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Sociology Essay Sample On Racism And Segregation Global History Essay Help

Racism and Segregation

Segregation has always been a thorny issue in education institutions in the US, and the most common form is racial segregation. Currently, Americans seem to accept that segregation is part of their custom to separate the minority from the majority. Initially, the Supreme Court had enforced desegregation in public school, which was perceived as a great step to end segregation. However, the assumption that school districts are mature to carry out their responsibilities professionally has permitted many schools to admit either only white or black students. I believe that the American children need to socialize with one another as they grow up both in their residential areas and in schools. Courts should not assume that schools have the capacity to end segregation. Enforced integration can assist in changing the face of the American education institutions, and the whole country at large.

Racism is the worst thing that can happen to any human being, and it seems to move from one level to another. From education institutions to residential ownerships, racism has rendered the minority groups powerless without any significant thing to prove their incompetence. The minorities, despite their ability to own homes, are being discriminated in terms of property ownership by being treated unfairly. This implies that leasing agents are limiting the minorities from owning properties in residents that are dominated by majority whites in favor of the majority. Such intolerable act should not be condoned, as the Constitution is against discrimination due to race, color, or ethnicity. A person is left to wonder whether accepting money from a white person can add any value that could be missed by serving a minority buyer, even when the process of owning a home is still the same anywhere.

Sample Criminal Justice Essay Paper on Homeland Security and Homeland Defense essay help cheap


Homeland Security and Homeland Defense

The departments of homeland security and defense are on the forefront in dealing with security issues which are complex at all levels. Fundamentally, the goals, objectives and missions of the departments are to maintain a desirable state by ensuring that there is order at all levels. Security issues are crucial to the effective functioning of any nation in these present times where terrorism has posed a threat to many states.  The relationships between the two departments has significantly improved ,this is informed by the fact that joint efforts need to be put in place so as to address the problem of insecurity. This paper explicitly describes the departments of homeland security and homeland defense as it is defined in various US institutions, describes the responsibilities, missions, duties, tasks of the departments and looks at efforts that are shared between the two departments. In addition, it provides the definition of the two departments.

Homeland security

It is defined as a coordinated effort to prevent attacks by terrorists within the US, reduce the vulnerability of the US to terrorism, and minimize the damage and assist in the recovery from terrorist attacks. The department is charged with the crucial missions and functions that include:

Preventing terrorism

This has remained the core mission of the department. Terrorist’s threats have evolved with time and remain real; the threats to the US come in multiple forms. The department has put in place measures to disrupt terrorist activities that pose a threat to the citizens of the nation thus enhancing security.

Securing and managing America’s borders

The department is tasked with border patrol to prevent terrorist threats, drug traffickers and ensuring national and economic security

Administering and enforcing immigration laws

It is tasked with enforcing immigration laws, the department puts in place strategies to enhance border security so as to prevent illegal immigration, discourages employers from hiring workers who are not documented and streamlines the immigration processing system. The department has reformed the immigration department thus prioritizing and identifying criminal immigrants who pose a threat to the security of the US (Ramsay, 2013). The department also targets employers who break the immigration laws hence insuring that aliens who pose a security to the nation do not secure employment in the US.

Securing and safeguarding cyberspace

The department secures computer systems by working with different territorial governments, the department’s works to reduce cyber threats and vulnerabilities, distribute warnings of impending threats using cyberspace and coordinate the response to cyber incidences thus ensuring that computers, networks and cyber systems in the US are safe (Roesener, Bottolfson & Fernandez, 2014). Cyber terrorism poses a significant threat to the US, increased accessibility to internet and critical security information by the terrorists places the nation at the risk of attacks from its enemies thus the department works tirelessly to ensure that this does not materialize.

Resilience to calamities

It gives the coordinated response when there is an attack by terrorists, calamity and other emergencies. The department achieves this by working with the federal, state and private partners to ensure a recovery effort that is effective is put in place.

Homeland defense

It is defined as the military protection of the US territory, citizens, and defense of its assets against threats from the external. It also includes the state activities that are designed to deter aggressions and to prepare the military of the US if deterrent actions fail.  The missions and functions of homeland defense include; deterring and defending against strategic attacks, supporting domestic authorities for the management of disasters, protecting assets of the nation for instance security assets, ensuring that availability and survivability of critical assets. The contribution of defense to homeland security can be put into two parts which are deterrence and response.



The department is tasked with the collection of intelligence which is an asset towards the disruption of criminal activities thus ensuring an improvement in homeland security. Homeland defense shares crucial intelligence information with homeland defense for the effective disruption of terrorist and criminal activities.

Personnel augmentation

The department plays a vital role in homeland security personnel augmentation if need arises. Homeland defense has also created the Northern command which conduct operations so as to prevent and disrupt threats that are aimed at ensuring improved security.

Shared efforts and responsibilities between homeland security and homeland defense

The departments share some missions and functions to ensure safety for the people of the United States. Departments share geospatial data in regards to the national infrastructure. This information ensures a swift response when a crisis arises. “The National Guard is the perfect fusion between the two departments because it synchronizes state and federal defense and homeland security efforts” (Buchalter, 2007). The military places members of the National Guard on active state duties and assign them duties that qualify for reimbursement by homeland security grants.

From the information, homeland security can be defined as actions are aimed at reducing the vulnerability of American citizens to terrorism, preventing attacks by terrorists in the US and minimizing damages occasioned by terrorists by helping to recover from attacks that have occurred.


The two departments have their unique missions and functions; they work hand in hand in trying to ensure the safety of the US. The departments work together to ensure collective harmony, the future of the US hangs in the balance of the two departments.


