such as the market shares, organizational growth and the share prices (Agarawala, n.d). Considering each of these outcomes independently clearly defines the need for effective human resources management as each of the outcomes is linked to the HR department to some extent. For instance, the productivity of the organization is the sum of the productivities of the work force. Similarly higher market shares can only be gained through effective marketing, which relies on the work force available.
Challenges to Strategic HRM
The role of strategic HRM in the organizational context implies that the function also faces multiple challenges when it comes to the need for effective performance. Stankiewicz (2015) highlights some of the challenges associated with strategic HRM. The first challenge is cited to be the organizational culture. On the one hand, the organizational culture is essential for effective performance of the strategic HRM function. Where the organizational culture is supportive, strategic HRM can achieve all its goals when applied appropriately. On the other hand, lack of a supportive organizational culture can hamper the achievement of SRHM objectives in the organization. Furthermore, the needs of organization’s professionals may also hinder the achievement of strategic HRM goals. These are the unfulfilled needs which reduce commitment to the work place objectives and dampen the productivity of the employees. Provision of a suitable work environment entails satisfaction of the needs of the employees while at the same time addressing the organizational needs. Providing sufficient equipment, information and training for employees can be a significant step towards achieving the SHRM goals in the organization.
Walsh et al (2010) also mentions the challenges faced in working with human assets. According to Walsh et al (2010), the characteristics of human assets in an organization can be a challenge to strategic HRM. Stankiewicz (2015) defines this challenge in terms of personal attitudes and values in the work place. The divergence of personal attitudes and values from those encouraged in the work place environment can result in great challenges when it comes to working together. Issues such as employee resistance to change as well as lack of adherence to organizational code of ethics arise due to the lack of tandem between individual values and attitudes and those of the organization. Such challenges can only be addressed through effective employee training and job positioning. In addition to this, the performance of the human capital cannot be effectively quantified (Walsh et al., 2010). Contrary to other departments such as the sales department, the performance of strategic HRM cannot be valued in terms of the productivity of the available man-power. The value added to an organization by the work force cannot be quantified financially. This is made worse by the fact that the employees cannot be indicated as an asset in the balance sheet but can be indicated as expenses. The employees are not company property and cannot thus be considered assets per se, but their contribution to the organization makes them all the more valuable as other assets are. Another challenge to strategic HRM is that it is difficult to predict employee behaviors. Although an inevitable investment, employee behavior cannot be measured, predicted or even observed at times. This not only makes it challenging for the HRM personnel to justify their expenses but also reduces zeal towards employee satisfaction (Walsh et al., 2010).
Based on the literature review, the paper argues that:
The strategic HRM function is a nexus between the organizational behavior and the organizational performance.
Despite the challenges faced, several factors can facilitate the performance of strategic HRM.
The main objective of strategic HRM is to utilize the available human resources optimally for the achievement of the organizational goals.
Results and Recommendations
The organizational performance is linked to various aspects of strategic human resources management. From the literature review, it is observable that the organizational performance, hinges on factors such as employee behavior, financial outcomes, market performance and the organizational culture to a large extent. At the same time, it has been established that the organizational culture is developed to nurture flexibility, innovation and competitive advantage through the strategic HRM function. This implies that the HRM function has to monitor and direct organizational behaviors, provide a blue print for the organizational code of conduct and subsequently monitor adherence to the same. Strategic HRM therefore becomes the central point in the link between organizational performance and the functions of other aspects of the business. In terms of the market shares and the financial accounting outcomes, the strategic HRM function manages to realize connections between performance and the work force through satisfaction of employee needs as well as through proper alignment of the employee goals and objectives to the organizational goals and objectives.
The challenges faced by strategic HRM in the accomplishment of its roles are many. However, the literature shows that the key objective of the function is to bring together the competence and opportunities in the work place, and the organizational goals and objectives. It is recommended that integration at various levels of the organization be pursued to ensure that strategic HRM achieves its objective. According to Wei (2006) achieving integration can be considered a starting point for the effectiveness of the strategic HRM function. Coherence in operations across departments can be beneficial to the organization as well as to the customers. Such congruence can be either vertical or horizontal. The vertical congruence is considered to be the link between the HR measures of practice and the organizational strategies. On the other hand, the horizontal fit is that across different strategic HRM functions. If both types of congruence are achieved, the organization can be able to accomplish the objectives of the strategic HRM function. Wei (2006) purports that some of the factors that contribute to such integration in roles include: individual factors, functional factors and organizational factors. The individual factors mentioned by Wei are aspects such as the knowledge and skills of the employees, the ability of the top managers to support the employee functions, and the capability of the HR function. This implies that these three factors have to work successfully to ensure that the desirable type of fit is achieved. Failure of any of these components impacts negatively in role performance at various stages of the organization.
In functionality, phenomena such as the operational policies, the availability of options and the budget for operations all impact on the level of congruence between strategic HRM and the other business functions. Failure on any of these functions results in negative performance in the overall HRM function as well as in the entire organization. At the organizational level, the strategies and culture put in place are essential in ensuring that the organizational performance is effective. The strategy applied in pursuing organizational goals is also important in the efforts to achieve greater organizational performance. The implication of this is that without a clear and effective strategy, it may be difficult for an organization to accomplish its goals. This explains why organizations have clearly developed strategic plans which they train all employees to work towards. In some companies, the clarity of productivity expectations creates the link between organizational goals and the performance initiatives held by different employees.
Technology and SHRM
To some extent, technology has reduced the implications of various challenges to the SHRM function. The use of technology in the organizational context and particularly in the HR function has widened the role of SHR in an organization. According to Jain (2014), IT has increased the ability of strategic HR professionals to integrate employee databases within the overall organizational databases and to provide information to employees regarding news, policies and new findings in the organization. Moreover, the use of SHR IT has enabled the function to be available to all organizational members online. This makes it easier for employees to edit and/ or update their information online, thus lifting the burden of information maintenance and storage off the shoulders of the HR personnel (Jain, 2014). It can thus be deduced that the use of technology in strategic HR eliminates routine work and also enhances communication in an organization.
Strategic HRM is an essential step towards achieving organizational goals. Based on the arguments presented by the literatures reviewed in the paper, the goals of strategic HRM are clear. The primary goal is to improve the productivity of the employees through the use of the available competencies and opportunities. The ability to understand organizational needs and goals goes hand in hand with strategic HRM practices such as recruitment and selection of employees, training and employee development, enhancing employee job satisfaction, providing a dynamic and motivational environment for employee growth. Through these practices, strategic HRM aims at providing a link between organizational performance and the employees of the organization. This is explained through the relationship between the HRM function and features such as organizational culture, organizational behaviors, employee attitudes and approaches to role performance. These factors have been established before to be determinants of organizational performance. It its functioning however, the strategic HRM function faces many challenges, mainly to do with the variable and immeasurable nature of human resources performance. It is thus important to provide supportive environments at individual, organizational and functional levels of the organization.
Agarwala, T. (n.d). Strategic human resource management. India: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from www.india.oup.com/productPage/5591038/7421214/9780195683592
Cania, L. (2014). The impacts of strategic human resource management on organizational performance. Economia Seria Management, 17(2): 373- 383. Retrieved from www.mer.ase.ro/files/2014-2/14.pdf
Bagga, T. and Sanjay, S. (2014). SHRM: alignment of HR function with business strategy. Strategic HR Review, vol. 13, no. 4/5, www.doi.org/10.1108/SHR-03-2014-0023
Jain, V.K. (2014). Impact of technology on HR practices. International Journal of Informative and Futuristic Research, 1(10): 25- 37. Retrieved from www.ijifr.com/pdfsave/13-06-2014621JUNE-V10-E15.pdf
Stankiewicz, K. (Ed.) (2015). Contemporary issues and challenges in human resource management. Gdansk. Retrieved from www.zie.pg.edu.pl/documents/10693/38995566/ContemporaryIssuesandChallenges.pdf
Wagh, S. (2017). Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). [Slideshare] Retrieved from www.slideshare.net/sheetalgwagh/strategic-human-resource-management-shrm
Walsh, K., Sturman, M.C. and Longstreet, J. (2010). Key issues in strategic human resources. In Enz, C. (Ed.) The Cornell school of hotel administration handbook of hospitality strategy, p. 394- 414. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved from www.scholarship.sha.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1244&context=articles
Wei, L. (2006). Strategic Human Resource Management: Determinants of Fit, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 14(2), 49-60. Retrieved from www.rphrm.curtin.edu.au/2006/issue2/strategic.html
Communication Research Paper on Interpersonal Communication Terms my assignment essay help london
Interpersonal Communication Terms
People communicate on daily basis to pass information. Communication is the process in which people deliver a message to another person through pictures, words, gestures among others. This process of communication is only complete if the person targeted to get the information understands it entirely. Communication process involves several stages like encoding where the source of the message puts the message in an understandable form. The encoded message is then transmitted through a channel or a medium to the receiver (Lane, 2016). After the receiver receives the information, he then decodes the message to get its meaning. After decoding the message, the receiver sends a feedback to the point of origin of the message. The original receiver goes back to the same process as the original sender and the same factors influence the communication. The receiver of the message may use the same medium or channel when giving the feedback. The message received by the original sender is not the same as that sent by the original receiver. It is also important to understand that the process of communication may not always be successful. Several factors may prevent the message from reaching the receiver or have the anticipated effect. Barriers, which may affect the transmission of communication, may include, listening barriers like, interrupting a speaker, rushing the speaker, being distracted by someone or something, which is not part of the communication among others. Other barriers occur when speaking, like, unclear messages, failure to seek for clarification while communicating. Additionally, environmental barriers like the use of negative words, use of words with the same meaning, an emotional block may affect the communication process. Communication can be one to one communication, one to many communication, many to one communication.
In addition, communication can be of diverse types; written communication, non-verbal communication, or verbal communication (Lane, 2016). Verbal communication includes; face to face conversation, through telephone, presentation, public speech, interview, and meetings. On the hand, non-verbal communication involves the use of models, pictures, diagrams, charts, maps, sketches, and cutouts. Documents such as minutes, reports, letters, circulars, notices, memos are used in transmitting written messages. Conflict may also occur in the communication process when individuals have opposing viewpoints, have incompatible goals or when there is a scarcity of resources. Interpersonal conflict is expressed either verbally or non-verbally ranging such unnoticeable cold shoulder to evident disapproval. Interpersonal disagreement is different from intrapersonal; violence that involves abuse of certain individuals. Conflict is inevitable in close relationships and in most cases takes a negative emotional toll. In some instances when the conflict is handled well, it can result in positive rewards. This paper will focus on the film, “Love-struck the Musical.” This film was produced in the year 2013, focusing on the issues of love and how people communicate when solving the relationship conflicts that occur. This paper aims at explaining how interpersonal communication concepts have been applied in the film. The paper will illustrate how the actors in this exchange information either verbally or non-verbally. Concepts of interpersonal communication will help in explaining the complexity of relationships and the various stages that relationships go through. In addition, the concepts will help explain why people behave the way they behave and the reasons why they succeed or fail in those relationships. The paper aims at explaining how the following terms have been demonstrated in the film; strategies, self-disclosure, stages, reverse pattern, relational dialectics theory.
The film involves characters such as Mirabella Hutton and her mother Harper. It is based on love where Mirabella Hutton is in love with a French person and wants to go and live with him in Italy. It is against her mother Harper, who argues that Mirabella should remain in her homeland and continue practicing dancing. They confront each other since Mirabella refuses to go and dance in a show, which had been organized by her mother. Her mother had invited famous musicians to come and see her daughter present on that day. Harper falls when also practicing for a dance and breaks her leg. She found a drug called Aramid O’Malley’s as she was searching for drugs relieve her pain. She decided to take it. Immediately she took it, she became young and her wrinkles faded away. She could be able to dance as she did when she was young. She decides to follow Mirabella to Italy. Harper attends a party organized by Mirabella’s boyfriend and she intentionally kisses him to hurt Mirabella and make them break up. Mirabella’s boyfriend was weak and could not tell Mirabella that he loved her. After Mirabella realized that her boyfriend had kissed another girl, she decided to stop the marriage preparations that they had. They eventually get married as the film ends.
The strategy concept shows the various active, passive, and interactive strategies that people use when learning about others and how best to approach them. The passive strategy involves first observing an individual before deciding whether to approach them or not. One observes how an individual communicates with other people, how they respond to various issues, what they like to strangers, and how they are able to handle interpersonal conflict. On the other hand, the active strategy involves asking other people for information about an individual before approaching them. One may enquire from their either close friends or family members about how they carry out communication (Shockley, 2014). One also gets an idea on the best way to approach the person without making them angry. Furthermore, the interactive strategy involves approaching an individual directly and starting a conversation with them. This strategy does not require one to conduct a pilot study about the individual before approaching them. Different strategies have been used in the film “Love-struck Musical.” Harper did not have any information about where Mirabella’s boyfriend lived and did not even know what job he did. Before Harper left for Italy, she sought information about Mirabella’s boyfriend from her friend Amanda. This strategy is called active strategy. Amanda explained to Harper where Mirabella’s boyfriend lived, what he liked, and how he treated Mirabella. Additionally, Amanda explained to Harper that the best way to approach Mirabella’s boyfriend was by first saying hello to him with without shaking his hand. She was also advised not to approach him if he was drunk since he became high tempered when drank. It is evident that strategies should be used to understand other people well to develop a close relationship with them.
Self-disclosure involves an individual revealing their confidential, private, and confidential information to other people. Through this, one is able to build trust with other people. The concept brings people closer together and one is able to understand the other person better. It increases intimacy and makes people feel comfortable to disclose information that other people might see as negative (McLeod, Scheufele & Moy, 1999). Mirabella’s boyfriend was weak and could not tell Mirabella that he loved her. He could only express what he felt through music. In one of the songs he sang to Mirabella, he explained that his mother had died when he was six years and his grandmother raised that. He explained to Mirabella that his grandmother also died when he was at the age of fifteen and that he had to raise himself since there was nobody else to take care of him. He had worked as a houseboy where he was tortured. Despite the torture, he was able to save some amount of money, which he used to produce his first song. He also explained that someone had even planned to kill him if he did not give the song’s lyrics to him. Through this self-disclosure, Mirabella was able to understand her boyfriend and a feeling of trust build between them. Mirabella’s boyfriend was also able to explain to Mirabella that he had also attempted to steal food from his neighbor during his young age since he was starving.
The stage concept explains how the relationships evolve. The concept explains that relationships start with a first encounter, a relationship advances to the point where people are able to exchange a variety of information on different topics. The stages help people know if they have common grounds to enable them to establish a good relationship (Bochner & Krueger, 1979). If the people have common grounds, the two people irrespective of whether they are lovers, friends or business acquaintances develop a lasting bond. Mirabella first met her boyfriend in a dance training session. They were shy at each other and only talked less. One day after the training session, they were left together as their colleagues left. They talked a lot about each other and their experiences. They talked about their aspirations and lifelong dreams. They shared their contacts and left for their homes. They chatted all night. Unfortunately, Mirabella’s boyfriend got a sponsorship in Italy for musical training. He left the next week but they could always keep in touch. Mirabella’s boyfriend flew severally to visit Mirabella. This advanced to the stage that they got married to each other. It is evident that their intimate relationship took a while and stages before they got married.
Relational Dialectics Theory
Relational dialectics theory helps in exploring the tensions that arise in a relationship. It studies the connection and separateness between the people. In the case of self-disclosure, every individual is expected to keep the information confidential (O’sullivan, et al., 1994). If they share the information with other parties, conflict arises and the individuals may even part ways. In the film, Mirabella becomes angry when she realized that her boyfriend had kissed another woman. She felt that her boyfriend had betrayed her and that he only played with her feelings. Mirabella even composed a song claiming that her boyfriend is a liar and that she hoped that she was only dreaming. She closed herself in her room and did not want to talk to anyone about her boyfriend. She vowed never to talk to him and that he had shattered all her dreams. Her boyfriend apologized and claimed that he kissed another woman by mistake, but she did not want to listen to anything about it. They split ways and did not communicate to each other for few days. The relationship between Mirabella and Harper also deteriorated and Harper could not even look at Mirabella’s eyes. This theory aims at studying such tensions in relationships regardless of whether they are business, family or lover relationships.
Reverse pattern concept explains that once relationships have broken down, they follow a reverse pattern similar to the way they were initiated. Those in the relationship mainly focus on the differences rather than the similarities (Verderber, Beebe &Verberber, 2004). They begin to reduce the number of times that they communicated about the impersonal topics. The members in the relationship avoid each other and the relationship becomes unrewarding to both parties. Members exhibit mutual annoyance when they meet and could even catch the attention of other people because of this. After Mirabella realized her boyfriend kissed another woman, she developed a negative attitude towards him. She did not want to meet him and every time her boyfriend called or texted her, she could talk rudely or even not pick the calls. It is interesting to see how all this happened because they had even planned for a wedding and set the wedding date. This concept explains that the members in the relationship exhibit a proportional level of hatred to the love they shared. Despite Harper apologizing to Mirabella because of kissing her boyfriend, she did not want to listen to anything positive about him. Mirabella’s friends advised her to forgive her boyfriend since he did not kiss intentionally.
Bochner, A. P., & Krueger, D. L. (1979). Interpersonal communication theory and research: An overview of inscrutable epistemologies and muddled concepts. Communication Yearbook, 3, 197-211.
Hecht, M. L. (1978). The conceptualization and measurement of interpersonal communication satisfaction. Human Communication Research, 4(3), 253-264.
Lane, S. D. (2016). Interpersonal communication: Competence and contexts. Routledge.
McLeod, J. M., Scheufele, D. A., & Moy, P. (1999). Community, communication, and participation: The role of mass media and interpersonal discussion in local political participation. Political Communication, 16(3), 315-336.
O’sullivan, T., Hartley, J., Saunders, D., Montgomery, M., & Fiske, J. (1994). Key concepts in communication and cultural studies (p. 267). London: Routledge.
Proctor, R. F., & Adler, R. B. (1991). Teaching interpersonal communication with feature films. Communication Education, 40(4), 393-400.
Shockley-Zalabak, P. (2014). Fundamentals of organizational communication. Pearson.
Verderber, K., Beebe, S. A., &Verberber, K. (2004). Inter act: Interpersonal Communication, concepts, skills and. Oxford.
Logistics: Critical Thinking Paper on Advanced Information Systems mba essay help: mba essay help
Advanced Information Systems
Advanced information systems will automate some routine project activities by making an analysis of data and information faster than before. These advanced information systems allow a manager to handle all time issues, including when the workers should start and finish their routine project activities (Bozarth & Handfield, 2014). In response to this, it is an effective idea which will help a company always to instill strict supervision of its time management and save more time to be directed to other activities which are also of importance to the enterprise. Therefore, advanced information systems are fit for all projects as well as usual routine projects.
In response to “How could automation change the role of project professionals” the answer provided is straightforward as it gives the reader a recap of how automation helps project managers. In my opinion, automation brings in efficiency at work since there is proper allocation of roles as well as utilization of time. This means that no employee will have extra time for wastage since the project manager is strictly supervising how the work is done. Automation also helps project professionals ease their work by analyzing data faster than before. This again helps them to make immediate decisions based on the analysis; hence, enabling the project to take place sooner than it would have before without automation.
In response to “Could this evolution help eliminate the perspective that project management professionals are not sensitive to time consumers?” the author argues that time constraints are significant for a project to attain completion at the estimated time. Therefore, I agree with this idea because with automation, project management professionals are now time sensitive, and everything the workers do is directed to the success of the project. Therefore, automation helps things move faster and managers can now make decisions faster to enable a project to be completed within its stipulated time.
Bozarth, C. C., & Handfield, R. B. (2014). “Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 4th Edition.” Bookshelf Online. Retrieved from: https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781323243541/
Psychology Assignment Paper on Borderline Personality Disorder essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) denotes a psychological problem that may occur in adolescents or young adults. Borderline personality disorder affects about six percent of the entire population each year (Choi-Kain, Albert, & Gunderson, 2016). The American Psychiatric Association attributes the cause of the disorder to three major factors, which include environmental, serotonin, and hereditary abnormalities. Research on the relationship between twins and borderline personality disorder implies that there is an excellent probability that it is genetic. Personality attributes, for instance, impulsivity and hostility, witnessed in the disorder amid other problems might as well be genetic. Moreover, being raised in an unstable or negligent setting might lead to or be an aspect in the development of the disorder. Irregularities in serotonin, a mood regulating hormone, generation might make a person vulnerable to the development of borderline personality disorder. BPD is depicted by incidences of mental unsteadiness, impulsive conduct, fuzzy self-imaging, and unsound associations.
Diagnosis and Characteristics
Borderline personality disorder was first diagnosed in 1980. From that time, the disorder group has been employed so broadly that 10% to 20% of patients with psychiatric problems are provided with the diagnosis though it is approximated to occur in 6% of the population. Approximately 60% of the patients with the disorder are females (Biskin & Paris, 2012). A mixed group of people that obtain the diagnosis are found to share some traits such as unstable personal connections, risks of self-destructive conduct, impulsivity, a chronic scope of cognitive distortions, and dread of desertion. Strong clinging dependence, as well as manipulation, typifies the interpersonal dealings of the people with the disorder, which makes interrelations extremely hard. Such individuals appear to desire dependent and select affiliations with others.
The inclination for dependence is evident to individuals who perceive but are intensely denied by the person with BPD. As an element of the intense denial, such people undervalue or dishonor the importance and personal worth of others (Choi-Kain et al., 2016). This could at times take the nature of excessive anger when the other individual, interacting with the person who has borderline personality disorder, sets restrictions on the association or the moment they are just about to part. The people with the disorder employ manipulative conducts to sway the interrelations, for example, complaining regarding physical indications and making or issuing suicidal threats.
Effects of the Disorder
BPD represents a psychological problem that has the impact of developing considerable mental unsteadiness. This may result in a range of other stressful emotional and behavioral disorders. Having the disorder makes it likely to have a significantly faulty, unclear self-image and sentiments or worthlessness. Impulsivity, fury, and mood instabilities may push other people away, despite their desire for a long and friendly relationship (Biskin, 2013). BPD may influence the manner in which the individual feels about himself/herself and others over and above the way they interact with other people and their conduct. Nevertheless, if an individual is diagnosed with the disorder, he/she is not supposed to feel hopeless since there is a possibility of getting better after treatment and the person can lead a fulfilling life.
Self-destructive conducts are evident in people with borderline personality disorder and are often referred to as “the behavior specialty.” Drug overdose, self-mutilation, and suicidal ideations are frequent in people with BPD. Research has established that in a period of close to 30 years, about 10% of individuals with the disorder commit suicide and approximately 8% die in other ways (Choi-Kain et al., 2016). Currently, bulimia has turned out to be a widespread suicidal approach. Such conducts demand a saving reaction from other individuals. People with the disorder have also been established to pose a burden on law enforcement officers and health professionals. The self-destructive actions mainly witnessed in such patients are an unintentional overdose, substance abuse, promiscuity, suicidal ideations, and self-mutilation. They may as well suffer chronic sentiment of worthlessness. Other indications of the disorder include impulsive/risky conduct, unprotected sex, careless driving, gambling tendencies, and use of illicit drugs.
Self-destruction amid people with borderline personality disorder acts as an attribute which results in great discomfort in individuals who attempt to assist them. Therapists’ endeavors of helping such an endangered life are at times supported, only for the person with the disorder to dash the attempts with vicious actions of self-destruction. Sometimes therapists face excessive sentiments of responsibility for patients with the disorder (Biskin & Paris, 2012). Their efforts of offering support when the person attempts self-destruction might result in accountability for the life of the patient and contributions outside remedial sessions. Except when the controlling form of the reaction by the patient is disrupted in treatment provision, the circumstance might turn out to be impracticable. There is a need to make the patient aware that therapy cannot be changed by suicidal ideations and that he/she has to make efforts to comprehend the self-destruction urges. When the attempts fail, the threats of suicide recur, and the danger to the patient augments with the failure of therapy to respond at an opportune time.
Patients with borderline personality disorder have a powerful urge for interactions, and this makes them develop a chronic and long-term dread that the individuals to whom they are reliant will leave them. Such emotions are associated with their feelings of excessive terror the moment they are alone (Biskin, 2013). Patients with BPD tend to be obsessively social as a resistance approach against fear. Regardless of their inclination to social interrelations, most of their conducts drive others away, for example, their great resentment and demands, shiftiness, and impulsiveness to mention a few. People with BPD tend to address their stress through sexual promiscuity, involvement in aggression, and binge eating and chucking. Such patients express instability with rapid shifts to dejection and restlessness, which might last for just a short time. They may also demonstrate disturbance in their perceptions of individuality as they are dubious of their self-image, gender distinctiveness, ideals, objectives, and devotion. Sometimes BPD patients might have lasting sentiments of worthlessness or boredom and might be incapable of putting up with being away from other people.
Borderline personality disorder originally represented a marginal kind of schizophrenia. Studies affirm that people with the disorder account for the limit that borders mood and personality disorders. In most instances, BPD patients are found to have a family background of schizophrenia and mood disorders. Nevertheless, schizophrenic symptoms vary considerably from attributes of borderline personality disorders (Choi-Kain et al., 2016). Whereas the schizophrenic group comprises of symptoms such as superstition and illusions of possession of magical powers, the BPD class shows psychological signs that encompass emptiness, violence, and mental unsteadiness. Moreover, while schizophrenic patients prefer social seclusion, the ones with borderline personality disorder do not like being secluded. The value of diagnosis with borderline personality disorder in children is uncertain though severely disturbed kids usually satisfy its criteria. A high level of commonality has been found in people diagnosed with BPD, behavioral disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other personality disorders. BPD in children has been established to be heavily delinquent, unreceptive, assaultive, demanding, and petulant with the most discriminating aspect being incidents of psychotic thinking.
Biologically oriented medical professionals use a range of medications in treating people with borderline personality disorder. They encompass antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and mood regulating medicines. Nonetheless, it has been found that medicine alone is faintly successful with patients seeking to improve from severely to a slightly impaired condition. Improvement after the application of medicine might occur in the nature of a decrease in unsteady moods and impulsive conduct. Combining numerous remedial practices might prove to be successful (Biskin & Paris, 2012). Having medication in conjunction with psychotherapy and the support of family members may be helpful in tackling the multiple problems of a person with borderline personality disorder.
BPD affects approximately 6% of the global population. The cause of the disorder has been attributed to three main factors, which encompass serotonin, environmental, and heritable abnormalities. Approximately sixty percent of the people with BPD are females. Rage and mood instabilities in people with the disorder push other people away, regardless of such patients’ desire for a long and sociable relationship. Self-destructive conducts, impulsivity, self-mutilation, emotional unsteadiness, drug overdose, and suicidal ideations are apparent in people with borderline personality disorder. Health professionals use a range of medications such as antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and mood regulating medicines to treat borderline personality disorder. Combining several remedial practices such as medication, psychotherapy, and family backing have been found to be valuable in tackling the various problems in patients with borderline personality disorder.
Biskin, R. S. (2013). Treatment of borderline personality disorder in youth. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(3), 230. Retrieved from http://www.cacap-acpea.org/uploads/documents/Treatment_of_BPD_Biskin.pdf
Biskin, R. S., & Paris, J. (2012). Evaluating treatments of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Practice, 9(4), 425-437. Retrieved from http://www.openaccessjournals.com/articles/evaluating-treatments-of-borderline-personality-disorder.pdf
Choi-Kain, L. W., Albert, E. B., & Gunderson, J. G. (2016). Evidence-based treatments for borderline personality disorder: Implementation, integration, and stepped care. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 24(5), 342-356. Retrieved from http://www.sebastienbouchard.ca/pdf/Evidence_Based_Treatments_for_Borderline(APA,2016).pdf
Nursing Sample Essay on Cover Letter write essay help
65749 Valley Street
Los Angeles, 67439
E-mail Address: [email protected]
Prolix Medical Center
Twin Estate, 5829
New York, NY7829273
July 19, 2017
Dear Mr. Lewis
I am writing this letter to apply for a Family Nurse Practitioner position, specifically in the field of primary care and urgent care setting. In addition to this, I will attach my documents through which your organization can consider. I am confident about my nursing skills that I have gathered over the past five years. I can take care of patients well, and I will be honored to be part of your team in Prolix Medical Center. I also can communicate well with them by offering company to them so that they do not feel lonely. This keeps their hope for recovery alive.
From my attached resume, the following are a summary of my qualifications and skills.
I have gained a five-year experience from my working at children and family caring units in Los Angeles.
I also have competent computer skills that can help me manage patient’s data well.
Lastly, I have great memory skills that I can use to diagnose a patient’s symptoms based on their history.
I currently graduated from Barry University and certified through the ANCC (American nursing credential center).
The above skills and more will enable me to fit in your organization correctly. Also, I am calm and social, and this allows me to interact with the patients well. I am aware of the current medical terminologies that I can relate to my field of work. This will ensure that my patients are comfortably attended to and can feel better soon.
Lastly, I have attached my resume in which you can review. It includes my other qualifications as well as my educational background. I am looking forward to hearing from you based on this application.
Music Essays on Bi Kidude: The Relationship between Music and Culture argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Bi Kidude: The Relationship between Music and Culture
Music is an essential part of culture in any nation. The evolution of music in any specific country symbolizes key changes in the cultural practices of that country and can be an indicator of strengthening or decaying moral values. Elements of music such as the tones, videos and cultural intonations affect cultural changes significantly. For instance, Duke (par. 3.5) outlines the ways in which music can affect cultural values through impacts such as therapy and catharsis. The Tanzanian culture, like any other national culture, has undergone significant transformations over the past years. As an indication, music from the country can be used to provide a general outlook into the influential factors that have changed the Tanzanian culture and how the national culture of Tanzania has impacted the type or content of music produced in the country. A cross temporary analysis of Bi Kidude’s music will thus be conducted in this paper to provide a general outlook on the impacts of culture on music and vice versa.
The study thus attempts to answer the following questions:
How has the culture of Tanzania changed through the years?
What have been the impacts of the culture changes in the music industry – particularly with reference to Bi Kidude’s music?
How does music impact on the national cultures of a county?
Background: Bi Kidude and Tanzanian Culture
Bi Kidude was a legendary Tanzanian musician who at one time was considered the oldest singer in history. Born around 1910, Bi Kidude lived through many years of cultural renaissance and can be considered to be a perfect representation of evolving music in a changing cultural world. The impacts of the cultural changes on her music were not only felt by the Tanzanian but also across the world as her voice spanned the music industry for more than 50 years. According to Ewens (par. 3- 4), the original compositions made by Bi Kidude and another old age singer, Binti Saad was of the Dumbak type, which essentially consisted of traditional drums and voices. The changes in the taarab music category eventually led to the realization of the pre-modern taarab, comprising of violins, flutes and an assortment of Arabic instruments which were used mostly in the later years of Bi Kidude’s life and musical career. The legend began performing music at a time in history where male patriarchy was dominant and the main themes of their songs consisted of renunciation of male sexual behaviors. This was followed by a period of industry dormancy, during which Bi Kidude mostly participated in the Swahili cultural dances during female rites of passage. This culture eventually faded away as Bi Kidude also shifted from the more private cultural dances to elaborate national and global music performance with the twinkling stars band (Ewens par. 6).
Ebeli (466) describes some of the cultural changes that have taken place in Ghana and their significance to the musical industry. Like in Ghana, Tanzania has also undergone periods of cultural changes characterized by shifts from retrogressive cultures such as female genital mutilation, lack of equality in gender considerations and strict adherence to cultural values. Through the years, the observed changes in Ghanaian music are in tandem with the changes observed in the cultural practices and values. Acceptance of certain music types across different age has also changed significantly following the changes in the cultural values and subsequent changes in the musical themes and presentation modes. The same can be said of Tanzania, especially with reference to Bi Kidude’s music, from the provocative tones used in the early years to the more generalized tones in the later years. DeJaeghere (161) describes some of the cultural changes in Tanzania and how they have impacted the education sector and the lifestyle norms of the people. These changes reflect the changes that are observed through years of Bi Kidude’s music.
The history of Bi Kidude exemplifies changes in the music types and themes as driven by culture or vice versa. In line with Duke (16), music can be an important driver of cultural change in many ways. In particular, musical themes developed through the persistence of artistes can push for societal changes towards certain types of cultures. While it is probable that Bi Kidude’s music changed due to cultural changes, it is also possible that the changes in culture were born of the persistence of the artistes of the time. For instance, Bi Kidude’s music on male dominance came at a time when the culture of male chauvinism and dominance had taken root in Tanzania. Changes from this culture only came later after the music. This is an indication that the music could have performed a role in sensitizing the society on the need for gender equality and respect for the female gender. On the other hand, the participation of Bi Kidude on the female rites of passage is an indication of support for the culture. This thus means that the culture had to end first for Bi Kidude to shift her musical outlook, evidence that culture can also change the music of a country.
While culture changed the music industry in Tanzania and Bi Kidude’s music in particular significantly, various authors also allude to the impacts of technological changes on music and its acceptance. Lunsqui (11) and Shapero (21) assert that technological changes have resulted in the change of musical perceptions and how people accept music across the ages. For instance, in the case of Bi Kidude, the shift from the Dumbak music to the modern taarab can only be associated with the technological advances. This is due to the fact that without technology, the themes of the music could have changed without similar changes in the modes of music performance. As such, it can be deduced that the changes in the music were due to the combination of culture and technology, impacting on the content and the modes of relay respectively. In the You Tube video by the musical club and Bi Kidude, the changes in content can be observed through the 167 videos that cut across time.
Bi Kidude was an enigmatic personality in the Tanzanian music industry. Having lived through ages characterized by cultural and technological revolution, the music produced by this legend varies significantly in terms of themes as well as the mode of relay. The themes, based on the findings of the study are influenced by cultural changes as much as cultural changes are also affected by the themes. For instance, the shift from male patriarchy to gender equality was driven by music themes. Similarly, the music themes changed after this shift towards gender equality due to the passage of that particular cultural period. Technology on the other hand contributed to the mode of performance of music to a large extent, thereby affecting the acceptance of the music across different ages.
DeJaeghere, Joan. Educating entrepreneurial citizens: neoliberalism and youth livelihoods in Tanzania. Taylor & Francis, 2017.
Duke, Selwyn. Influential beats: the cultural impact of music. The New American, 9 January 2014.
Ebeli, Eva A. Indigenous musical culture in Ghana: A contemporary perspective. The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies 3, 7(2015): 463- 468.
Ewens, Graeme. Bi Kidude orbituary. World Music, 2013 April 17. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com/music/2013/apr/17/bi-kidude-dies
Lunsqui, Alexandre. Music and Globalization: Diversity, Banalization and Culturalization. Filigrane. Musique, esthétique, sciences, société. [En ligne], Musique et globalisation, Numéros de la revue. 2012.
Musical Club and Bi Kidude. You Tube Videos. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnB7q2G63xU&list=PL7aOuZymyXB44ulmxOoSijyhyCAyr3BWC
Shapero, Dean. The impacts of technology on music star’s cultural influence. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications 6, 1(2015):20-27.
Economics: The Employment Effects of the Minimum Wage college essay help
Economics: The Employment Effects of the Minimum Wage
Over the years, economists have argued for the fact that the imposition of a minimum wage higher than the market wage would initiate a reduction in employment as well as bring about an increase in unemployment particularly among young and relatively unskilled workers. This is especially true to the workers the minimum wage aims at helping (Card et al. 491). Some economists, however, have claimed that there is no evidence of a significant employment-reducing impact attributed to the minimum wage especially on low-wage workers and that, in some cases; the hiking of minimum wage might even have caused an increase in employment. This paper will critically evaluate these competing arguments regarding the outcomes of the minimum wage on employment through focusing on the issues raised from each side of the argument (Card et al. 491).
To start with, the potential benefits associated with high minimum wage rates emanates from the higher wages for affected workers. Some of these workers come from poor backgrounds earning less income. Hence, when the minimum wage is high, it may discourage workers from using their low wages whereas the minimum wages are meant to help the low skill workers. The application of minimum wages was put in place with the intention of ensuring that a minimal standard of living, unintended consequences undermined its effectiveness. However, there has been increased evidence which shows that an increment in the minimum wage brought about by job destruction. Consequently, higher minimum wage leads to perfectly competitive employers cutting employment. In the United States, the minimum wage was developed during the Depression period where it has significantly increased from 25 cents to $ 7.25 per hour since 1938 (Card et al. 491). This increase has been criticized by some economists to bring about negative effects to the low skilled employees in terms of deteriorating businesses, increasing prices and is counterproductive for the poor working class people. Collectively, these effects bring about unemployment.