Buchalter, R. (2007). Military Support to Civil Authorities: The Role of the Department f Defense in Support of Homeland Defense. In Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Milit-Support-Civil-Authorities, 12, 2-7.

Ramsay, D. (2013). The Case to Accredit Homeland Security Programs: Why Outcomes-based Accreditation Makes Sense. Journal of Homeland Security Education, 2(13), 19.

Roesener, G., Bottolfson, C., & Fernandez, G. (2014). Policy for US Cyber security. Air & Space Power Journal, 28(6), 38-54.

Sample Engineering Paper on Major goals of the NYREV college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help


Energy Vision

Major goals of the NYREV

The NYREV (New York State ‘Reforming the Energy Vision’) initiative is a closely monitored project designed to practically re-architect the grid in light of emerging opportunities presented by the current technology advancement and possible threats posed by frequent extreme weather eventualities, aging infrastructure, greenhouse-gas-driven climatic change, security risks and economic inequality. The goals of NY REV are promoting energy efficiency, greater utilization of renewable sources, grid security, and resilience, and wider deployment of distributed energy resources.

Description of the DSP and how it will interact with incumbent entities

DSP is an intelligent network platform created to provide reliable, safe, and efficient electric service through integration of diverse resources to handle evolving need of customers and the society at large. It fosters wide market activity that involves monetarization of system and social value, through third party and customer engagement that is connected with the wholesale market and bulk power production.

The key function of the DSP is to ensure proactive management and optimization of operations, planning and DER markets at the level of distribution in order to achieve safe and reliable distribution. The DSP will enable engagement by DER service providers in a better transparent-based environment. It will create a flexible platform for new energy service and products. The DSP works out through integrating new market operation functions with both advanced smart grid capabilities.

Under the NYREV, the DSP is expected to facilitate appropriate retail interactions with the wholesale market, together with operation of retail DER markets. DSP will act as an independent entity and a marketing platform for sellers and buyers of DER. It will procure and provide vital services to support use of DER, such as communication, information, dispatch and interconnection services. In order to ensure its independence, the utilities concerned will not be allowed to own DER resources except under very limited circumstance.

Implementation of the DSP and roadmap

The DSP road map is comprised of several stages that will enable the realization its goals. The first stage is the planning period, which will involve the first 5 years of development and implementation. In the calendar, it is expected to commence in 2016 and end in 2021. The phase one of the implementation and development will include demonstration project and investment long with foundation planning in order to create DSP capacities and functionalities that will ensure vibrant market for private investment and customer engagement in the DER market.

Phase 2, which will take 3 to 5 years, is expected to reflect the growth of the DSP market. This will involve progressive development of DSP capabilities to foster economic DER growth and the increasing integration of DER into DSP planning aspects and operations. Also, it will involve statewide transmission and bulk power system operation and planning. Evolution of planning practice will be expected at this stage.

Stage 2 will be a monitoring and assessment stage. In this stage, projects of stage 1 will be assessed to determine their progress against DSIP installation forecasts. This stage will provide DSPs and policy makers an opportunity to reassess and recalibrate strategies in order to ensure progressive cost-effective technology deployment.

Impacts NYREV will /may have to Con Edison

NYSREV will significantly boost Con Edison objectives in working towards ensuring best services to their customers. The intention of the project is to utilize the available opportunities in order to build strong, reliable, safer, and cleaner grid. The redesigning of the grid under NY REV plans will carry benefits to consumers and utilities in various aspect which includes: Increased customers participation and engagement in their own energy consumption, better grid resilience through carefully-managed integration of distribution energy resources, potential elimination of power shortages as a result of better power storage (backup power), control of energy utilization through smart home systems, and better billing management. NYREV intends to bring transformation to the utility industry through approach of Distribution System Platform (DSP) model.

Sample Management Book Review on Charlie Croker Behavior and Its Relations with Organizational Behavior history essay help


Review on Charlie Croker Behavior and Its Relations with Organizational Behavior

Tom Wolfe’s “A Man in Full” is a popular read. The beautiful plot is set in the city of Atlanta. Charlie Croker a mythic hero is a developer, businessman, booster and a leader. Based on the changes that prevail in the legend city, the character looks for ways to stay afloat, amid the heated politics of the black elites at the time and racialism. This paper seeks to review his behaviors as a leader of the fictional community, as guided by Robbins and Judge “Essentials of Organizational Behavior”.

1.  Connections between OB (Organizational behavior) and the Character’s Depiction

Charlie Croker is accepted by both divides of Atlanta’s politics, to lead the city. Being a previous tech football star and a renowned entrepreneur makes him the best candidate for this position. Everyone is looking up to the business mogul to see how he will steer their city (Wolfe 33). Here, his character as a leader relates with organizational behavior. As a leader, he needs to make the right decisions for the good of the entire city rather than of his own (Robin and Judge 75).

As a top class businessman with an enormous empire, it is expected that he will take the city to a greater level. Looking at the history of the city, it does not have a harbor, expansive agriculture land, mineral deposits and other beneficial resources. On the contrary, the city relies on its potential for development. There could not be a better candidate than Croker, who have developed a huge empire notwithstanding the economic limitations in the city (Wolfe 39).

The main character is also depicted as an enterprising person. He goes for what pleases his heart. He has an intense urge to invest in the ancient Goergia and he does not mind the risks (Wolfe, 40).  This might be an essentiality of organizational behavior especially if the habit is not self-centered (Robin and Judge 91). Achievers are important in the management of organization or a community, as in the case of Atlanta.

Charlie Croker has a high drive for investing. But, he ignores the factor of location, which is critical in real estate. Although this attitude makes him to remain in business, it is short lived. The character is also said to rely on house booms (Wolfe 75).  Based on this observation he is depicted as a risk taker. Healthy risk taking is important when a leader is making decisions for the whole community (Robin and Judge 257).

Croker’s top regard for masculinity and his standard definition of how a man should behave, does not make him an effective leader. He loves to be respected and ‘feared’ and his encounter with the woman outside a theater, who challenged his manliness, is a clear indication, of his irritability (Wolfe 433). Patience and tolerance are integral for leaders and people working in an organization. These are properties which, the character lacks (Robin and Judge 245).

2. Effective or Ineffective Outcomes of the Characters Attitudes and Behavior

Charlie Croker is an ambitious man and the results are evident. The man owns a multinational corporation, a luxurious mansion, not to mention the expansive 29000 –acre ranch, with crops, farmhouse and livestock. Charlie also travels in corporate jets. Even with all this, he has a sexual life, with his attractive woman who is half his age. To fund his expenditures and his investments, he meets himself in debts. He borrows billions of dollars from Plannersbanc, where Raymond Peepgas is a loan officer. This depicts a businessperson who lacks planning. He fails to manage his excesses and in turn gets into heavy debts (Wolfe 73-78).

Croker carried his masculinity everywhere. It is amazing that the locals, considered him as leader. The first time, Peepgas meets him, he sees him as brute and although he is later impressed, Charlie does not like him (Wolfe 35). This manliness that he carries and his high decisiveness are the ingredients of his business success. However, Croker is not a financial genius or intellectual. While he carries himself as an important person than the others in the society, others including his first wife Martha do not shy away from acknowledging his manliness (Wolfe 440). However, the same masculinity makes him to be in heavy debts and socially, he does not give room to other people’s opinions, a behavior that kills teamwork. (Judge and Robin 127).

In some sense, Charlie is depicted as chauvinistic. At one point, he is asked by a woman about how he developed his interest in art. Instead of answering, he presumes that the woman was demeaning his manliness (Wolfe 433). Richman thinks that Charlie’s notion of being a man is tradition. He leads the community with the same mentality to the detriment of the women of the time (Wolfe 523). This kind of mentality is not good for sound leadership, since for an organization or a community to achieve success, everybody must be incorporated (Judge and Robin 263).

Charlie after plunging into debts, he has to support ideologies that are against his personal values. He is forced to either support a Tech football star, who was accused of date rape, to please the politicians or be on the side of the father of the victim or lose everything (Wolfe 721). If he choose the former option, he would have displayed his lack of the ability of harmonizing politics and the interests of the people are addressed (Robin and Judge 289).

3.  Significant Changes in the Character over Time

Over time, Charlie’s attitude and behavior change. Conrad, who has a different way of portraying manliness, drives the changes. He subscribes to stoic principles, which stretches on following good virtues. At the end of the novel, Charlie is the shadow of his earlier self. He walks on clutches and fears that he might be a beggar. Conrad encourages him to hold on. He tells him to stop worrying about things, which he cannot change (Wolfe 685). Croker realizes that all along he has been depending on his money rather than on his might (Wolfe 687). This realization made him to look at a life at another angle and it strengthened him to carry on during his sunset years.

Charlie’s behavior takes a 360-degree turn. He now preaches the stoic principles, which previously he viewed as weakness. He affirms that a man is not remembered because of his wealth. He feels at peace after he decided to support the truth and justice. He did not care anymore about the foul play of the local politicians. He abhors the stoicism wisdom that includes self-control, justice, moral fortitude, courage, responsibility, decisiveness, self-respect and compassion, which are integral personal values for organizational behavior. He feels gratified with his change of attitude (Wolfe 721-723).

From the obnoxious, chauvinistic and ambitious man who leveraged on his financial and athletic prowess, Charlie Croker turns to a man of virtue. He is admired not because of his earlier manliness but for his regard for humankind. He is more responsible, self-disciplined and a fighter for justice. These changes helped Charlie a great deal, as a person and a leader (Wolfe 727). The man portrayed at the beginning of the novel and the one at its end, are very different.

4.   Advice that can improve this Character’s Effectiveness

At the beginning of the novel, Charlie is depicted as someone who is ambitious, a worshipper of material wealth and an athletic hero. Besides, his sexual prowess is also portrayed, where he divorces his aging wife Martha to pick Serena, a young woman. The peak of his failures is his debts. He borrowed much than his estate would produce. His loans at Plannersbanc are a clear indication of someone in a financial crisis. If he could keep down his spending, which was a show of his manliness; maybe he could have fewer debts. Croker allowed his pride to take over him (Wolfe 99-133).

Charlie Croker also took unhealthy risks. This too contributed to his misfortunes. He expanded his Concourse beyond his financial limits. Besides, it was built at a time when there was a house boom. This was temporary and when it elapsed; his estate was exposed to financial struggles. If he could have considered the location among other crucial factors of real estate developments, he could have prevented the problems that followed (Wolfe 77).

Charlie Croker failed to separate pride from his business empire. He was more concerned with his manliness rather than on the sustenance of his business. A man of his status could have accumulated more wealth, if he made the right decisions. Self-control and good money spending skills are important in any business. Use of corporate jets and overspending on his sexual escapades created more discrepancies in his finances (Wolfe 35).

All the same, although he changes his attitude towards life much later, it was for the best. He portrays great virtues when he does not support the case of Fareek (Wolfe 723).  He even gives up his wealth and become the crusader of stoicism principles.