Most of the employees working under the minimum wage rate entail young people under the age of 25 years who represent about one fifth of the workers paid per hour. Most of the employed teenagers who get paid per hour, approximately 23 percent, were found to be earning a minimum wage or less as opposed to the workers above the age of 25 years (Card et al. 493). Some economists have argued that the competitive nature of low-wage industries suggested that the displacement of low-wage would bring about a more likely outcome. However, criticism over this argument occurred with responses that suggested that the competitive wage determination was inconsistent with existing business practices as reasoning about labor markets in terms of commodity markets would seem to be an important explanation for erroneous conclusions on matters such as the minimum wage (Card et al. 493). These aspects will form the basis of this paper through discussions on either side of the intensive debate regarding the minimum wage issue and its effects to employment. This discussion will occur through evidence based research conducted by economists on these effects of minimum wage (Card et al. 493).
Arguments against suggestions that increased minimum wage brings about unemployment
According to research in this area, an increment of about 10 percent in the minimum wage was found to reduce teenage unemployment by about three percent. This argument is described through the end-result of minimum wages through the employment elasticity, which describes the ratio of the percentage change in employment to the percentage change in the legislated wage. The ideology behind this reasoning occurs through the illustration that a 10 percent hike in the minimum wage lowers employment of the affected group by about 1 percent when the elasticity is -0.1 and by 3 percent when the elasticity is -3 (Neumark, 356). Evidence for industries such as the fast food has been used in the attempt explain the results associated with an increase in minimum wage rate to employment especially to young adults and teenagers. These studies have engaged in the comparison of the outcomes in the fast food industry to those in the bordering state of Pennsylvania where wage laws remained the same even after the New Jersey law brought about a rise to the minimum wage (Neumark, 356).
This study portrayed the fact that New Jersey minimum wage rate brought about increased employment as well as constructed a wage gap measure equal to the difference between the initial starting wage and the new minimum wage for restaurants involved in fast-foods in New Jersey and equal to zero for those in Pennsylvania (Neumark, 360). The increase in employment opportunities brought about significant results regarding growth on employment in New Jersey with an estimated elasticity of 0.73. These studies were coupled with the comparison of employment growth at stores based in New Jersey which were initially paying high wages but remained unaffected by the new law to changes in employment at lower wage stores. Apparently, the stores that remained unaffected by the minimum wage portrayed similar employment growth to those in Pennsylvania as opposed to the stores that had to increase the wages as well as their employment (Neumark, 360).
The reasoning behind this entails the fact that an increase in the minimum wage rate brings about a reduction in employment to the profit-maximizing employers as it involves extra costs to sustain the employees. However, for the employers incurring higher minimum wages, the employment of another employee would lead to the increase of wages for the other employees as the high costs would be diverted to the customers. Studies conducted with the comparison of 410 restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania indicated an increment in the minimum wage rates from $ 4.2 to $ 5.05 occurred during a recession where unemployment rates in New Jersey had risen substantially (Neumark, 362). The effects obtained from the increase in minimum wage were thus not propagated by the rising economy. This is coupled with the fact that New Jersey comprises of a relatively small state within an economy that closely relates to its nearby states. In this case, the variation in wages within New Jersey allowed the comparison in experiences of high-wage as well as low-wage stores in New Jersey through testing the validity of the Pennsylvania control group (Neumark, 362).
Apparently, the challenge in the model applied to the competitive model is that it was wrong and some economists argued that there could be instances of monopsony in labor markets due to the frictions that tie workers to specific forms. These frictions indicated that in any instance when employers hired more workers, the cost of existing workers would also increase. Resultantly, employed based on the market may at times fall below the economically efficiently competitive level thus making the minimum wage to bring about higher chances of employment (Neumark, 339). In this case, the stores involved in high wages in New Jersey were largely unaffected by the minimum wage as the effects were brought about by worsening of the economies. This saw an increase in employment between 1991 and 1993 as the rise in unemployment would be expected to lower fast food employment in the absence of other factors. The basic ideology behind these findings indicates that firms in a low-wage region are more likely to respond to an increase in the minimum wage through having the owner pick up more hours on their own and cutting back on the employee overtime hours. On the other hand, large firms might also attempt to squeeze more work out of the managers under salaries as well as hiring more part-time workers with the aim of avoiding benefit obligations (Neumark, 339). Consequently, most employees may get to keep their jobs at the high mandated wages due to aspects such as trust or loyalty or simply due to the desire of avoiding the implications of restructuring business operations to account for fewer workers. This is prevalent because employment opportunities have a social dimension that does not rely on economic endeavors (Neumark, 339).
It is also important to note that low wages bring about effects to other sectors other than the employees as studies have indicated that workers at fast food restaurants such as McDonalds as well as other major restaurant chains, use federal and state programs at far higher rates that other workers. Most of these costs are met by the people in the society as an increase in the minimum wage shifts some of the burden to the private stakeholders (Neumark, 339).
Arguments for suggestions that increased minimum wages brings about unemployment
According to economic research conducted on the effects of the minimum wage, the employees within an organization who get to retain their jobs are simply made better off at the expense of unskilled workers who are mostly young adults who get laid off. The increase of the minimum wage rate brings about an attractive appeal to new entrants who seek the job opportunities even without the guarantee that they will get them (Neumark, 354). In instances where the minimum wage rate goes beyond the prevailing market wage, most workers lose their jobs or get limited working hours. This is especially true with evidence indicating that a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage rate may bring about a 3 percent decrease in employment of low-skilled workers. Economists arguing for this ideology have suggested that employers have the option of finding alternative ways of economizing on the higher-labor prices as factors such as the introduction of new technology as well as labor saving capital investment tend to replace the unskilled workers. The belief that there will be an increment in the minimum wage increases these substitutions thus bringing about more skilled workers and few job opportunities for the low-skilled workers (Neumark, 354).
Eventually, the minorities will be entitled to high unemployment rates due to the fact that participation rates will decline as workers affected by the minimum wage tend to drop out of the formal labor market. In this case, researchers have argued that the increase of minimum wage violates the principle of freedom through limitations to the range of options open to workers. These limitations prevent workers from getting involved or taking part in job opportunities offering less than the legal minimum. Additionally, they suggest that the minimum wage hinders employers from employing workers regardless of whether they would have brought in more advantages (Neumark, 354).
In this case, economists arguing for this perspective have indicated that if low-skilled workers lose the jobs, their income becomes zero. At this juncture, employers fail or rather hesitate to pay their employees higher minimum wages if they lack the ability to produce at least the same amount. Studies have also indicated that employers seek to benefit in terms of profits through higher minimum wages in which they employ workers with better skills and qualifications. This leads to other employees losing their jobs and remaining unemployed as there are no employers willing to employ them at the above market wage (Shouhai, 183). In addition, the increase of minimum wage leads to employers increasing the prices of their commodities in order to cover other expenses. However, in doing so, they push the obligation of meeting these expenses to the consumers who in turn buy less of the commodities or have less money to spend. Eventually, the employers are left with less money and as a means of recovering this money, the low-skilled workers are laid off and more skilled employers are brought in to meet the value of the minimum wage they receive through their output (Shouhai, 183). Basically, the whole concept behind this ideology implies that the most prominent employment effect brought about by minimum wage laws occurs through a decline in the hiring of new employees. This is prevalent through the way employers shift their focus to methods of saving labor of production (Shouhai, 183).
Studies conducted to determine whether an increase in minimum wage in New Jersey adversely affected the rate of employment in the fast food industry indicated that the increase in minimum wage rate brought about an increase in job opportunities for low-skilled workers. However, this argument was criticized by other economists who suggested that the study only focused on franchise restaurants such as McDonald’s without paying attention to smaller organizations that are significantly affected by the increase in the minimum wage (Shouhai, 183). The study was criticized for ignoring the employees who lost their jobs through focusing on those who retained their jobs on higher minimum wage. In response to the ideologies raised, proponents of the minimum wage suggested that deep focus should have been given to the workers lost their jobs in order to identify with the law of demand (Shouhai, 183). Evidence also indicates that the increase of the minimum wage from $5.15 in 2007 to $ 7.25 per hour brought about an increase in unemployment rates as it occurred during the recession period. It saw about 29 percent of black teenagers losing their jobs or lack employment opportunities as opposed to white teenagers. Conclusively, the increase in minimum wage brings about a decline in employment opportunities as most employers seek skilled workers who will bring in more skills and hence profits to the organization (Shouhai, 183).
The increase of minimum wage rates brings about imbalance in the labor market as employers seek to get the skilled employers whom they are willing to pay the given minimum wage with the hope that they will substantiate with an equivalent production. In this case, they lay off the unskilled workers who would have worked at lower minimum wages and thus render them unemployed (Card et al. 489). However, instead of laying them off, they should choose amongst the unskilled workers, retain them in their posts but reduce their benefits as well as working hours. Similarly, they may also choose to substitute more skilled workers with low-skilled workers with the aim of reducing the costs incurred (Card et al. 489). This should occur through the adoption of labor-labor substitution as a way of responding to higher minimum wage in the long run. Consequently, retaining low-skilled worker at higher minimum wages would bring about increased productivity among the workers and in turn reduce poverty (Card et al. 489).
Additionally, more emphasis on current research should be directed towards the workers who have lost their jobs as a result of increased minimum wage. This way economists and researchers would get different perspectives of the effects brought about increase in minimum wage. Although many studies have indicated that there is limited evidence regarding the effects of minimum wage, it is imminent that through the issues discussed in this paper portray distinct perspectives regarding minimum wages to employment (Card et al. 489). However, it depends on the employers in the market as they determine the employment opportunities they should offer based on the market trends as well as issues raised by government. Governments should thus intervene to offer minimum wage floors to organizations with an attempt to solve the unemployment menace. In addition, economic conditions and factors should be applied and deeply considered in order to initiate stronger effects in reducing unemployment brought about by minimum wage (Card et al. 489).
Card, David, Katz, Lawrence F. and Krueger, Alan B., “Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages: Panel Data on State Minimum Wage Laws: Comment,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, April 1994, 47, 487-96, http://www.nber.org/papers/w4528
“Effects of Raising the Minimum Wage: Research and Key Lessons Journalist’s Resource.” Journalist’s Resource. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. <http://journalistsresource.org/studies/economics/jobs/the-effects-of-raising-the-minimum-wage#>.
“Evidence on Employment Effects of Minimum Wages and Subminimum Wage Provisions From Panel Data on State Minimum Wage Laws.” NBER. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.
Neumark, David. “The Employment Effects of Minimum Wages: Evidence from a Prespecified Research Design The Employment Effects of Minimum Wages.”Industrial Relations 1 (2001): 333-417. Print.
Shouhai, Ding. “Employment Effects of Minimum Wage Regulation and Cross Effect of the Employment Contracts Law.” Social Sciences in China 2 (2010): 171-249. Print.
Sample Essay on Dubai Expo 2020 ccusa autobiographical essay help
Dubai Expo 2020
The world Expo event takes place after every five years, it is held in different countries around the world and millions of people attend this spectacular event. The major reason for attending is the exploration of the pavilions, the rich exhibitions and the cultural events that are showcased by the numerous participants who take part in the event. The first expo was held in the year 1851 and since then, there has been an immense demand in the creation of new economic links between the different nations around the world. The Expo has taken pride in being one of the largest and the most enduring global movements.
Dubai wins the bid to host the world expo
In late November 2013, Dubai was very lucky to win the bid to host the world expo in 2020. It will be the first time for the EXPO to be held in the Middle East, the Northern Africa and the South Asian regions commonly known as the MENASA region. The reason Dubai chose its theme is the fact that countries need to come together and share their ideas to have a better future for all the people. The primary goal of the Expo is to bring minds together to share the diverse ideas and take the future to a better path. Dubai came up with three sub themes, which will be discussed during the Expo, namely; mobility, sustainability and opportunity. These sub themes are perceived as challenges in global growth. In the sub themes, mobility will be sufficient for motivating the smart systems for the purpose of logistics and transportations, sustainability will provide lasting sources for energy and water, and opportunity will come up with new ways for the purpose of economic development. The country is planning to host the Expo in a 438-hectare site, which is located at the city’s edge. The constructions for the site begins next year and will end by October 2019.
Negative impacts of the Expo on the economy
Despite the positive outcomes that it will bring, the expo will have some negative impacts. One of the major drawbacks caused by the Expo will be the issue of inflation. It is now evident that the rental and selling prices of houses in Dubai are on the rise. The National bank of Qatar has warned that the Dubai market may be overheated due to the increased debt that will be motivated by the event. The demand for infrastructure will result to increased pressures on the regional supply chains, this will push up the cost for the raw materials and the fuelling real estate and the asset prices bubbles. Increase in cost of living will frustrate the competitiveness of the country’s economy.
Natural resources that will be depleted in Dubai as a result of the EXPO
With water resources becoming scarce in Dubai, the 2020 expo will act as a catalyst for the depletion of this important resource. Experts contend that there will be an acute water shortage in Dubai after 50 years, the reports have not paid attention to the Expo that will host millions and millions of people who will use water in large amounts, the 50-year projection may come down. The construction of the Expo avenue will need sand, this means that the remaining sand reservoirs in Dubai will be under threat. Though Dubai is surrounded by sand deserts, it is worth noting that this sand cannot be used for construction it has low shear strength.
Instability in the Middle East
The instability in the middle east might turn to be a threat to the visitors during the expo, if things do not get any better, tension in the region will make the visitors fear for their security and avoid attending the Expo, this will be detrimental to Dubai economy this is because, the country will not be in a position to achieve the targeted economic goal due to lower revenue income. The country will also lose some potential investors who will not be able to attend due to security.
Sample Research Paper on The reason of King Tuthankamun death college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The Cause of King Tutankhamun’s Death
King Tutankhamun, popularly known as King Tut, remains one of the important historical figures in Egypt. Since discovery of the tomb by a British archaeologist, Howard Carter, in 1922, there have been controversies on the cause of death of this young king who took over the reign when only eight years old, going ahead to rule until his death at nineteen years. He took over the reign from Akhenaten, his father. However, his death marked the end of a dynasty because he had no surviving child who could have taken over the royal throne, leading to his close advisors taking over the Kingdom’s leadership. Various autopsy examinations over many years have led different archeologists and historians to develop different theories to the cause of death to this young king who ruled during a volatile time in ancient Egypt’s history. The latest CT scan over the dead body of the pharaoh has disproved popular theories of murder and the chariot accident. The answer of the mystery itself lies on the lineage of Tutankhamun, which tells us that his inherited diseases had led him to death.
According to Reeves (121-123), the importance of King Tutankhamun comes from the fact that his death marked an important transition from a dynasty to the rule of people who were not from royal lineage. Another reason could be seen in his death at an early age, just nineteen, considering that the ancient Egypt was more developed, and had better foods and other royal supplies that made people live longer. After the discovery of King Tut’s tomb, archeologists embarked on a journey to find out some of the reasons for his death. Buchanan (n.p) argues that the cause of the king’s death could not be established because his predecessors erased some of the important royal records on Tut’s lineage from the historical books. Therefore, the discovery of his dummy provided an opportunity for the archeologist to find out the some of the historical issues (Hawass, et al. 640).
Murder was one of the theories that earlier archeologists had advanced as the possible cause of death for the King Tut. This came from the examination of the dummy found in the 1922 discovery by Howard Carter. The backside of the skull was found to have bumps and marks that indicated an injury by a blunt object, most probably by a person with a sinister motive (Hoving 32-43). This theory was supported by the fact that King Tut was a young leader who must have relied most on the powerful advisors in order to run affairs of the Kingdom. The second possible cause of King Tut’s death is chariot fall that might have caused serious bodily harm that he might have later succumbed. According to Hoving (32-43), archeologist point to the broken bones in King Tut’s dummy as possible cause of his death. Haag (10-21) notes that the king may have fallen or run over by a chariot while on his knees, leading to serious bodily harm and his death. This theory has since been disputed by the fact that the broken bones may have been caused by the archeologists in the process of removing the remains from the discovered tomb. The body was seriously dismembered in the process of transferring it to the museum and examination centers, leading to the doubts whether the broken bones could have all been caused before the death (Hawass, et al. 640).
However, the recent CT scan on King Tut’s dummy finds out that his death may have been caused by a serious illness that is related to the family lineage. According to Neubert (43), a thorough CT scan on the preserved remains of King Tut has proven the fact that his parents were indeed a brother and sister. It is likely that he must have been born with a serious genetic disorder, something that affected his normal life operations. The genetical problem comes from the many artifacts that were found in King Tut’s tomb, in which, he either stood by a support or sat down while with his wife. None of the ancient artwork found in his grave shows that he stood normally, advancing the theory that he might have been born by a genetical problem from both parents. He had also been using walking sticks to aid his mobility (Hawass, et al. 640). He may have died from the complications that arose from the genetical disorder acquired from his birth.
In order for this theory to be valid, it is important to have advanced it with respect to previous probable causes of his death. One of the earlier theories alluded to the fact that he may have had an accident while riding a chariot or he may have been run over by a chariot (Hawass, et al. 646). The recent discovery doubts whether King Tut was able to ride a chariot by himself, given that he had a bodily disorder that affected his movement. Therefore, the only way he would ride a chariot was by using an aid and such movement would be highly regulated because he was the king of the Egyptian empire. The accident theory was advanced because of the many fractures that were discovered in his remains, something that (Andritsos 22) is believed was caused in the process of transferring the body from the tomb to other places. According to the CT scan and virtual autopsy, only one breakage may have happened before his death.
My opinion is that murder theory does not appear to be correct because of the argument that the head injury seen by the archeologists may have been caused by various factors other than a person by a sinister motive. The first explanation is that the scar at the back of the head may have been caused during the rigorous embalming process before the burial of his remains. The preservatives required that certain parts of the body be opened for administration, something that likely occurred with King Tut. On the same note, the removal of the body from the highly secured coffins may have caused the head injury. For instance, the body was discovered with the royal crown on the head. The process of removing this object by the archeologists may have caused the scar at the back of the head.
Therefore, I believe that as the recent CT scan has shown, King Tut may have never been murdered or had a chariot accident. The fact that his parents were close relatives may have led to a serious health disorder that was not curable by the available medicine. All the paintings and other artifacts show that he never walked unaided, indicating that he may have never ridden a chariot. Most of the body injuries that have been seen may have been caused in the process of transferring the body from the tomb. However, there is need for more research on some of the ancient literature in order to have a clear understanding the life during King Tut’s time. Nevertheless, no much can be done on the remains of the King since the modern investigations have been exhaustive.
Andritsos, John. Social Studies of Ancient Egypt: Tutankhamun. Australia, 2006.
Buchanan, Rose Troup. “King Tutankhamun did not die in chariot crash, virtual autopsy reveals.” The Independent. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. April 21, 2015<http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/king-tutankhamun-did-not-die-in-chariot-crash-virtual-autopsy-reveals-9806586.html>.
Neubert, Otto. Tutankhamun and the Valley of the Kings. London: Granada Publishing Limited, 1972.
Haag, Michael. The Rough Guide to Tutankhamun: The King: The Treasure: The Dynasty, London, 2005.
Hawass, Zahi et al. “Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 303 (7): 2010, 638–647.
Hoving, Thomas. The Search for Tutankhamun: The Untold Story of Adventure and Intrigue Surrounding the Greatest Modern archeological find. New York: Simon & Schuster, 15 October 1978.
Reeves, C. Nicholas. The Complete Tutankhamun: The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. London: Thames & Hudson, 1 November 1990.
Media and Fascism: Mass Media in Italy and Germany during Hitler’s And Mussolini’s Leadership admission college essay help
Media is the plural for medium, which means the channel through which information is conveyed. Mass media are forms of media that are used to convey information or news to a large audience by use of different forms of technology such as radio, television, internet, music, news papers and magazines. Mass media has several effects among the masses including reflecting the culture of a people as well as creating the culture. This is done by promoting moods and attitudes to the multitudes of what may be either important or unimportant.
Mass media plays a crucial role in the government. It can be used to either exalt or undermine accountability and transparency in the government. Balkin J.M (1998, n.p) says that politicians and other members of the government can use media to simulate the political virtues of transparency through media manipulation. This aspect is well achieved because most people do not have the chance to directly interact with the ruling government; they therefore make their opinions based on what the media portrays about the ruling government.
The media tends to rule out less entertaining stories to give more coverage to political aspects of the country such as infighting, elections, scandals as well as the private lives that these politicians live. In the long run the political tension or the political temperatures of the influence the discourse / themes and attitudes the people have towards the leadership of the country. For this reason, depending on the extent to which the government has control over the media, it is possible for the government of the day to continuously perpetrate its injustices and undoing without attention and skepticism from the public.
Trotsky, L. (2002, 5) defines fascism as term originating from Italy. It was a movement that was characterized by spontaneous movement of large masses of people with new leaders from the rank and file. It is a plebian movement in origin that was directed and financed by big capitalist powers. The government being the supreme organ of the state requiring everyone to conform to its principles also characterizes it. The ruling government of the state seeks to conquer the rest of the world thus requiring all the humans in the world to submit to that particular government. Moreover, fascism necessitates that anyone against the principles of the government to be done away with. It is criminal to question the government and this is seen as detrimental to the attitudes of the rest of the population since one may end up corrupting them. Fascism is effectively applied by the use of militarism to have everyone conform to the ruling government.
Governments that employ fascism have to control every organ of the state. They require patriotism, disregard human rights for the sake of the security of the country, the military is rendered supreme above all other needs of the country, sexism is highly upheld, and the government of the day uses the most common religion to manipulate the public ideologies. The corporate elite benefit more resulting to corruption and fraudulent elections. In addition, the government either directly or indirectly controls the mass media. During war, the mass media content is often censored.
This paper seeks to examine the state of mass media in Italy and Germany during Hitler and Mussolini’s leadership. It analyses the use of mass media by these leaders to perpetrate fascism and to what extent were mass media content censored for the sake of national security.
Despite the difference in geographical location between Benito Mussolini’s regime in Italy from 1922-1943 and Adolf Hitler’s regime in Germany from 1933-1945, these leaders share have a lot of similarities and a few differences with regard to their leaderships styles. The main similarity is that both used fascism as a principle to maintain their leadership. They established and maintained single party states through the warring periods and this was well executed by the ignorance of national discontentment. They both received undying support due to their ability to present a bright future for their countries. The aspect of social policy was used by these leaders to impose fascist ideologies to the masses and to retain their power throughout their leadership. They also applied fascism to control the larger population and marginalizing opposition parties or movements. (Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015, n.p)
The rise of dictatorial regimes played a major role in contributing to the beginning of the World War II. Italy and Germany succumbed to the fascist rule while Russia adopted totalitarianism. By 1939, only two major states in Europe, France and Great Britain remained Democratic. Several other European states and Latin American countries adopted authoritarianism where Japan adopted a militarist regime that led to its warring later on. Totalitarian regimes in Russia and German extended the functions and rule of the government. They expected active loyalty and commitment of citizens to the goals of the state regardless of what they were aimed at. Whether war, socialist society. They used modern mass propaganda techniques and high-speed communications to subdue the hearts and minds of their subjects. They sought to control political, social, economic, cultural, as well as intellectual aspects.
Burt, D. S. (2001, 302) writes a biography about Mussolini saying that Mussolini was an editor of the Socialist Party Newspaper and gained prominence as a leader of the revolutionary left wing party. When World War 1 broke out he turned to nationalism and after serving in the army, he formed a fascist group. He was later elected to parliament later marched on Rome and finally leading the king to making Mussolini the premier. Mussolini formed a dictatorship; eliminated opponents restricted the press and ended parliamentary government.
After Mussolini lived from hand to mouth for several years he took advantage of a political amnesty and embarked on a career in political journalism (Sarti, R. 2004, 429). He excelled as a journalist making him popular as a socialist revolutionary and opponent of party leader Fillipo Turati. After the 1911 protest by Mussolini against the Italian Turkish War, he was arrested and gained reputation as hardliner. He rose in 1912 as the head editor of the socialist newspaper Avanti. He later got uncomfortable with the legal tactics of the socialist party and hoped that war would provide a direct path to revolution. He late challenged the party position that Italy should stay out of European conflict that had broken out in august. He was later expelled from the party and he launched his own newspaper Il Popolo d’ Italia that ran the slogan ‘War Today, Revolution Tomorrow’ that demanded that Italy should intervene in the war. During the war he served as an artillery instructor was wounded and got back to his newspaper. It is from this point that he formed the Fascist Party (Sarti, R. 2004, 430).
Italy under Mussolini’s leadership
Fascism was born in Italy during Benito Mussolini’s rule by use of a fascist movement. He was a veteran of World War I and by this time established a new political group; ‘Fascio di Combattimento’ translated to mean ‘League of Combat’. This movement won support from middle-class industrialists who were fearful of working class agitation and large-scale landowners who were against agricultural strikes. The movement became more popularized when it became Mussolini’s national rhetoric and the fear that the middle class had toward socialism, communist revolution and disorder (Duiker, J. W. & Spielvogel, J., 2010, 617).
On 29th October 1922, Mussolini alongside other fascist threatened to march in Rome if they were not granted power. King Victor Emmanuel gave in and made Mussolini the prime minister of Italy. By 1926, Mussolini had already established the institutional framework for fascist dictatorship having been made the head of government with the power to legislate by decree. The police were given the mandate to arrest and confine anybody guilty of both political and nonpolitical offences without the due process of the law. All political and cultural organizations were then dissolved. By this same year, all anti-fascist movements were outlawed and the secret police force was established. By the time, the year came to an end Mussolini ruled as Italy’s ultimate ruler ‘Il Duce’ meaning “the leader’.
Mussolini tried to create a police state but it was not very effective. His attempts to also exercise control over all forms of mass media such as radio, newspapers, and cinema to promote propaganda to integrate the masses into the state were also not very fruitful. Fascists propaganda was disseminated through simple slogans such as “Mussolini is always right” that were plastered on walls all over Italy. The fascist also portrayed the family as the pillar of the state and women’s position were reserved to the kitchen. The popular slogan used for was “women into the home.” They were to be homemakers and produce babies. This was also seen as the perfect mission that women have in life. For this reason, women were not allowed to get employment outside their homes as this would affect their productivity and give them a sense of independence, which would in turn affect their physical and moral habits that were contrary to the principle of childbearing.
It worth noting that despite the suppression and use of propaganda in the creation of numerous fascist movements, Mussolini never achieved the totalitarian control that was experienced in Germany by Hitler or in Russia by Stalin. He was not able to completely destroy the old power structure. He was soon overshadowed by a much more powerful fascist movement to the north (Duiker, J. W. & Spielvogel, J., 2010, 617-618).
In a separate book, Spielvogel, J. (2014, 594) says the press laws during Mussolini’s leadership gave the government the right to suspend any publications that fostered disrespect to the Catholic Church, the monarchy or the state. He also says that Mussolini adopted the use of slogans all over the walls in Italy portraying Mussolini as being right always and the fact that women were destined to belong to the kitchen. He attempted to mould Italians into a fascist ideology by developing fascist organizations. The regime relied more and more in on the services of youth organizations known as the Young Fascista to indoctrinate to young people to fascist ideologies by enrolling them in Fascist youth groups that various activities among them marching drills, calisthenics, seaside and mountain summer camps as well as contest. This was met which mixed feelings where the Italian teenagers who did not like the military training or routine training simply refused to attend these sessions.
However, Mussolini failed to attain the degree of totalitarian rule that was experienced in Germany. Some institutions such the monarchy and military were never absorbed into the fascist state, they managed to retain their independence. Despite having boasted that he would help workers and peasants, he allied himself with the interests of the landowners and industrialists at the expense of the lower class people (Spielvogel, J. 2014, 594).
John McCannon explains that Mussolini used modern technology and bureaucracy to control every aspect of the subject’s lives. He compares Mussolini to other totalitarian leaders such as Stalin and Hitler terming Mussolini leadership as mild. Though he imposed, censorship controls over culture imprisoned and even killed political enemies and dissidents and used propaganda to create a cult of personality. (341)
Germany when Hitler’s leadership
In Germany fascism arose during Adolf Hitler’s rule. At first, Hitler attempted to seize power in Southern Germany in Beer Hall Putsch where he failed but brought him and the Nazi’s into national recognition and prominence. He rose to power at the end of World War 1 after serving in the Western Front and decided to get into politics. He joined German Worker Party, which was among the extreme nationalist parties and assumed party by the end of 1921, which he renamed National Socialist German Workers’ Party popularly known as Nazi Party. In two years the membership was at 55,000 including 15,000 in the militia
He later staged an armed uprising against the government in Munich in November 1923, the Beer Hall Putsch. The putsch was later crushed and Hitler was sentenced to prison where he wrote an autobiography named “My Struggle” that outlined facts about his movement and its underlying ideologies of extreme German nationalism, virulent anti-Semitism, and anti-communism. All these aspects were intertwined with the social Darwinian theory of struggle that stresses the right of superior nations to Lebensraum (living space) through expansion and the right of superior individuals to secure authoritarian leadership over the masses. During his imprisonment Hitler realized that the Nazi would come to power through constitutional means unlike the previous mode of overthrowing the ruling government.
William J. Duiker, Jackson Spielvogel 2010, 617-618He later reorganized the Nazi Party and competed for votes with other parties. By 1929 the Nazis had a national party organization. Three years later, the Nazis had 800,000 members thus becoming the largest party in Reichstag. Previously disturbed by unemployment among other factors Hitler promised to create a new Germany that was free of class differences and party infighting. He confirmed his appeal to national pride, national honor and traditional militarism was positively and warmly received by his listeners. The Germans were enthusiastic of his leadership and looked up to him as their savior and deliverer from their problems. For this reason, the right wing elites of Germany including the industrial magnates, aristocrats, and the military and higher bureaucrats were optimistic of Hitler’s leadership that would save Germany from their Communist takeover.
The then president Paul von Hindenburg was put under pressure and he agreed to allow Hitler become chancellor on January 30th 1933 and form a new government. Within two months Hitler organized on how the Nazis would take over and he was crowned on March 23. This was followed by the Nazis acting fast to bringing all the institutions into their control. The civil service was purged for Jews and democratic elements, concentration camps were established for the opponents of the new regime, trade unions dissolved and all other parties except the Nazi were abolished. By the end of 1933, Hitler and the Nazi had established the foundations for a totalitarian state. When Heidenburg died on 2nd August 1924, the office of Reich president was abolished and Hitler became the ultimate ruler of Germany. Having crashed the parliamentary state, Hitler was tasked to establish a total state with the goal of developing an Aryan racial state that was aimed at dominating Europe and d the whole world forever. (William J. duiker, Jackson Spielvogel 2010, 618)
McCannon, J. (2006, 341) also explains that despite the democracy that was characteristic of the German rule during Weimar regime, the straining economic conditions especially the fact that almost 40% of its population was unemployed brought it to an end thus popularizing the extremist parties: the Communists and the Nazis. A series of elections in 1932 made the Nazi Party the largest in Germany and in 1933; Hitler was appointed the chancellor of Germany. He further explains that Hitler became an absolute tyrant within months. In 1933, the Reichstag building was burned down and Hitler took advantage of this situation thereby declaring a state of emergency and passed the enabling act that suspended the Weimar Constitution and gave Hitler the power to rule by decree for four years. He also outlawed all other political parties especially the communist parties, took control of the press and mass media, banned labor unions, imposed a system of state capitalism, built concentration camps for political opponents and also established a secret police. He managed to end the unemployment crisis by a giant public works program and highway building and massive increase in arms production (McCannon, J. 2006, 341). The Jews were forced out of professions, their businesses were boycotted, and they were physically harassed. Before the World War II, the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 striped German Jews of their citizenship and forbade the Jews and German non- Jews to marry or have sexual relations of any kind (McCannon, J. 2006, 342)
Perry, M., Chase, M., Jacob, J., & Daly, J., (2014, 742) say that the Communist Russia, Nazist Germany and Fascist Italy used mass organization and mass media to control the minds of the people and regulate behavior. They conveyed the image of a virile leader, Mussolini had himself photographed bare-chested or in a uniform with a steel helmet. Other photographs showed him riding horses, driving fast cars, flying planes and plying with lions cubs. Elementary school textbooks depicted Mussolini as the savior of the nation. The press, radio, and cinema idolized life under cinema. They implied that fascism had eradicated crime, poverty and social tensions.
In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and incorporated Ethiopia into the new Italian empire. He later sent his support to fascists in Spain hoping to expand his influence. Adolf Hitler was later impressed by Mussolini’s efforts and therefore established a relationship leading to signing of military alliance known as the pact of steel. Hitler also influenced him to discriminate Jews in Italy. Italy’s resources were stretched to capacity thus many Italians believed the alliance with Germany provided them a chance to regroup. Hitler’s’ invasion into Poland and the war with Britain and France forced Italy into war thus exposing weaknesses in its military. Greece and North America fell and the German intervention saved Mussolini from a coup de tat. Mussolini died when there were allied forces that forced Germany to move its forces to the eastern troop against the Soviet Union. Mussolini was forced to resign and he was arrested but the German forces rescued him. He attempted to escape alongside his mistress but he was captured on 27th April 1945 and they were executed the following day (Bio, 2015, n.p)
Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015. Compare And Contrast Hitler’s and Mussolini’s domestic policies. Available at:
https://rudbeck-ib-history-revision.wikispaces.com/3.23+Compare+and+contrast+Hitler+and+Mussolinis+DP [Accessed 9 April 2015]
Duiker, W. J., & Spielvogel, J., 2010. The Essential World History, volume 2. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
McCannon, J., 2006. Barron’s how to prepare for the AP world history examination. Hauppauge, N.Y., Barron’s.
Spielvogel, J., 2014. Western Civilization: A Brief History. 8th ed. Wardsworth Cengage Learning. Boston.
Trotsky, L., 2002. Fascism: what it is and how to fight it. Broadway, N.S.W., Resistance Books. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=mr44vcDDxrkC&pg=PA51&dq=Fascism:+what+it+is+and+how+to+fight+it.+Broadway,+N.S.W.,+Resistance+Books.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5ZAmVZiwKcr3UpO5gMgP&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Fascismwhatitisandhowtofightit.BroadwayN.S.W.ResistanceBooks.&f=false
Perry, M., Chase, M., Jacob, J., & Daly, J., 2014. Western civilization: Ideas politics and society, volume II: From 1600 .
Balkin, J.M., 1998. How Mass media simulate political Transparency. Writings Online. Yale University. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/jbalkin/articles/media01.htm
Sarti, R., 2004. Italy a reference guide from the Renaissance to the present. New York, NY, Facts on File. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10284762.
Burt, D. S., 2001. The biography book: a reader’s guide to nonfiction, fictional, and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time. Westport, CT, Oryx Press. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC&pg=PA302&dq=newspaprs+in+italy+during+mussolinis+leadership&hl=en&sa=X&ei=P2kmVZTiAcn4UJfZg_AO&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=newspaprsinitalyduringmussolinisleadership&f=false
Bio., 2015. Benito Mussolini Biography. Dictator (1883-1945) [Online] Available at: http://www.biography.com/people/benito-mussolini-9419443 [Accessed 9 April 2
Geography Research Paper on China’s ‘Missing Girls’ essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax
China’s ‘Missing Girls’
In China, the high ratio of male to female has been raising concerns among researchers. Avraham Ebenstein asserts that global policymakers have also noticed the alarming increase of males to females across China. China’s ‘missing girls’ has been issue linked to the ‘One Child Policy.’ More so, fertility across the country has reduced over the recent past. The highest sex ratios are observed among people under very strict fertility control. The high ratios are attributed to an increase in the prevalence of sex selection. The sex selection ranges between the first and second births. The research, therefore, will exploit regional and temporal variation in relation to the ‘missing girls’ in China. It will demonstrate the unintended consequences of exacerbating distortion in China’s sex ratio.
The People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949. It hosted a population of 540 million people. Decades later, the population has increased exceeding 800-million people. The increase in population was mainly observed between 1950s and 1970s. The alarming increase created a global concern. It was believed that China was headed for ‘Malthusian collapse’, which refers to an unchecked population growth that can outstrip availability and affordability of food and resources resulting in massive famine. As a result, the Chinese fertility policy was re-evaluated in an attempt to limit fertility. The evaluation culminated in the ‘One Child Policy’ (Ebenstein 88). The policy was developed and implemented in 1979 for China’s family planning programs to reduce fertility rates.
Analysis of China’s Missing Girls
Debra Killalea estimates that at least 60-million girls are missing in China as they were killed either before or after birth due to their gender (1). Government records have also failed to document at least 25-million girls as they have not been registered. Debra, however, notes that the national population data has been spanning for 25-years. In 2006, a National Geographic documentary called ‘China’s Lost Girls’ looked into the issue of China’s ‘Missing girls’. It claimed that one quarter of China’s children especially girls are adopted in America. The National Geographic followed Chinese families into Chinese orphanages to capture the adoption process.