Works Cited

Robin, Stephen P. and Judge, Timothy A. “Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 13ed.” 31 Dec. 2014. Web. 16 Oct. 2015 <>

Wolfe, Tom. “A Man in Full.” New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1998.

Sociology Essay Paper on My Book Report Blog essay help cheap: essay help cheap


My Book Report Blog

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Exploring Law and Culture

The relationship between culture and law is so close that understanding one makes it easier to practice the other. Some cultural practices have been entwined in the laws that individuals practice. For instance, naming individuals is one of the commonest cultural practices globally. Without a name, an individual essentially lacks self-identity. It also amounts to disobedience of the law despite it being a fundamental cultural practice. In some traditions, the names are inherent to signify their social background and cultural and self-identity. Therefore, naming becomes a cultural practice that also finds it s roots within the confines of the law. In addition, a person’s race or ethnic background, which is mostly cultural, can determine the laws of the land. This is witnessed in cases of racial discrimination where targeted laws are constituted to either alleviate the situation or sometimes worsen it as seen in cases of segregation laws.

The Immigration Law

In the case where children are American citizens by birth and their parents are immigrants, the parents should be granted visas since they are parents to American citizens. If the parents are denied visas, the children have an obligation to support their relatives, who in this case are their parents, to become permanent citizens through a petition. However, such measures can only be taken after they are outside the US since they are already illegal immigrants. There is also the diversity visa program where approved immigrants are from other countries and have sent a maximum of 50,000 immigrants within five years to the United States. If the child falls within these criteria and require parental support and care, he/she is at liberty to leave with the parent.

Health Care Essay Paper on Models and Theories Assignment compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help


Models and Theories Assignment

At Smith Corporation, the most applicable theory is the socio cognitive theory (SCT). SCT emphasizes learning as an on-going development, which can occur in any social context.  This theory guides an employee on the work policy and ethics (Boston University, Para 2). The theory emphasizes the approaches one acquires and manages personal behavior. This additionally influences the public environment where the demeanor is acquired and exercised. This theory is important as it values, previous experiences of an individual, which dictates the present behavior and future output of an employee. Past experiences in the medical field dictates the outcome of the interview and the position of an employee at Smith Corporation. I perceive this is as a result of past incidences of a person dictates the expectations and expectancies of a person. These past experiences delineate personal behavior in a work surrounding. They besides defines why employees comport in peculiar manner. This theory is thus unparalleled and most effectively explains the corporation. It considers demeanor control instead of initiating deportment. Demeanor preservation is one of the principles of public health.

As a social institution, Smith Corporation offers external and internal community corroboration, which is the central dimension of the theory. Employees are able to socialize within and with employees from other institutions, through observational learning. This assists in offering a platform for sharing skills and experiences. Workers are able to thus improve their lives as well as become more relevant in the society. As a dynamic institution, Smith Corporation offers the best environment for learning. This is through reciprocal determinism construct, which is also a pillar in SCT. This is one of the personal goals of every worker to ameliorate their expertise and rise in their careers. Workers can control their behaviors and achieve in self-efficacy.

Works Cited

Boston University, School of Public Health. The Social Cognitive Theory. Behavioral Change Models. 2015.

Sample Essay on Cyber-security Vulnerability buy argumentative essay help


Cyber-security Vulnerability


Vulnerability in cyber-security incorporates weaknesses experienced in automated systems, internet controls, and other computer network systems. Several forms of vulnerability exist in the management of information systems, but the most essential form is the buffer overflows, which result from unchecked input of data. This study will cover the buffer overflows, and how to eradicate the buffer overflow attacks in organizations. Most buffer overflows in organizations result from unchecked input during interconnectivity. Attackers are capable of exploiting buffers because most web applications lack resistance against threats. This allows attackers to overwrite the return addresses, thereby gaining access to confidential information, which they can utilize for malicious gains. It is recommendable for organizations to devise ways of detecting buffer overflows before they make use of their new software. In addition, scanning all the web sites can assist in eradicating buffer overflow flaws.

Cyber-security Vulnerability


The Internet use has continued to grow exponentially due increased benefits to individuals, corporate groups, and governments. However, interconnectivity in computer systems has opened some leakages to unintended activities, leading to vulnerability. Vulnerability involves development of a weakness, which enhances a susceptibility of a risk in computer systems. The debate of what could be the most common form of cyber-security vulnerability has never been exhausted, as security experts, businesses, and governments hold different views concerning the threats. According to Parsons and Oja (2013), buffer overflows appear to be the most common forms of vulnerability, which can be activated by input, designed explicitly to carry out malicious code. This study will focus on buffer overflows as a form of vulnerability, the risks associated with this form of vulnerability in organizations, and recommendations to mitigate the vulnerability.

Buffer Overflows as a Form of Vulnerability

Vulnerabilities are weaknesses that occur in the IT infrastructure, and they usually happen on a specific server or in an entire network (Gibson, 2011).Several cyber-security vulnerabilities exist, but historically, buffer overflows are perceived as the most common form of vulnerability, which result from unchecked user input. Buffer overflows are the most common type of vulnerability that occurs when an application place more data in a barrier than it can hold.

The two commonly known types of buffer overflows are stack-based buffer overflows and heap-based buffer overflows. Stack-based buffer overflows are very common and occur where a program being exploited utilizes a memory object (or stack) to stock up user input (Gobel & Dewald, 2011). Most modern computer systems utilize a stack to convey arguments to procedures, as well as storing local variables. Stack-based exploitation occurs when an attacker overwrites the return address on a stack frame, and upon the resumption of the function, the attacker will have already specified the return address. A stack has no definite size, but an overflow will occur when the users’ input turn out to be longer than the reserved space within the stack. Overflowing the buffer using executable command is not a guarantee for execution since the attacker has to specify a return address, which is pointed towards the malicious command (Gregory, 2010).

Successful modification of the return address enables the hackers to execute instructions having the same advantages as the invaded program. On the other hand, heap-based attacks allow the flooding in the memory space set aside for a program, where exploitation is carried out by corrupting the data in a manner that enable the application to overwrite interior systems. In this attack, what appears to be adjacent to the target buffer is not the saved return address, but several other blocks of heap memory, disconnected through heap control structure (Stuttard & Pinto, 2011). However, undertaking such attacks do not happen frequently.

Why Buffer Overflows is Most Important

Most software developers understand buffer overflow vulnerability, but various organizations have continued to report attacks on newly developed applications. In 2004, approximately 323 buffer overflow vulnerabilities were reported in the US, which confirmed the most frequent vulnerability against computer systems (Kuperman, et al., 2005). Researchers have not been able to come up with an appropriate solution to eradicate this form of vulnerability.

Buffer overflows are quite popular because they are accomplished tenuously, leading to total compromise of a target. This type of vulnerability affects numerous systems that are commonly utilized in administration. Although buffer overflows are generally hard to exploit, attackers have been successful in recognizing the vulnerability in several technological products and components. The first case of buffer overflows, the Morris worm, occurred in 1988, which attacked the Internet, and since that time, Microsoft has discovered numerous buffer overflow attacks in its Window systems (Parsons & Oja, 2013).

Buffer overflows are a preferred exploit for hackers. This is because most homegrown apps do not have strong resistance to threats. In addition, buffer overflows are commonly connected to C-based languages that do not carry out any kind of arrangement to prevent attacks. C-based languages are imperative computer programming languages that support structured programming to offer low-level access to memory. Copying a string from a single buffer to another could amount to overwriting of memory bordering the new buffer due to excess data. Although C language is perceived to be flexible and authoritative, it poses problems to newly trained programmers.

Impact of the Risks

In most organizations that have encountered buffer overflows, the vulnerability creates a weakness where a program overwrites memory near a buffer, which should not have been adjusted deliberately or unintentionally. Some of the causes of buffer overflows are lack of input filters, use of unsafe library functions, and logical errors that occur during implementation (Shahriar & Zulkernine, 2010). When a buffer overflow takes place in a program, the program often collapses, or loses its stability. Most attackers do not intend to crash the program during the exploitation f the buffer, but their focus is to overwrite essential values in the stack to execute their potentially malevolent unsigned codes.

Buffer overflows are extremely dangerous because they target desktop applications, web applications, and web servers, which are quite popular among organizations. An attacker can choose to exploit a buffer overflow to aim at a web application and generate an arbitrary code thereby taking the control of the machine. Buffer overflows enables the hackers to overwrite data, which control the program implementation path, thus, hijacking the direction of the program to carry out the hackers’ code rather than the process code. Buffer overflows that are spotted in widely used servers may become broadly recognizable, hence, posing a considerable risk to web application users. In case of a buffer overflow attack, programs may crash, or fall into an infinite loop.

Although organizations have enhanced their protective measures, many people still believe that buffer overflows are quite difficult to accomplish. A buffer overflow can also emerge during the reading or writing of operations, thus, resulting to corruption of some values. When overwriting extends to more than one byte within the stack, it can alter the return address. Consequently, the function fails to recover the next instruction following an execution while the modified location fall short of the legitimate address space of the process (Shahriar & Zulkernine, 2010). This type of failure may lead to segmentation fault, as well as program crash.

Recommendations on the Management of the Risk

A greater concern remains as to how organizations respond to vulnerabilities once they are identified. Risk managers should prevent the buffer overflow attacks by detecting and eradicating them from their source codes prior to the utilization of the software. When using fixed-length buffers, risk managers should choose the correct variables during the calculation of size in order to avoid placing more data into a buffer, thus, creating an overflow. They can utilize metamorphism, which is capable of attaining a reasonable level of resistance on protected data. Metamorphism is a technique in cyber security, which allows a virus to change its appearance in order to evade antivirus detection (Graham, Olson & Howard, 2010). In malware, achievement of metamorphism involves the application of obfuscation techniques, based on the basic rationale of disguising the program to produce variants that, however, do not result in behavior changes. As an advantage to achieve efficient anti-malware protection, metamorphism adopts the same obfuscation technique to protect software from alterations (Raghu, 2010). Metamorphism can be utilized to eradicate buffer overflow, as it is capable of limiting the number of instances in case of a specific attack.

Most buffer overflows result from unchecked buffer lengths found in the C-language, hence, utilizing Java or Pascal languages could assist in bound checking. Besides, the risk management teams should endeavor to get updates for the most recent bug reports on their web, as well as their application server products in the internet infrastructure. They should also scan their web sites with scanners that are capable of detecting buffer overflows flaws in the server products and in custom web applications. Manipulation of the buffer before execution can assist in mitigating attempts to exploitation.


Buffer overflows has become the most exploited vulnerability in the recent years, and organizations have failed to establish an effective way to eliminate the weakness. During a buffer overflow attack, sometimes the extra data may hold particular information, which can be exploited by the hackers to access confidential information from the organization’s servers. The impact of buffer overflows is that it allows attackers to overwrite the return address so that it can fit to their unsigned code. Risk managers should endeavor to eradicate buffer overflow attacks through scanning organizations’ web sites to detect the buffers overflow flaws and to eradicate them before allowing the organizations to use their new software. A metamorphism transforms part of software into a unique instance to limit buffer overflow attack.