According to Ebenstein, Amartya Sen alerted Western researchers on sex bias in relative care across China in 1990 (89). The researchers had acknowledged that there were high fractions of males and females in China. The Chinese population had also witnessed Chinese women experience decades of mistreatment and neglect. Amartya Sen, therefore, alerted the researchers in an attempt to suggest that sex bias was responsible for the high Chinese sex ratio. Amartya also claimed that at least 50-million Chinese women and 100-million women around the world were not accounted for after scrutinizing natural birth and mortality rates. After policy makers read Amartya’s research findings, they gathered resources to conduct further research on the issue of China’s ‘Missing Girls’.
The female deficit in China has been growing. General improvement in infant health care across China has not ensured the number of male and female children aged between 15 and 13 years respectively to balance. Marriage prospects for future generations of Chinese men have, therefore, been grim if the sex ratios do not balance. In 2005, a consensus emerged that sex ratio distortion in China was attributed to prenatal discrimination against female conceptions (Ebenstein 91). The consensus was based on fertility surveys, field work, and census data. The consensus provided a number of findings. Foremost, it was revealed that Chinese parents have been favoring large families since time immemorial. The parents also direct family resources to their sons rather than daughters, as they believe their male children have the capacity to expand the family. Consequently, policy makers have been compelled to limit fertility, especially since 1979, when the ‘One Child Policy’ was implemented. The sex ratio of births, however, began to expand forcing fertility levels to decline facilitating the rise in male fraction of births.
Between 1950s and 1960s, the total fertility exceeded six births per mother, following famine associated with Mao’s Great Leap Forward. Chinese officials and the Communist Party raised concerns on the rapid growth of the population. Subsequently, they enacted a series of fertility control policies. Their efforts culminated in formulation of the ‘One Child Policy’ in 1979, which excluded additional children from free public education. More so, the policy made parents who violated it liable to fines. Additionally, forced sterilization and abortion campaigns followed, in 1983. The campaigns created domestic unrest prompting Chinese policy makers to consider revising the 1979 policy (Ebenstein 89). For example, they considered allowing some mothers to have more than one child. The government, however, hoped the revised policy would discourage violations of the guiding principle and increase the number of public members supporting the ‘One Child Policy’. More so, the Chinese government instituted localized fertility policy in 1984.
The policy subjected residents of different provinces to diversely mandated limits. Despite the ‘one child policy’ being enforced especially on urban residents, mothers with daughters across several rural provinces were permitted to have additional births. The revision of the policy was referred to as the ‘1.5 Child Policy’. Families located in remote areas, however, were allowed to bear a second and third child (Gu, Feng, Guo and Erli 130). Currently, the Chinese fertility policy imposes a one child limit on urban residents. The Chinese government targets urban residents as it believes they make up about a third of the country’s population.
The government also enforces the ‘1.5 Child Policy’ limit in rural areas and a two or three child policy limit for people residing in provinces located in remote areas (Yi 221). The policy has been granting exclusions to various groups including ethnic minorities and communities employed in dangerous occupations. Historically, parents across China preferred sons to daughters. Others discarded daughters as soon as they were born, especially in the 1960s when fertility rates were high coupled with low infant mortality rates. The pattern was muted temporarily by mothers with at least one surviving son without resorting to sex selection. The female deficit, however, continued to reduce. The reduction was observed due to high fertility and low infant mortality. The two factors, therefore, contributed to an unsustainable population growth.
In the late 1960s and 1970s, the Chinese government started to promote the ‘Two Is Enough’ policy. Consequently, the sex ration following first and second born daughters began to rise. Prenatal sex selection during that period was also limited due to the unreliable traditional methods that were applied to identify the sex of an unborn child. After the ultrasound technology was introduced, the demand for sex-selective abortion increased. For example, population control officials would send portable ultrasound machines to cities across China in 1980s facilitating sex-selective abortions. The machines, therefore, represented a major development in sex-selection, as they allowed mothers to either abort or conceive if the sex of the baby was deemed favorable. Demographers have also been exploring other explanations for the high sex ratios observed across China (Feng, Guo and Erli 131). For example, they have been exploring adoption, differential mortality rates, and sex-selective abortion.
Research on China’s Missing Girls
According to Jiang Quanbao, Shuzhuo Li, and Marcus Feldman, there are two methods applied in calculating the number and percentage of China’s missing girls (57). By applying the sex ratio of the total population as the benchmark, the total number of males should be divided by the sex ratio of the chosen benchmark to obtain the expected number of females. Difference between number of expected girls and the observed population ought to reflect the number of missing girls. The second method involves calculating missing girls by cohort using China’s census data. The expected sex ratio for a cohort can be calculated by identifying the assumed normal sex ratio at birth and mortality patterns of males and females. Consequently, the number and percentage of missing girls can be computed.
There have been four censuses in China, which were conducted in 1982, 1990, 2000, and 2010. In 2010, the census provided new data affirming that the total population had increased by 11.7%. The World Population Prospects estimated China’s total population to be 1,354 million. The number was revised in 2012 adjusting China’s total fertility rate to 1.5. Thus, reliable data sources affirming the consensus of female children in China have been lacking. More so, deaths are often undercounted or underreported due to lack of information that is crucial in adjusting data. China’s provinces since 1982 have been showing signs of deviation from normal as they are below 112 normal. In 2010, 13-provinces had sex ratio at birth (SRB) over 120 with total births accounting for 60.4% of national births. With China’s SRB ranging between 112 and 120, estimates of the missing girls between 1980 and 2010 have been increasing annually. Jiang, Shuzhuo, and Marcus claim that birth cohort increased between 1990 and 1999 to 9.31% from 2.93% (64). Thus, SRB has been fluctuating around 120, corresponding to 10.85% of China’s missing girls since 2000. As a result, 7.34% or 20.13-million is the total number of missing girls in China.
Geographic Patterns and Explanations
The China census samples contain basic demographic information containing data on men, women, and children residing in the country. The information is also applied to identify households’ members, and the kind of relationships they maintain with the heads of the homes. The census, however, does not provide information on children residing away from home. Between 1990 and 2000, the Chinese census sought to reveal the number of males and females living at home with their parents. The information was applied to reflect the impact of sex preference on parents stopping probability and close correspondence between mothers and their daughters living at home. The male fraction of subsequent births was also reviewed revealing that a small portion of first born children prefer remaining at home. The female deficit, therefore, was attributed to a large number of mothers preferring their sons to their daughters residing at home (Ebenstein 104). Thus, the Chinese preference for sons has increased the female deficit.
Sex ratio distortion has also been caused by adoption of unwanted girls by Chinese families without daughters. Published figures indicate that at least 10,000 adoptions are recorded annually across China. There are, however, reports that assert that more than 50,000 adoptions occur annually as there are informal adoptions that are never reported. Ultimately, the figures affirm that adoption in China is common. According to Gu, Feng, Guo and Erli (137), there is a negligible share of missing girls adopted abroad from China. The author asserts that at least 95% of infants adopted from China are often girls. Sex-selection practices, therefore, attribute to female deficit as adopting families often enumerate daughters.
In 2005, an orthodox opinion was published claiming that parental interventions following daughters are responsible for sex ratio distortions. High hepatitis rates in China among other Asian nations have also attributed to high sex ratios. Biological hypotheses, however, can be difficult to reconcile the high sex ratios following daughters and extended birth intervals preceding sons. High sex ratios often represent strong evidence on sex selection, which is attributed to China’s ‘Missing Girls’ (Oster 1164). Parents under strict fertility limits characterized by lower fertility and higher sex rations also support the claim that human decisions are responsible for the female deficit in China. The long standing demographic patterns and fertility policies slowing population growth have, therefore, led to a deficit of females across China.
Implications of the ‘One Child Policy’ and the Future Outlook
According to Oster (1167), the ‘One Child Policy’ hassled to the levying of fines to parents who give birth to more than one child. The parents are also subject to diverse monetary punishments. For example, their properties are seized or forced to resign as a government employee. There have been four fertility limits for four different categories of parents. The first limit is known as ‘Hukou’. It represents parents registered to an urban work zone and subjected to the ‘One Child Policy’ limit. They are, however, often allowed a second child. The condition that the first child has to be a daughter, however, has to be observed. The condition has facilitated the ‘1.5 Child Policy’ to persist. Consequently, residents in autonomous regions are allowed a second birth. Finally, ethnic minorities are subjected to weaker regulations in all Chinese provinces. Since 2000s, mothers have been choosing to give birth to sons, especially after facing a fine for bearing a child. Women at the peak of child bearing years have been under the ‘One Child Policy’. Women under strictest fertility controls have been bearing sons at a higher rate. Thus, there is a direct role for fertility control due to rise in sex ratio at birth.
According to Debra killalea (1), more than 60-million girls have been missing in China. People believe the girls were either killed before or after birth due to their gender. Research was conducted to revel that at least 25-million girls have been existing. They, however, fail to appear in government records as they have not been registered to avoid raising concerns on gender imbalance across China. Debra notes that the Californian population records over 30-million. Thus, if China misses over 30-million girls, the world should not ignore the issue; rather investigate why they have not been recorded.
According to Debra (1), the researchers report that the national population data spanning for 25-years finds a combination of late registration and unreported births of girls. They are often cited in Chinese sex-ratio-at-birth statistics prompting authorities especially in rural areas to turn a blind eye to extra children in villages who are victims of the regulations of the ‘One Child Policy’. Between 1990 and 2001, the number of men and female births has been diverse. Debra claims China discovered an extra 4-million people in 2000, with females exceeding males. Thus, the statistics affirmed that it was possible for at least 25 million women to be absent, while accounting Chinas’ population.
In 2015, Beijing announced that it was ending the ‘One Child Policy’. A bill allowing all married couples to have a second child was signed (Killalea 1). Deng Xiaoping introduced the 1979 ‘One Child Policy’. The leader claimed that the policy ensured couples who violated it faced severe penalties, fines, forced to have abortions for attempting to give birth to a higher number of children than the law allows. The policy developed to curb the national population, however, led to an increase in gender imbalance. More so, societal preference for boys and claims of sex-selective abortions or infanticides targeted girls. In 2013, the Chinese government allowed couples to bear a second child. The condition, however, was that a couple had to prove it had only a single child. According to Debra, the new permit was a little too late as the Chinese population crisis had been looming.
Rapid industrialization and changes in fertility have been reshaping China for the last four decades. For example, due to the chine community’s preference of male children to female ones, selective abortion targeting girl children resulting in an increased ration of male children to female ones. Although fertility has been slowing across China, the imbalance in sex ratio has been a pressing concern that has been worsening. As a result, the Chinese government ought to ensure that the female deficit does not worsen. For example, policy makers in family planning ought to encourage women to change their fertility behaviors without actually addressing their preferences and unanticipated consequences. The Chinese ‘One Child Policy’, therefore, ought to reduce the sex ratio at birth. For example, it should allow parents to bear sons without necessarily resorting to sex selection. Conversely, it will be costly for China’s next generations.
Ebenstein, Avraham. The “Missing Girls” of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy. The Journal of Human Resources, vol. 45, no. 1, 2010, pp. 87-115.
Gu, Baochang, Feng Wang, Guo Zhigang, and Erli Zhang. China’s Local and National Fertility Policies at the End of the Twentieth Century. Population and Development Review, vol. 33, no. 1, 2007, pp. 129–47.
Killalea, Debra. China’s ‘Missing Girls’: The Millions Hiding from the One Child Policy. News.com.au, 2016. http://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/real-life/news-life/chinas-missing-girls-the-millions-hiding-from-the-one-child-policy/news-story/00d13f5e36b04f241eaf70b0795576a7 Accessed 22 July 2017.
Oster, Emily. Hepatitis B and the Case of the Missing Women. Journal of Political Economy, vol. 113, no. 6, 2005, pp. 1163–1216.
Quanbao, Jiang, Li Shuzhuo, and Feldman Marcus. China’s Missing Girls in the Three Decades from 1980 to 2010. Asian Women, vol. 28, no. 3, 2012, pp. 52-73.
Yi, Zeng. Options for Fertility Policy Transition in China. Population and Development Review, vol. 33, no. 2, 2007, pp. 215–46.
Psychology Case Study Paper on Systems Level Exercise essay help service: essay help service
Systems Level Exercise
The paper focuses on how the current school systems delivery models of counselling are moving from an individual to a program, policy and planning focus. It will analyze the data collection methods to be used in collecting information about the indispline cases in the school. Additionally, the composition of the team to initiate change in the school will be discussed. The resources needed to solve the short-term and long-term needs will be identified and appropriate policies evaluated. Finally, the paper will discuss how the programs will be implemented and the likely challenges during implementation.
Delivery models of counseling are moving from individuals to a policy, program, and planning processes. The policies aim at providing guidance on how to achieve the set objectives of the model. They help in linking the organization’s vision with the operations that it intends to carry out. Additionally, the policies assist the decision makers when formulating strategies, which help in the handling of the issues as they arise. Formulation of policies can only be realized by providing the policy implementers with limits, and the choices that are available to guide them in the decision-making and overcome the existing problems. Programs initiated are supposed to stipulate how the arising problem would be solved, and the different stakeholders that are to be involved in the policy formulation and implementation. Furthermore, help identify the responsibilities that each stakeholder should shoulder, and how they should go about their duties easily and quickly. Written policies help organizations when challenged in court by the outsiders. Written programs are essential in organizations because they reveal the amount of money available for projects, stakeholders expected to be involved, and the procedure to be followed by the policy formulation and implementation. Additionally, the policy formulators take into account challenges that may be encountered during policy development or in the rest of process.
The school can opt to collect data on its own or seek assistance from an external consultant. Data collection will ensure that it has enough information to make a well-versed decision on how to proceed. Data should be collected using appropriate data collection techniques that ensure that unnecessary information is not collected. Additionally, data gathered should be protected to ensure reliability and credibility. Six steps will be followed by the team during data collection, and they would include; issue identification, issue selection, planning an approach and methods, data collection, analyzing and interpreting the data, and acting on the results (Gill et al., 2008 p.292). It is vital to conduct an internal and external assessment to understand what is happening inside and outside the school. The school might offer directions on what issues should be explored in addition to how data should be collected. This step may involve exploring the cultures of the schools, their history, how decisions are made, mandates, goals, and core values, systems of discipline, and the recruitment process of the peer counselors. In addition, the perception of the school by the communities will be considered. Additionally, selection of the issues from the list of priorities after the internal and external assessment will be undertaken. Goals should be set after the selection of the problem. The goal depends on a guess of what is happening in the schools that can be tested using data collection tools. This section can also entail brainstorming questions that are answerable.
When planning approaches and methods to be used, the team will make decisions about people to be surveyed, the sources of data, the procedure of data collection, and duration of data collection among others. Consultation with the experts will be relevant at this stage in which case, the size, resources, complexity, and purpose of the problem selected will be considered. Focused group discussions will be held with the students in the peer counseling club, students who have ever been suspended from school, and the student leaders. Additionally, teachers in the peer counseling department, the head of school, and parents of suspended students will be involved in the discussion to help get more information about the cause of indiscipline cases. They will also be interviewed independently. Additionally, the opinion of the other boards of directors, parents union, and management committees should be put into consideration during the entire exercise (Gill et al., 291). Data collected should be interpreted and analyzed. In this case, the school will determine whether it can analyze and interpret data or seek the assistance of an expert. Findings will help the school decide whether to act on the data or collect more of the same data.
Data collected showed that there are many cases of indiscipline in the school that ranges from abuse of drugs, violent strikes, increased incidents of bullying, and damage of the school’s facilities by students among others. Data collected revealed that despite the efforts taken by the peer counseling teachers, student leaders, parents, and the community leaders to counsel students, these acts still exist. Additionally, the research indicated that students conduct these acts because of lack of involvement in decision making by the school. Furthermore, they perform these acts because of the institutional challenges they face in the school, for instance, lack of water, poor hygiene, and lack of certain equipment and structures. School’s structure also contributes to the high in discipline cases, since they have to follow certain channels before reaching the senior administrators of the school. Core values, vision, and mission of the school do not play a vital role in shaping the discipline of the students. It is thus important to formulate policies, which will help reduce the increasing indiscipline cases in the school. The school has to establish policies and structures, which ensure that the students have a conducive environment for learning.
A meeting will be held by the student leaders, teachers in the counseling department, school head, community leaders, a consultant, and five parents of the suspended students. They will brain storm and develop plans to resolve the indiscipline issue in the school. This committee will also come up with appropriate policies to address the issue. The student leaders will present the grievances of the students and what the students would want done to minimize the indiscipline cases. The parents will be allowed to air their opinion on the possible causes of the indiscipline cases in the school and the possible programs they think should be initiated to reduce these cases. Additionally, the community leaders and the school head will inform the government about the intended programs and what assistance they would want. Furthermore, they will seek the support of external donors to help in the establishment of certain structures in the schools and purchase the required facilities. The consultant will advise the teachers, parents, and the community leaders on the possible challenges that may arise when implementing the program and the estimated cost to be incurred during implementation of the particular programs. Furthermore, the consultant will give them advice on the legal procedure that should be followed before implementation of the given policies. Each member of the committee will be given a certain period to seek the opinion of the members they represent concerning the issue. After the consultation, they will hold a meeting and present feedback on the issue, including proposed programs.
The issues of ineffective governance, particularly by school head and teachers have been described as primary causes of the indiscipline cases in the school. One of the main reasons for the ineffectiveness of governance is the lack of coordination and trust among the teachers in the counseling department and the students (Halász and Michel, 2011 p.302). In addition, lack of cooperation between the counseling department and the student welfare department has also played a key role in the increasing indiscipline cases. It is thus important to establish committees, which will monitor the coordination of the school administrators and the students. Officials of the departments, which do not coordinate, will be demoted.
Participatory decision-making needs to be adopted. All the stakeholders including the students should be involved in making decisions. The opinion of each stakeholder should be considered before policy formulation and implementation (Halász and Michel, 2011 p.300). The students, being the primary stakeholders, will be allowed to present the issues that they would want to be addressed by the government or the school. Student representatives would be elected to represent the students at the meetings and present grievances on behalf of the students. Additionally, the school should seek financial support from the government and donors. Finances obtained will help solve the institutional challenges, which are prevalent in the school. These problems include lack of water, essential facilities such as brooms, stationeries, sanitation, and enough teachers among others. More teachers will be employed, tanks and stationeries will be purchased, and the sanitation in the school improved. The school’s motto, vision, and core values should be evaluated and focus more on the conduct by the students. They should portray the positive values that each student is expected to adopt. Through adoption of the positive values, the students acquire discipline and can express and present their grievances in the right way.
The action plan will help the counseling department teachers, peer-counseling students, and the parents turn their visions into reality, and increase the efficiency and accountability of the school. The action plan will entail the actions and changes that will occur, who will carry out the changes, resources needed to steer the changes. In addition, it will show how communication will be done in all the phases of implementing the changes (Quintero Corzo and Ramírez, 2011 p. 61). Student leaders, head of school, teachers in the counseling department, parents of the suspended students, government, donors, and the community leaders will be involved in finding the solution for indiscipline cases in the school. Influential people in the society like the priests may also participate in the action plan. The planning group will include the teachers in counseling department, student leaders, community leaders, and priests who will be required to design the action plan. The group will discuss the strategies to reduce indiscipline in the school. Additionally, the target groups in this program will be the students, teachers, and head of school. The proposed solutions to each problem that cause students to indulge in indiscipline cases will be discussed.
The plan is to be carried out by the set committee. The coalition will work towards finding the funds to buy the required stationeries and facilities in the school. The committee will try to have the school motto evaluated within four weeks, and seek the financial support of the government and donors within eight weeks. Full implementation of the policies will be achieved within ten months. The committee will approach the donors and the government to request funding to purchase certain facilities. Additionally, expert labor will be required in the formulation of the new school motto. The other school board of directors should be availed with information about this planned change.
The students, teachers, head of school, and the other board of trustees will be notified of the policies to be implemented. The policies need to be clear and easy to interpret if they are to be applied effectively. Directions on how the policies are to be applied in the school should be elaborated. After the school stakeholders are notified of the intended plan, it will be implemented. Financial support from the government will be needed for the program to be implemented. The funds will be used after that to purchase stationeries and other facilities that are a requirement in the school.
Formative evaluation will help in analyzing how the policies are implemented with the aim of enhancing discipline among students. Summative evaluation will be conducted after the policies have been fully implemented to look at whether the programs met their objectives and why or why not (Tian and Shen, 2011 p.15). Evaluation is necessary to determine whether the policies are controversial or not. Evaluation will reveal whether the number of indiscipline cases has reduced in the school and how the students have benefited from the policies. Students are also asked whether they like the programs implemented and how they can be improved.
It is evident that the process of plan formulation and implementation requires the support of different stakeholders. Policy formulation requires proposed action about how the particular issue will be handled. Resources to be used in the planned action should be considered and discussions held by the change makers. Appropriate techniques and methods should be used to ensure that only relevant information is collected. All stakeholders are informed about the set policies before they are implemented. After the implementation, the system implemented should be evaluated to determine whether it has solved the problems that occurred during policy implementation period. Policy analysis helps the decision makers in making the best choices and ensuring the outcome among alternatives.
Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E. and Chadwick, B., 2008. Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. British dental journal, 204(6), pp.291-295.
Halász, G. and Michel, A., 2011. Key Competences in Europe: interpretation, policy formulation and implementation. European Journal of Education, 46(3), pp.289-306.
Quintero Corzo, J. and Ramírez Contreras, O., 2011. Understanding and facing discipline-related challenges in the English as a foreign language classroom at public schools. Profile Issues in TeachersProfessional Development, 13(2), pp.59-72.
Tian, L. and Shen, T., 2011. Evaluation of plan implementation in the transitional China: A case of Guangzhou city master plan. Cities, 28(1), pp.11-27.
Economics Term Paper on The Role of Education and Health in Economic Growth: A Regressional Analysis university essay help
The Role of Education and Health in Economic Growth: A Regressional Analysis
Education and health sectors are considered key economic indicators in any economy. The characteristics of the education sector and those of the health sector determine the overall outlook of the economy. This implies that whenever there are changes in the education and/ or the health sectors, there are corresponding changes in the national economy to reflect these indicators. Countries considered to be under- developed and/ or relatively poor have poorly performing health and education sectors. On the other hand, economically performing countries have strongly performing health and education sectors. The characteristics of health and education sectors and their impacts on the economy are reviewed using regression analysis of data from the U.S across three years. The objective of the study is to determine the empirical relation between education, health and the economy.
The education sector results in increased productivity and specialization of skills. This implies that as more people are educated, they possess greater capacity to contribute to economic growth hence countries with more educated people have higher GDPs than those with fewer educated people (Benos and Zotou 3). Similarly, where most of the citizens are healthy, the productivity is increased significantly, hence resulting in higher GDPs. The impacts of the education and health sectors are thus compared through analysis of data across years as well as across two countries. In terms of years, the study looks at data from 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012. The cross- country evaluations have been conducted on the U.S and India. This gives the opportunity to compare not only the education and health sectors with respective economic performance of a particular country across the years but how the performances trended across the countries.
The data sets used for the study comprised of historical economic data for the U.S and India. The data was obtained from various past literatures reporting on the economies of the two countries across the years. For instance, Acharya and others (1- 130) provided a lot of data on India’s economy. Similarly, most of the data for the U.S was obtained from Jacobsen and Mather (2-10). The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development also provided substantial information on the country expenditures in health and education sectors as percentages of the GDP. The tables below show some of the data to be analyzed.
National Expenditures on Education as a Percentage of the GDP
Table 1: National expenditures on education as a percentage of GDP (Source: OECD.org)
Country expenditures on Health as a Percentage of the GDP
Table 2: National Expenditures on Health as a Percentage of GDP (Source: data.worldbank.org)
National GDP Per Capita
Mean National GDP
Table 3: GDP Per Capita in India and the United States (Source: knoema.com)
The scatter plot for the above GDP table is as shown below
From the data above, it is clear that the performance of India in terms of GDP per capita and the average expenditures on the education and health sectors are way below those of the U.S in the years considered. The data to be used for regression analysis was extracted as country specific data. The objective was to determine the function that relates the national GDP to the health and education expenditures in the two countries. As such, the independent variables in the two country relations were set to be the education and health expenditures while the dependent variables were the GDP per capita records. From the data tables, regression analysis was conducted to determine the statistical importance of the different variables in the data sets. The tables below show the analyzed data by country.
Table 4: India Education and Health Expenditures versus the GDP per capita
Similarly, the data for the U.S is also shown in the table below.
Table 5: Education and Health Expenditures in comparison to the US GDP
For the regression analysis, the data set was first organized according to specific country statistics. Tables comprising of the data for India and that for the United States were created respectively to represent the data for easy analysis. The first stage of regression analysis involved gaining access to the analysis tool pack under the data menu. From the analysis tool pack the regression tool was selected. This provided the opportunity to input data ranges for the X and Y categories as well as to select the most appropriate output ranges. For output, a new data sheet was selected.
The input ranges for the Y axis comprised of only the columns containing the country GDPs per capita while the input ranges for the X axis had the columns for health and education expenditures. This is because of the consideration of health and education as the independent variables while the GDP was considered to be the dependent variable. In each case, the data exploration began by reviewing the data for acceptance into the regression model. The different indicators given by the analysis tool pack provided insight into the relevance of the selected data set for the model. For instance, there was no statistical relationship between health expenditures of the two countries based on logical reasoning. Based on the findings from the different models examined, it was established that the relationship between the GDP and the economic indicators also depended on the country economy under consideration.
The empirical results for the two countries based on regression analysis present limited relationships between the education sector expenditures and the GDP per capita growth in the countries. For instance, the table below depicts the statistical results from the analysis of India’s data.
In the table above, the coefficients provide the relationship between particular indicators and the GDP. For instance, the education expenditure coefficient represents the magnitude of change in the GDP per unit change in the education expenditure as a percentage of the GDP. From the results above, both education and health expenditures are indications of GDP growth. The p- value indicates the statistical significance of each of these variables. Each p-value above the average 0.05 depicts lack of statistical significance. As such, the results for India are an indication that both education and health expenditures have limited statistical significance on the GDP of the country. This is probably because in developing countries such as India, the GDP affects the allocations for education and health as well as the other sectors. As such, it is more probable for the GDP to be statistically significant to the health and education expenditures that the two indicators to impact the GDP of the country. From the regression analysis, the error limits are also observable to be wide. This can be explained by the low probability depicted by the dependent variable. According to the regression results, the regression statistics are as shown in the table below. The R square value represents the percentage of the dependent variables that have been accounted for by the observed independent variable values. The low values of R square thus indicate that only a limited percentage of the dependent variable is accounted for by the independent variables. From these statistics, it can be deduced that the impacts of the health and education expenditures on the GDP of India are limited. This just supports the findings based on the p- values for the analysis.
Adjusted R Square
The results from the regression analysis therefore represent the GDP per capita in India to be a function of the Health and education expenditures through the relationship below. In the equation, G is the GDP of the country; H is the health expenditure while E is the education expenditure.
G = 110.02E + 299.18H = 0 —— Equation 1
The economic growth of India is linked to the growth in various economic indicators including the health and education sectors. The period leading into 2000 was characterized by growth in these sectors, particularly in terms of public funding for the same. The industry growth was however hampered by the limited availability of public funding for both sectors through the years. As such, most of the growth in the education and health sectors came about as a result of the growth in the private sector supported health and education initiatives. After 2000, the slow growth in the education and health sectors can be linked to the same challenges of poor economic conditions in the country. Moreover, Acharya and others (34) opine that the gendered education in India also contributes immensely to the slow growth in the sector. This is based on the argument that illiteracy among women results in high rates of school drop- out among their children. The allocations of public funds and poverty levels also constrain access to education across the nation. It is thus arguable that the education sector in India is controlled by the low national GDP per capita and not the other way round.
In the health sector, Acharya and others (32) explain the changes that occurred in terms of infant mortality, fertility and life expectancy rates in the country in the period leading into 2000. The observed changes arising from increased access to vaccinations are also linked to the support from the private sector. Contrary to the developed countries where access to quality healthcare enhances national productivity, the case presented in India is that in which the low national productivity limits public access to quality healthcare.
The U.S gives a perfect example of a developing country where the health expenditure impacts positively on the national GDP. The regression results for the U.S are depicted in the table below.
As in the regression analysis for India, the p-values in the analysis for the U.S indicate limited statistical significance on the education expenditures. On the other hand, the health expenditures have significant statistical values in terms of their influence on the GDP of the country. The relationship is also depicted by the regression statistics and the R square values as depicted in the table below.
Adjusted R Square
In comparison to the R square values for India, the U.S values are higher, portraying higher percentages of accounting between the independent and the dependent variables. From the U.S results obtained, the economy of the country can be said to be performing effectively, subject to the human resources in the country. Productivity in the U.S depends somewhat on the health allocations of the country. Higher health allocations depict greater access to quality healthcare and subsequently greater productivity across the nation. While this appears to be the case based on the regression results, Jacobsen and Mather (3) report that the unemployment rate in the U.S from 2000 to 2009 was increasing steadily. The explanation of this could be linked to the unprecedented population growth rates through these periods. The improved healthcare results in an improvement of the individual health status of each of the citizens. Child mortality reduces significantly and life expectancy increases. The combination of such health effects and immigration results in higher population growth and lower employment opportunity growth rates.
On the other hand, the education sector and the public funding for the same in the U.S have increased immensely. Lack of discrimination in the sector and enhanced education quality, both result in higher productivity among the citizens hence the observed increase in the GDP. With greater literacy levels and high levels of specialization, the U.S builds a work force that is capable of taking care of the less productive and the unemployed members of the society through social service, unlike in India where the poor and the uneducated cannot be supported by public funding. The U.S GDP, represented as a function of the health expenditures and the education expenditures can be depicted through the formula:
G = 3707.61H – 2092.25E —- 0 (Equation 2)
The negative coefficient on the education expenditure indicates that the education sector is considered as a cost rather than an investment in the U.S economy. This could be due to two factors. The first probability is that the provision of universal free primary education has been pursued by the U.S as a millennium development goal hence the monies are indicated as negatives rather than positives. On the other hand, it could also mean that the contemporary literacy levels in the country are so high so that any further investment in the education sector brings about no additional GDP benefits for the country. In this way, the education expenditures reduce rather than increasing the national productivity. This may be the most probable case as the level of specialization in the U.S has grown significantly while opportunities for specialized roles are limited in the country.
Summary and Discussion
The regression analysis conducted on the U.S and India data for the years 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012 reveal important information about the economic status and growth of the two countries. The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between the education and health expenditures for the two countries with respect to the national GDPs. Regression analysis of the data pertaining to India reveals that both the health and the education expenditures of the country have no significant statistical implications for the national GDP. This is contrary to the results for the U.S which indicates that the statistical significance of the health sector expenditure on the GDP is high. Based on the economic growth reports for the two countries, it has been established that access to quality education and healthcare in India is limited by the lack of public funds to support the same. On the other hand, the support provided to the two sectors by the U.S is significant. The GDP of the U.S thus depends to a large extent on the health of the people. The health sector expenditures are thus an important reflection of the country’s productivity in terms of GDP per capita.
Regression analysis provides an essential measure of the relationships that exist between a given independent variable and a dependent variable. However, the main limitation of the method is that it provides the statistical information without the logical explanations for the same. For instance, while the objectives of the study have been achieved, the results cannot be applied universally not only because they are country specific but also because they do not take into consideration many other factors that are indications of the economic status of a country. Factors such as high life expectancy rates, agriculture and industrial sector growth as well as the exchange rates are not considered in the study. The results obtained cannot therefore be concluded to be reliable since there is the probability that interactions between several factors bring about different sets of interaction information. Apart from this, the changes viewed are from historical data. This implies that the data may not depict the specific interactions between the different variables at any particular time.
The limitations of the study notwithstanding, it has been instrumental in achieving the study objectives and also acts as an indication of how different countries allocate funds for different purposes depending on the national GDP. The low GDP countries such as India have to allocate public spending under constraints. As such, the benefits reaped from the allocations to different sectors are limited. On the other hand, countries such as the U.S with sufficient national revenues can allocate funds for continued economic growth of the country. They therefore reap greater benefits from the allocations and continue growing economically.
Acharya, Shankar, Ahluwalia, Isher, Krishna, K.L and Patnaik, Ila. India, economic growth 1950- 2000. Global Research Project on Growth, 2003. Retrieved from www.researchgate.net/profile/Ila_Patnaik2/publication/234109500_India_Economic_Growth_1950-2000/links/0912f50f3abfd6da2c000000/India-Economic-Growth-1950-2000.pdf
Benos, Nikos and Zotou, Stefania. Education and economic growth: A meta-regressional analysis. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, (2013). Retrieved from www.mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/46143/1/MPRA_paper_46143.pdf
Jacobsen, Linda A. and Mather, Mark. U.S economic and social trends since 2000. Population Bulletin 65, 1(2010). Retrieved from www.prb.org/pdf10/65.1unitedstates.pdf
Knoema. GDP by country – statistics from the World Bank, 1960- 2015. Retrieved from www.knoema.com/mhrzolg/gdp-by-country-statistics-from-the-world-bank-1960-2015?country=UnitedStates
OECD. Health expenditure and financing. Retrieved from www.stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?DataSetCode=SHA
The World Bank. Health expenditure, total (% of GDP). Retrieved from www.data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.TOTL.ZS?locations=IN
Business Studies Paper on Habitat loss, land use and conservation common app essay help: common app essay help
Habitat loss, land use and conservation
Invasive species are not inherent in a particular ecosystem. Invasive species cause harm to the ecosystem that they chose to inhabit. The species can be any form of living organisms, either plants, bacteria, insects or amphibians. Environmental conservatisms and government groups discourage the presence of invasive species in a particular ecosystem because of they destroy the environment and the ability of other living organisms to thrive. According to National Center (2017), invasive species are the leading cause of extinction in regards to endangered species. Furthermore, invasive species also threaten human health and economies due to the large amounts of money that are needed to reverse the effects of invasive species. Examples of invasive species include Asian carps, water hyacinth, and feral pigs. Endemic species are living organisms that live in a particular geographical location (Environmental Encyclopedia, 2003). Examples of endemic species include kangaroos, polar bears, and koalas.
Many governments have created programs remove invasive species from the environment that are the main cause of extinction of endemic species (The Economist, 2013). Furthermore, governments have enacted laws that prohibit human beings from killing endangered and endemic species. Furthermore, the laws prohibit humans from trading in endemic species. Other governments have created regulation practices to reduce the negative effects of pesticides on endemic and endangered species. For example, the United States enacted the America’s endangered species act in 1973 to protect endangered species (The Economist, 2013). Secondly, governments have issued a ban on the killing of whales, especially the humpback species. Whales are currently thriving because of the ban. World governments created the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species in 1975 to protect endangered and endemic species. The convention protects species such as rhinos and elephants (The Economist, 2013). America’s Rachel Carson is acknowledged by her efforts to discourage the use of pesticides such as DDT. Through her protection efforts, the United States created the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate the use of pesticides in the country. Before the creation of the EPA, farmers had to register pesticides before using them in farms. Currently, pesticides are both registered and regulated. Also, the United Nations decided to regulate the use of neonicotinoids because of their implications on bee population (The Economist, 2013).
According to The Economist (2013), the biggest challenge for governments is the consecutive loss of habitats. The loss of habitats is a primary reason why endangered species become extinct. Most governments have created protected areas, such as national parks to protect endangered species. Also, governments have limited and banned the development of areas with biological value. Conservation efforts have plummeted in different areas of the planet. According to The Economist (2013), about 3.5% of the earth was a protected area in 1985. Since then, the figure has risen to 13%.
Polar bears are large carnivores that primarily live in Arctic ice in the northern hemisphere (Larsen & Stirling, 2009). The livelihood of the polar bears is dependent on the Arctic sea ice and the availability of seals, which is the main diet for the polar bears. In regards to water, polar bears live close to the northern lands where there is plenty of water. Polar bears need large land areas that are covered by ice to survive. Their bodies are naturally adapted to the cold because of the large fur and layer of fat in their bodies. According to Larsen & Stirling (2009), the current population of polar bears is between 20000 and 25000. The polar bears need the large packs of ice where wind and currents meet. On these edges, the ice is continually melting and refreezing making it an ideal area for polar bears to thrive. Furthermore, it is within these areas where polar bears can find seals.
Accordant to Larsen & Stirling (2009) the polar bear is an endangered species that faces significant threats. The main threat to the existence of polar bears is climate change. The devastating effects of climate change such as the decrease of ice pacts where polar bears hunt, mate and live is a cause of concern. The melting ice packs make it hard for the polar bears to raise cubs and travel in search of food. Furthermore, oil spills have adverse effects on the ecosystem around the Arctic lands. Oil and gas developments pose a significant threat because of the possibility of oil spill disasters (Larsen & Stirling, 2009). Oil spills destroy the natural ecosystem making it hard for polar bears to get food. Furthermore, ship vessels can cause oil spills that will contaminate the natural habitat of the polar bears and destroy marine animals that the bears need for food. The international community has increased efforts to reduce global warming, which is the main cause of reduced ice packs in the Arctic region. Pollution from manufacturing industries is the main cause of global warming. The international community is encouraging governments to increase environmental protection efforts to reduce the rate of pollution. Many governments have enacted laws to ensure that manufacturing companies initiate environmental control mechanisms to prevent excess pollution from reaching the atmosphere and ecosystems (Larsen & Stirling, 2009).
Botanic garden living collection requires conservation (Grifith & Husby, 2010). Most of the major world economies are spearheading botanic garden operations under close supervision. It is important for the world economies to measure the success of the conservation and the costs that are associated with the conservation. The costs related to maintenance include DNA-based studies. Furthermore, initial costs of obtaining collection are higher compared to annual collection costs. The benefits of preserving a collection of botanical centers include the continual preservation of endangered plant species (Grifith & Husby, 2010). Measuring the benefits of conservation occur through inter-simple sequence repeat data. Measuring success allows conservation specialists to make important decisions in regards to improving conservation success.
A pattern of diminishing returns occurs when a conservation model experts add additional plants in the collection that do not add any value to the preservation efforts (Grifith & Husby, 2010). When a collection adds additional plants, there is a trend for success, but it reaches a time when the additional plants do not add any value to the collection. It is at this point that economists refer to the law of diminishing returns. In regards to the efficiency of management of a collection, a large collection size means that the costs of conservation will be high. The lower the size of the collection, the lower a number of preservation costs that the collection will incur. Plant species are valuable to conserve especially when their existence is endangered. Plants are important in the ecosystem because they provide food and shelter to a variety of living organisms (Grifith & Husby, 2010). Extinction of plants species means that living organisms will not have food and shelter. Therefore, to maintain the survival of the species that depend on the particular plant species, it is important to preserve the plant and shield it from extinction.
Environmental Encyclopedia. (2003). Endemic Species – Dictionary definition of Endemic Species | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/endemic-species
Grifith, P & Husby, C. (2010).The Price Of Conservation: Measuring The Mission And Its Cost. Retrieved from http://www.bgci.org/resources/article/0634/
Larsen, T., & Stirling, I. (2009). The Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears: Its history and future. Tromsø: Norsk Polarinstitutt.
National Center. (2017). Invasive Species: United States – State Resources. Invasivespeciesinfo.gov. Retrieved from https://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/unitedstates/state.shtml
The Economist. (2013). Where eagles dare. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21585083-more-prosperous-countries-now-favour-protecting-wildlife-not-killing-it-where-eagles
Sample Law Essays on The Stark Law easy essay help
The Stark Law
Stark Law is a federal and state law, meaning that both the federal and state governments have the responsibility of ensuring that it is implemented. This law can be found at [42 U.S.C.S. § 1395nn] which is § 1877 of the Social Security Act (Sonnenschein,Nath& Rosenthal LLP, 2009).
Management’s Financial Responsibilities:
Healthcare organizations have various responsibilities under the Stark Law. Firstly, they have the responsibility of ensuring that physicians do not refer patients for particular services that are reimbursed by federal healthcare programs to entities with which they have an ownership interest or compensation arrangement. Under this law, some of the services for which physicians should not refer patients include clinical laboratory services, physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, outpatient speech-language services, radiation therapy services and supplies, home health services, inpatient and outpatient hospital services, as well as outpatient prescription drugs (Sonnenschein,Nath& Rosenthal LLP, 2009). This responsibility is specified in 42 CFR Part 411.
Secondly, under the Stark Law, healthcare organizations are obliged to be careful about compensation arrangements between physicians and beneficiaries. As such, healthcare organizations must understand that for compensation to be permitted, it must meet given criteria: it must be written down and cover specific services or items that can be identified, the time frame for the compensation must be clearly stated, services must not involve promotion of a given business arrangement, and most importantly, the transaction between parties must be commercially reasonable. Healthcare organizations must also understand that in situations where the compensation is fixed for at least a year, it must be stated in advance and be consistent with fair market value (SonnenscheinNath& Rosenthal LLP, 2009). Apart from being careful about compensation arrangements, healthcare organizations must also ensure that approvals of the same are done by the Office of the Inspector General under a favorable advisory opinion. This responsibility that sees healthcare organizations being careful with compensation arrangement between physicians and beneficiaries is stated clearly in 42 CFR Section 411.408 titled “Refunds of amounts collected for physician services not reasonable and necessary, payment not accepted on an assignment-related basis.”
Thirdly, under the Stark Law, healthcare organizations have a responsibility of establishing bona fide employment relationships with physicians. For them to be created certain conditions have to be met.To begin with, the employment must be for identifiable services and the amount of remuneration under it must be consistent with the fair market value of the services provided.Moreover, the payment provided must be under an agreement that would be commercially reasonable even in a situation where referrals are made to the employer. The responsibility of organizations where they have to establish bona fide employment relationships with physicians is stated clearly in 42 CFR Section 411.357. Health care organizations are expected to comply with the stipulations of this law to avoid facing the wrath of both the federal and state governments.
Consequences for Ethical and Legal Breach:
Ethical and legal breach of the Stark Law is considered a civil rather than a criminal offense. There are various consequences of ethically and legally violating it, most of which are considered civil. Firstly, the ethical or legal breach of the Stark law especially on the side of the physician could result in denial of payment on the side of the beneficiary (Staman, 2010). Secondly, in case a person collects any amounts that are billed to be in violation of the Stark Law either ethically or legally, the person is held liable to the individual, and she is expected to refund on a timely basis to the beneficiary, the so collected amounts (Staman, 2010). Thirdly, a violation of the Stark Law can occur when a person presents or plays a part in the presentation of a bill or claim for service for which he or she is well aware that payment may not be made. In such as case, the consequence is that a civil monetary penalty of not more than $15,000 for each service may be applied (Staman, 2010). Fourthly, any physician or other entity that enters into an agreement or scheme which either the entity or physician knows or should know, is responsible for assuring referrals by the physician to a given entry which, if the physician made a direct referral to such an entity, would be in violation of the guidelines of the Stark Law. In such a case, the consequence is that a civil monetary penalty of not more than $100,000 would be applied to such an arrangement or scheme (Staman, 2010). Moreover, a breach of the stipulations of the law may occur when any person who is required to meet a reporting requirement fails to do so. The consequence of this is that a civil monetary penalty of not more than $10,000 is applied for each day for which reporting was to be made.
Several health care organizations and health care providers have been found guilty of legal or ethical breach of the Stark Law. For example, In the case United States v Rogan, it was held that Peter Rogan, a former owner and chief executive officer of Edgewater Medical Center, conspired with other six indicted people to defraud the U.S. government by concealing or refusing to provide information on the fact that several patients came to Edgewater as a result of referrals that were in violation of the Stark Amendment to the Medicare Act, 42 U.S.C Section 1395nn. Since Rogan was found to have been aware of what was going on and even orchestrated the breach, the court ordered him to pay a round $64 million to the U.S. government (Cimasi, 2014). In this case, Rogan was found to be in violation of the False Claims Act (FCA), which is clearly stipulated in the Stark Law. Any individual would agree with the court’s decision in this case because Rogan did not deny the claims, and thus, he was guilty of concealing important information from the government.
Another case where there was a legal or ethical breach of the Stark law is United States ex rel. Singh v Bradford Regional Medical Center. In this case, it was alleged that the latter had made submissions of false claims to Medicare, and as such, had violated both the Anti-Kickback Statute and Stark Law’s guidelines on compensation arrangements and improper lease to physicians. Agreeably, the court’s decision on the case was right because the defendants’ compensation arrangements and lease constituted direct and indirect arrangements for which no exception was applicable.
Moreover, the United States ex rel. Drakeford v Tuomey Healthcare is another perfect example of a violation where a health care organization was found guilty of a legal or ethical breach of the Stark Law. Tuomey Healthcare was found guilty of making false claims, which was in violation of the False Claims Act (Cimasi, 2014). It was also found that some of its part-time employment agreements were in violation of the Stark Law. The court made a right decision on the case because Tuomey failed to compensate physicians based on the value or volume of anticipated referrals.
HCO Management’ Remedial Steps to Reverse the Non-Compliance Organizations:
To reverse health care organizations’ non-compliance with the provisions or stipulations of the Stark Law, various actions ought to be taken. Firstly, health care organizations should provide human resource training, which will help every stakeholder involved to understand the various Anti-Kickback Statute’s safe harbors and Stark Law exceptions. Through this approach, physicians and beneficiaries will strive to abide by or meet the requirements of the Stark Law thereby avoiding possible fines. Secondly, it is important for healthcare organizations to recruit physicians with deep expertise as this will enhance compliance with the Stark Law, which is dependent on the particular contours of each situation (Olson, Stanley & Coker Group, 2007). Thirdly, it is important for healthcare organizations to come up with departments that focus on how stakeholders, especially physicians, comply with the requirements or stipulations of the Stark Law. The heads of these newly created departments should pressurize physicians to comply with or meet the various requirements of the Stark Law.
As seen above, under the Stark Law, which is both a federal and state law, healthcare organizations have the responsibility of ensuring that physicians do not refer patients for particular services that are reimbursed by federal healthcare programs to entities with which they have ownership interest or compensation arrangement.Moreover, they are obliged to be careful about compensation arrangements between physicians and beneficiaries, as well as to establish bona fide employment relationships with physicians. Failure to comply with it might result in denial of payment andtimely refunds to the beneficiary as well as civil monetary penalties depending on the type of violation. To comply with the provisions and requirements of the Stark Law, healthcare organizations need to provide human resource training that will help stakeholders understand its provisions and exceptions.Besides, they should recruit physicians with deep expertise in addition to coming up with departments that focus on compliance issues.
Cimasi, R. J. (2014). Healthcare valuation, the financial appraisal of enterprises, assets, and services (Vol. 2). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Olson, E. E., Stanley, K., & Coker Group. (2007). Physician recruitment and employment: A complete reference guide. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Sonnenschein,Nath& Rosenthal LLP. (2009). The Stark law: A user’s guide to achieving compliance. Marblehead, MA: HCPro.
Staman, J. (2010). Health care fraud and Abuse laws affecting Medicare and Medicaid: An overview. Legislative Attorney,August10, 2010.
Sample Essays on Organizational Development college application essay help
Organizational development represents an area of research, practice, and theory focused on generation and expansion of knowledge and efficiency among people (employees) for the accomplishment of greater success in organizational performance and change. Originally, the basis of OD was the realization that structures and processes in organizations affect the behavior and motivation of workers, but more recently, the scope of OD has expanded towards the function of aligning organizations with complex and rapidly evolving environments (Anderson, 2011). OD features planned interventions based on knowledge in behavioral science. In this context, OD’s main functions include promoting organizational learning, transforming organizational values and norms, knowledge management, and enforcing efficient organizational strategies in identifying problems, planning actions, negotiating change, and evaluating progress (Anderson, 2011).
Organizational learning concerns the mechanism of creating, preserving, and sharing knowledge across an organization to influence continued competitiveness, profitability, and efficiency in an evolving environment. Knowledge management features the capture, development, sharing, and effective use of organizational knowledge in a multidisciplinary approach to influence achievement of organizational objectives through productive and committed use of knowledge.Other functions include positive management of conflict, enhancing workers’ motivation, commitment, and productivity, encouraging a culture of confronting problems rather than avoiding them, and enhancing the quality and efficiency of interpersonal and organization-wide communication and cooperation (Anderson, 2011).
I feel that the most important issue that HR managers, organizations, and employees face today concerns the challenge of preserving the relevance and competitiveness of their activities and strategies in a highly evolving world. Intensifying globalization and technological development in modern times have expanded the scope and scale of threats to the productivity, sustainability, and relevance of traditional HR, organizational, and employee performance strategies. This has necessitated continuous reevaluations that are costly but critical for organizational performance.
Anderson, D. (2011). Organization Development: the Process of Leading Organizational Change. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications
Sample Research Plan on Why Tigers Are Increasingly Becoming Endangered scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Research Plan on Why Tigers Are Increasingly Becoming Endangered
The conflict, which has erupted as a result of human activity and animals in their natural habitat has been one of the major issues in wildlife conservation today. The conflict has made some living species to face the threat of being endangered. Tigers are part of the animals that have been categorized as endangered, thus, facing the threat of extinction as a result of human activities and the purported significance of their body parts. The tiger is part of the large cat family that stands out as the biggest wild cat. For over a million years ago, the big cat was known to rule over a territory that stretched from eastern Turkey to North Korea in the forest that extended to the north of Siberia to the south of Bali. Numerous genus of the tiger has already been extinct. Tigers are on the edge of extinction unless sufficient actions and stratagems are put in place to save them. This research document proposes a literature on the factors that are enhancing the extinction of the tiger population. The proposed review will also include my method of data collection and other requirements.
The overall population of tigers across the globe and specifically India has radically diminished in the past century, an aspect that is alarming. This has led to the species being categorized as endangered. In the beginning of the 20th century, the total population of tigers across the world was approximated to be 105, 000 (Woods 44). In the mid-1990s, the figure drastically reduced to below 6, 000. This was almost 95% fall in the number of the total population of tigers across the world. Currently, according to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the total population of the tiger has continued to fall (Woods 44). Out of the nations that still enjoy the presence of the animal, India has the largest population followed by other nations like Vietnam, former Soviet Union, Malaysia, China and Thailand.
The tiger faces several onslaughts to its existence. Firstly, the big cat is faced with the threat of poaching around its range to meet the demand for its bones and other parts. These animal parts are believed to be used in the manufacture of traditional medicine sold in global markets, especially in eastern and western nations. Furthermore, with the expansion of human population and activities in the industrial sector, tigers face extinction due to the interference with human activities. Degradation of forests and other animal habitats is among one of the major triggers of tigers’ decline in the current world. Habitat loss exposes the animal to several human dangers like exposure to humans and the prey, an aspect that makes it hard to survive.
The existing problem of the tigers being extinct calls for the dire need for wildlife management professionals as well as natural resources management policymakers to come up with conservation measures to rescue the remaining population of tigers. The purpose of this proposal will discuss the review on why the existing tiger families are facing extinction threat and why their existing habitats are not efficient for their survival. Included in this proposal are several mechanisms in which the endangered tiger species should be protected, which requires the creation of an effective animal habitat.
Objectives of the Proposal
I propose to review the available literature about the factors that are triggering the extinction of tigers using Bandipur, India as a case study in order to achieve the following results.
Explain the common causes that leads to the extinction of the tiger.
Discuss how these factors can be addresses in order to save the remaining population of tigers.
According to Seidenstickeret al. (1), tigers, in most cases, prefer living in dense forests near mountain areas but can also adapt to other ecosystems, for instance, plain grasslands and tropical rain forests. The decrease in the numbers oftiger families is a sensitive matter that requires urgent solution through joining hands of all stakeholders. To ensure that that this is attained, it is important for the animal habitat to be protected. The natural habitats for tigersare defined by two significant elements. These are the presence of prey for their food and a sustainable and effective cover. The tiger is a big carnivorous animal, which totally relies on hunting for food. Therefore, the existence of a cover is very crucial for the animal to enable it hide from the prey when it stalks on it. Currently, the highest population of the tiger is found in India because it still has the best natural habitat for the species. There are several factors that lead to the animal being endangered.
In as much as there are numerous causes of tiger enlargement across the globe, most of the factors are associated directly or indirectly with human activity. Several anthropogenic activities have resulted in the destruction of tiger habitats by damaging their ecosystems and direct killing of the animal species in the region. Illegal hunting of the animal for several reasonsfor instance has enhanced the extinction of the tiger. Poaching tigers in order to get their skins has been used to meet the demand for rugs, wall hangings and fur coats. Currently, the focus for the poachers is to get bones and other parts of the animal that are believed to have medicinal value in the Asian and western nations. Other communities in Asia are also known to have some cultural norms that enhance the poaching of tigers to earn respect and recognition. The killing of this species has continued to occur in these communities despite several efforts by authorities to stop it. The killing has been a risk factor in endangering the existence of tigers for a long time (Tilson and Nyhus 101).
According to Smith (20), the huge demand for tiger products, especially in China, is also a contributing factor to the endangerment of the tiger species. The People’s Republic of China is among the fastest growing economy globally with an estimated population of over 1 billion people. This process has also facilitated the growth of illegal trade in the nation, commonly called the black market of China. China has been known to be one of the leading destinations for tiger products, for instance, bones, teeth and skin (Tilson and Nyhus 10). The increasing demand for tiger products has enhanced extensive poaching for the species not only in China but also in other neighboring nations, such as India, Vietnam and Bangladesh. Furthermore, other Chinese traditional medical practices believe in using the tiger parts in their production of medicines. This believe has also contributed to the endangering of the tiger species through poaching.
Joshi et al. (2) asserts that habitat loss has also enhanced the extinction of the tiger species. The tiger habitat varies from tropical rainforests and mountains regions to densely populated forests. However, due to the increased human population and activities, the demand for land and its use has been on the rise, especially in the South east region of the world where tiger species are mostly found. Therefore, man’s activities, for instance, clearing forests for cultivation of land, human living and other industrial reasons have drastically increased over the last century. The activities have exposed the tiger species as a result of the ongoing obliterations of their natural habitats, thus, causing a great danger to their existence. Besides human activity and destruction of the natural habitat, nature has also contributed to the habitat loss and alteration for the species and other living organisms. This is because nature is persistently being exposed to continues, decreased biotic veracity of habitats, such as exhaustion of resources. Therefore, this process has highly contributed to the loss of organisms. These kinds of alterations have a negative impact on the tigers, affecting their population by the time they try to adapt to new environmental habitats. All these factors play a major role in the endangerment of tigers.
According to Smith (20), slack legal frameworks in many nations that tigers are found have also contributed to the endangerment of the species. Most of these nations have established laws, which are aimed at illegalizing poaching and sale of tiger products but have a number of loopholes in terms of implementation. This has encouraged poachers to continue with their activity and smuggle the animal’s products illegally among the nations and across borders. For instance, in 1973, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITIES) organization was created, which involved an agreement aimed at protecting endangered flora and fauna. All nations that tigers are found were part of the signatories to CITIES. However, this has not proscribed the illegitimate trade and poaching of tigers and its parts that is ongoing. For example, in India, the guards who have been assigned the responsibility of protecting the tigers in their natural habitats go ahead to take kickbacks from wealth poachers and allow them to kill the tigers to fulfill their needs (Smith 20).
Rationale and Plan
The purpose of this update was to give the students and local residentsof Bandipur College, India an overview and opportunity to protect tigers since the diminishing rate of the species is alarming in order to ensure that the remaining population is safe.This proposal will be effective in fulfilling the expectations of the research topic and seeing that different mechanism are adopted in ensuring that the tiger does not face extinction.
Plan of Actions
In this section, I will provide my plan of getting the objectives of the proposal as seen initially. There has been an increased rates of extinction of the tiger in Bandipur region in India. This is because most of the population are not aware of this fact and have not recognized the significance of the tiger given the fact that is facing extinction. As seen in the review, several authors have voiced their concerns about that causes of the animal distinction that is significant.
The first objective of the research proposal is to explain the common causes of the tiger’s extinction. For instance, destruction of the tiger habitat by killing the species has played a significant role in its extinction. Habitat loss has remained the utmost threat to the tiger population in the region where human population and activities are increasing, thereby infringing on the tiger habitat. The question is what will remain of the tigers if the threats they are facing from human beings is as a result of ignorance and lack of knowledge among the residents persist?In order to address this facet, I would encourage public enlightenment programs to be established, which aim at educating the students and local residents on the significance of safeguarding the world biodiversity and keeping the natural habitats intact. All this information to the students can be acquired from several books and articles from the review and others available from the library. These reading materials should provide enough information to the students as well as other in order to come up with a new review in addressing the research topic.
Description of Services and Equipment
This section will present my schedule, costs and other requirements for completing the research proposal. The proposed research project that should be in form of a formal report should be completed by December, 2016. I will follow the schedule. Because I already have the literature on the research topic in Bandipur, quite a substantial amount of time will be spent on finding through the literature to get results and presenting them to the audience. Since I can get most of the information source for the literature review in the library, the costs incurred will be very minimal. This is because I will only need an amount to cater for copying of the articles, printing the reviews and binding. This can be approximately $ 20. The team will comprise of student of Bandipur College.
Several tigers have been extinct and the remaining ones face extinction in Bandipur region as well as across the globe. This document has proposed research to assess prevent further loss of the animal species in the region in attaining two main goals. First, to highlight the causes if tiger extinction and to ensure that the remaining species is protected from extinction. This proposal will be presented in December, 2016.
Fox, Mark, and Olga Fox. Discovering Endangered Animals. 2005. Internet resource.
Joshi, Anup R., et al. “Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat.” Science Advances 2.4 (2016): e1501675.
Seidensticker, John, Peter Jackson and Sarah Christie. Riding the Tiger: Tiger Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.
Tilson, Ronald L, and Philip Nyhus. Tigers of the World: The Science, Politics and Conservation of Panthera Tigris. Burlington: Elsevier, 2010. Internet resource.
Woods, Ward. State of the Wild 2010-2011: A Global Portrait. Ed. Eva Fearn. Vol. 3. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2012.44.50.
Sample Essays on How the US rose to a Global power personal essay help
How the US rose to a Global power
The United States’ rise to a global power was a culmination of fear of being sidelined in the struggle for raw materials and global markets, coupled with fear of economic decline on account of such sidelining. By 1890, the United States’ industrial production was twice that of Britain, its closest competitor by then. However, Britain still had the upper hand and in terms of diplomatic and military power. While the United States had only 10,000 seamen in its navy and less than 30,000 troops in its army, on the other hand, Britain’s navy was ten times bigger than that of the United States, while its army was five times bigger. The United States did not face any serious military threat and neither did it harbor any ambition to assert military influence abroad. This therefore justifies its small military and army.
From the time of the Civil War, up until the early 1890s, the United States demonstrated limited interest in pursuing territorial expansion for two main reasons. First, pursuing imperial rule did not arguer well with America’s republican principles. Secondly, the United States was not interested in acquiring individuals with diverse languages, cultures, and religions. While the older American generations consisting of mainly moralists believed that ruling a people without their approval contravened a basic principle of republicans, on the other hand, a younger generation of Americans was convinced of the obligation of the United States to support backward societies. Other influential Americans like Alfred Thayer, a naval strategist, believed that the United States’s national prosperity hinged on its ability to control sea lanes. By 1883, the United States was already constructing steel vessels powered by oil or coil as a means of replacing its wooden sailing ships. This was a key step in becoming a global naval power. However, naval power also demanded the acquisition of coaling stations and naval bases.
In mid-1890s, the Americans demonstrated a change in attitude towards expansion, a move that was partly ignited by a European scramble for power. From 1870 to 1900, leading European powers seized the equivalent of a fifth of the globe’s land mass in Asia and Africa and in the process nearly 150 million individuals were placed under colonial rule. These developments saw bankers; manufacturers; policy makers; and trade unions in the United States grow increasingly fearful that they could be excluded in the scramble for raw materials and global markets.
There was also a growing discontent at this time that nations of the world were engaged in a Darwin-like survival for the fittest kind of struggle, and that nations that did not compete in this struggle would be faced with a decline in their economic, military and diplomatic powers. This further asserted the United States’ resolve to become a super power. Consequently, the United States became increasingly reliant on foreign trade with about half of the nation’s petroleum and a quarter of its farm products finding market overseas.
The idea of the United States supporting “backward” people across the globe was also gaining currency with conventional Protestant religious denominations in the United States setting up mission in Asia and Africa. By the late 1880s, a new assertiveness was already evident by American foreign policy makers such as in 1889 when America nearly declared war against Germany over Samoa. By the start of the 20th century, the U.S was already a superpower. This is evidenced by America’s annexation of Hawaii in 1889. It was also during this period that the United States went to war with, and defeated, Spain, culminating in the acquisition of Puerto Rico, Philippines and Pacific Islands.
If there was ever any doubt about the United States’ role as a global superpower, this was clarified when in 1893 the country overthrew Hawaii’s monarchy. This is one of many events that demonstrated that the United States had come of age as a global superpower. However, the debate between interventionists and isolationists continues to inform developments in America’s foreign policy to date.
Sample Essays on Strategic Analysis of Apple Inc college essay help: college essay help
Strategic Analysis of Apple Inc
Apple Inc is one of the most successful companies on the international smartphone markets today. This success is attributable to among other factors the production of quality products through value addition and differentiation of products such as the iPhone. Success is also attributable to high quality customer services and an organizational culture defined by systematic leadership. In addition, the company has also been successful due to the organizational culture that has defined its structure and system of leadership. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the current position of Apple Inc in the smartphone industry through a discussion of the company’s strategic framework using models such as Porters five forces, PESTLE analysis the report will alienage in resource audit and value chain analysis to evaluate the company’s competencies and resources and propose areas of value addition.
Political and economic factors
The sale of the iPhone is considered as the most profitable product for the company. However, the company has been able to forecast the possibility of a fall in its sales of the iPhone. The fall can be attributed to the rise and popularity of new competitors in the smartphone industry. Smartphone companies such as Samsung, Huawei, Xiaomi, and Lenovo have continued to gain dominance on the international smartphone market. This has partly been attributed to the ability of companies such as Samsung to provide lower cost smartphones in Southeast Asia, Middle East and in Africa (http://www.bbc.com/news/business-35412892).
Apple operates on the high-end market with its main source of revenue being China. Despite its popularity in China emerging Chinese smartphone companies such as Xiaomi, continue to expand their dominance in the Chinese market by providing high quality smartphones to Apple customers (Apple Inc 4).
The recent reported slowdown in iPhone sales cannot be used as an indication that the industry is in the maturity stage. This is because the growth rate of an industry is defined by the activities of the companies that comprise it. Failure by these companies to engage in technological innovation that can disrupt industrial operations can be cited as the major reason for the slowdown (Kim and Renée 28). The production of iPhone 6 is an indication that Apple has stopped its ability to disrupt other smartphone manufacturing companies with the iPhone (Pablo & Sampere 1). This does not mean that Apple cannot disrupt other industries. Other than focusing on new products to boost its position and sales on the international market, the smartphone industry still presents Apple with a myriad of opportunities on how to creates and maintain a competitive advantage against competing rivals on the international market (Pablo & Sampere 1).
Customers are considered as the most important asset for any company. This is because they exist as the source of revenue for companies when they purchase their products and services. Customer preferences are often considered as the most essential element defining the approach that companies give to their products with regard to sales and promotions (Lussier 18).
The dominance of Apple Company on the international market can be attributed to the ability of the company to provide its customer with quality products. This elucidates that despite increased competition on the international market, Apple is still a dominant player in the market. Providing variety not only serves to retain customer but also establishes customer loyalty to the brand (Lussier 22). The possible decline in the sales of Apple Company can be attributed to an increase in the number of available and high quality smartphone alternatives in the market. In addition, minor improvements in the iPhone 6 can be considered as the demotivating factor among loyal customers (http://www.bbc.com/news/business-35412892).
Technological improvements are considered as defining elements of change in a company. When Apple launched the iPhone in 2007, it made functions of different mobile devices accessible to millions of users across the international market (Kim and Renée 21). Subsequent versions of the iPhone, while responding to technological changes and consumer needs introduced essential aspect such as multitasking through different mobile phone applications (Kim and Renée 21). Other versions such as iPhone 4 and iPhone 5 were able to improve and refine new functionalities of the smartphone. iPhone 6, which was considered as a game changer, has not been able to provide consumers with the expected technological disruption as the previous versions. An increase in the screen size and memory capacity comprises the major difference between iPhone 5 and Iphone 6 (Pablo & Sampere 1). This is however not a technological disruption because an increase in screen size is only an industrial feature that other smartphone companies have already introduced (Pablo & Sampere 1).
Customers have considered the decision by Apple Company to introduce Error 53 codes that permanently disables iPhone 6 software after software upgrades as outrageous and consequently disturbing. This is because it destroys the property belonging to customers (Brignall 1). Inasmuch as Apple introduced this technique as a security measures, there are suggestions that it is possible that the company introduced the policy as a revenue increasing strategy, which would compel iPhone 6 users in need of repair to pay the company (Brignall 1). Customers who have been affected by this policy have been compelled to purchase new handsets and this has proved to be relatively expensive. The decision by the company to introduce a software damaging technology with the objective of protecting the customer and securing the product has been perceived as a breach of basic consumer laws. Any decision by the company to continue with the implementation of this policy could introduce the company to multiple litigations and encourage scrutiny into the company’s operations (Brignall 1).
Apple faces the environmental concern of safe dumping of used and damaged smartphone devices. Pollution resulting from manufacturing facilities in China is a growing concern, which necessitates the development of, polices regulating the manufacturing process
Summary of genetic factors
Apple considers iPhone sales as one of the major sources of revenue for the company. This is because of the prevalence of the smartphone devices on the international market. The predicted drop in sales of the Iphone threatens the revenue capacity and the dominance of the company as a technological giant (Müller 14). The differentiation strategy adopted by the company provides Apple with a differential advantage over existing competitors such as Samsung (Hill et al 21).
Despite embracing innovation as defining elements of the differentiation strategy, there is need of the company to improve on the application of its growth and value improvement strategy through the development of techniques that can be used in penetrating markets in developing economies where the popularity of the company’s products is still relatively limited (Hill et al 34).
Product development, market development, and market penetration are considered as the main intensive growth strategies of the company. These strategies are in agreements with the company’s generic strategy. Apple is strong in product development through its ability to embrace innovation (O’Grady 18). However, for the company to ensure any form of improvement in its performance there is need to develop additional techniques of enhancing market penetration capabilities through market development strategies (Krosinsky 1).
Apple brand development strategy serves the important role of improving and maintaining the company’s competitive advantage in the international market (Kapferer and Bastien 56). The innovative and beautiful designs of Apple products deliver not only the intended purpose of the products but also seek ways of improving its ability to establish a highly competitive brand (Meyer 1). The development of products such as iPhone 6 embraces varieties of aspects about customer experience (McFedries 10). The company has also been able to expand and improve on its distribution capacities by opening hundreds of retail outlets in major markets populated by the target customers (Kosaka and Kunio 18). An additional aspect that defines competitive advantage the brand loyalty of Apple in markets such as China is the ability of the company to produce products that are appealing to customer emotions. Thus makes their product not only aesthetically appealing to the customer but also contributing to the cultural operations that define the satisfaction of customer needs (Daft 112).
Despite the perceived advantages resulting from the differentiation and brad development strategies associated with Apple the company can also be accused of reluctance concerning the ability to ensure sustainable innovation and the protection of customer interests (Wit et al 44). Marginal differences between iPhone 5 and iPhone 6 are an indication of failure by the innovative team to provide the customer experience that defines the value proposition statements of the company (Morris et al 56). Furthermore, through the introduction of Error 53 codes the company has not only infringed on consumer right of ownership of property but it can also be accused of the introduction of reckless polices for profit making at the expense of satisfying consumer needs (Brignall 1).
Porter’s five forces
Power of Buyer:
The company’s differentiation strategy provides Apple with a competitive advantage considering that the company maintains customer brand loyalty while at the same time sustaining the prevailing market. With the introduction of iPhone 6 and iPhone 6s, Apple was able to adopt the focused differentiation strategy, which was accompanied by improvements from the previous iPhone 5 including an increase in memory capacity and screen size.
The company’s strategy of differentiation helps the company in maintaining its position as a leader in the technological market. Differentiation in function and design affirms the objective of the company to provide customers with high quality experience using technological innovations (Meyer 1)
Power of Supplier
Manufacturers and suppliers of component products if Apple products are mainly in China Suppliers from China are highly influential because they the dominance of resources which enable them to decide particular prices making it difficult for Apple to control. Apple has price-to-fixed contracts while price is independent as it varies due to the nature of its products.
Rivalry among existing competitors:
Smartphone companies such as Samsung, Huawei, Xiaomi, and Lenovo have continued to gain dominance on the international smartphone market. This has partly been attributed to the ability of companies such as Samsung to provide lower cost smartphones in Southeast Asia, Middle East and in Africa (http://www.bbc.com/news/business-35412892). Apple operates on the high-end market with its main source of revenue being China. Despite its popularity in China emerging Chinese smartphone companies such as Xiaomi, continue to expand their dominance in the Chinese market by providing high quality smartphones alternatives to Apple customers (Apple Inc 4).
Threat of Entrants
Market for smartphones is relatively saturated on the international platform with countries such as South Korea and China, engaging in the development of high quality smartphones (Market line, 2014). The demand for relatively cheaper, easy to use and high quality smartphones in Asia and developing countries has made the threat of new entrants in the international market high. Smartphone production is capital intensive and sustaining such a brand is challenging. That is why entry barriers in smartphone industry are differentiation and access to wider distribution channel, group analysis and this puts Apple as the leader in the production and marketing of high quality smartphones.
Threat of Substitutes
The company faces challenges in the implementation of its value addition strategies. This is because existing competitors such as Samsung, Huawei, and Xiaomi are in the process of incorporating similar strategies hence increasing the level of competition in the market (http://www.idc.com/prodserv/smartphone-market-share.js).
Market development is a value addition strategy that Apple uses in establishing its strategic position in the technological world to limit the threat of substitution. Market development involves the creation of new markets for new products or venturing into a new market. Market development is an essential value addition strategy for the company because it focuses on the development of new technique that can be used in entering new markets (Hiriyappa 32).
The introduction of different versions of the iPhone can be considered as market development strategy used by Apple to expand its market share. Through the innovative measure applied in every subsequent product, Apple has been able to establish an effective customer base in different reigns around the world (Ferrell and Michael 34). The introduction of new products such as Apple watch can be perceived as a value addition strategy aimed at improving the image of the company in the smart watch market.
Threat of Entry
Threat of Substitutes
Power of Supply
Power of Buyer
The table below is a summary of the relationship between Apple’s unique resources and core competencies in the company’s value chain
SAME AS COMPETITORS
BETTER THAN COMPETITORS
· Procurement of device components from manufacturers in China
· Varieties of Iphone 6 versions in the market
· Company investment in additional outlets stores in the Asian market to boost sales
· An established presence in the high-end market
· Unique product features
· Strong financial position
· Different Brand Portfolios such as iPhone 6 and iPhone 6s
· Engaging in innovations as part of product and value development
· Customer service is tailored in accordance with diverse and unique customer needs to provide the Apple experience
· Apple operates on a strong brand equity in the t international market
· Apple is popular as a dynamic, innovative and the production of high quality.
· Apple embraces employees and customers as essential partners in organizational development and profitability.
· The company owns its brand logos, copyrights, product packaging and web domain names
Strong financial position and corporate social responsbility
Effective compliance process using verification and strategic knowledge
Effective technological systems across the supply chain
Human resource management
Effective management team
Effective management and corporate strategy globally
Rational ethical values for employee
Effective employee relationship
Research and development in technology
Ability to embrace change
Ability to embrace great product technology
Long term relationship with suppliers
Operates through just in time strategy where finished products are shipped immediately
Marketing and sales
Focus on product design and marketing
Specialized material importation
Collaboration with best service providers
Outsourcing manufacturing and assembly
Investment in research and development
Effective supply chain management
String control over its global distribution channel
Effective supplier relationship
Involvement in forward integration
High brand reputation and recognition
Price value and leadership
Strong customer base
Differentiation of products offered
Secure operating systems
Easy to use devices
After sale service
Improved customer satisfaction
The introduction and popularity of the iPhone presented the technological world with the understanding that the core competence of Apple Company was to deliver exceptional customer experience through superb user interfaces. The company’s value proposition can be sustained through the touch screen gestures used in the iPad, iPod and the iPhone (Hart-Davis 12). Other products such as iMac, iCloud, iTunes remains dedicated to the delivery of quality customer experience through easy to use and elegant technological interface. Since launching the Apple brand and the subsequent launching of the iPod in 2001, Apple was able to harmonize its value by improving its brand and product strategy toward commonly used consumer products (Lüsted 15). The company rebranded itself Apple Inc instead of Apple computers as an indication that it intends to surpass its computer-manufacturing role. Apple has been able to ensure that services and functionality is made accessible to consumers irrespective of the apple devices that they are using (Schneiders 22).
The company’s value addition strategy focuses on the emotions of the targeted consumers. The product is about enhancing the lifestyle, social status, passion, imagination, and aspirations in ways that provide power to the users (Zylla-Woellner 22). The ability of that company to produce portable devices that remove complexities from people’s lives led to the creation of people driven designs hence improving on the humanist nature of the products with regard to creating a heartfelt connection with the customers (Hitt et al 12).
From the external analysis of Apple Inc, the dominance of the company on the international market can be attributed to the ability of the company to provide its customer with quality products. Apple is still a dominant player in the market since it provides variety of products to not only serves to retain customer but also establishes customer loyalty to the brand.to improve on its sustainability, the company must expand and improve on its distribution capacities. This can be realized by opening hundreds of retail outlets in major markets populated by the target customers. An additional aspect would be to improve on its brand loyalty in markets such as China by producing products that are appealing to customer emotions and technological needs.