Gibson, D. (2011). Managing risk in information systems. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Göbel, J. G., & Dewald, A. (2011). Client-Honeypots: Exploring Malicious Websites. München: Oldenbourg Verlog.

Graham, J., Olson, R., &Howard, R. (2010). Cyber security essentials. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Gregory,D. E. (2010). How to become the world’s No. 1 hacker: short & simple. Norcross, Ga: Cyber Crime Media.

Gregory,D. E. (2010). How to become the world’s No. 1 hacker: short & simple. Norcross, Ga: Cyber Crime Media.

Kuperman, B. A., Brodley, C. E., Ozdoganoglu, H., Vijaykumar, T. N., & Jalote, A. (2005). Detection and Prevention of Stack Buffer Overflow Attacks. Communications of the ACM, 48(11), 51-56.

Parsons, J. J., & Oja, D. (2013). New perspectives [on] computer concepts 2013. Boston, MA: Course Technology.

Raghu, S. (2010). Cybersecurity, Cybercrime, and Cyberforensics: applications and Perspectives. Hershey: Idea Group Inc.

Shahriar, H., & Zulkernine, M. (2010). Assessing Test Suites for Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities. International Journal of Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering, 20(1), 73-101. doi:10.1142/S0218194010004621

Stuttard, D. & Pinto, M. (2011). The web application hacker’s handbook: Finding and exploiting security flaws. Indianapolis: Wiley.

Business Studies on Propagating Welfare Exit by Enhancing the Individual and Contextual Factors college application essay help online: college application essay help online


Propagating Welfare Exit by Enhancing the Individual and Contextual Factors


Dependency on welfare programs in the United States is an issue that attracts a lot of concern from different groups of people. Policies come up every now and then to regulate the number of people depending on such programs with the notion of alleviating poverty. However, the number of depended people continues to rise, especially single mothers regardless of the efforts by the government and agencies to cut the expenses. Drug use and alcoholism are some of the risk factors that lead to an increase in demand for welfare assistance. Compulsory drug tests for welfare recipients is one of the policies that have been formed to ensure that the money disbursed in the welfare programs does not end up facilitating illicit behaviors. A more applicable solution to the problem was the formation of the temporary assistance to the needy families (TANF) program with the aim of reducing dependency on public help (Lane, 2006). The program hopes to create an exit program for poor single mothers to enter the job market and reduce their dependency on the welfare assistance.

Many scholars have researched the topic of welfare for quite a while in the light of poverty alleviation and public assistance. One of the most recent papers published on this topic ‘welfare to work transition in the TANF era’ provides an ideal understanding of the situation at hand by analyzing the factors influencing the transition process. The United States battles with the process through which the people depended on welfare programs can create a life of their own and reduce the budgetary issues of funding the welfare programs by the government. Although most of the researches conducted on this topic focus on the evaluation of the welfare policies, this study took a different approach by analyzing the dynamics of welfare-to-work transition. Understanding such dynamics goes a long way in helping the government and the welfare facilitators to understand the issues that need attention in the implementation of the projects (Caputo, 2011). Most of the studies on this topic evaluate the welfare policies by focusing on the times after the 2001 economic shutdown. However, in this study, the author goes back to the 1996 welfare reforms to understand clearly the real issues that influence the transition process from welfare to work.

The author used administrative data from the Mississippi state to provide more literature on the topic of study. Further, the author used various theories in the fields of human capital, labor markets, controls, race, and neighborhood to establish the factors that affect the transition process for people in welfare programs. The impact of time on the transition process was also analyzed to determine the period that people should be allowed to depend entirely on the welfare programs without risking dependency. The author used both independent and depended variables to conduct the research. The dependent variable of the study included binary variables that focused on exists and no exists and nominal variables that focused on the estimation of the competing risks among worker exits, non-worker exits, and no exits (Xuhul, 2011). The independent variables were based on the five key factors that are speculated to have great influence on the transition process from welfare to work. The factors include controls, human capital, labor markets, race, and neighborhood. Each of these factors has a certain impact on the exit process of poor single mothers.

The theoretical framework of this article is based on two theories, including the human capital theory and the neighborhood effect theory. The theories represent the assumptions presented by both neoclassical economic theories and sociologists theories. While the neoclassical economic theories blame individuals for the dependence on the welfare programs, the sociological theories argue that the society is to blame for causing people to depend on the public assistance. The use of both theories in the conceptual framework enables he researcher to focus on both sides of the argument and produce superior results. The findings of the study prove that individual and contextual issues have a substantial effect on the level of transition from welfare to work (Xuhul, 2011). Additionally, the findings of the study did not confirm the hypothesis that time spend in the welfare increases the dependency level.

Personal Approach about the Topic

The research presented in the above-discussed article presents the possible risk factors to welfare to work transition. However, the research does not present the ways through which TANF can enhance these factors to ensure promote the exit program. The purpose of the TANF program is to facilitate the exit process, especially for poor single mothers. Many researches have been done on the implementation of the programs as well as the causal effects, but little, if any is done to determine how TANF and other welfare programs can use these factors to foster the exit programs for welfare depended people. The research conducted about the welfare-to-work transition proves that both individual and contextual issues play a big role in the transition process of welfare depended persons. Therefore, a different approach of the study could analyze how TANF and any other welfare program can improve the individual and contextual issues for the welfare recipients to promote their chances of exiting the program to the job market (Telleen & Sayad, 2012).

Research Questions

How can the TANF program shape the society to prevent further welfare dependencies among single mothers?How can TANF enhance the human capital, labor market, racial discrimination, and neighborhood factors to promote an exit plan for poor single mothers?

Most poor single mothers fail to exit the program because they lack the necessary skills to depend on the job market. Therefore, a research on this topic would seek to answer the ‘how’ question in the process of alleviating poverty through the creation of independence plans for people depended on welfare support.

A research on how the TANF program can enhance transition plan will go a long way in solving many economic issues arising from welfare dependency. Poverty alleviation and public assistance are some of the issues that hinder the development of any nation. Therefore, it is vital for welfare programs such as TANF to focus on measures that can solve the issue of public dependence permanently and promote independent societies. Further, a research in this area will provide guidelines on how the welfare programs can prepare the societies to foster growth among individuals. Sociologist theories argue that societies are responsible for the dependency on welfare programs (Pickering, 2006). Therefore, finding possible solutions to societal development values will enhance the goals of TANF and other welfare programs of propagating an exit plan.

In conclusion, the TANF goal is aligned with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which makes it central point of concern for the American government. A research on how to foster the exit program by enhancing the individual and contextual issues will add to the literature on the poverty and public assistance topic greatly.


Xuhul, Z. (2011). Welfare-to-work transition in the TANF era: evidence from Mississippi. Oktibbeha: Mississippi state university.

Caputo, R. (2011). U.S. social welfare reform policy transitions from 1981 to the present. New York, NY: Springer Science Business Media, LLC.

Lane, M. (2006). Trends in poverty and welfare alleviation issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Pickering, K. (2006). Welfare reform in persistent rural poverty: dreams, disenchantments, and diversity. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Telleen, S. & Sayad, J. (2012). The transition from welfare to work: processes, challenges, and outcomes. New York: Haworth Press.

Sample Coursework Essay Paper on Impacts of easier access to food cheap mba definition essay help


Impacts of easier access to food

How easier access to food impacted economic development of the United States

Increased access to food has not only improved health outcomes in United States, but also has contributed much in economic development. During the period of financial downturn as well as amid threats in establishing business models, easier access to food through grocery store and supermarket industry becomes an influential economic entity, which has created employment opportunities and stimulated growth. This has caused robust findings that document the level and impact of this business, in general as well as new improvements, in particular. Lately, more than three million Americans across the country have been employed in the sales of grocery that has exceeded 600 billion dollars. Easier access to food has ensured dollars spent in food staffs remain within that society, thus preventing leakage in the local financial system (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2009).

How economic expansion was more vibrant in the 19th century

The United States economy changed radically during the 19th century as the nation transformed from rural agriculture to urban industrialization, the top most manufacturing nation worldwide. This was led by immense development of railroads that tied the state together into a single national market. As a result, products could be transported for sale all over the country. Likewise, there were an astounding growth technological improvements and innovations that changed America together with its economy. Some of the inventions like refrigeration formed basis for other new fortunes and industries (Fouquer, 2014).

How increased food availability has encouraged lower pricing of food products and a greater accessibility to nutritional food resources

Increased foodstuff accessibility offers consumers with variety of choices in terms of price, brand, and quality of the food. This leads to a huge price difference for some foodstuffs. Convenience food stores allow customers to select products whose prices are within their capability. Similarly, healthy eating as well as better health outcomes have been as a result of increased availability of food. Better geographic convenience to multiple grocery supplies is related to increased vegetable and fruit consumption, which decreases risk for diet related diseases like obesity (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2009).


Fouquer, R. (2014). Seven centuries of Economic growth and decline. History of economic growth, decline, golden ages, 89(5), 10-30.

U.S. Department of Agriculture (2009). Official USDA Food Plans: Cost of Food at Home at Four Levels. Retrieved from

IT-Web Research Proposal Paper on IT Securities and Vulnerabilities persuasive essay help


IT Securities and Vulnerabilities


Information technology vulnerabilities refer to cyber security risks threatening the security levels maintained to ensure information privacy and confidentiality. Information technology (IT) vulnerabilities include security threats and risks affecting peoples’ and organizations’ data, leading to loss, theft, and damages. IT systems, programs, and applications are diverse in order to offer users with technical and non-technical support. They are however prone to an array of threats and risks affecting security measures implemented to protect data from loss and damages.

The proposal discusses how these vulnerabilities are affecting information technology systems, programs, and applications, leading to socioeconomic, political, and even environmental losses and damages. It focuses on how information technologies are utilized by users for socioeconomic support. Consequently, it emphasizes how innovation and advancing technologies are adversely influencing security measures aimed at mitigating information technology vulnerabilities. Thus, it discusses the various forms of information technology vulnerabilities and the various factors facilitating the vulnerabilities. This enables the provision of various recommendations aimed at mitigating the information technology vulnerabilities.

1.0 Introduction

Information technology is a dominant systems adopted and implemented across global industrial sectors and communities. Technology systems have been advancing as innovators continue facilitating growth and development within the sector across global industries comprising of business ventures, communities, and other sectors to achieve socio-economic augmentation. Technological innovators are influenced by the belief that information technologies facilitate growth and development globally. As a result, they utilize innovated and digitalized programs and systems to ensure the global community utilizes information technology for diverse functions and operations efficiently. Therefore, information technology security can be defined as the use of technological resources like innovated and digitalized systems and programs to perform functions and operations such as storage, communications, networking, convergence, and multimedia processing effectively and efficiently.