Aaker, D. A, and Mcloughlin, D. Strategic market management global perspectives,
Chichester, Wiley, 2010.
Apple Inc. Corporate Governance Guidelines.2015
Brignall, Miles. Apple under pressure as lawyers pledge action over ‘Error 53’ codes. 2016.
Cameron, E., & Green, M. Making sense of change management: A complete guide to
the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. London: Kogan Page, 2012.
Daft, Richard L. Management. Australia : South-Western Cengage Learning, 2014
Ferrell, O C, and Michael D. Hartline. Marketing Strategy: Text and Cases. Mason, OH: South-
Western/Cengage Learning, 2014. Print.
Hart-Davis, G. Teach yourself visually iPhone 6s. Indianapolis, IN : John Wiley & Sons,
Sample Paper on Metaphysics (Ontology): Determinism and Free Will college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Determinism and Free Will
When the topic of metaphysics is mentioned, focus shifts to philosophical perspectives that give an explanation of the fundamental nature of being or existence and the universe that encompasses both. Metaphysics often seeks to answer basic questions, such as “what is there” and “what is it like.” One of the key branches of metaphysics is ontology, which refers to the philosophical study of the nature of existence, being, reality, or becoming. The significant ontological concern is the existence of determinism and free will, and questions have often been raised on whether one of the two perspectives exists at the expense of the other. To address the concerns and questions raised about the existence of the two concepts, having a clear understanding of their definitions and what they refer to in life is important. Firstly, determinism can be defined as the philosophical belief that every event or experience occurs because of some necessity, and thus, most events or experiences are considered inevitable (Ogletree & Oberle, 2008). However, it should be noted that with this perspective or view, the idea that certain events or occurrences could have been performed in a different manner and future decisions could turn out to be different from the expectation, are criticized or challenged. On the other hand, the concept of free will refers to the ability that a person has to choose between different possible courses of action, and in most cases, free will is influenced by other concepts, such as persuasion, prohibition, and deliberation (Fischer et al., 2009). As the concept of determinism, the possibility of free will has been challenged because of the different view or opinions of how exactly it is conceived. The correlation between the two concepts is that determinism, on one hand, gives a suggestion that only a single course of events is possible and it is as a result of an existing law, and free will, on the other hand, gives the suggestion that individuals have the freedom to exhibit any behavior without necessarily being influenced or coerced by existing laws. With these perspectives in mind, this paper aims at determining whether determinism rules out the possibility of free will.
Development of Thesis
The argument that determinism rules out the possibility of free will would mean that the two concepts are incompatible. In the case of free will, a person can do otherwise when exhibiting a certain behavior or action, and this is an insinuation that he/she is not tied to exhibiting the same. Conversely, in the case of determinism, a person cannot do otherwise or divert from exhibiting an expected behavior or action (Ogletree & Oberle, 2008). These two premises can lead to a conclusion that determinism is dominant, and thus, rules out the possibility of free will. There is no doubt that the already mentioned argument about determinism ruling out the possibility of free will has often challenged the way people think about their place as agents in society. Such an argument has often resulted in people giving up the idea of free will and working in a society where everything is done as stipulated in the laws in place. Unfortunately, the fact that people give up free will is unattractive and unacceptable because free will plays a crucial role when it comes to peoples’ self-conception as agents of decision-making and rational deliberation. As such, it should be noted that determinism does not rule out the possibility of free will, and thus, the two are compatible. As much as the events and experiences that people undergo are restricted by specific laws, they also have the freedom or free will to make decisions on what events they want to be part of and how they want to behave or act.
The argument that determinism rules out the possibility of free will has no proof and is unacceptable in society today. Evidently, not every action or decision made by people in the world today is based on set laws and regulations. In as much as there are laws to guide or dictate how people should behave, it is the free will to behave or act as expected by law that counts in the long run. For instance, in every country, there are laws that state that people ought to take part in the electoral process to elect leaders who can play a part in socioeconomic development. The fact that people take part in electoral processes is often attributed to the free will that people have in the long run. Other than laws being in place, it is the concept of free will that will influence an individual to take part in a given process or act in a specific manner (List, 2014). This idea rules out the argument that the actions that people take part in are because of the pre-set laws or conditions and not their free will to participate in the same.
In respect of the argument above, the compatibility between determinism and free will and the point that determinism rules out the possibility of free will cannot be doubted. Often, a person’s exhibition of a particular behavior is as a result of the laws or regulations in place as well as his/her free will to do so. One of these perspectives cannot overshadow the other, and this is why it would be right to underscore the fact that determinism cannot rule out the possibility of free will.
The above argument can be applied to various contexts in life. For instance, a person who decides to surrender to jurisdictional authorities for having committed murder does so not only because of the laws that are in place but also because he/she has the free will to do so. This implies that determinism, despite its role in the decisions and actions of human beings, does not rule out the possibility of free will in the same.
Argument in Support of and Opposition to Thesis
Several scholars support the argument that determinism rules out the possibility of free will. Ogletree & Oberle (2008) argue that determinism rules out the possibility of free will because the latter is as a result of people’s deliberate actions, which most of the times are caused or determined. The study opines that determinism provides a platform for free will, and free will cannot be experienced without the existence of determinism. The study proceeds to mention that free will is not as critical as determinism as the former is a mere illusion that reflects a kind of ignorance that people have in controlling variables of their choices. From this study, the argument that determinism rules out the possibility of free will is underscored.
On the other hand, several scholars oppose the argument that determinism rules out the possibility or existence of free will. For instance, List (2014) disagrees with the argument that determinism rules out the possibility of free will with the statement that free will is in existence and plays a crucial role in people’s self-perception as agents with the capability of coming up with rational deliberations and decisions. The study highlights that free will lies at the heart of morality and the law itself, and thus, cannot in any way be ruled out by determinism.
Further, Libet et. al. (2000) give two indisputable facts that oppose the argument that determinism rules out the possibility or existence of free will. The study states that in most cases, the occurrence or emergence of a person’s voluntary act is endogenous and is not affected by external control or cues. The study also mentions that most individuals often have the feeling that they wanted to do a certain action and that they have a feeling of controlling what is being done, when and how to do it. From these perspectives, it can be deduced that the possibility or existence of free will cannot be ruled out.
Response to Arguments
How the above arguments and opinions are valid on whether determinism rules out the possibility of free will is irrefutable. It is important to note that most of the actions or behaviors exhibited by people in society are primarily out of free will and not because of existing laws that imply determinism. However, the influence of determinism on people’s actions cannot be ruled out, and thus, it would be right to underline the compatibility between the two concepts.
With the perspectives discussed above, it is vital to note that determinism does not and cannot rule out the possibility or existence of free will. On one hand, determinism is defined as the philosophical belief that every event or experience occurs because of some necessity, and thus, most events or experiences are considered inevitable, and on the other hand, free will refers to the ability that a person has to choose between different possible courses of action, and in most cases, it is influenced by other concepts, such as persuasion, prohibition, and deliberation. The bottom line is that most of the actions that people are involved in can be attributed to the influence of free will, and this is despite the existence of laws (determinism).Therefore, the argument that determinism rules out the possibility of free will is not true.
Fischer, J. M., Kane, R., Pereboom, D., & Vargas, M. (2009). Four views on free will. John Wiley & Sons.
Libet, B., Freeman, A., & Sutherland, K. (2000). The volitional brain: Towards a neuroscience of free will (Vol. 6). Imprint Academic.
List, C. (2014). Free will, determinism, and the possibility of doing otherwise. Noûs, 48(1), 156-178.
Ogletree, S. M., & Oberle, C. D. (2008). The nature, common usage, and implications of free will and determinism. Behavior and Philosophy, 97-111.
Sample Paper on Axiology:Goodness and Badness of Actions assignment help sydney
Goodness and Badness of Actions
The field of axiology focuses on values or ethics and aesthetics, perspectives that are part of everyday life. For a long time, there have been debates on whether particular behaviors exhibited by people in day-to-day life are right or wrong, and it is in such scenarios that the concept of ethics comes up. Acting in an ethical manner means that a person behaves in a way that is acceptable in society. However, the greatest concern has been what and how the goodness and badness of actions should be determined. On one hand, there are those with the opinion that how an action is good or bad depends on what motivates a person to act in a particular manner (Heinrichs et al., 2013). Such philosophers or individuals have the perception that motives are the only relevant factors that ought to describe the moral worth of an action. There is no doubt that the perspectives that motivate a person to act in a particular manner have a final say on whether the actions are good. For instance, for a person who prefers to spend money to help poor members of a community, his or her action in this situation would be considered morally good. However, if the same person spends money on poor people to get favors from donors in return, his/her action would be considered bad. Through this, it is clear that motivation helps to determine the badness or goodness of actions. On the other hand, there are people with the opinion that the consequences of actions are what determine whether the action is right or wrong (Heinrichs et al., 2013). For instance, philosophers who are pro in this argument believe that if two people were to get drunk and drive home under the influence of alcohol, the fact that one of them will cause an accident and the other will not, implies that the action of the person who causes an accident is wrong. Several questions and concerns have been raised on what exactly between consequences and motivation determines the goodness and badness of actions. This paper supports the argument that actions are good or bad depending on their motivations and not consequences.
Development of Thesis
The aspect of ethics is often questioned when the actions or behaviors of a person affect the community or those around him/her. In most cases, people try to exhibit good actions that are acceptable to the community and those that will not result in their rejection from the community. However, it is important to note that there are two critical factors that determine whether a person’s action or behavior is ethically good or bird. One of these factors is the motivation that a person has to engage in a given action, and the other is the consequence of a person’s action. The latter is defined as consequentialism, and its proponents (consequentialists) believe that how an action is good or bad must be judged based on how good or bad the results of the action are (Heinrichs et al., 2013). In the real sense, consequentialists are convinced that priority should be given to the consequences of human actions rather than the motivations behind the actions. This idea is opposed by deontologists who argue that the righteousness of an action ought to be determined by the intentions or motivations behind the action.
The argument of consequentialists has been opposed in day-to-day life because the results of a given action do not necessarily mean that an action is good or bad. For instance, a person with the intention of saving the lives of people suffering from illnesses, such as polio or measles might come up with a vaccination or treatment program for people suffering from the same. However, at times, the individual’s treatment or prevention program can turn out to be detrimental, resulting in unexpected deaths. In such as situation or scenario, consequentialists might argue that the person’s action is bad because of the resultant deaths, which should not be the case. It is imperative that the goodness or badness of the person’s action in the scenario be determined from his or her motives. This implies that the goodness and badness of human actions are dependents on their motivations rather than consequences.
As discussed in the section above, it remains undoubted that the ethicality of the actions of human beings should be determined from what motivates the actions rather than the consequences of the actions. In most cases, relying on the consequences of actions to determine their ethicality might not give reliable or valid outcomes. There is a possibility that a person might have good motives or intentions when engaging in a particular action, which means that the action ought to be considered good. However, the results of the action might not be as anticipated, and this does not mean that the person’s action will be regarded as bad (Spielthenner, 2005).
The argument that the ethicality of human actions should be determined by motivations rather than consequences can be applied to various contexts. For instance, in jurisdictional contexts, whether a person will be charged or not for an offense depends on whether his actions were good or bad; and these are often determined by the motives that the person had when engaging in undertaking a certain activity. Jurisdictional institutions often leverage on motives rather than consequences when determining the ethicality of the behavior of a criminal.
Argument in Support of and Opposition to Thesis
Several previous studies and literature are in agreement with the argument that actions are good or bad depending on their motives or intentions and not consequences. Spielthenner (2005) supports philosophers who regard motives of a person as the key factors that determine whether an action is good or bad. The study argues that the obviousness of how important motives or intentions are in determining the morality of an action cannot be doubted. It gives an example of a person who spends money with the motive of helping innocent civilians in a war-torn country to highlight how motive is crucial in determining the goodness or badness of human actions. It argues that in such as case, the person’s motivation or intention, without a doubt, envisages the goodness of the action.
However, there are scholars who oppose the argument that the ethicality of actions should be determined by motives rather than consequences. Sheehy (2010) argues that how the ethicality or morality of actions is evaluated is dependent on how good or bad their consequences are. This study gives the suggestion that the right action is one that results in the maximization of overall utility or happiness. Moreover, Shaw (2006) opposes the argument when he states clearly that consequentialism is important when it comes to determining whether an action is right or wrong. His study opines that more concern and focus should be on the extent to which the world would be better or worse because of the actions of people living in it.
Response to Arguments
The validity of the above opposing and supporting arguments on whether actions are good and bad depending on their motivations or consequences cannot be questioned. However, the argument supporting the fact that the goodness or badness of actions is determined by their motivations rather than consequences holds water. In the real sense, it is the motive or intention that a person has when engaging in a certain activity or action that determines whether his or her action is good or bad. At times, a person might have a good motive intention when getting involved in an activity but the result of his or her involvement in the same might not be as expected, and this does not warrant a consideration of such an action a bad. Nevertheless, the study by Shaw (2006) lacks validity as it focuses primarily on consequentialism and ignores the aspect of motivation, and thus, there is no comparison of the two that might underscore the advantage that one has over the other.
The goodness or badness of actions should be determined by their motivations rather than consequences. The motives or intentions of a person when engaging in a given action might be good although the results of the same action might be contrary to the expectations, and thus, the action in such a situation might not be considered bad. The bottom line, in this case, is that when determining the ethicality or morality of actions, the focus should be more on motives or intentions than consequences of the actions.
Heinrichs, K., Oser, F., & Lovat, T. (2013). Handbook of moral motivation: Theories, models, applications. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
Shaw, W. (2006). The consequentialist perspective. Contemporary debates in moral theory, 5-20.
Sheehy, P. (2010) Doing the Right Thing (Part I).The Richmond Journal of Philosophy.
Spielthenner, G. (2005). What Makes Actions Morally Good?. Retrieved from http://www2.units.it/etica/2005_1/SPIELTHENNER.htm
Sample Film Analysis Paper on The Movie Amour by Michael Haneke essay help online free: essay help online free
The Movie Amour by Michael Haneke
In most films directed and created by the Michael Haneke, the art of violence has been used in a very thoughtful manner. In superficial view, one would accentuate that he is trying to connote the high level of violence that negatively affects the well-being of the society. A closer scrutiny on the various precepts postulated by the author gives portends a whole difference perception which to some extent is true. The twists and turns of violence depicted in these movies live the audience with various questions on what the society has become which is exactly what Michael is trying to portend in them. This paper analyzes the different precepts depicted by the director of the movie ‘Amour’ and try to understand how he pitches his concepts and the epitome of the whole scenes to bring on board the captivating moments to the audience. in concrete terms, we would review how violence has been explicated in this movie and using the various connotations postulated by the different lines of thought of this individual we would analyze the effect of some of the scenes on how they impact on the society and how the what Michael tries to give his opinion on violence.
In the film, ‘Amour’, the act of violence is depicted at the point where the caregiver who is hired by the Georges to take care of Ann mistreats her. If anything to go by, as connoted by Michael in his analysis, it is expected that the nurses are to have the profound responsibility of taking care of the patients they are assigned. In this prospect, we only expect that the transcending effect of this notion is that the caregiver should be depicted in the film to be taking his responsibility of patients which is the opposite as represented in this particular cast. In trying to read the mind of Michael as he brings out the storyline of the movie, the antagonistic approach given to this depiction of violence provides a deep thought to the audience of the realities of the world around us.
From the analysis of this scene, it comes out clearly that this connotation of a depiction of violence in the movie is double edged. In one perspective, one would refute by saying that the director is trying to promote violence into the society by making movies that depict characters that go against the norms of the society. In this context, one would condemn the cinematography for this film and term it as of high moral decadence. In another thoughtful approach, it comes out clearly about the real and genuine violence especially regarding the mistreatment of the patient with chronic conditions by the caregivers. Let’s not forget that the personalities of people differ, and this transcends into how a caregiver can handle their patients. Again as highly connoted by the author, humanitarian role that this scene accentuates is the need to find the answers to the constant problems that we have and in this case with the caring for the old aged people. The main aim of the author is to create a question in the mental picture of the audience.
In the contemporary society, there are various problems that we have that we do not have answers, and we should continuously seek the answers to them. The major role of the art as depicted by this author in this film is that we need to ask ourselves some questions. These questions are such as what are the best ways in which we tame the high level of violence brought out by the caregivers upon the patients even as they try to get to the notion of taking care of these patients. The creation of this question in the mind of the art is a provocative stance of ensuring that people do not only think of the reliable ways to curb the problem but to transform the mindset of every individual to the violence against the old. Looking at the downside of the depiction of violence in this film, one would justify the act by affirming that it is even allowed in most of the films so it is a norm that the old aged persons should be mistreated by their caregivers. In this sense, the art could be used as a catalyst to violence. On the contrary, we should note that even as one gives you the events of violence through the film, it provides grounds for soul searching on the morality of the act itself. As most journalists and editors would analyze the movie, they would talk about the theme of violence not in a manner to condemn the act but to find the real solutions on such. In this prospect, it is very evident that the filmmaker is not only in search of the solution but the cause of the problem at hand.
Another scene depicting the mindset of the director is where there is a contrast between Georges and his daughter Eve on the need to take her mother to the care giving home which Georges refuses based on the promise she was given by her wife. In this situation love and passion inhibit the moral from prevailing. It is a fact that at the hospital, she could get better treatment that would manage the stroke but due to the love of home and that of her family, she restricts herself from being moved to a nursing home. In a moral perspective, it is important as the daughter explained that she was to get a proper care from a nursing home. The refusal to go to the nursing home is against the moral standards brought out in this excerpt. Again in this stance, the director tries to jog our minds on finding profound solutions to such predicaments. One would argue that the main character in this movie denied the love of his life the advent to live longer by not taking her to the hospital. But indeed, it should be noted that in the societal context, it should be the obligation of the authorities to ensure that the patients with chronic illness should be given proper care.
In conclusion, the first scene of violence in this film where the nurse mistreats Anne is a depiction of how brutal the nurses are as they carry out their duties. This connotation has the notion that it encourages violence at the same time it takes the audience to the mode of questioning themselves on how the solution can be found on the force of nurses on their patients. On the second scene, the director only tries to work out the need to follow the well laid down procedures of saving the lives of those with chronic condition
Nursing: A Case Study on A Potential Conflict Regarding Brad Smith’s Dilemma essay help 123
A Case Study on A Potential Conflict Regarding Brad Smith’s Dilemma
As a professional director of a Memorial Hospital laboratory, Smith finds himself in a challenging dilemma regarding his decision to begin his postgraduate studies. Smith manages a proficient staff of 67 employees in a large, complex, and highly occupied laboratory that requires his continuous commitment. The entire management role requires Smith to execute both evening and weekend tasks despite his commitment and excellence at the job. His decision of pursuing a master’s degree is emphasized with the fact that he has to use it as evidence for entry into higher levels of management within the field of medicine and healthcare.
However, the timing of these studies will overlap with the weekend as well as evening tasks at the Memorial Hospital. As such, this decision may have negative impacts on the effective management of the healthcare services provided by the laboratory under Smith’s leadership. Nevertheless, Smith has initiated a family with his wife and is in dire need of their well-paying jobs to cater for their daily needs. The greatest dilemma exists whereby the incumbent manager has to meet his family needs, attend classes, and at the same time ensure smooth running of the laboratory activities. This paper explores Smith’s challenges in three different ways. First, the paper looks at the reasons that compel Smith to attend the graduate school alongside the needs that the degree attained would help him to fulfill. Secondly, the paper discusses other alternatives that can be used to satisfy Smith’s needs before providing a discussion on whether Memorial Hospital have any responsibility for him in this context and how they would help him out.
An Overview of the Reasons as to why Smith Wants To Attend Graduate School and the Needs that the Graduate School would help him to fulfill
According to Hancock and Isaac (2015), different people choose to further their education for different reasons. In this case, Smith is seeking to pursue a master’s degree as a stepping-stone to a higher level of management position in the field of healthcare. Pursuing a master’s degree will help the incumbent laboratory manager to further his knowledge in not only the field of medicine but also other related disciplines such as psychiatry. Master’s degrees are always associated with enhancement of knowledge, expertise skills and professional experience required in pursuing a number of tasks that one might encounter in his or her line of work.
Hancock and Isaac (2015) add that one’s decision to pursue higher studies is always accompanied with the need of salary increment and the urge to appropriately fit in the modern technologically changing society. For instance, Smith will acquire more skills that will augment the current ones and improve service delivery not only at the current workplace but also in new environments where he may seek for employment in higher capacities. This decision can also help Smith to fulfill other needs such as taking care of his family(Jacobs, 2013). Human wants are always unlimited and Smith may have a desire to improve the living standards of his family despite the better pay they receive at their current workstations.
In this perspective, Smith would look after increasing his current salary to acquire more sophisticated services such as means of transport that may further improve his living conditions alongside that of his family members. Nonetheless, acquiring a master’s degree is a direct fulfillment of one’s educational needs, which would further encourage him to acquire of a Degree in Doctor of Philosophy (Phd). As such, masters would act as a binding element that helps in catering Smith’s emotional needs as far as the desire of living a better life is concerned.
Alternative Ways of Satisfying Smith’s Needs
According to Hancock and Isaac (2015), it is always important to understand ones fundamental needs before exploring whether there are any alternative ways to help him or her. In this case, Smith’s fundamental need is to pursue a master’s degree and see it help him to seek for higher management positions in different organizations. Seemingly, Smith is not embraced with the better pay that the two receive from their current employers. Therefore, it is important to start by inviting him and talking to him to understand all that he needs. In this scenario, it is evident that Smith’s employer can use a number of techniques to curb his evasion.
The first alternative should involve a salary increment, which will enable the incumbent manager to reconsider his decision of going back to school. Secondly, Smith can also think of other techniques such as on the job training to improve further his skills as opposed to his decision to pursue masters during part time (Jacobs, 2013). This decision is highly costly and can result in negative consequences to the Memorial Hospital laboratory. First, the hospital may fail to get a qualified, experienced, and self-driven manager who can effectively manage the entire laboratory as Smith during times when he would leave for class. Secondly, Smiths decision may result in unplanned absenteeism of the organizational employees alongside his absence, which may jeopardize the laboratory operations.
Jacobs (2013) adds that tthese combined negative events can have far reaching effects on the performance and service delivery of the laboratory which may even result in ultimate closure. As the threats of closure continue, Smith may receive several warning letters that may not only result in the loss of his job but also affect his family life. Job loss would transform into lack of payment and further result in poor living standards. As such, Smith should think wisely and apply for study vacations at the interval of his employment period to enable him attend his classes and even seat for examination. Provision of paid study leaves and vacations are a common practice in many organizations operating in the current world and can act as a good choice to cater for the fulfillment of Smiths educational needs.
Memorial Hospital’s Responsibility to Smith in this Scenario and how to help him out
Owing to the stipulation and guidelines provided in the employee-employer relationship, all employers have a moral responsibility to take good care of their employees. The Occupational Health and Safety Act is a fundamental example of such laws that have been globally developed to ensure the comfort of all employees and their employers (Creighton & Rozen, 2014).In this case, Memorial Hospital has a moral responsibility to care of Smith as their employee in a number of ways. First, the Hospital should start by listening to their incumbent laboratory manager and seeking for factual ways of helping him out to cater for his overwhelming needs.
Secondly, the hospital can start to provide on the job training to ensure that they improve the skills, knowledge and expertise professional stances of committed employees such as Smith. On the job training is one of the most current form of training that most of the organizations are using to improve the experience of their workers. Smith’s desire to pursue a master’s degree is emphasized with the need that he wants to use this degree as a stepping-stone to higher management positions. Realizing this goal in one of their most committed employees, the Memorial Hospital should respond accordingly by improving Smith’s pay.
According to Rothwell (2014), a salary increment in a worker’s pay-slip can have far-reaching positive effects. The reward offered in a particular workstation is always a determinant factor in the mobility of labor. As such, Smith can consider postponing his decision to further his studies in line with the hospital’s decision to not only improve his pay but also offer him on the job training that improves his skills and knowledge (Creighton, & Rozen, 2014). Increasing the manager’s salary can also help him to cater for other needs such as improving the standards of living of his family members and augment his studies.
Thirdly, the Memorial Hospital can honor Smith’s decision and back him up to ensure that he goes to school and accomplishes his master’s degree requirements. Here, the Hospital can appoint other substitute managers, train them, and equip them with the necessary knowledge required to take care of the laboratories when Smith is not around. Training other substitute managers will allow the organization to run smoothly without the negative effects that may accrue as a result of Smith leaving for his educational plans (Cunningham, 2016). However, the hospital should ensure that they support Smith’s education with different techniques to maintain him as their employee (Robertson, 2016).
In this case, Memorial Hospital can pay full or part of the incumbent manager’s school fees as a maintenance strategy and provide him with auxiliary services such as means of transport from school to work. This decision can also help in saving the time that the worker may waste on the road using public means to get from school to work and back to his home (Cunningham, 2016). Nevertheless, the Hospital should ensure that they provide Smith with adequate support through providing him with paid vacations and study leaves. These vacations alongside continuous study leaves will enable their incumbent laboratory manager to have a smooth run of events and ensure that he attends his classes without disturbances and sits for his exams without any form of interruption from work.
Another responsibility that the hospital may have in ensuring that Smith’s needs are well catered for may include continuous encouragement and motivation of the employee (Rothwell, 2014).Here, the hospital should carry out activities such as benchmarking alongside other company managers to understand how they usually balance their educational needs alongside their jobs. Additionally, the hospital should also improve Smith’s working conditions by holding several seminars and a variety of meetings to discuss the welfare of their workers (Robertson, 2016). It is through this seminars that workers needs such educational goals can be properly addressed.
It is the fundamental goal of both employees and their employers to maintain a mutual relationship while at their workplace. A number of acts and laws have been proposed both at national and international levels to adequately cater for the needs of each employee and employer at their workplace. This paper has explored Smith’s dilemma in details. Despite the responsibility of the Memorial Hospital on Smith’s needs, the incumbent laboratory manager has well elaborated steps that he must undertake to safeguard his job and fulfill his career goals. As such, it is important for the Hospital to consider Smiths needs and ensure that they support him in each step that he undertakes.
Creighton, W. B., & Rozen, P. C. (2014). Occupational health and safety law in Victoria. Sydney: Federation Press.
Cunningham, J. B. (2016). Strategic Human Resource Management in the Public Arena. Palgrave Macmillan.
Hancock, K., & Isaac, J. E. (2015). Labour market deregulation: Rewriting the rules ; essays in honour of Keith Hancock. Annandale NSW: Federation Press.
Jacobs, R. L. (2013). Structured on-the-job training: Unleashing employee expertise in the workplace. San Francisco, Calif: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Robertson, D. I. L. Y. S. (2016). Ontario Occupational Health And Safety Act: Quick Reference. Aurora: Thomson Reuters Canada.
Rothwell, W. J. (2014). Improving On-the-Job Training: How to Establish and Operate a Comprehensive OJT Program. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Sample Book Review on Hector Tobar’s novel ‘The Tattooed Soldier’ gp essay help
The Plight of Latino Immigrants in The United States
The current state of the Latin Americas is a reflection of the social, economic and political challenges faced by the country. The characteristics that have been associated with the community include political upheavals and violation of human rights. The population of the Latinos in America grew significantly between 1980 and 1990 due to the political instability in different regions such as Guatemala (Minich 224). The perception of the immigrants about America was that it was a country where they would find peace, and where human rights would be respected. They thought of the country as a democratic nation where the opinion of the people was considered while making political decisions. The Latino immigrants looked forward to leading better lives in the country, but the reality was opposite. The political administration in the United States at the time failed the immigrants as they were not treated equally with the other citizens.
It was hard for them to find jobs and this affected their economic as well as social welfare. Those who were lucky to secure jobs mostly worked in businesses that endangered their lives. This affected the pace at which the community developed in terms of political, social and economic aspects. The inability to afford basic necessities such as education and high quality health care affects a large part of the society even to date. Different authors have expressed their concern for the community using varying methods such as through the use of stories and poetry. One of such authors is Hector Tobar, who uses a fictional story to express the plight of the community in the United States in the 1990s. In his novel, he expresses the challenges that the community went through in their efforts to survive. This paper analyzes one of Tobar’s novels, The Tattooed Soldier, which shows the predicament of Latin Americans in the country. The paper identifies Antonio Bernal, a violent soldier who served in the government as the monster in the story. Although he is depicted as a victim, his motivation to kill the man who murdered his family brings out his monstrous character.
The fictional story is based on the lives of Guatemalan immigrants who freed their region due to civil wars that claimed many lives. The height of political instability in Guatemala at the time was high, forcing many people to look for better lives in other regions (Mills 236). Among the best places that the people chose included Los Angles, which was characterized by many economic activities that guaranteed them prosperity. The author uses the lives of the two immigrants to show the challenges that were faced by the whole population of the Latin immigrants in the country. One of the primary characters is Antonio Bernal, who is depicted as the victim in the story. His life is defined by depression, anger and misery that the immigrants faced in their country. Through the character, the author shows the reasons that made the immigrants free from their countries.
Back in Guatemala, Antonio did not find peace as there was a lot of political upheavals. The region was characterized by civil wars that claimed the lives of his wife and an only son. The author shows how the government treated the people who complained about its poor administration. For instance, Elena, who was killed for expressing her concern about poor drainage in the country. The best place that Antonio thought of relocating to was Los Angeles, but it did not offer him the life he expected. He expresses his surprise at realizing that women who had degrees in medicine worked as laboratory assistants. He was referring to the way the United States government denied the Latin Americans employment opportunities, even in areas where they were qualified. The high rate of racism in the country denied the Latin Americans equal employment opportunities, thus affecting the extent to which their political, social and economic welfare developed (Quandt et al. 2640)
The fact that the immigrants did not secure jobs easily made it difficult for them to develop economically because they could not even afford basic necessities. In one incident, the author describes the way Antonio was sent away by the landlord for the failure to clear his rent arrears. This is a reflection of the suffering that majority of the Latin Americans faced as a result of racial inequality in the United States. The low economic status of the people rendered most of the immigrants homeless and this made their misery even worse. Being homeless made their social life hard and they could not even unite for a common cause. The bitterness about the challenges that the immigrants faced at home made it hard for them to grow (Irr 449). They were still haunted by the adverse impacts of the civil war in their regions and this impacted their lives negatively. Most of the immigrants were psychologically disturbed, with an urge for vengeance against the people who hurt them. In the novel, the author describes Antonio as the character who could not afford even the basic necessities, but his drive for revenge transforms him into a monster, determined to take down a man he believed to have murdered his family.
Guillermo Longoria is the other character that the author uses to show the plight of Latin American immigrants. Although the character’s economic status is better off compared to Antonio’s he still experiences racial discrimination in Los Angeles. The author highlights that it is hard for Longoria to find formal employment, even with his military training. However, he secures employment with an illegal parcel service. Before relocating to Los Angles, the author cites that Longoria worked as a military agent with the Guatemalan government. In his line of work, he killed many people including Antonio’s wife and son. The author uses the character to explain the inhumane actions that forced the Latinos to migrate to regions such as Los Angeles. Longoria did not choose to be a military man in Guatemala, but he was kidnapped and trained on the military skills required to execute the orders that his government wanted to execute.
The author uses the character to show the dictatorial political system in Guatemala that forced the Latinos to relocate to other regions. Through the character, one understands the perception that the immigrants had about the high level of democracy in the United States. Although the immigrants did not face political challenges that they had experienced in Guatemala such as forced military operations, they faced other social challenges such as unemployment due to racial discrimination. Apart from forcibly recruiting young men into the military, the Guatemalan government executed people who challenged its decisionsin whichever way (Rodríguez 10). The death of Elena is an indication of the dictatorial leadership experienced in the region. She was murdered for expressing her concern about the poor environmental conditions in Guatemala that threatened the lives of the citizens. The immigrants hoped to find a more democratic political system in the country, but this was not the case. Equality was impossible in the country and this led to misery and suffering for both the young and old.
The suffering experienced by the immigrants made them turn against each other, further delaying their chances of success in political, economic and social development (Arias 174). They could not unite for a common cause, even if they faced similar challenges because the high level of poverty among them still distinguished the working class and the jobless. Antonio is depicted as jobless while Longoria is employed. Although he works in an illegal business, the small amount of money he makes is enough to pay for his basic needs. Antonio, on the other hand, cannot even afford to pay rent. The two classes did not realize that they faced a common problem of racial segregation and thus found no reason to fight against the vice that hindered their development.
The evil acts that the Guatemalan government forced the military personnel to commit make them evil as they were inhumane. They were commanded to kill anyone who was against the political administration and their families (Rodríguez, Saenz and Menjívar 221). The military men had jaguar tattoos on their bodies and this served as a mark of identity. This is the same identification mark that turned the flow of events in the story when Antonio identified it on Longoria’s arm. He was certain that he was the man who killed his family alongside other innocent citizens. From then on, he was no longer concerned about solving the social challenges that faced him, but was instead driven by the urge to take revenge. His motivation to kill Longoria made him focus less on his social well-being. This was the situation with most of the Latinos as they were focused on revenge instead of standing up in unity against the violation of human rights that they were experiencing. The lack of unity affected their social, political and economic development.
Considering the turn of events in the novel, one would consider Longoria as the monster because of the activities he was involved in while working as a soldier in Guatemala. He executed the orders to kill innocent people perfectly and even kept a collection of photos for all his victims. These are actions that would only be executed by evil people thus implying that he is the monster. However, the author makes the reader sympathize with Longoria making Antonio the monster in the story. The killings executed by Longoria are not out of his will because he gets orders from the dictatorial government. Further, the fact that he is one of the Latino immigrants proves that he does not approve of the actions conducted by Guatemalan government.For Longoria to become a soldier, he was kidnapped and trained on military skills by force. This makes him the victim in the story and Antonio becomes the protagonist who wants to kill him.
Antonio’s character as a monster is brought about by the fact that he does not consider Longoria’s motive for his actions. It is clear that Longoria does not support the evil acts by the government, but he has to abide by the command of the dictatorial government. As an elite working for the government, Antonio ought to have understood the dictatorial nature of the government. He should have understood that his family would still be alive were it not for the government orders. He should at least have listened to Longoria’s side of the story instead of plotting to kill him. Although he seems to be the victim in the beginning, his actions make him a monster. His strong urge to kill Longoria without considering the motive behind his actions makes him the monster.
In conclusion, Tobar uses the different characters in the story to inform the readers about the reasons that made Latinos to migrate and the hardships they encountered in the new regions. Among the primary reasons that forced the people to move to new regions is civil wars that were brought about by the dictatorial political leadership at the time. The immigrants were convinced that region such as Los Angeles would offer them with better lives, but they were not welcome. The high rate of racial discrimination in the region made it difficult for them to secure jobs, even for those who had high academic and professional qualifications. The inability to secure good jobs made it difficult for the society to develop. The social challenges they faced such as homelessness affected their ability to push for equality reforms at a time when racial segregation was at its peak.
Arias, Arturo. “Central American-Americans: Invisibility, power and representation in the US Latino world.” Latino Studies 1.1 (2003): 168-187.
Irr, Caren. “Neomedievalism in Three Contemporary City Novels: Tobar, Adichie, Lee.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature/Revue Canadienne de Littérature Comparée 42.4 (2015): 439-453.
Mills, Regina Marie. Guatemalan diasporic fiction as refugee literature: an analysis of Héctor Tobar’s The tattooed soldier and Tanya Maria Barrientos’s Family resemblance. Diss. 2014.
Minich, Julie Avril. “Mestizaje as National Prosthesis: Corporeal Metaphors in Héctor Tobar’s The Tattooed Soldier.” Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies 17.1 (2013): 211-226.
Quandt, Sara A., et al. “Experiences of Latino immigrant families in North Carolina help explain elevated levels of food insecurity and hunger.” The Journal of nutrition 136.10 (2006): 2638-2644.
Sample Analysis Paper on Cultuurpark Westergasfabriek in Amsterdam writing an essay help: writing an essay help
Cultuurpark Westergasfabriek in Amsterdam
The famous Cultuurpark Westergasfabriek is also referred to, as Westergasfabriek, and it was a former gasworks factory situated in Amsterdam, Netherlands although it is presently a cultural venue. The architect is the renowned Kathryn Gustafson. Ideally, the huge obstacle in designing this reputable park was to transform a polluted site that contained a substantial number of various historic buildings into a new usable and significant place. Hence, this remarkable mission of transforming the park put this region on the map, as well as on peoples’ radar before finishing because it consisted of marvelous architectural planning and building. Notably, this also incorporated a huge diversity of interests and allowed for an extensive community oriented process. An incredible amount of patience was required although the project ultimately turned successful (Reeve and Marshall 1).
Francine Houben and Kathryn Gustafson both of Mecanoo Archicten Company did the master plan for the park. The plan was regarded as the “Changement” since it proposed a fantastic place that changed people as they moved through it at different times throughout the year. In essence, the park’s nature changes as a person moves from its west to east. It is worth noting that the more classical or ridged designs that a person encounters while moving in the park, the more freer and varied designs open up. The master plan combined different classical elements, which include meadows, orchards, and a strong central axis with a range of various native plantings and winding paths (Gustafson 1).
In addition, a strong structure is built using different detailing varieties. On the east of the park where the district offices are situated overlooks the formal city park’s design. The middle of this park consists of various references to 1960s and 1950s parks, and this is where the recreation space is located. The northwest end of the park consists of native plants, and the key focus here is primarily on the ecology and nature, which refers to the 1980s parks. Notably, the Westergasfabriek site is the most contemporary section, which ideally refers to nature and humanity confrontation as portrayed in the landscape of the park (Reeve and Marshall 2).
Most importantly, the park consists of four major clusters whereby each of these clusters is unique since they have different distinct feelings from one another. These four clusters include the Village, Kinderdorp, Spektakeldorp, and Cite des Arts. Thus, the Village refers to the group of various buildings that are between the Events Field and the Canal. The Village has a huge hall mainly for cafes, studios, shops, and events that are housed in the popular Purifier Building. The Regulator House hosts the Westergasfabriek BV offices while the Machine Building is where incidental leasing is done. The Metering Buildings are specifically for different public functions that include a kiosk (Reeve and Marshall 2).
On the other hand, the Spektakeldorp is also known as the “Spectacular Village” that is utilized for larger events. It consists of the Transformer and Gasholder Buildings. Notably, the Gasholder Building is the biggest indoor space on this particular site, and it is mostly utilized for theater, opera, as well as other performances. It is one of the attractive scenes for this site. Subsequently, the Kinderdorp is also referred to as the “Children’s Village” since it is specifically designated for children activities. In this particular area, there are two houses for supervisors. The fourth cluster is the Cite des Arts, which is the farthest area of the park to the West, and it contains new buildings. The majority of these new buildings are mostly offices allocated for cultural activities instead of display or performance spaces (Gustafson 1).
In 1883, the site and gasworks technical planner was Julius Pazzani that lived between 1841 and 1888. Subsequently, the designer of the buildings was Isaac Gosschalk, who was an Amsterdam’s architect. The majority of the buildings that Isaac designed were primarily Dutch Neo-Renaissance style. In particular, the paramount element in all of his designs was symmetry. The buildings were made of light stone, as well as yellow and red bricks. Arcatures, ornamental eaves, and step gables adorned the facades (Reeve and Marshall 5).
On the same note, an expansion that was conducted between 1901 and 1905 eventually restored the design that Gosschalk intended. Over duration of time, the buildings were evidently torn down, and this included an old water tower. In 1989, the original buildings’ thirteen units were protected, and the old gasholder building in 1963 started being utilized as a storage space (Reeve and Marshall 5).
In addition, a new development plan in 1996 suggested that the old buildings should be restored, and this approach placed a historical value since it was its major concern. Hence, this approach was largely a conservative perspective. Specifically, Francine Houben from the Mecanoo Architects was called in to design the master plan, as well as the plan for renovating the existing buildings and new buildings design. The objective for this motive was the creation of an easy flow between the outside and inside including integrating the park usage harmoniously. Most importantly, it was integral that the initial usage of the renovated buildings be ostensible although they were not supposed to be restored perfectly since they had to retain their original state. Ideally, Braaksma & Roos were hired to conduct the restorative job. The Machine Building, Regulator House, GasHolder, Transformer Building, and Purifier Building were all renovated (Reeve and Marshall 5).
It is paramount to note that the Westergasfabriek was specifically designed to create an innovative cultural space that would be open to the public. Initially, the site was a gasworks factory that the BICGA (British Imperial Continental Gas Association) had constructed in 1883. In the 1960s, the site was abandoned after natural gas was discovered and the buildings were utilized as garage and storage spaces up to the early 1990s. Since the buildings were still standing in 1989, they were marked and regarded as industrial monuments, and they started being utilized as cultural activities spaces mainly on a temporary basis (Reeve and Marshall 6).
Evidently, this program became successful, and the park was transformed into a permanent cultural center. The creation of a development plan was done in 1996, and the official opening of the park was conducted in 2003. The park offered the space for various purposes such as shops, galleries, performances, festivals, and community dinners. Currently, there are numerous spaces, which are for both short and long-term rental that allow for flexibility in their usage (Gustafson 1).
The establishment of the original park was done in 1891 where it served the quite working class people in the Amsterdam region. The factory that the BICGA had built in 1883 was situated behind the park, and it was decided that both the defunct factory and the park should be combined to build a magnificent park that conserved its heritage. This action was undertaken in the 1960s when natural as resources were discovered in the North Sea and the factory was eventually abandoned since it had become obsolete. The buildings were saved from demolition, and the aesthetical values started to change. Thus, the old city’s installations began to look original while their architecture started to be valued significantly. The entire region of the municipal water and gas installations were remodeled, as well as trees were planted. Notably, Westergasfabriek in 2003 was opened officially to the public (Amsterdam Guide 1).
In the same suit, the cleanup process involved the utilization of the Isolation-plus Vairant method, which consisted of cleaning up the entire polluted site. Hence, this meant that the polluted ground water was supposed to be isolated although not covered in asphalt. Rather, layers of cloth, as well as a “living layer” that contained clean soil were needed to cover the polluted ground within a meter deep. Generally, approximately 34,000 square meters of clean soil were utilized including over 64,500 square meters of geotextile was utilized to cover the entire polluted site (Reeve and Marshall 6).
This park has tremendously grown into a huge green area that comprises of an events stage, an exhibition space, a cinema, and a theater. It bears its proud name of “Cultuurpark Westergasfabriek” (Culture Park Western Gas Factory). Remarkably, what was initially a small neighborhood park in the 19th century has been gradually combined with the huge region of the non-operational municipal gas installations. The municipal’s huge building divides the park into two key parts, which are the new, and the old one. There is also a long rectangular swimming pool for children where they can enjoy themselves on a warm sunny day. The park also contains some few bronze sculptures, as well as lots of green grass, which create an experimental suburbia for recreation activities (Amsterdam Guide 1).
According to Gustafson (1), the work conducted in the park was engaging, distinctive, and original. Additionally, the landform of the park involved innovative designs that manipulated the ground plane so that it could create ramps and steps, as well as level changes, which meticulously change as a person experiences them. Thus, the sensual landforms evidently define space in a unique sculptural manner. The water in the park is purified, processed, and stored and the landscape designs have been designed to enrich the park’s sensory experience with this water. This expresses changes in the water levels and invites people to engage in water activities. This includes the utilization of splashing fountains and reflective rainwater pools in the park.
In summation, the popular Cultuurpark Westergasfabriek is also known as Westergasfabriek, which was a former gasworks factory situated in Amsterdam, Netherlands but it is currently a cultural venue that hosts many events. The architect of this magnificent park is the distinguished Kathryn Gustafson. According to Gustafson, the biggest obstacle when designing this famous park was to transform a polluted site that comprised of some varied historical buildings into a new usable and significant place. Thus, their exceptional mission of changing the polluted park put this region on the map including other peoples’ radar before its completion since it entailed stunning architectural planning and building. In essence, this venture also incorporated a wide diversity of different interests, and it involved a widespread community oriented process. The park currently attracts many visitors for recreation and learning purposes.
Amsterdam Guide. Westerpark in Amsterdam. Amsterdam Guide, 2016. Web. 2nd June 2016. < http://www.amsterdam.info/parks/westerpark/ >
Gustafson Porter. Cultuurpark Westergasfabriek. Gustafson Porter, n.d. Web. 2nd June 2016. < http://www.gustafson-porter.com/westergasfabriek/ >
Reeve, Julia and Marshall, Sarah. Westergasfabriek, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Washington Education PDF. Web. 2nd June 2016. < https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjUkebF84fNAhUJWxoKHQ-9CnwQFghAMAU&url=httpscourses.washington.edugehlstudgehl-studiowp-contentthemesgehl-studiodownloadsWinter2010Westergasfabriek.pdf&usg=AFQjCNHSojM4P81rC8_hj9zjlKLuMMkpQA&sig2=Z6espNlFlbbpOHAijx2gdQ >
Sample Paper on the Legal Concept of “Genericide” In Its Relation to Trademark Law essay help tips
The loss of a trademark is a blow to companies that incur costs to maintain the names of their products. Companies that fail to safeguard their trademarks fear that their product names might become generic, leading to exploitation by third parties. For instance, escalator, zipper, and Aspirin, were once trademarks that expressed particular brands, but they have nowadays taken the common language, or generic terms, as moving staircase, zippers, and pain reliever, respectfully. The “Google” trademark is probably one of the world’s most expensive trademarks, which has made the company to threaten its competitors, who claimed that the trademark has already become generic, and can be utilized by other parties without encountering legal consequences. Trademark rights are the company’s most precious asset, thus, companies must protect their trademarks to avoid experiencing genercide.
Defining the Legal Concept of “Genericide” In Its Relation to Trademark Law
Generic terms are common names that are used to identify products or services that do not portray definite source. The term “genericide” is coined from the word generic to mean the loss of trademark when the public categorizes the company’s trademark with other similar products (Hart, et al 51). When a company’s trademark is associated to a particular action that is not approved by the owning company, such trademark is deemed to become genericized. Genericide may occur if customers of a certain product link the trademark with the name of that product instead of perceiving it through its source (Ouellette 397). The term is at times utilized to express a process where the owner of a trademark inadvertently contributes in the obliteration of the uniqueness of the trademark. A generic term does not qualify to become a trademark as it signifies itself.
Trademark laws exist to preserve distinctive marks that distinguish a particular company’s products or services from other companies’ products in the same marketplace. Trademark rights can be lost when the firm’s trademark fails to act as an identifier of the company’s products or services. If consumers perceive the trademark as the product’s name as opposed to its exclusive source, the possibility of a trademark losing its distinctiveness is relatively high. In legal proceedings, the court investigates how the public perceives the company’s trademark, and whether customers understand the source of the brand in question. Some unscrupulous businesses can embrace the generic name and convince the intellectual property judges that they have the right to use the name due to its commonness. In this case, the original company feels the implication of genericide.
One of the companies that have strived to maintain their trademarks is Google. Google has become an international trademark due to its unique products and, in particular, its search engine. With its up-to-date technology, from Chrome to Gmail to Android, the company’s mission is to enable its customers to find any information with ease. By using Gmail, Google customers can share documents without necessarily coping. The company is assisting businesses to advertise, as well as improve their productivity both on and off the web. Thus, maintaining Google trademark is fundamental for the company’s survival in a competitive market.
Google has entered into legal proceedings with its opponents, who want to the word Google to be permitted in the public domain due to its widespread use. According to Google’s opponents, the “Google” trademark has become generic owing to the majority of people perceiving the word “google” as a verb that means to search on the internet (Goldman 1). As one of the most costly trademark globally, Google trademark has become a common name among the public, but the company still possess the right to defend it. The company’s trademark designates the Google search engine, in addition to using it as a verb to denote an act of searching through the internet, specifically the Google search engine.
Google does not want its trademark to be utilized as a common word to avoid losing the value and uniqueness of its brand. By allowing the term “to google” to appear in the English dictionary, the company would be sacrificing its value to its competitors, as everyone would be using the word as their own. A trademark does not become generic based on its frequent use (Miller 142). The case Elliot v. Google Inc. was an attempt to affirm the mark Google as generic. According to David Elliot, the plaintiff, the term Google had become generic, thus, Google Company had no right to restrict its domain name to be utilized by other parties (142). Allowing other search engines to utilize the term “to google” would amount to genericide.
Google has the capacity to defend its trademark from becoming a common term by exercising the legal acts. Even if the public utilizes the trademark as a verb while consumers relate the word with the company, Google trademark is still a protected brand (Miller 142). The court asserted that using a trademark as a verb is not an indication of becoming generic, since the mark is still capable of distinguishing the company’s product from other products. Generic terms can hardly be protected, as descriptive terms can only qualify for protection if they possess some distinctiveness that enables buyers to associate them with their unique sources (Ouellette 352-353).
As long as Google is capable of convincing dictionary authors to capitalize the first letter of its trademark, the company is safe from genericide. The company knew that its dominance as a search engine would have generated a risk to its trademark; hence, developing a manual on its trademark was a necessity. In addition, Google can safeguard its trademark by considering the following tips:
It should avoid using its trademark to refer to its products, as doing so will mark the trademark become generic.
If the trademark has to be used in a sentence, then the trademark should be utilized as an adjective.
When used in a sentence, Google trademark should be distinguished from other words, by indicating it in capital letters, in bold face type, or in italics.
The company should utilize suitable trademark designation to necessitate legal action in case of infringement.
The company should an attempt to monitor third party usage of its trademark and take appropriate legal action to avoid losing the source identifier.
The company should avoid situations where its trademark has to appear in a dictionary, as allowing such action amounts to genericide.
Google is likely to experience several implications if it allows its trademark to become generic. Generide can be undesirable for a company that has invested millions of money to create a brand, but realizes that other companies are using the same brand. Allowing other parties to use the company’s trademark makes the company loose in terms of popularity, as well as revenue. If Google allows other companies to make its name generic, the company will lose on its revenue, as well as its customer base due to loss of reputation on its trademark. In reality, Google may lose control over its name, and even the legal actions can never restrict third party developers from exploiting the name according to their preferences (Goldman 2).
Loss of a trademark creates a contradiction in business, as customers would no longer identify the appropriate source of their preferred brands. Although it is quite hard to quantify the amount of revenue that Google could lose if it allows its name to become generic, the company would be greatly concerned about its customers’ inability to distinguish the right search engine from numerous search engines that possess the same name. If Google permit its name to be used in common terms, it might experience what renowned brands, such as Aspirin, escalator, or thermos, underwent several years ago.
Companies should strive to safeguard their trademark to evade legal battles that intend to prove their names as generic. Google should ensure that its customers utilize its trademark properly, and that its misuse can only be unintentional. Companies can prevent their trademarks from losing their functions by permitting them to be utilized properly as adjectives, rather than as nouns or verbs (Amernick 120). Fortunately, the court has defended Google by asserting that the company still possesses the powers to maintain its trademark. The right to trademark remains as long as the company continues to utilize the trademark. The court ruling that using a trademark as a verb does not pose any danger to the trademark has helped other companies that face the situation similar to Google.
Amernick, Burton A. Patent Law for the Nonlawyer: A Guide for the Engineer, Technologist, and Manager. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2012. Internet resource.
Goldman, Eric. “Google Successfully Defends Its Most Valuable Asset In Court.” Forbes. Tech, Sep. 15, 2014. Web. 1 June 2016 http://www.forbes.com/sites/ericgoldman/2014/09/15/google-successfully-defends-its-most-valuable-asset-in-court/#7053e10d3f05
Halt, Gerald B., John C. Donch, Robert Fesnak, and Amber R. Stiles. Intellectual Property in Consumer Electronics, Software and Technology Startups. New York, NY: Springer, 2013.
Sample Paper on Filipino Immigrants my essay help uk: my essay help uk
Jose Cruz is a Filipino immigrant currently located in the United States. Jose has been living in the United States for more than twenty years working in one of the factories located in Detroit. Cruz has to finish this year before he is fully recognized as a United States citizen after undergoing the entire naturalization process. Cruz’s grandfather immigrated the country close to fifty years ago leaving the family behind. Cruz blames their country of origin, the Philippines, for ensuring that most of the laborers in the labor market moved from the Philippines to other parts of the world. In their new countries, they were forced to face issues that relate to low labor wages and lack of representation in the trade unions. Jose states that the condition might have improved in the recent past, but they had to go through a lot before changes were made to the current system of governance. Cruz illustrates using several important explanations on how the government ensured that the Philippine population became one of the most outsourced employee to different locations across the world. The paper provides two different perspectives as to why most of the Filipino people migrate to different lands. The first story narrates about the life of Cruz who is an immigrant of the 21st century. The second perspective collects views from Cruz’s regarding the life of his grandfather, who was among the earliest inhabitants of the United States where they went to work as laborers.
Cruz mentions that their home government started with sponsoring nursing students to different parts of the world and more specifically to United States. Another approach commonly used by the government was to crush labor strikes at different factories located in the South East of Asia. In a way, this ensured that the population of people working for such industries would leave their workplaces and become a cheap source of labor to other parts of the world. Cruz notes that the Philippines developed as a colony of the United States and was, therefore, more inclined to provide any support to the country (Rodriguez 135). Cruz notes that majority of the people who emigrated from the Philippines ended up in the United States mostly as workers. After many years, some became assimilated and even made families in the United States, which meant that their children would be recognized as being part of the citizens of the United States. Cruz mentions one of the Filipino groups that specialize in hip hop music using Filipino accent as being part of the generations that have developed away from their home country. Similarly, to other minority communities setting foot in foreign countries, their journey has not been easy. Establishing a name in the music industry has been difficult since the Filipino being recognized as being part and parcel of the United States history. Cruz mentions that in the current era of global capitalism, their country of origin still utilizes policies that ensure that more Filipinos become immigrant workers.
The Philippines as a country has placed emphasis on sending most of its population across the globe, in the process making some of them lose their identity. The Philippines Overseas Employment Agency is one of the agencies established by the government (Rodriguez 133). It ensures that most people coming from the Philippines end up in different countries as laborers though with improved terms and condition. Cruz notes that it is quite difficult to find a country that has placed a lot of emphasis on the development of agencies that deal with exporting laborers from their countries to others across the globe the same way the Philippines have developed theirs. The only problem as noted by Cruz is that the country places less emphasis on reverse brain drain since the population of Filipino immigrants established in other countries as professionals is quite high. Cruz also notes that there are several different features that are looked at in all immigrants who move to foreign countries. Most countries prefer Filipino immigrants because of their obedience, passivity and ability to integrate into different communities of the world without a lot of issues relating to labor laws. Since the Filipino community is majorly patriarchal, most of the people living the country for foreign lands are the women. Women immigration in the Philippines became popular at the end of the 20th century when more countries opened their doors to people of different color and races.
Cruz mentions provide several examples in which the country forced them out of their country of origin. Cruz specifically mentions TESDA, which stands for Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The body trains people on different aspects that relate to and promotes different ideologies that emphasize on the migration of the labor force to different parts of the world. The body reconfigures issues related to citizenship so that they could necessarily be used for power brokering deals in which majority of the people from the country mentioned above find themselves in different continents of the world. This behavior has been ongoing since the country achieved its independence (Rodriguez 143). Cruz mentions that the state and other parts of the higher strata have ensured that migration of people to outside countries is a behavior that continues up to date without the state feeling the consequences of immigrants from its countries suffering in the hands of different powers. Migration of the people has been linked to transitional issues as well as issues revolving around social reproduction.
The country stands to benefits more if more people are located in different countries and continue earning more income to support their families back at home. Cruz also mentions that immigration has been supported by top bureaucrats who act as power labor brokerages for different firms around their country. The bureaucracy in the country operates like a well-oiled machine that ensures that more and more people are transferred to other countries across the United States with or without their consent. The top bureaucrats in the country do not act alone but in cohorts with the government of the day. The facts mentioned by Cruz are totally supported by one writer who notes that “Accordingly, the Philippine state has developed mechanisms by which it not only exports labor but by which it forcibly repatriates workers” (Rodriguez 74). Additionally, there are other groups in the country such as Migrante International that have in the past conducted numerous protest attempting to fight for the rights of people who have constantly been forced to migrate to different parts of the world without any legitimate reason.
Cruz provides an example of a strike in which the party assisted people of Philippine origin to get the same rights as other people. The settlement was made in Brunei State. The Philippine nationals were being treated to worse conditions than other communities that lived in the entire region. The conflict was largely settled by other parties that lived in the Philippines. Cruz agrees with scholars’ statements that most of the workers present in the country have developed bureaucratic tendencies, and that is why they would always be on the forefront in dealing with matters relating to immigrants to a point they are considered to be experts in the area of migration management. Cruz argues that some of them even work as consultants in matters dealing with immigration (Rodriguez 145). Cruz mentions that though the majority of the immigrants are located in the United States, a huge majority of them have been noted to move around areas such as Vietnam, China, Indonesia, and Thailand. The Philippines has also created institutions and governmental ministries that exclusively receive labor immigrants to countries in Europe, North America, and the Persian Gulf. Most countries across the world have signed memorandums that ensure that people of certain origins have a place in their society. Cruz noted that the government has invested heavily in dealing with parties such as WTO and SAEN that ensure that they are constantly aiding in migration programs. Cruz mentions that one of the most important reason as to why the majority population of people living in the Philippines immigrates to foreign countries is their desire to be empowered financially. Once immigrants achieve this kind of social status they can support their families back at home and in the long run can provide the economic background that is required in their society. Cruz notes that the Philippines as a country greatly benefits from political economies that emphasize the need to for immigration of its citizens especially when conditions in their country do not provide adequate forms of employment.
Today, the Filipinos born and raised in the United States are considered to be citizens of the United States. They have the same rights as children born to the other races in the country. This has given rise to a new totally different population that has taken over cultures from both sides. One such example is the popular music group that released an album titled Empire Funk that talks about the struggle of the Filipino community in the United States. The majority of the singers who composed the album are fully recognized as Filipino- Americans. They choose to use hip hop which traditionally originates from the United States to pass their message across the country. This shows how the Filipino community has lost some bit of their culture and at the same time have taken up significant proportions of the culture of the American people and associates this culture with them.
After delving so much into how the state influences migration activities and migration in the current 21st century, Cruz described the immigration experience of the majority of the people who ended up in the United States. The real-life witnesses were described by to Cruz by the grandfather and were used to feel up the remaining bit of the above story. Cruz notes that his grandfather, an immigrant during the early fifty years worked in remote locations around different locations in the United States. Most of the places where the grandfather worked from had widespread incidences of exploitation of foreign workers (Revilla 116). The majority white community majorly owned most of the companies in which the Filipino immigrants were working. The pay for the laborers was less than the minimum wage that other minority groups used to receive. The inequality was an extension of the discrimination tendencies practiced by the white majority in the United States since the first immigrant arrived in their country.
Cruz notes that their grandfather provided them with several important reasons as to why they were coming to work to a foreign. Some of the reasons provided included searching for better forms of employment, formal education, making something out of their lives, sending money back to their families. Cruz narrates that his grandfather was one of the earliest immigrants who arrived in the United States and worked within the numerous farmlands that had been established by the white majority. Due to the poor working environments that worked during their time, Cruz states that his grandfather was among the people who steered the formation of labor unions that were supposed to advocate for their rights as a minority community in the country. Apart from labor unions, Cruz mentions that his grandfather and other parties formed different unions aimed at taking care of their needs while being in the foreign country. One of the unions successfully managed to create a village that was supposed to take care of all of the old Filipino who were working in the United States (Revilla 115). The United States was never interested in catering to the social needs of the Filipino immigrants who were present in the country in large numbers. The major interests related to work done on their farmlands. There also existed different Filipino union groups that catered for diverse interest between the Filipino populations. Cruz mentions the two parties as Filipino Brothers popularly known as strikers and Filipino strike breakers commonly known as scabs (Revilla 113). The number of the two different parties was significantly always causing tensions between the different groups. In other words, there was infighting among the general Filipino population especially those who came in as immigrant’s workers. The tension between the two groups was linked to the movement to the village that had been created to take care of the needs of the old people in their community.
The problem with the village was the high rent charges supposed to be to be paid by the old population. Different parties preferred different rates though they had invested equally in the same village. In the end, the village was more expensive compared to the small sharks that were found outside the village making more aging people to relocate to such areas to at least live life within their means. Cruz’s grandfather was among people who left the village to live in the nearby shacks (Revilla 113). Cruz remembers that the period they emigrated to come to the United States their grandfather used to live in a very small room that they had to look for a different house to cater for their needs and those of their growing family.
Cruz states that his grandfather together with all other Filipino present in the United States during this period faced other problems apart from living in expensive houses. The Filipino community that had migrated to the United States was never allowed to marry any natives from the United States. It was against the law for any immigrant to be found married to any native (Revilla 113). Most of them lived in communal areas in the United States which were concentrated. Majority would hire prostitutes to cater for their sexual needs. In early 1950, most of the Filipino groups started advocating for their rights as a people. Most of the Filipino strikes occurred because different parties failed to implement collective bargaining agreements that had been agreed with their employers. Most of the workers were paid depending on their rank and the level of experience. This population was just cream while the remaining population was majorly casual laborers whose payment was never made on time as the other high ranking servants. The labor unions were considered as the only resort to address the numerous ills that were happening in the society.
In summary, the Filipino population in different countries continues to rise due to the support of their country in implementing policies that gives a provision for immigration of its people to other countries. The effects of such migrations have not yet been felt with the current population. Emphasis on such policies has seen the number of Filipino increase in different countries. Unlike the start of the 20th and 21st century where the Filipino immigrated to seek for better standards of living and employment, most of the Filipino leaving the country to emigrate because of the perceived nature of policies that have been enforced by their government. The problems they faced in the earlier centuries are still existent though most of them have managed to become citizens of different countries.
Rodriguez, Robyn Magalit. Migrants for export: How the Philippine state brokers labor to the world. U of Minnesota Press, 2010.
Revilla, l. “A personal history of Filipino immigrants and the farmworkers Movement-Veracruz, p.” (1996): 111-112.
Sample Paper on Managing a Value Chain: Woolworths medical school essay help: medical school essay help
Managing a Value Chain Woolworths
Supermarkets are business entities that act as arbitrators between manufacturers and consumers through retail chains that avail innumerable goods to consumers. Woolworths is among the leading supermarkets in Australia playing such a role in a sector that has witnessed incredible growth. However, there are other competing firms in the industry, for instance, Woolworths Foodland, Coles, CostCo, Franklins, IGA, and Foodworks. Woolworths controls over 800 supermarket stores in Australia. The organization was started in Australia in 1924. The firstshop, Woolworths Stupendous Bargain Basement, was opened in Arcade, Sydney (Palmer np). The organization further opened several other stores between the late 1920s and early 1930s in Western Australia, Queensland, and New Zealand. The growth and development of Woolworths is ascribed to acquisitions and mergers, for instance, the purchase of Northern Territory Business in the 1960. The organization has also opened other joint ventures in India besides New Zealand and Australia (Fenner and Raja np). The employee capacity of Woolworths is approximately 190,000 people (Fenner and Raja np). Currently, the organization controls 45% of the retail industry, thus, placing it ahead of its closest competitor, Coles, which has 23%. Nevertheless, uncertainties face the organization’s aptitude to uphold this share ahead due to the growing competition in the market.
Woolworths’ mission statement reads, “We, as passionate committed retailers, understand and lead our customers through excellence and a deep knowledge of our products and services and the world we live in.” The main strategic primacy for Woolworths is to create a multi-selection vending through low prices, virtuous quality products, and services, in supplies involvement to meet the needs of the consumer. In Australia and New Zealand, the organization has been ranked as the leading in sales. It targets to reach a goal of AUD$1 million sales in online channel by 2020.
Woolworths’ main strategy difference that has seen its success is grounded on its mission of conveying clients with the accurate shopping experience at all times. The firm’s strategy is also based in its vision, which is to offer superiority products and services to its clients via prices strategies, fresh food strategies, and human resource strategies “To enhance cost effectiveness and adeptness, the organization has incorporated and instigated strategies, such asevery-day low prices strategy and project refresh strategy. The firm premeditated and incorporated the every-day low prices strategy with an intention to offer decreased prices to clients on particular products. Regarding the customer focus, every-day low prices policy, also referred to as value pricing, assures consumers of decreased prices minus waiting for voucher clipping, discounts or promotions. Under this approach, the organization established consumer loyalty. This strategy is applied on fast moving goods, such as dairy products as well as other consumables.
Another strategy applied by Woolworths is the Project Refresh that was deliberate to reduce the operation costs. This was first applied in 1999 and since that time, several tactics have been applied by the organization to augment its efficiency. Projects refresh as an approach facilitated the absorption of buying and promotion functions from the preliminary framework where they were designated in different places (Coriolis Research). This approach substituted the earlier corporate processes empowering the organization to compact the source of its products. This policy was significant in eradicating doubling and refining the supplier affiliations to enhance the supplier chain proficiencies.
Furthermore, through the centralized services strategy, organizational services were stretched to other tasks, such as Finance and Human Resource among others. This undertaking has been effective in the supply of wine in the organization. Initially, there was an excess supply of wine as a result of too much manufacture from a fragmented supply base (Coriolis Research).
In addition, through its leading supermarkets chains like Big W and Dan Murphy, Woolworths has been able to persuade for decreased prices from its supplier, therefore, passing the same to the consumers. Consequently, the organization has benefited from an above average market share as well as amplified sales. Nevertheless, this strategy did not have a positive impact on the suppliers since their returns on investment declined. For this reason, most of the suppliers did not welcome the design (Coriolis Research). Woolworths has established the project refresh approach to synchronize the day to day prices strategy. The project refresh strategy has enhanced the supply chain through perfecting the low price retailing.
Value Chain Analysis
Value chain analysis refers to the methodical strategy in analyzing the devilment of competitiveness in an organization. These entails a series of diverse activities, for instance, logistics, operations, marketing and sales, service, procurement, technology and development among others. Value chain is an ongoing concept that changes with regard to the changing nature of humanity. In Australia, the shopping habits of consumers are ever changing. This is because of the contributing factors, such as changes in the population, households, and lifestyles. Furthermore, one core factor to note is that consumers are becoming more health conscious. Therefore, this has necessitated organizations to promote healthy foods through extending the fresh and health section of supermarkets and other retailing chains (Bird 266). Consequently, the Australian supermarkets have designed a way of ensuring customers’ convenience, speed as well as freshness to create value.
The three largest supermarkets in Australia are Woolworths, Coles, and Aldi. In New Zealand and Australia, Woolworths is the largest with a high market share in food, liquor retailers, as well as the largest Hotel and Poker Machine operator in Australia. The led to the organization to be categorized into several sections, for instance, non-trade services, long life variety, Liquor, and Fuel. Value chain analysis is significant because it ensures the organization’s products and services are effective since they represent the basic needs of consumers. Through value chain analysis, Woolworths organization has been able to separate good and bad procurements and the outstanding ones in the shelves. The value chain in Woolworths enabled the organization to adopt a management philosophy to apply on the day to day operations of the organization (Arli). This decision has enabled the organizational leaders to come up with new ideas and tests that are productive. This process entails human as part of the important factors, thereby enabling it to give outstanding performance. Woolworths is preparing to devote $ 1 billion in restoration supply chain, which decrease the cost of conveyance and goods across the nation, providing production achievements.
In Australia, Cole is considered the second largest supermarket. It has several sectors, for instance, bake house, dairy, fresh produce, liquor and general merchandise among others. The consequence of the organization value chain analysis is for the firm to be more competitive in the same manner it merged with shell Oil Company to produce low priced gas. This influenced competing organization to enter into similar agreements with the oil production companies. The value chain analysis of the organization also resulted in concepts that allowed low pricing strategies that were different from competing firms. Coles has 24 supply centers in Australia with more than 2,200 openings to service the products frequently. The organization has also initiated performance indicators aimed at identifying sectors that lack of proficiency and improve time and operation cycle.
Aldi is a universal discount supermarket chain with headquarters in Germany. The organization is categorized into two; Aldo Nord and Aldi Sud. The organization specializes in products that are consumed by clients, such as food and beverages. The organization produces its own products thereby leaving a very limited shelf for external products. Value chain has enabled the organization to offer products to consumers at a cheaper price. Due to the effects of lowered prices the organization offered, its competing firms Woolworths and Coles were greatly impacted. This process necessitated the organization to come up with counter strategies like everyday low pricing and save everyday strategies. Therefore, value chain analysis enabled the organizations to enhance its competition rate thereby delivering high quality goods and services.
Generally, as a result of the differences in stores and prices, Woolworths, Coles, and Aldi have achieved an upsurge in sales. The organizations have also concentrated on increasing the space stage products and other exceptional features like Wi-Fi services, pizzas, and takeaway. Woolworths, Coles, and Aldi have grounded their devilment prospects with regard to the aptitude to take advantage of the innovation in stores.
Enterprise Value for Woolworths
Enterprise value is an organization’s approximation proxy that estimates the present market value of a firm. The enterprise value is used to define takeover or merger price of an organization. It incorporates the entire liquid asset, outstanding debt, and exotic equity instruments that an organization has on the balance sheet. In case of a merger, the parent organization assumes the target organizations’ liabilities but it takes possession of all cash and cash equivalents.
Woolworths Limited Enterprise Value = Market Cap + Debt – Cash = 31.66 B
Woolworths is one of the biggest organizations in the Australian and New Zealand retailing industry. From the discussion, Woolworths is faced with the high competition in the industry. This is because of the presence of similar products and services. However, its distinct strategy has seen it continue succeeding in its operations. Woolworths, Coles, and Aldicustomers are largely individual consumers, which mean that customer influence is great in their operations. Through value chain analysis, each organization has directed its strategic planning to compete in different ways, thus, upholding its position in the market.
Arli, Verdi, et al. “Woolworths Australia and Walmart US: Best practices in supply chain collaboration.” Journal of Economics, Business, and Accountancy| Ventura 16.1 (2013).
Bird, Jo. “The retail dominance of supermarkets in Australia: a growing geography of pseudo-foods and its implications for obesity.” International Journal of Liability and Scientific Enquiry 4.3 (2011): 265-280.
Coriolis Research. Overview of Woolworths Australia. 2005.Accessed 07 May 2016.http://www.coriolisresearch.com/pdfs/coriolis_overview_woolworths_australia_200502.pdf#sthash.mxxT8lBD.dpuf
Fenner, Robert. Woolworths’ sales rise on Australia supermarket growth. 2009. accessed07 May 2016.http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2009-07-23/australias-woolworths-facing-costco-takes-tips-from-walmart
Sample Essays on The American Revolution instant essay help
The years preceding the American Revolution were filled with differing points of view on numerous issues, chief among them whether America should be an independent nation from Britain. The differences shifted over time as the debate grew and the war started. This paper explores various texts that offer differing religious, political, social, and economic views on the American Revolution and what it meant to most people.
Jacob Cushing, a minister of Waltham, Massachusetts wrote a sermon in which he denounces the inhumane acts of some British soldiers in Lexington, Massachusetts. Cushing argues against tyrannical rule, alluding to Moses and the Israelites’ torture and subsequent flight from Egypt. The suffering of the American people under the tyrannical British is a punishment from God for their degeneracy. He calls upon the people to trust in the Lord as He is the almighty, and in the meantime perform their duties diligently. Samuel Sherwood, on the other hand, drew parallels between the Antichrist and the British and urged the American Christians to defeat the beast. He made the people believe that fighting the war would hasten the coming of the millennial messiah.
The loyalists were divided on whom to give their loyalty. In The Volunteers of Augusta, brave lads are called upon to draw their swords and fight for troop, country, and king. The song supports the British crown and warns against the rebels who are plunderers and murdering villains. The song is clearly a call for loyalty to the King as well as his elected leaders in the colony. Some of the loyalists were, however, modest and did not want to take up arms against their fellow countrymen who had rebelled, nor did they want to side with these rebels.
The rebels were a bit unified than the loyalists as well as the religious group. Paine, a rebel, argued that human beings have an inalienable right to freedom and liberty under any circumstances, and thus when faced with oppression man had the obligation to fight against it. Since oppression was a global issue, Americans had an obligation not only to fight for their land but also for the whole of humanity. Henry also called for the taking up of arms against oppression and critiques those who are adamant to take up arms in the guise of patriotism and maintaining peace. Americans would thus be better dying off in the pursuit of their liberty than living under oppression by British tyrants.
African American Perspectives
The African Americans were divided on their approach to the whole rebellion issue largely because they perceived both sides of the divide as being oppressive. There were those, however, who did not look at the history of slavery and saw no need to fight the colonists. This group of people is represented by Felix, who states that he does not see the need to fight the colonists as living amicably would work just fine. These are the African Americans who had resigned to slavery and who just wanted peace and nothing more. On the other hand were a group of African Americans who advocated for war believing that everyone was born free and should thus fight for their freedom. Their belief was that in the war for independence from Britain, the African slaves would also be set free.
Official and Legal Perspectives
The second congressional debate convened when the battles of Lexington and Concord had been fought, and it was declared that a document supporting those who had taken up arms should be drafted. The document would argue that America was a free nation and should thus be governed by Americans and not British colonists who were not justified to be in America. In the document, the struggles of the forefathers of the American people as they left Great Britain in search of civil and religious freedoms are enounced; freedom which is then taken away by tyrannical rulers in the Kingdom. Only when the oppressors lay down their arms and the threat of further oppression is removed shall the American sovereigns lay down their weapons. In another document drafted and passed during the 1775 Charlotte Town Resolves, the Americans declared themselves free from any dominance by the British colony. They further annul the powers given to the colonialists by the King and the British parliament, in essence declaring themselves sovereign.
In conclusion, the American Revolution was filled with many sentiments and points of view regarding whether to support the loyalists or not. While many were on either side of the dialogue, some chose to sit on the fence and were undecided on which side to take. The Christians were divided with some calling for support for the King and Country as the King was a messenger of God while others opined that the King’s atrocities linked him to the Antichrist who was to be fought by all Christians. The loyalists either called for people to take up arms against the rebels or did not want to fight against their countrymen. The rebels, however, were more united as they called for the taking up of arms against the colonists to gain liberty. The African Americans, however, were not united; some called for peaceful coexistence while others called for war as it would free them from slavery. Ultimately, the official perspective was that the Americans should be allowed to govern themselves away from the oppression of the British.
Augusta. 1781. The Volunteers of Augusta. Prod. The Royal Georgia Gazette. Savannah, October 4.
Bailyn, Bernard. 1965. Pamphlets of the American Revolution 1750-1776. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Cushing, Jacob. 1998. “Divine Judgments Upon Tyrants.” In Political Sermons of the American Founding Era, by Ellis Sandoz, 611-26. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
Felix. 1773. “Felix’s petition.” pbs.org 1.
Henry, Patrick. 1775. Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death . March 23. Accessed May 06, 2016. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/patrick.asp.
Let. 1775. Second Continental Congress Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms July 6 1775. July 6. Accessed May 06, 2016. http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1751-1775/second-continental-congress-declaration-of-the-causes-and-necessity-of-taking-up-arms-july-6-1775.php.
—. 1775. The Charlotte Town Resolves 1775. May 31. Accessed May 06, 2016. http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1751-1775/the-charlotte-town-resolves-1775.php.
Paine, Thomas. 1776. “Common Sense.” let.rug.nl 1.
Cushing, Jacob. 1998. “Divine Judgments Upon Tyrants.” In Political Sermons of the American Founding Era, by Ellis Sandoz, 611-26. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
Sherwood, Samuel. 1998. “The Church’s Flight Into The Wilderness: An Address On The Times.” In Political Sermons of the American Founding Era, by Ellis Sandoz., 497-527. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
Augusta. 1781. The Volunteers of Augusta. Prod. The Royal Georgia Gazette. Savannah, October 4.
Unknown. 1776. “The Pausing American Loyalist.” Middlesex Journal 1.
Paine, Thomas. 1776. “Common Sense.” let.rug.nl 1.
Henry, Patrick. 1775. Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death . March 23. Accessed May 06, 2016. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/patrick.asp.
Felix. 1773. “Felix’s petition.” pbs.org 1.
Bailyn, Bernard. 1965. Pamphlets of the American Revolution 1750-1776. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Let. 1775. Second Continental Congress Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms July 6 1775. July 6. Accessed May 06, 2016. http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1751-1775/second-continental-congress-declaration-of-the-causes-and-necessity-of-taking-up-arms-july-6-1775.php.
—. 1775. The Charlotte Town Resolves 1775. May 31. Accessed May 06, 2016. http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1751-1775/the-charlotte-town-resolves-1775.php
Sample Paper on Cyber Crime english essay help: english essay help
In the current technology-driven period, keepingprivatedatareservedis turning out to be challenging. The extremelycategorizedinformationis turning out to bemoreaccessible to the public databases, as a result of extensive interconnections being experienced by technology. The datais made available and many people can sift through it due to this interconnectivity. This processcastigates negative perception about technology. Technology is persistently turning out to be significant in easing people’s daily lives, nevertheless, there are perilsassociated with technology. Cybercrimes is one of the main dangers that are associated with technology use. Normal Internet users may be unacquaintedwith cybercrimes, and theybecome victims of cybercrimes.Several innocentpeople have fallen victimsof cybercrimes globally,particularly since technology is sprouting at a fast pace. Cybercrimes refer to any crimes that cause harm to other people using a computer and a network (Dalla & Geeta, 2013). Cybercrimes can take place throughinfiltration of privacy and confidentiality. This means that when privacy and confidential information is lost or interrupted by illegitimately individuals, it allows for high profile crimes, for instance, hacking, cyber terrorism, espionage, financial theft, copyright infringement, spamming, cyber warfare, and many more crimes, which occur across borders. Cybercrimes can happen to anyone once their information is breach by an unlawful user.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolving nature of cyber-crimes,find out the role of Interpol in fighting cybercrime, technologies being used to fight cybercrime, and ways of enhancing cyber-crime.
There are several factors that lead to the increased rates of cybercrime. In the first place, the aggressive advancement of current technology is making these rates of crime to be very difficult to be detected. Moreover, law enforcement agencies and people do not have required methodical proficiency to counter with felonious activity. In some cases, once a criminal activity has been discovered,the affected parties, for instance, businessmen getunenthusiastic to lodge a report and further investigationdue to the fear of antagonistic publicity, awkwardness, loss of public poise, investor loss, or other economic ramifications. As a result of these factors, the rates ofcyber-crime cases and the statistics across the world cannot be detectedand recorded accurately.
There are three main categories of cybercrimes. These are crimes against the person, property and the government. Cybercrime against a personentails harassment through email or cyber-stalking. Cyber Stalking refers to the deliberate process of following the moves of an individual’s doings over internet. This is achieved throughnumerous protocols accessible, for instance e- mail, chat rooms, user net groups while. At the same time, harassment entails sexual, racial, religious, or others aspects among others. Women and children are the predominant victims in this kind of crime.
Under the crimes against property,it incorporates aspects such as computer defacement by diffusion of harmful programs to other computer through internet. Furthermore, cybercriminal can also entail taking contents of individual bank account online. The most common method ofachieving this is through the money transfer email scam like when individuals receive emails invitingthem to help with transmitting funds from other nations. Hacking into organizations websites involves property trespass, and pilfering information is property theft. The third category involved cybercrimes against governments. The most common example of this category is cyber terrorism that affects so many lives.It involves hacking into a government website, predominantly the military sites, and also web jacking. Through web jacking, hackers gain admittance and control over the website of another entity and can go ahead and change the content of website in order to fulfillpolitical impartial or for monetary gains.
The Evolving Nature of Cybercrime
Currently, new trends entailedin cybercrime are evolving each passing moment with projected costs to the international economy running to billions of dollars. Earlier on, cybercrime was devotedand practiced largely by specific persons or small groups. At present, there are evident compound cybercriminal networks from different individuals across the worldwho are committing crimes in an extraordinarymeasure. Criminal groupsare turning progressively to the Internet to facilitate their activities through criminal actions and they maximize their profit within the least time possible. The crimes that are committed online are common, for instance, theft, fraud, and illegal gamblingamong others. However,these crimes are evolvingin terms of opportunities being innovated and presented online and,consequently,turning out to beprevalent and destructive.
Distinctwith other legitimate businesses, cybercriminals are not inhibited by national limitations and function under a cover of obscurity. This factor has enhanced online criminal activities since it makes it hard for law enforcement agencies to detect the perpetrators to discover their next move. Initially, cybercrime focused on single person operating criminals who took the advantage of weaknesses in the computer operating system or computer network. In as much asthere was some degree of damage financially and the security risks, the crimes by a single persondid not have the motive and determination of traditional criminal gangs. Therefore, cybercrime was infantile during this era with no huge damages. Currently, there are advanced cybercriminal activities organized and focused everywhere. Like in the olden times,thecurrent hardened criminal gangs are working on the Internet in a safe domain that operate and generate large profits. They have incorporated proficient elements into the world of cybercrime in using computer networks to penetratethe systems for huge financial gain. The new cybercrimes that have evolved include cyber-extortion, information theft, fraud,identity theft, exploitation of children, intellectual property theft, phishing, and vishingamong others.
The Role of Interpol in Fighting Cybercrime
Interpol is one of the ancient and prevalent forms of global police collaborationinternationally. It entails 190 member states that aggressivelyunite on numerous crime capacities. It is significant to note that from the legitimatestandpoint, Interpol is aworldwideassociationdespite the fact that it was not established through a worldwide accord (Broadhurst, 2006) The main objectives of the entity are detailed in the article 2 of its own Constitution and are “To guarantee and encourage the extensive possible mutual assistance between all criminal police establishments within the limits of the laws existing in the different nations and in the spirit of the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”” and “To establish and develop all institutions likely to contribute effectively to the prevention and suppression of ordinary law crimes”. Through the Interpol Global Cybercrime Expert Group, the organ assemblesprofessionals from diverse cyber-related arenas to offerguidance on establishing cyber strategy, research, training, forensics, and operations.There are noboundaries in cyberspace, thus, giving rise to challenges for the police and other law enforcing agencies in investigating cybercrime occurrences, which may encompassrespondents, victims, and crimes coveringseveralnations.Interpolsupports member republics in distributingas well as consolidating information on acknowledged cyber happenings, and it scrutinizes this data with an intention of coming up withapplicableintellectto be used by police and other law enforcing entities on the ground.Apart from intelligence sharing, Interpol alsoprovidesdirection on best applies in carrying out cybercrime inquiries. It is evident that most of cybercrimes are transnational in nature, therefore,the entity becomes a natural partner for all the law implementation agency searching to investigate these crimes on a compliant level. Through collaboration with the private industry, Interpol is able to offerhomegrown law implementationfirms with intensive cyber intelligence, resulting from coalescingefforts on a global scale. The main organization resourcefulness in cybercrime focus on functioning and investigative support, cyber intelligence and examination, digital forensics, invention and exploration, capacity building
and national cyber reviews.
Use of New Technologies to Fight Cybercrime
The currentpersonal, commercial, and government migration to the digital demesne has made criminals to carry out their activities easily and accurately. Large-scale cyber-attacks are turning out to be more regular and expensive for businesses and organizations across the world. The assailantsare having enough resources and sophistication as well as being betterplannedthan ever before.Several banks, especially in the United States, havefallen victims of cyber-attacks over the past period of time. For instance, cybercriminals managed to take 3.6 million social security numbers as well as almost 400,000 credit card numbers and tax figures from South Carolina Department of Revenue computers, burdening the state with a total of $20 million in onslaught costs (Be’ery,2012). Therefore, improvedtechnology security needs to be developed and invested. Financial services organizationsneed to enhancea yearly average cyber security spending to address the issue of cyber-attacks.
Therefore, as organizations and administration agencies progressivelyembrace cloud, mobile and social computing, information technology (IT) environments are turning out to be more hard to protect.Progressively, the entities need to consider that online security threats are inevitable.Technological approaches need to go beyond defense to entail detection, response, and recovery. These requirements necessitate the need forimproved skills andstrategies as well as distinct tools and technology,for instance, unremittingobserving and risk forensics powered by analytics. Cyber security is progressivelyturning out to be a point of focus among companymanagement.
With cloud, mobile, and social computing making new security exposures, customarycyber security products, such as firewalls and antivirus scanners are not in position tohandle every threat. Applications, such as network security analyzers,on the other hand,can be challenging for some entities to efficientlyapplythem without external assistance and expertcyber securitycapacity, which isa short supply. Specializedamenitiesorganizations are responding by integrating security offerings that espouse the computerization and analytical abilities of IT platforms with human intelligence to assist in detecting criminal activities.These improvements are vital in assistingfirms to monitor, gather, and investigatehuge data sets and detectarrays that designategaps or attempted breaches. In this manner, organizations are empowered to respond to dangers with more alertness. Establishmentscan no moredepend onunreceptiveresistances against cyber-attacks. Incorporating combinedastuteness and linkingmechanizationas well as analytics to human judgment is vital forfirms to lessen the danger of a cyber-attack and decrease the expenses of extenuatingoccurrencestake place.
Ways of Enhancing Online Safety
Different legislations against infringements of privacy have been adopted in several nations of the world. Moreover, data protection laws have also been set up to address the concept of cyber-crime. A critical observation of the laws indicate that diverse worldwide conductshave been attainedsubstantialconsistency in the commonorganizational and civil law regulations of the national privacy laws.Therefore, there is a need for a global criminalization to address the cybercrime menace. Nevertheless, some nations, especially developing countries, may lack the required investigative ability or technological capability to handle the issue of cyber security. This calls for measures toharmonize and alignglobal cybercrime laws by entities and bodies, for instance, the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (COECC) as well as the United Nations Convention against Transnational organized Crime. Global co-operation by nations across the world isnecessary to comply withthe Conventions to ensure the laws are applied uniformly since the problem is universal. The main objective of the laws should be to settle for a homogenous criminal approach policythat is objected to guard the society against cybercrime, specifically through integration ofeffective legislation and enhancing global co-operation.
Cybercrime will always be a continuing confront regardless of the development being witnessed in several nations across the world. Numerous nations have established their own rules and regulations toaddress issues ofcybercrimes. Nevertheless, some nations do not have any laws and regulations but they exclusivelydepend onordinaryglobal law to put these crimes on trial. Besides the outdated laws and regulations to deal with cybercrime perpetrators,there are also delicate consequences in place to chastisecyber-crime perpetrators, an aspect that has lessimplication on the preclusion of cybercrimes, which have an effect on the financial system and individuals’ socialwellbeing on a large scale by the perpetrators. Therefore, there is a franticrequirement for all nations across the global scale to put up joint efforts and decide on what amounts to cybercrime, andestablish ways to address the problems of cybercrimes globally.
Hackers and cyber criminals will remain to be in existence so long as computers have will exist. In recent times alongsideadvances of technology and the rise of the internet, cybercrimes have progressed in astonishing ways. Currently, individualsmuch of their day connected to the internet than they do without it. Cyber criminals have taken this opportunitythrough manipulating e-commerce and misusing intellectual properties across the whole world
Several cases of cyber-criminal activities are being witnessed every day. In numerous scenarios, the legal system has failed to address the issue fully despite the efforts being put.In olden days, the internet was associated to the wild west, having no rules and regulations tocontrol it. However, cyber law is becoming progressivelybecoming in place and harder to break the law online. However, the system is not faultless since many people are stillfinding it easier to get away with a crime on the online than it is in real life.
Regarding the laws that on cybercrime, some facets of the law are functional while other arenot working. Technology is here to remain, therefore individuals will continue to spend much of their time and resources online. Every time an individual is online, he or she is a susceptible target of a cyber-criminal. Criminals od perpetrators are complex to deal with since they are anonymous and located in different parts across the world. This is why it is critical to carry on working with our foreign partners to fortify cyber laws not just in one nation but across the whole world.
It is recommended that unless effectivelawful actions are applied toindividual’snational and international ways of harrying criminals, self-protection is key and represents the first mechanism of controlling cybercrimes. Every person and organizationsneed to ensure they are familiar with cybercrimesbecause they can be victims of the peril. This fundamental awareness is significant inthwarting possible cybercrimes against individuals.
Furthermore, the law protecting intellectual property owners against online piracy should be enhanced. Numerous cases of file sharing sites are still in actuality since they function in nations where online piracy is permissible. A focus should be placed on these nations and force put on them to prohibit these websites to function, particularly when thepopulations have access to them. These can also be enhanced through cracking setting stringent penalties on the people who usethese sites to download pilferedinformation or content.
As indicated before, cybercrimewill remain as long as technology is active, if anything it is even becoming resilient. Through an analysis ofoccurrences, lesson can be learnt from them and apply that information in the thwartingimpending crime. Cyber law will also have to be transformed in order to keep in shape with theevolving nature of the criminalsin order to be able to control cybercrime. There should also be a balance in law regardingprotecting citizens from crime and invading on their rights.
Another way in improving the problem of cybercrime is through education. As we have seen the challenges of cybercrime, governments and other concerned agencies should in strategies ways of fighting them through education and not depending on law alone.It has been evident that several organizationsas well as government agencieshave identifiedloopholes with which cyber criminals or even cyber-terrorist could can make use in conducting future crimes.In most cases,organizationsinvolve them as specialistsin helping them to construct solid security for their systems and data. Through learning their techniques and methods, organizations should come up with skills learned from these activities to be able to bar their activities. Furthermore, these entities should invest in providing more skills and knowledge to the technological experts in order to counter methods that are employed by the cyber criminals.
Moreover, it is becoming almostimpracticable to condense cybercrime from the cyber-space. As it is evident from different acts passed, it is proven that no legislation has attained the level of total abolition of cybercrime across the globe.Therefore, the onlypotentialmechanism is through individuals understanding their rights online and coming up with morestringentrules to punish cybercrime perpetrators.
Nonetheless, the corporate world needs to come up withapproaches to ensure that their employees are guided and they follow thesafety conducts to make sure thatuprightness and privacy of stored datais maintained at all times to contest cybercrimes. Safety practices,for instance, staying off work sites during an organization working timesare crucial to reduce the chances of viruses being downloaded to infringe the system and forward chain emails. Others include not leaving an open workstation unattended or security key sharing over implicit mediums. If all these strategies are observed, chances of cyber-criminal work are minimized.
Be’ery,Tal. (2012). The South Carolina Data Breach: A Lesson in Deaf and Blind Cybersecurity. Retreived from http://www.securityweek.com/south-carolina-data-breach-lesson-deaf-and-blind-cybersecurity
Broadhurst, R. (2006). Developments in the global law enforcement of cyber-crime. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 29(3), 408-433.
Dalla, E. H., & Geeta, M. S. (2013). Cyber Crime A Threat to Persons, Property, Government and Societies. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 3(5), 997-1002.
Sample Paper on Mexican Civilization my assignment essay help london
In the sentiment of a nation, we get several ideas about the Mexican civilization that Morelos point that tell us about the colonial experience in New Spain. Before the Mexican insurgency, a mass famine struck the lowland region; the inability of the lower class to rule in Mexico resulted in anger due to social injustices that were widespread in the country. The Crisis of Legitimacy was caused by widespread social injustices and the desire to overthrow the corrupt government and replace it with a more legitimate regime.
First, we realize that religion played a vital role in the conquest of New Spain. Religious leaders were at the forefront in ensuring that independence was achieved, we get to know that the Catholic Church was the dominant force in Western civilization, for instance, Mexico. As time moved, the monarchies of Europe like that one that was established in Spain commenced to consolidate power. Spain, the forerunner in the Age of Discovery, was a Catholic state as it is evident from the events that characterized the colonies of Spain. Morelos was a religious leader who played a vital role in ensuring that the people of Mexico were free from the chains of colonialism and slavery. In the sentiment of a nation we get to know of the harsh treatment that the natives of Mexico endured as result of colonialism that was characterized by enslavement and harsh treatment of other groups with no exception of the blacks. Slavery and harsh treatment was widespread in the monarch for the reason that slaves provided cheap labour to the colonialist.
Second, we also get insights on the conquest of the empire and the methods that were used to gain freedom. From the harsh treatment that people were subjected to through racist stereotypes and other methods that were used to segregate, we get to know of the harsh experiences that the natives of the monarch and other minority inferior groups had to go through. It’s of the idea the Spaniard had a justification for the use of attributing of the strengths being attributed to their extreme powers. There is also the belief that a single enslaved Black was comparable to four indigenous persons as it’s held that the Black Spaniards that were being enslaved and could survive as per the demands of labour of both the indigenous populations and Whites could not. The Afro-Mexican that was being enslaved used to work in different areas in the colony for example; they laboured in sugar plantations, silver mines, and textile firms. They developed of the most fundamental ideological notions which solely relied on chauvinistic concepts, their notion of Limpieza de Sangre which was used to distinguish one who did not originate from the Old Christian stock. According to the Spaniards’ view any individual who did not have the pure blood was regarded as displaying the lack of ancestral roots of the Jews, Muslims or Black ancestors.
The main ideas that can be gotten from the sentiment of a nation about the Mexican civilization is the role of different institutions in the fight for independence and how slavery was used as a tool to suppress non-Spaniards. It is evident that different social groups existed in the monarch who was composed of evidential elite minority of the Spanish origin that exercised economic, social domination and the blacks were on the lowest level on the hierarchical ladder and were used as slaves who provided labour because of their energy.
Sample Paper on Post-colonialism common app essay help
Post-colonialism responds towards the human penalty of controlling a country and establishing settlers for the economic exploitation of the native people and their land. It looks at the communal, educational and opinionated special effects of release from the effects of colonialism and continuing the anti-colonial challenge to the western supremacy (Ashcroft and Tiffin 2006). The major factors that have greatly contributed to the post-colonial identity of the decolonized people and the politics of knowledge are best addressed in the field of post-colonialism. It derives from the colonizer’s creation of cultural awareness about the colonized people and how that Western cultural knowledge was applied to overcome a non-European people into a colony of the European Mother Country, which, after the initial invasion, was affected using the cultural identities of colonizer and colonized. In the context of the two novels, post-colonialism had both the constructive and unconstructive implications on the native inhabitants and their territory.
The theory of resistance and representation
These are some major theories about the post-colonial literature. The theories could be either resistance or representation. The original residents are well represented or the hostility experienced by the oppressing colonizers. The substance evolution in the postcolonial prose was aided by the existence of sustaining institutions such as scholarships, doctrines, and other colonial styles. Both the colonizer and the colonized have more of an intellectual domination rather than a political one. The two theories of resistance and representation would best be explained in the two post-colonial novels (Ashcroft and Tiffin 2006).
The nervous condition by Tsitsi Dangarembga and heart of darkness by Joseph Conrad
The Nervous Condition and the Heart of Darkness have highlighted the impacts of post-colonialism majorly in two African countries. In the novel of nervous conditions of Tsitsi Dangarembga, post-colonialism in Zimbabwe is outlined whereas the novel heart of darkness describes the post-colonialism along the Congo River. Both speak of the colonial masters and the missionaries who visited the two nations to impart their culture over the African culture. All embracing, many of the residents in the two African countries described in the Conrad’s and Dangarembga’s narrations. According to the narrators in the two novels, it is clear that they never liked the colonizers ways of life, and they could not bear the burden. According to the narrators ‘perception, decolonization is an ethical project just because he views it as something outside the very structures which end up leading to nations, nationalism and all its issues.
In the context of the two narrations, Tsitsi Dangarembga and Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, postcolonial literature addresses various problems. Moreover, consequences of the decolonization of a country, especially the political and cultural independence of formerly subjugated colonial peoples; it also covers literary critiques of and about postcolonial literature, the undertones of which carries, communicate, and justify racialism and colonialism. Modern forms of postcolonial literature aim at assimilating postcolonialism and its literary expressions. In the context of the two novels, post-colonialism had both the constructive and unconstructive implications for the home-based inhabitants. It would be wrong to ascertain that post-colonialism theory is as a result of the discussions on the role of imperialism since it is not independent.
In Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions, the post-colonialism saw Africans get assimilated. It resulted from the pressure from the colonial masters. The colonial masters could only develop and support the poor African families upon acquiring their culture. The novel nervous conditions, explains how Tambu’s uncle, Babamukuru, who received the Western education from the white missionaries. The uncle is offered a job by the bosses of the colonialism as the headmaster in a missionary school. It was an achievement as Tambu’s uncle could successfully support his family by providing them with the basic needs they would need such as food, shelter, clothing, and education. He and his family enjoy material privileges from the white masters. Acquiring the European way of life had a positive implication on the lives of the Africans. The novel, Nervous condition indicates that in a nation where most Africans live in poverty, the currency of food in such a nation is both real and symbolic. Those Africans who were affiliated to the colonial masters got the favors from them. According to the narrator, the favors from these colonial masters were basically to buy the African culture and erode it with their culture.
Missionaries and their schools
Additionally, the colonial masters in Zimbabwe as portrayed in the novel and the nervous conditions led to the introduction of missionary schools. For instance, the missionary school in which Tambu’s uncle was the headmaster and the sacred heart school where Tambu learned English. At the expense of these privileges, his two children could hardly speak their Shone language. The persona is scornful and hurt by the fact that the people have started learning the language of the colonies. They have completely abandoned their culture and picked up the Whiteman’s culture. It is as a result in loss of real awareness of being a distinct person in the postcolonial state. The Whiteman successfully managed to assimilate the Africans through the primary education offered by the missionaries who saw some Africans learn English and eventually adopting the colonial masters’ way of life. Assimilation was observed at the expense of the loyal Africans to the colonial masters abandoning his cultural beliefs and acquiring the colonial masters’ way of living.
There was an immense drive among the native people of Zimbabwe to educate themselves through the system of the European colonialists, turn and make use of the action in the novel. The missionaries were determined and convinced of the fact that the Africans who accessed education could pose threats to the social order; spoken and written English had value in Shona society. According to Nervous Conditions, there is persistent inequality for the women and the girl child. Regarding acquisition of knowledge, the boy child was preferred and to balance the limited resources available, it was routine that the boy child is given the first priority at the expense of the girl child. As outlined in the Dangarembga’s novels. Mr. Baker, the white missionary, only sends his sons, but not his daughter, to boarding school while Tambu’s brother, Nhamo, attends school at the mission. The primary education gained from the missionary schools enlightened Tambu and Nyasha of the Nervous Conditions. They acquired the skills that enabled them to question the validity of colonial system that was patriarchal in nature. They could realize their inferior status that was perpetuated by the system and revolt against it.
Racism and racial discrimination in Heart of Darkness
The novel’s title, the Heart of Darkness explains how the native people were described as the archetypal evil. The act of racial discrimination was highly practiced as portrayed in the heart and darkness. He made fun of the Africans by referring to them as ugly inhabitants who don’t deserve to live on the planet. Though the novel describes Africans in the Congo region as being human, it’s further stated that Africa as a setting and backdrop which eliminates the African as a human factor. This effect of post-colonialism resulted after the colonial bosses visited Africa (Comaroff comaroff 2003).
The colonial chiefs despised the Africans just because they believed Africans were the primitive specimen, which was so unethical and unappreciated in the society. It further states that the place is dark and brings insanity to the European hero. In Joseph Conrad’s novel, this was the most important reason why the narrator was not pleased with the idea of Mr. Kurtz adopting the African culture and his effort to learn the Congolese language. The same case scenario was evident in the nervous condition in which Tambu tells how the missionaries carried out their lives in Zimbabwe. The missionaries continued the effort to learn and understand the Shona language shows how committed they were to learn from the Zimbabwean people (Spivak, 1999). However, the enthusiasm of the missionaries to learn the Shona language had a great impact in the society since the Whiteman’s education system had so deeply affected the Zimbabwean consciousness. The group of missionaries in Zimbabwe was just a depiction of the least number of the total missionaries. Concerning Tambu’s corrupt mentality, she felt that the people of her village were inferior and powerless to the whites who had invaded their land.
The postcolonial in Zimbabwe as per the narrator, Nervous Conditions resulted in gender and class issues. Substancewealthis not the only issue that colonialism took control over. It oppresses the people and makes lives miserable. This paper analyzes the various means in which both Nervous Conditions and Heart of Darkness characterize the emerging findings of the state after independence in Zimbabwe. It presents arguments that the two novels refuse to minimize politics in Southern Rhodesia in influencing the processes of post-colonial identity re-alignments. Zimbabwe was colonized by Britain and later gained her independence in 1980. The documentation of Nervous Conditions can be viewed as a critical political intervention that was aimed at changing marginal duties which women have been given under colonialism and continue to perform then even after the country gained independence.
The white colonial masters built the white houses for some Africans in Zimbabwe. Heroine’s uncle of Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions was accommodated in one of the executive houses, an offer that was given to him by the white colonial masters. There was a massive construction of houses to cater for the educated Africans who were in the mission schools built for the Africans who had acquired scholarships to study in the European countries. It improved the level of education since most of the native people wished they would have the opportunity to live in the white house’s which were built for the learned in the community. As a result of the increased number, the know-how and exposure were increased among the Africans, and they were in good position to understand the virtues.
According to the context of the Heart of Darkness, following Joseph Conrad’s knowledge in Congo, he was so critical of the European policy in Congo Basin. The natives were always exploited doing odd jobs, slave trading, and sexual harassment of the local women (Basch and Blanc 2005). Based on the past analysis related to the colonial era, women were discriminated by the colonialist and also the African men. The colonial bosses forced the women in the Congo basin to work on the land they had forcefully acquired from the native communities. Women spent most time working under strict supervision whereas they received little reward. Additionally, the Black men oppressed their wives by using them as sex objects and denying them the basic education. King Leopold, a colonial master, kept on calling Africans names. For instance, in his speech in 1876, he proclaimed the pierce darkness enshrouding the entire population. The statement had a related meaning to the Conrad’s title Heart of Darkness. The narrator in his view feels the access to education by the women will provide a better bargaining power and equally fight for their rights which were exploited by both the colonial and African men.
The anxious conditions give an account of Tambudzayi Sigauke’s fight to obtain basic education. Women who are black live are sexually discriminated from their men and thus find themselves cooperating and uniting with black men against the patriarchal system of colonialism as they fight their men (Basch and Blanc 2005). Some women in Nervous Conditions assisted Tambudzayi in escaping from the problems associated with womanhood imposed by the collaboration between the colonialism and the traditional Shona patriarchy. In the novel, Tambudzayi’s grandmother discusses the historical times of the colonial period on the African collective method of production. Arguably, Tambudzayi came to realize that the Africans were not allowed to exploit their productive agricultural land by the masters of colonialism immediately after the war that occurred in 1896. Following the loss of political freedom also went the African men’s capacity to provide for their families. The immediate option was to look for work in the emergent European farms and mines, an improvement, which left many women in control cultivation in rural areas thus being able to raise school fees for their families and also provide the basic necessities for their families (Chahrabarty, 2009).
Nervous Condition deals with the concern of the duties and responsibilities undertaken by the Africans during the colonial period and after self-governance in Southern Africa. The sufferings and humiliations women went through have made them feel less worthy in the African community. Dangarembgwa uses stereotypes to provide images of Black women who reject to be bullied by the Black men during colonialism times. Tambudzayi also rejects to give in to her father’s advice of her staying at home with her mother so that she is able to learn how to cook and to reproduce the next generations for the reason that she will not cook books and feed them to her husband. Following the narrations of the two novels, it is evident that women have been so much empowered in the postcolonial era. Several women are in leadership positions and they undertake their duties so well. The move has equally enabled most women to feel motivated and struggle to get equal opportunities just like the men.
Postcolonialism was a major factor to the increased poverty in African countries such as Zimbabwe and Congo as portrayed in the two novels, the heart of darkness and nervous condition. The colonial masters forcefully acquired the African lands and turned to be the bosses as they left the Africans with tiny land to cultivate. Basically, the Congo basin lies along the Congo River. The general climatic condition along River Congo facilitates agricultural activities. It was not made possible because the colonial masters turned them into Whiteman’s land and instead forced the Africans just to work as slaves. It was the main reason for the resistances and eventual demand for independence from the colonial authorities.
Postcolonial Identity in Dangarembga’s
Many Africans were given new names by the colonial leaders. It was because most African names were so difficult for the colonizers pronunciation. The colonial masters had difficulties in pronouncing African names. Therefore, they gave Africans that were easy for them to pronounce. Nervous condition explains how Mashoko was given a new name by Mr. Brown. The change of name was not because the people of Zimbabwe were ignorant, but it was the only means to get a job with the Europeans (Chahrabarty, 2009). The Africans in Zimbabwe would be forced to work for the Europeans in order to the settle the high taxes imposed on them by the colonial masters. The taxes were compulsory, and failure to pay could lead to seizing of their cattle by the colonial chiefs.
Nervous condition outlines how Africans could be sold out as slaves. A collection of Africans could be sold as slaves in exchange for gold. However, it is against Human privileges to trade on persons. During the process of selling out Africans to work in Asian continent as slaves led to breakage of families and as most of the young ones were left with no one to take care of them. According to the narrator, it is a key challenge and dealing with the problem is the vital problem(Young, 2003). The narrator urges all the natives always to remain united. The narrator argues that if the they stay united; they would probably resist the bully by the whites who sold them out as slaves.
In conclusion, both novels analyze the post-colonialism primarily in two African countries. The nervous of conditions examines the Zimbabwe and the Heart of Darkness talks about the great Congo Basin. The Africans before colonization were full of their culture and rarely value the formal education. As much as the colonizers were dictators of Africans way of life, they played an important role by imparting their western culture and exposure to the native people. The missionaries were capable of accessing Africa following the fact that the colonial bosses were their fellow Whiteman. Through that, they were able to offer the necessary requirements to the loyal natives such as scholarships and medical services. Arguably, the post-colonialism has transformed the colonized nations more positively than it would have negatively done.
Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G. and Tiffin, H., 2006. The post-colonial studies reader. Taylor & Francis.
Basch, L., Schiller, N.G. and Blanc, C.S. eds., 2005. Nations unbound: Transnational projects, postcolonial predicaments, and deterritorialized nation-states. Routledge.
Chakrabarty, D., 2009. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial thought and historical difference. Princeton University Press.
Chatterjee, P., 1993. The nation and its fragments: Colonial and postcolonial histories (Vol. 11). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Comaroff, J. and Comaroff, J.L., 1993. Modernity and its malcontents: Ritual and power in postcolonial Africa. University of Chicago Press.
Spivak, G.C., 1999. A critique of postcolonial reason. Harvard university press
Young, R., 2003. Postcolonialism (p. 140). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sample Paper on Fundraising in Nonprofit Organizations high school essay help: high school essay help
Fundraising in Nonprofit Organizations
Success in Fundraising
Organizations adopt various ways of raising funds with some paying attention to high dollar corporate fundraisings while others seek grants from foundations. One of the most common modes of fundraising that have emerged is online and social media campaigns. Regardless of the manner in which a firm seeks to raise money, every fundraising event could either be an achievement or a failure. The definition of success in fundraising depends on some elements such as having clear goals. For any fundraising event to be successful, it must have clear objectives right from the start. The organizers understand what they want to achieve and plan a strategy that will meet these goals.
Some of the questions that guide a successful fundraising event include whether the project hopes to acquire new donors or to expand its already existing donor base or if the sought support is for necessitating a new initiative. Success in fundraising starts with detailing the apparent objectives of the event in the initial planning stages (Polivy 98). Success in fundraising results from adhering to the company’s brand. Nonprofit firms rarely use the term brand. However, it is key to separate the personal and organizational values of the enterprise when planning to fundraise. An event that embraces professional ethos yields positively. The design of the fundraising exercise has to accommodate the firm’s brand as one way of wooing supporters who could turn into long-term donors.
A fundraising effort cannot bear much fruit in the absence of the right resources. Even though the core goal of fundraising is to generate money, it is an expensive exercise. For instance, it costs staff time thus creating a high opportunity cost that could see the organization losing money. Therefore, a successful fundraising activity observes a well thought-out budget that captures costs such as staff time and other direct expenses and compares them to the revenue projections expected (Worth 227). As a result, it is easier to understand the intended return on investment before embarking on the exercise.
Community, Behavioral, Ethical, and Organizational Components of Success in Fundraising
Ethical. When nonprofit organizations make a plan to solicit for funds, they must clearly state the ways in which they wish to spend the amount raised. They must ensure they do not assign the funds to other uses other than the initially reported one or else they will lose the trust of the donor (Polivy 87). Moreover, when funders witness the honesty of the firm in utilizing the funds for the right functions, they feel encouraged to invite other prospects in supporting the organization.
Community. The identified need which prompts the business to solicit for funds must have some relevance to the community. For instance, the aim could be to promote education, health, culture, or any aspects that seek to improve the society’s wellbeing. However, community needs such as health is a broad subject, and donors want to know a particular need that the money raised will help to address. Therefore, fundraisers must narrow down their objective to more discrete needs such as extending comprehensive services to the elderly people suffering from the Alzheimer’s disease.
Organizational. Every business enterprise has a strategic plan that drives its operations. Fundraisers should thus not solicit for funds if the objective of the exercise does not align with the company’s strategic plan. It is the obligation of the board members to plan the fundraising activity based on the strategic goals of the organization (Worth 336). The team should critically evaluate the internal and external factors that could hinder the firm from realizing the short-term and long-term goals of the company and seek ways of confronting them. When it is clear that the enterprise does not have the financial abilities to sustain its operations, it can thus resolve to fundraise. The fundraising activity should never take place before the organization has apparently determined the gaps that need addressing with the resources realized (Worth 412).
Behavioral. Fundraisers must refrain from giving false reports about the beneficiaries of the solicited funds to the potential donor hoping to get support from them. For instance, if the elderly people suffering from the Alzheimer’s disease in the society do not have sufficient primary care essential in managing their conditions, fundraisers should solicit funds to source for more caregivers. They should not say, for instance, that the aging also lacks in other basics such as shelter. They should always state facts (Worth 459). If a donor contributes funds during a time when they lack the capacitation to do so, it is fair for the fundraiser to return the donation.
Barriers to Success in Fundraising
It is a grave matter for an organization to engage in fundraising without first defining the purpose of the raised funds. It is thus effective to start with proper planning to determine how the funds raised will be put into use. As a result, it is essential not only to ask for a certain amount from potential donors but to explain a definite plan of action as well as the desired outcome of the exercise (Worth 417). For instance, a fundraiser could send a message to potential donors requesting them to donate $10 to reduce the cases of malaria attacks in Africa.
The appeal is not a strong one because it has neither explained how the $10 will reduce malaria in Africa nor the expected outcome. It would have been better for the solicitor to include that the donation will buy mosquito nets for all the vulnerable populations in Africa thus increasing their resistance to the deadly disease by 70 percent. Once a potential donor discovers the positive outcome that their donation will create in the society, they become more willful to contribute.
Secondly, if the fundraiser only remembers to contact the donors when they need support, the campaign is likely to bear insignificant fruits. People will only feel charitable towards organizations they value and care about their development. Therefore, it is vital to build sound relationships with the donors by occasionally contacting them to check on their progress but not reaching out to them only when the need to solicit for funds has risen (Polivy 223). Instead, the fundraiser should involve the donors to be part of their considerable efforts where they feel they have a role to play.
It is fundamental to make the fundraising affair a joint effort where the donors feel obliged to fulfill their part. Fundraisers should thus come up with an essential communication pattern where they regularly keep in touch with the donors (Polivy 124). For instance, the nonprofit firms should occasionally send updates about their progress to the donors or surprise them with ‘thank you’ notes. They should always remember to share their success stories with the people who supported them in achieving big milestones.
Structuring the Fund-raising Department
A competent leader of any nonprofit organization understands the core objectives of the fundraising department and structures the unit to meet these goals. Firstly, the structure should be in such a way that 80 percent of the effort goes to raising funds to attend to the needs of the vulnerable populations (Worth 114). The remaining 20 percent is to help the firm by being mindful about its brand. In the first objective of the structure, employees should care more about building healthy relationships with their donors instead of getting them to give out donations (Polivy 98). Therefore, the department has to make the potential donors a part of their team and welcome them to enjoy a sense of ownership in the charitable exercises.
They should make an effort of involving their donors in every step of their progress, for instance, sharing their objectives with them. As a result, the donors feel the value of their support, and will be willing to continue because the fundraisers have already become open about their strategic use of the donations. Donors can even suggest more viable ways of meeting the needs of the vulnerable populations because they are already aware of the real situations in the ground and feel obligated to work in partnership with the nonprofit organization (Polivy 78). Much of the firm’s resources should thus go to establishing stable relationships with donors.
The next objective of the fundraising unit within a nonprofit organization is allocating some firms’ resources to building and maintaining the brand of the company (Worth 94). The public must receive a positive image of the organization through effective PR and events. Once a firm has planned and managed an event, it only succeeds in securing dollars but not donors. Such a self-funding branding strategy leaves the general public with a positive attitude of the firm. Even though the activity still realizes funds for the organization, it goes beyond the money aspect into promoting the brand.
Organizational Culture That Fosters Ethical Fundraising Professionals
Nonprofit leaders should foster a fundraising team that demonstrates respect for the donors. For instance, they can display their appreciation to the funders through sending them timely gift acknowledgments. As a result, the donors feel even more appreciated to support the firm in its future endeavors (Polivy 184). Further, the fundraising team should submit reports to foundations in promptly manner which indicates that they value their donors and will update them on the progress of the organization.
Leaders should further ensure that their fundraising staff honors the donors’ requests by not listing them on their websites if they choose to remain anonymous. However, for those who do not mind the rest of the world to know about their supportive role in the running of the nonprofit business, it is an honorable thing to list them down on the website (Worth 470). Leaders should also educate their team members on how to manage the donors’ expectations regarding the acceptable and unacceptable donations of the nonprofit entity. For instance, if the donors donate used computers, the fundraiser professional can reject the offer in a decent manner citing the company policy on donating used staff (473).
Polivy, Deborah Kaplan. Donor Cultivation and the Donor Lifecycle Map. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014. Print. Pgs. 17-226. ISBN – 978-1-118-60377-2.
Worth, Michael J. Fundraising Principles and Politics. New York, NY: SAGE Publications, 2016. Print. Pgs. 67- 486. ISBN – 978-1-4833-1952-0.
Sample Essays on Michael Toolan – Narrative Theories essay help online free
Michael Toolan – Narrative Theories
Michael Toolan isan Edinburgh University educated professor of English Language and Literature at Birmingham University.While teaching for several years with focus on the English language, the distinctive professor has engaged in authorship and publication of several literary materials aimed at improving the learning capability of The English language in many of its contexts (Toolan, 2016).Through his work, the professor has dwelled on the subjects of oral presentations, narratives and poetry, while delving into the process of analyzing them, the key aspects that constitute the various concepts of analysis and the application of theories to analysis of literary pieces.Professor Toolan has published many books, particularly on the linguistic characteristics of various forms of works such as poems and short stories.As the focal point of the present study, the works of Professor Toolan with focus on the narrative will be discussed i.e. their proposed theories and the relevance of those theories in the contemporary works.The outcome will be used for the analysis of various interview excerpts in the context of the interview.
II.Description of theory
Michael Toolan, through his various works proposes a theory of narrative development based on particular features.According tohis theory, narrative development can be understood through analysis of the concepts of expectation and prospection.He proposes a structural stylistic method of narrative analysis which involves consideration of various factors considered as constituting a well formulated narrative.To understand whether a piece of work is a narrative or has undergone the complete narrative development cycle, Michael Toolan defines expectation as the attitude of the audience to the work, characterized by the desire tocomprehend the eventualities in the narrative presentation, whether oral or written (2009).Any piece of work projects such expectationsthrough stylistic ingredients of narration such as presentation gaps, suspense, and mystery.In the development of his theory, Toolan mentions factors such as use of names where pronouns could function effectively as examples of how the core ingredients could be used to create expectation in the audience (Huisman, 2011).
While expounding on the concept of narration in the development of presentations, the author also discusses how the corpus linguistic awareness approach and the Gricean approach to narrative analysis can be used together to build the foundations of a narrative (Toolan, 2009).According to the author, the two approaches used together build each other rather than destroying the presentations of the other.The corpus linguistic awareness approach discussed involves the use of various characteristics to determine the effectiveness of narration.From this perspective, the narrative is characterized by the presence of the tale, teller and the addressee.The addressee in the narrative has to trust the teller of the narrative in order for communication to be successful.Moreover, the initialization of a narrative is characterized by the use of verbs such as ‘know’ and ‘think’ which prompt the addressee to think about possibilities of the coming information (Toolan, 2008).Other characteristics of narration from this perspective include repetition of key words, future orientation, presence of negation clauses such as don’t and not which indicate the desire to comprehend more of what the teller is giving (Toolan, 1988).Each narrative also has a trajectory and the content is either pre-seen or pre-heard.
From the theory developed by Michael Toolan, it is difficult to define and classify communication as narratives after considering the available characteristics.It is therefore possible to use the characterization given by Toolan as a form of structural linguistic awareness procedure for the characterization of interviews as narratives (1988).Besides, the characterization proposed by Toolan, Labov (2013) also describes the key concepts in narrative development.This can be used in combination with the theory of expectations and prospection to advance in narration analysis.
III.Description of method
In most of the works by Michael Toolan, the corpus linguistic awareness approach to narrative development is used to critically analyze the narratives for expectation and prospects.This study tries to emulate the same method in analyzing an excerpt from an interview with two groups of participants.Toolan collected data through the collection of pre-published works such as books, and poetry and using them to exemplify the application of his proposed theories as he compared them with other theories.Through his examples, Michael managed to show exactly how the aspects of expectation and prospection can be used to describe the oral and literary features of narratives and how conclusions can be drawn on the existence of narratives.In the works based on various texts by various authors, Toolan carried out in-depth analyses which focused on the subjects of narration.
In the present research, a similar approach was taken to complete the analysis of a narrative type interview, presented in two excerpts.The interviews to be used were recorded during pair work with low proficiency English speakers from Saudi Arabia and Lebanon and another from high proficiency English speakers from England and Australia.Based on the observed and heard features of the interview presentations, the objective was to determine whether the interview excerpts exemplify the characteristics of narration or not.The interview process was carried out while audio recorded for the purpose of later analysis.The interviews were not exactly as expected with the researcher asking questions and the respondents giving answers.The respondents were divided into two groups, one comprising of low proficiency speakers and another comprising of high proficiency English speakers.Each of the pairs was then given a task to complete, where they were expected to enter into a discussion about their activities, countries of origin and pass time activities.
Despite collecting sufficient data to apply in testing the theories of Michael Toolan, the key limitations of the study involved its inabilityto effectively delve into the finer details ofMichael Toolan’s theories.Moreover, the study focused on very few key concepts of the narrative development process as described by Michael Toolan due to the little time that was available for carrying out the study.Consequently, it cannot be said that whatever is presented herein is conclusive in terms of describing Toolan’s theory as well as applying them to the interview data.In addition to this, the methods applied in this study, may not be exactly as described by Michael Toolan since the information is drawn from various sources and application is based on the evaluation of the effectiveness of various combinations of theories for the definition of narratives.
IV.Data Analysis/ Conclusion
The interview analysis process involved the consideration of the two interview excerpts from the points of view of Michael Toolan’s theory involving expectations and prospection and from the point of view of the features described by various Labov (2013).The excerpt from non- native English speakers clearly gives an outlook characteristic of the narrative.The presence of the teller, the tale and the addressee all constitute key characteristics of the narrative.Being pair work, both participants, coded N and B participate in equal measure as tellers and addressees.The tale also revolves around the experiences of both the teller and the addressee, characterized by prompts, presence of negation words and prospection which draw the reader towards expecting more from the communication.Another essential feature of the narrative is the presence of non-randomly connected events such as the stories about different countries and experiences in terms of foods.The presence of the non- randomly connected events form an important aspect of narratives.Such connections also bring about the expectation of the audience who naturally desire to know the outcome of events.
Besides, the random connection of events, the communication portrayed through excerpt 1 indicates the presence of a particular trajectory to the communication.Despite being unclear from the onset and also ending abruptly, the presence of the trajectory is evidenced through the clarity of prompts for participation by the two partners.The partners involved ask questions, report on their ignorance and provide information regarding what their thoughts are.Verbs such as think and know which signal the initialization of narration also prevail in the interview, with the participants using them as keys to initiating new discussions on other topics.While using the structural outlook proposed by Michael Toolan, the excerpt presents several key features of narration and can be said to be conclusively narrative.
Contrary to expectations from the audience, the excerpt from the interview involving native English speakers presents limited characteristics of narration as described by Toolan’s theory (Toolan, 2009).Features such as the presence of core ingredients such as mystery and suspense which constitute effective narration are not evident in the interview excerpt.However, based on the description of Labov (2013)and Toolan (1988) the interview participants have managed to create expectation through the presence of communication gaps, seen through the questions asked and the missing answers in some of the sentences.Consequently, the structural analysis method that is mentioned by Toolan in describing a fully formed narrative in terms of the presentation can be used in critically analyzing the interview excerpt (1999).
Through prompts such as “mmmh…but, maybe the Arabic food is too spicy for you,” the audience is motivated to want to hear more regarding the addresses opinion concerning the spicy Arabic foods.Such prompts when used adequately in any piece of literary presentation bring out a certain degree of thirst for more, which is the objective of narrations.Apart from this, the conversation has a particular trajectory, as opposed to the first excerpt where the conversation moves back and forth.The second excerpt presents a pair of individuals who are aware of the focal point of their conversation and who give it a particular direction through questioning, answering and asking for clarification.All these form essential features of a short story narrative as described by Toolan.When applying the opinion of Labov to this analysis, the development features of narratives are found tocomplement the theories developed by Toolan rather than going contrary to them.It can therefore be said that while the conversation between the non- native speakers presents a narrative characterized by lack of structure and clarity, the second conversation effectively fits the description given by Toolan in defining the narrative from the perspective of expectation and prospection.
Huisman, R.(2011).A Review of Michael Toolan’s, Narrative Progression in the Short Story, a corpus stylistic approach.Linguistics and the Human Sciences.
Labov, W.(2013). “A Structural Analysis of Narratives”.Marie Agnes gay University Press
Toolan, M.(2001). Narrative: A Critical Linguistic Introduction 2nd Ed.Psychology Press.
Toolan, M.(1999).New Work on Deixis in Narrative, In P.Verdonk, et al.(eds)Transcending Boundaries: narratology in Context.Tubingen: Gunter Narr, 147-163.
Toolan, M.(2008). “Narrative Progression in the Short Story: First Steps in a Corpus Stylistic Approach”.Narrative, 16,2.
Toolan, M.(2009).Narrative Progression in the Short Story, a corpus stylistic approach. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Toolan, M.(2016). Professor Michael Toolan, MA, D.Phil, GDL. University of Birmingham.Retrieved from http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/staff/profiles/elal/toolan-michael.aspx
Sample Essays on Paris Peace Conference best college essay help: best college essay help
Paris Peace Conference
Undoubtedly, the various provisions of the Paris Peace Treaty were not of benefit but rather had the intention of hurting Germany’s economy. First, the treaty acknowledged the fact that Germany was the mastermind of the destruction and damages incurred by its rival nations as well as their subjects. Besides, it can be seen that through its various provisions, the treaty’s primary purpose was to ensure that Germany’s position as a global superpower was to be destroyed. Further, the provisions of the treaty stated that Germans abroad were not allowed to keep and maintain their old relations in foreign countries and of helping Germany regain a significant share in the economic world. The treaty’s provisions also highlighted that Germany’s property abroad was to be confiscated and liquidated, and instead of being restored to the country, it would be used for reparation (“Comments of the German Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference on the Conditions of Peace,” 1919). Therefore, these perspectives underline how the provisions of the treaty impacted adversely on the economic growth of Germany.
President Wilson had earlier believed in a principle that would ensure equality among countries and unrestricted participation of countries in various international programs. An application of this principle would ensure that the solidarity of human interests is respected. In the case of Germany, had this principle been applied, it would have been treated differently as a country because it would have cooperated in the framing of the Covenant of the League of Nations. Besides, an application of the principle attributed to President Wilson would ensure that Germany becomes one of the countries to join the League of Nations, although this did not come to pass as a result of the failure to apply President Wilson’s principle.
The document in focus appeals to a higher fundamental law, which would help strengthen German assertions. This fundamental law is that which stresses and defends the right of self-determination, which would make it possible for every nation including Germany, to thrive economically and politically without interference from other countries.
Arguably, every person reading the document would be in agreement with the argument that Germany was being treated poorly. A fact which underlines Germany’s poor treatment is that Germans abroad were not allowed to maintain or keep old relations in foreign countries and that of helping Germany regain a significant share in world commerce. Besides, the confiscation and liquidation of Germany’s property, which was then used for reparation rather than being restored to the country, indicates how Germany was being treated poorly. Also, the treaty supported the cession of Alsace-Lorraine, which was part of Germany, without consulting the German population and almost two million Germans were to be forced from their land to pave the way for invasion by foreigners (“Comments of the German Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference on the Conditions of Peace,” 1919).
In response to the complaints of the authors of the document, the defenders of the treaty might have made attempts to uphold and defend the right of self-determination, which would have seen Germany, like every other free nation, thrive economically, politically, and embrace internal policies that would pave the way for harmonious and peaceful living. In essence, the peace treaty signed was against the development of Germany as it allowed interference from the governments of the Allied and Associated Powers.
Comments of the German Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference on the Conditions of Peace. (October, 1919). http://college.cengage.com/history/primary_sources/world/conditions_of_peace.htm
Sample Research Paper on Unemployment my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london
Types of Unemployment
The causes and effects of unemployment differ, depending on the type of unemployment. Towards this end, four types of unemployment are discussed as below:
This refers to the period when an individual is switching jobs, or between one job and another. Frictional unemployment happens due to a discrepancy between jobs and the workers based on such issues as taste and preferences, skills set, attitude, and payment, among others (García and Sorolla 8). One of the main influences of frictional unemployment is an individual’s voluntary decision to take a certain job depending on the value attached to it in comparison with the current wage rates, effort and time needed to find such a job.
This type of unemployment is concerned with the inefficiencies that characterize a labor market, along with the structural problems that bedevil the economy. When the labor market fails to deliver enough jobs for all individuals in search of employment, this triggers structural unemployment (The Economist n.p.). This could happen because the skills possessed by the unemployed workers do not match the skills required to do the available jobs. Ongoing cyclical unemployment is likely to trigger structural unemployment. For instance, prolonged unemployment rates in the economy could end up frustrating those in search of jobs and they fail to update their skill. Consequently, their skills become obsolescent.
This type of unemployment occurs because the economy lacks sufficient aggregate demand for jobs to all in need of work (The Economist n.p.). This is likely to happen in an economy that is experiencing a decline in demand for goods, meaning that there is a decline in the level of production required and by extension, the number of workers needed to produce goods.
This type of unemployment happens when people are out of work at certain times of the year, such as when school closes, or during off-season (The Economist n.p.) in the case of industries like the tourism sector.
The Natural Rate of Unemployment
The Natural Rate of Unemployment refers to the rate of unemployment in the economy at a time when the labor market is in a state of equilibrium. In other words, it is that level at which the rate of unemployment in the economy is expected to remain regardless of the considerable impact of monetary policy. The natural rate of unemployment is mainly influenced by supply side factors more than by the demand side factors (McGinty n.p.). It therefore entails both structural unemployment and frictional unemployment. Several institutional factors influence the Natural rate of unemployment, including the availability of information about a job, quality of education and training, an individual’s level of occupational mobility, the level of labor mobility and how flexible the labor market is.
Inclusions and Exclusions in the National Unemployment Rates
The national unemployment rate refers to the percentage number of workers in the labor force who are without work. The national unemployment rate is calculated by conducting surveys to collect information about workers’ employment, earnings and hours (McGinty n.p.). People who are in school full-time, the retired, those working in homes or the disabled are often excluded as part of the labor force while calculating the national rate on unemployment. On the other hand, individuals who claim in the national surveys conducted to be actively involved in searching for jobs are regarded as unemployed.
García, José G and Sorolla, Valeri. Frictional and Non-Frictional Unemployment in Models with
Matching Frictions. April 2013. 20 June 2017.
McGinty, Craven. What the Unemployment Rate Shows. March 4, 2016. 20 June 2017.
The Economist. The three types of unemployment. 18, Aug. 2014. 20 June 2017.
Sample Paper on Clinical Manifestations of Molluscum contagiosum university essay help
Microbiology and clinical manifestations of Molluscum contagiosum
Individuals infected with Molluscum contagiosum show signs of chronic infections limited to particular parts of the body. The illness is caused by viruses that affect the skin, causing irritation and it advances with time. The individuals suffering from the ailment show raised parts of the skin in the affected areas as this is how the virus manifests itself. Upon treatment, the part that was infected is hardly recognized because the raised parts do not leave scars. In some cases, the individuals may not seek treatment and the raised sections may disappear on their own (Bennett, Dolin, Blaser 20)1. However, for the virus to be inactive, it may take different time ranging from two months to four years depending on the strength of the individual’s immunity. To prevent the illness, personal hygiene is recommended because the illness is mainly spread through contact with contaminated items, such as towels. One may also contract the virus if they have direct contact with infected persons. It is common with human beings of all age groups, but it is mostly observed in people who are involved on unprotected sex and young children. This paper discusses the nature of the virus that causes Molluscum contagiosum and the symptoms and signs that infected individuals show.
Microbiology of Molluscum contagiosum
The virus that causes the disease is referred to as Molluscum contagiosum, and it is only found in human beings. Based on its chemical structure, the virus is classified under the poxvirus, implying that it affects both vertebrate and invertebrate. However, it has only been observed in human beings. The virus has a complex non-segmented structure that contains OPV protein, useful during the replication process. Molluscum contagiosum is disease is communicable through different means such as getting into contact with fomites and having unprotected sex with persons who are infected with the Molluscum contagiosum virus. The incubation period normally ranges between 14 to 42 days, and it mainly targets the outer layer of the skin. The viral infection spreads due to replication of the virus. The cytoplasm of the affected cells plays a primary role in enhancing the spread of the disease. Once the reproduction occurs, a large body of cells known as Molluscum is formed. This is mostly common in the granular layer of the epidermis as well as the thin outer layer. During the replication phase, thecells in the epidermal basal layer increase twice as much due to the rapid cell division, but the process occurs gradually. The chances of being infected with the Molluscum contagiosum virus are determined by personal hygiene as well as the health status of individuals. People who are infected with HIV virus are at a very high risk of being infected with the Molluscum contagiosum virus due to the low immunity in their system. This implies that once they are exposed to the virus, their weak immune system is unable to respond effectively. About 60% of infections in these individuals is caused by the Molluscum contagiosum virus (Thompson et al.8)2. A study involving 29% of HIV positive individuals conducted in Australia indicates that the most common cause of skin infections among the individuals is Molluscum contagiosum 2 (Thompson et al. 3)2. The study also concluded that there is no significant link between the gender if individuals to the disease. This implies that any individual who is exposed to the virus has an equal chance of being infected, except the HIV positive individuals who have higher chances.
Clinical manifestations of Molluscum contagiosum
Clinical manifestations of an illness are the signs that or the symptoms that the infected patients complain about a certain disease. For the Molluscum contagiosum, the clinical manifestations are mainly observable but painless lesions.In the beginning the lesions that are observed on the skin are just minute papules and they may be found in one or two areas of the skin. They may begin as one tiny lesion but in most cases they are more and the number keeps on increasing as the disease advances. The dome-shaped lesions measure between two and five millimeters in diameter. On looking at the papules, one notices that they have a small depression that looks like navel and they have a caseous plug (Chen, Anstey and Bugert 879)3. The diagrams below show how the disease manifests itself differently in different individuals.
In the above image, the individual only suffers from the lesions that are not widespread, but as the disease advances, the lesions increase and it may also cause eczema. The diagram below shows the lesions of an individual who has also developed eczema. Research indicates that about 10% of individuals who are infected withMolluscum contagiosum develop eczema as well (Porter et al. 564)4. Such individuals may show signs such as cracked skin at the infected areas and the akin becomes itchy and dry.
One of the features that distinguish the lesions in the disease is the umblicated nature of the lesions, but this is not always the case. In some instances, the lesions may be large and the umblication may not be well pronounced. This is the case in the diagram below where one develops a large lesion with several molluscum bodies (Murdoch et al. 610)5.
It takes the virus between two and six weeks to manifest itself through the lesions on the skin. This implies that oen may not be aware of the illness until the six weeks. The lesions are not painful and they are firm and dome-shaped. In adults, the manifestation is mostly common on the abdomen and the genitals. To be safe from the Molluscum contagiosum virus, one should avoid sharing personal effects such as towels.
Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014 Aug 28.
Thompson CH, Zwart‐Steffe D, Rita T, Biggs IM. Molecular epidemiology of Australian isolates of molluscum contagiosum. Journal of medical virology. 1990 Sep 1;32(1):1-9.
Chen X, Anstey AV, Bugert JJ. Molluscum contagiosum virus infection. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2013 Oct 31;13(10):877-88.
Porter CD, Muhlemann MF, Cream JJ, Archard LC. Molluscum contagiosum: characterization of viral DNA and clinical features. Epidemiology and infection. 1987 Oct 1;99(02):563-6.
Murdoch DM, Venter WD, Feldman C, Van Rie A. Incidence and risk factors for the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV patients in South Africa: a prospective study. Aids. 2008 Mar 12;22(5):601-10.
Sample Paper on The Chipotle Mexican Grill (CMG) Company online essay help: online essay help
Chipotle Mexican Grill Analysis
Steve Ells founded Chipotle Mexican Grill (CMG) in 1993 when he first opened the first restaurant in Denver, Colorado. The company went public in 2006, and it became listed on the New York Stock Exchange (Chipotle.com). As at 31 December 2015, CMG was operating 2,010 establishments in different geographical areas. These include 1,971 in the United States, 11 in Canada, 7 in London, England and 4 in Paris, France and 1 in Germany. It has also opened 13 additional ShopHouse Southeast Asian Kitchen restaurants that serve food inspired by Asian Cuisines. There are also three Pizzeria Local restaurants. The Chipotle Mexican Grill restaurants serve a limited menu of high-quality tacos, burrito bowls, Burritos, and Salads. To increase the market share, Chipotle has introduced the organic products approach due to the rising demand for pasture-raised animals (Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. 4). In 2015, CMG encountered a huge crisis after the Norovirus and E-coli virus that negatively affected the company’s revenues and growth (Chipotle contends with E. coli and norovirus outbreaks. par.2)
CMG Vision, Mission, and Values
CMG values focus on the using ingredients and cooking techniques of high quality to offer great food to all people at reasonable prices. The company strives to find out where all its ingredients are sourced to promote local farmers in their job of growing sustainable and naturally raised products that meet the goals of its mission statement, “Food with Integrity.” The mission statement means that CMG objectives are to offer the best sustainably raised food possible, provide support to farmers who are devoted to their animals and land and use meat from animals raised in a natural manner whenever it is possible (Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. 6).
There is rising demand for sustainable food that surpasses the supply in the market, and the consumers of socially sustainable foods are wealthier as compared to typical fast food consumers. 57 % of adults between 18 and 29 years eat fast food, at least, weekly; this is the most often as compared to other consumer groups. The millennial forms a large segment for fast casual and quick service restaurants. Millennial use of their mobile technological devices to get information for their health and fitness choices and 85 percent of persons between the age of 18 to 34 years shop on the internet. The fast casual segment has grown every year since the economic recession of 2009 from 4% to 8% as compared to the quick service whose growth has remained stagnant. Fast casual restaurants report an average purchase value of $ 7.40 as compared to the 5.30 average for quick service restaurants (Maze 38).
There are many requirements to comply within the industry that vary from country to country. These requirements include the regulations on food quality and hygiene, labeling and labor regulations. There is high competition in international markets from the fast casual restaurants outside the Mexican food category since the market for Mexican fast casual items is undeveloped. Market conditions and weather changes cause shortages for sustainable ingredients resulting in increased prices for ingredients like beef, dairy and chicken products (Simpson 38).
Rising demand for sustainable food that surpasses the supply in the market.
Millennial use of their mobile technological devices to get information for their health and fitness choices and 85 percent of persons between the age of 18 to 34 years shop on the internet.
The fast casual segment has grown every year since the economic recession of 2009 from 4% to 8% as compared to the quick service whose growth has remained stagnant. Fast casual restaurants report an average purchase value of $ 7.40 as compared to the 5.30 average for quick service restaurants.
There are many requirements to comply within the industry that vary from country to country.
There is high competition in international markets from the fast casual restaurants outside the Mexican food category since the market for Mexican fast casual items is undeveloped.
Market conditions and weather changes cause shortages for sustainable ingredients resulting in increased prices for ingredients like beef, dairy and chicken products.
Competitive Profile Matrix
Chipotle Mexican Grill
Taco Bell Corp
Critical success factors
Use of sustainable ingredients
Well established supply chains
Quality of the food
Varieties of food in the Menu
Adaptation to different customers tastes and preferences
Using technology to enhance customer experience
Expansion to international markets
Environmental sustainability in restaurants construction designs
Location of the restaurants
Targeted segment of consumers
Chipotle Company has undergone rapid growth since its public offering in 2006. It has 2,010 restaurants with a huge presence in the U.S and Canada, and it plans to open about 220-235 new restaurants this year. In all markets, Chipotle restaurants are located in urban centers with high foot traffic, neighborhoods with high household incomes and locations with businesses, tourist attractions and schools (Czaplewski, et al. 7). These have contributed to its good financial growth enabling it to generate solid cash flows, avoid debts and maintain a strong balance sheet. CMG cash and cash equivalents as at January 1, 2016, were more than $1 billion. The targeted market segments of millennial between the ages of 18-34 years are less price sensitive as compared with other consumer groups and they identify with CMG philosophy of “Food with Integrity.” The company’s commitment to sustainability that is reflected in its operations by selecting organic ingredients and using materials that are environmentally conscious in their stores (Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. SWOT Analysis 5).
In the last quarter of 2015, Chipotle restaurants in the U.S suffered from outbreak cases of norovirus and E.coli across the country disrupting in the establishments’ growth (Chipotle contends with E. coli and norovirus outbreaks. par.3). The company that has been built on the motto of Food With Integrity is now facing a tough challenge of defending the safety and quality of its food and gain consumers confidence once more. Due to the shortages of supplies of sustainably raised ingredients, the company has been forced to sources conventionally raised beef and chicken sometimes compromising the quality of its food (Glassman 22). They have also been increasing the prices of their products, for instance, an increase in the price of their menu was announced in April 2014 due to the rising costs of cheese, avocados, and steak. Chipotle restaurants have a focused menu that has made it impossible to adopt a menu with local tastes and preferences, especially in the international markets. Its competitors like Yum! Brands restaurants have tailored their menu to local customs by changing to local flavors and ingredients (Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. SWOT Analysis 8)
Rapid growth reflected by the increase in the number of stores in the U.S and internationally as well as the financial strength.
A culture of commitment to sustainability resulting in the use of organic ingredients and environment sustainable materials in construction designs.
Targeting the right segment of the millennials in the fast casual industry, that is wealthier and more conscious of their health choices.
In the last quarter of 2015, Chipotle restaurants in the U.S suffered from outbreak cases of norovirus and E.coli across the country disrupting in the establishments’ growth.
Shortage in the supplies of sustainable ingredients for the restaurants has led to use of conventional products at times and an increase in food prices
Chipotle has failed in adapting to the tastes and preferences of the consumers in the international markets where the Mexican cuisines are not common.
Chipotle Mexican Grill
· Rapid growth
· Commitment to sustainability
· The right target segment of millennial
· Compromised food quality
· Increase in food prices
· Products failure to adapt to local tastes and preferences
· Rising demand for sustainable products
· Increase in the use of technological devices
· Higher growth in the fast casual industry
· Increase the number of restaurants internationally using the created wealth (S1).
· Invest in technological innovations that to enhance customer experience among millennials’ (S2).
· Increase social media marketing to restore consumer (S3) confidence in the quality of their products.
· Introduce more products in the international markets to satisfy diverse customers’ needs (S4).
Threats – T
· Regulations and requirements in the industry
· High competition in international markets from non-Mexican cuisines
· Shortage of sustainable products
· Establishing reliable supply chains (S5).
· Invest in educating and raising awareness among their staff for the existing requirements and regulations in the industry (S6).
· Use the existing regulations to ensure the quality of food products is guaranteed (S7).
· Establish reliable supply chains that ensure the price of their products is not increased (S8).
QSPM Matrix -Strategies 1-4
Commitment to sustainability
Have the right target segment of millennial
Compromised food quality
Increase in food prices
Products failure to adapt to local tastes and preferences
Rising demand for sustainable products
Increase in the use of technological devices
Higher growth in the fast casual industry
Regulations and requirements in the industry
High competition in international markets from non-Mexican cuisines
Shortage of sustainable products
QSPM Matrix –Strategies 5-8
Commitment to sustainability
The right target segment of millennial
Compromised food quality
Increase in food prices
Products failure to adapt to local tastes and preferences
Rising demand for sustainable products
Increase in the use of technological devices
Higher growth in the fast casual industry
Regulations and requirements in the industry
High competition in international markets from non-Mexican cuisines
Shortage of sustainable products
The common size income statements analysis indicate a decline in Chipotle the revenues in the year 2015. The cost of revenue increased from 72.79% in 2014 to 73.91% in 2015 resulting in a decrease of the gross margin from 27.21% to 26.09%. Selling, General, and Administration expenses reduced from 6.67 % in w2014 to 5.56% in 2015. The non-recurring expenses remained the same and the loss on disposal of assets increased by 0.46 % while other operating expenses increased by 0.21%. The operating incomes reduced from 17.3% to 16.96% and the incomes before taxes reduced by 0.29%. The net incomes in 2015 were less than the 2014 net incomes by 0.27%. According to the Comparative analysis income statements, there was an increase in the gross margin by 5.06%. The loss on the disposal of assets had a significant increase of 89.13 percent. The selling general and administration expenses reduced by 8.65% while the net incomes increased by 6.78% (NASDAQ n.p). The profitability ratios illustrate a decline in the profitability of the company in 2015. The net profit margin has reduced from 10.84 percent to 10.57 percent. The asset turnover ratio has reduced from 1.8 to 1.7 percent while the return on assets has reduced from 19.55 percent to 18.04 percent. The growth ratios illustrate a significant reduction in the growth of the Company’s revenues, operating incomes, net incomes and earnings per share (Morningstar n.p)
The first long-term objective is to establish a reliable source of suppliers that will serve in the local and international markets. This objective will help in ensuring that Chipotle restaurants obtain all the suppliers that they require. It will also play the role of ensuring that the quality of the food is maintained. This objective will be supported by a cooperative strategy whereby the company can form an alliance with its suppliers to improve the quality and quantity of their produce. They can make investments in the farms that supply their ingredients ensuring a stable supply and quality of these ingredients. A reliable supply chain should be established in each of the international markets reducing the costs of transferring ingredients from the suppliers in the U.S to the international markets. Similar alliances should be made with suppliers in the international markets to ensure the quality and enough quantity for ingredients are maintained at all times. Chipotle will also enforce the rules and regulations in the industry that guide the production of sustainable suppliers to ensure the quality of the ingredients sourced from suppliers. The benchmarks that can be used to measure the progress is the percentage increase in the volume of supplies, reduction in the cost of making their food and improved consumers loyalty.
The other objective is to come up with other sources of revenues for CMG. Revenues currently obtained are mainly from four menu items accounting for 95% of the company’s revenues. This implies that its diversification is low even if it has launched the ShopHouse Asian Kitchen and the investment in Pizzeria Locale. The businesses are still very young and do not make many contributions to CMG revenues. Thus, the Company can diversify more by investing in different businesses or expanding the Chipotle concept to other cuisines. The proposed strategy for this objective is diversification strategy that will allow the company to introduce a variety of food items in the company’s menu by offering different cuisines especially in the international markets where the Mexican cuisines are not very common. The new products will help to meet the tastes and preferences of all its customers and compete effectively with its competitors. Social media marketing will be used to market the new products in the markets. Alternatively, CMG can invest in other already established restaurants that offer other kinds of cuisines to their customers. The investments can be in the form of acquisitions, joint ventures or buying shares in those companies. The benchmarks that will be used to measure progress is the amount of revenues obtained from additional food items added to their menu and increased consumer awareness of the new products reflected by their comments on social media platforms.
The third objective is the expansion of CMG operations to other international markets and particularly to the developing nations. Currently, the company huge presence is in the U.S and Canada and a few Europe nations. Developing nation’s strategy is the proposed strategy for this objective. The lack of popularity of the Mexican cuisines in various countries provides an opportunity for Chipotle to enter new markets for their main food items. This is especially the case for Asian and African countries that do not have major restaurants specializing in Mexican cuisines. CMG should take advantage of the growth of the economies in these developing nations like China. This is because as the economies grow the households, disposable incomes also increase allowing its targeted segment of persons between the age of 18-34 years to spend more in healthy food choices. Technological advancements and the rise in the use of mobile devices in these nations will also enable CMG to market their products easily and enhance customers’ experiences. The benchmarks to ensure progress for this strategy are the amount of revenues obtained by entering into new markets and the number of new restaurants that are launched in the new markets.
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Sample Book Review on “The Play of Art” by George Gadamer law essay help
How does George Gadamer in The Play of Art explain the “play drive?”
George Gadamer is a philosophy expert with particular interest and expertise in the philosophy tradition of hermeneutic. He pursues the playful character of art in his “The Play of Art”. In the reading, the author investigates how a play can be used to understand art.
In “The Play of Art”, Gadamer refers to “play-drive” as the need to play which depicts the thin line separating humans and animals? According to him, unlike the previous misconceptions, “Play drive” is influenced significantly by natural phenomenon. Gadamer reasserts that the decisions to play as any other decisions made by human beings are not entirely decided through free will. He states that other forces like compulsive drives, interests, and other unconscious factors influence people’s decisions which include play. For instance, Gadamer gives an example that artists too, paint for the expression of “play drive”. According to Gadamer,despite the human thoughts that they play “at something” unlike children and animals who play “with something”, the two are related. He argues that we mimic nature and the natural human existence structure through play.
According to Gadamer, there is a relation between play and communication. He states that play as an imitative representation can act as a communication medium when taken as a pure representation without any changes. Understanding play as mimetic representation seeks to be understood in its kind but not only to be believed. However, he reasserts that for a play to act as a communicator, it must be understood by the one who the information is intendedto; otherwise, it will seem like any other form of play. He states that for mimic representation to parlay as communication, both the sender and the recipient must have the full grasp of the matter at hand. Artistic representations, according to Gadamer are simply appearances or shows that communicate something. As such, play as a product of natur