Information technology has been utilized to maximize political, social, environmental, and economic gains. Political gains are recorded among groups, organizations, and persons utilizing information technologies to communicate, market, and achieve political mandates aimed at meeting, fulfilling, and managing people’s expectations during their political authority tenure. Politicians utilize information technologies as a platform to affirm their relevance and socially acceptance by community members during election periods.  Diverse environmental gains are attributed to information technologies, for example, agencies allied to environmental conservation and preservation rely on information technology programs to monitor and detect air and noise pollution. Consequently, they determine appropriate measures to be undertaken to stop and prevent future occurrences of these types of pollution. Organizations and households have also installed fire and smoke detection applications. These prevent loss and/or damaging of properties coupled with environmental pollution mainly attributed to smoke. Social gains are retrieved from the increased use of social media networking sites. Social media sites are fast spreading bringing with them huge benefits like easy. The sites include MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram among others. Conversely, companies use these social networking sites to advertise and market their business ventures to friends and family members to enhance profitability rates (Viveca, 2005).

Information technology has led to economic gains. Companies and organizations are conducting online commercial activities that rely on information technologies for recognition and financial gains. Small, medium and large organizations have been developing websites to provide the public community with relevant information regarding the activities, operations, and functions and online transactions if possible. They websites developed should be attractive, user-friendly and secure (for both customer data and online transactions). These determine the customers’ subscription and loyalty. For relevance and competitive advantage, the same companies/organizations utilize information technologies, for example, use of social networking sites like Twitter, Facebook and Whatsapp. Besides, information technology provide advertising platforms that increase sales, clientele base, and sustain a competitive advantage. Thus, information technologies is an integral facilitator of economic growth and expansion (U.S Air Force, 2009).

The importance of information technology cannot be understated. It is an integral part in modern world (business and social spheres). The security of data/information transmitted on information technology innovations is important. The security systems have to keep up with the technological innovations for reliable and secure transactions in the case of business sphere. Information security is one of the vulnerability factors of the various products of information technology. System vulnerability provide avenues for fraudulent transactions and information transfer which will negatively impact the various spheres applying information technology.

Several measures have been stated for improving IT security and reducing vulnerabilities. The most appropriate approach/solution is the integrated approach. Raising awareness on IT security, its impact and importance in modern systems will improve overall IT security environment (Abraham, David & Whitfield, 2013). The awareness will provide information and knowledge to the public in how to identify the vulnerabilities and how to deal with them. The vulnerabilities come in different forms. Occasional public updates will keep the public up-to-date on the IT vulnerabilities and how to deal with them.

2.0 Literature Review

According to Cook, Waugh, Abdipanah, Hashemi, and Abdul, more than 80% of activities facilitated by information technology systems are vulnerable to security threats and risks. The information technology (IT) sector requires high quality effective security measures that address and resolve these vulnerabilities. The measures should aim at enhancing transparency and excellence in deliverance of various services facilitated by information technology. To address these vulnerabilities, the scope should include, but not limited to networks, systems and other infrastructures across existing cyberspace. Cyberspaces are developing information technology services through use of digital networks that are prone to the vulnerabilities and high security risks. Security measures should be formulated and implemented to address and resolve these vulnerabilities for sustenance of national and international security.

Abraham, David, and Whitfield authored a report with regards to information technology vulnerabilities based on a research conducted to prove the dynamism and expansion of these insecurities since 2006 across information technology infrastructures. The authors asserted that IT users have been raising security concerns for fear of socioeconomic attacks by cyber criminals who use IT infrastructures. Malicious IT users are also invading websites, social media platforms, and other digital networks to acquire private and sensitive information for malevolent use. For example, they can acquire an individual’s private financial reports to destroy the person’s credit history and social reputation. During such incidences, it is often challenging to suspect and ascertain that personal and confidential information has been acquired illegally. Exploring information technology infrastructures to identify the various measures applied to enhance the vulnerabilities is therefore a vital procedure as it can identify factors to enhance security measures. The authors therefore asserted that cyber criminals using viruses and malware to phish and attack innocent users often facilitate information technology vulnerabilities (Abraham, David & Whitfield, 2013).

The Security and Privacy Symposium and Workshops (SPSW) define data security as an architecture developed to ensure information technology systems, programs, and applications are protected from cyber criminals/attacks. Digital networks rely on internet connectivity in order to provide information technology products and services to the users. This however facilitates cyber criminals to rely on the internet networks to steal or damage any form of data they can access and acquire. Therefore, the public should be advised to ensure their information technology infrastructures implement unique configurations to provide a layer of protection against cyber criminals (SPSW, 2015). Therefore, IT security can be largely attributed to system advancement and human judgment and awareness.

2.1 IT Security and Human Morals

IT security can be attributed to the vulnerability of human behavior/morals or reactions. Human actions are based on pre-formed opinions or wants that have best been explained by various philosophical theories. These theories include:

2.1.1 Contractualism Theory

This is an ethical theory applied to assert that, moral nature should involve applying values to undertake actions while relying on information technologies. The contractualism theory therefore strives to affirm that, applying morals, ethics, and values within information technology infrastructures can enhance the security provided by the systems and programs and reduce the vulnerabilities. For example, if all human beings acknowledged information technologies should achieve social, economic, and political gains, hackers, phishers, and other cyber criminals would not exist. Consequently, incidences of information technology vulnerabilities such as loss of data through unauthorized access and theft would be prevented.

The contractualism theory therefore asserts that, users of information technology systems and programs should achieve, enhance, and sustain security measures supported by peoples’ sense of responsibility aimed at maximizing the information technology security. Thus, information technology users should respect and uphold national and international measures effectively and efficiently implemented to mitigate the vulnerabilities that are mainly security risks. This process however involves users adopting and embracing virtue of ethics ensuring interactions across information technology systems and programs are supportive, beneficial and safely undertaken (Madeleine & Jonathan, 2012).

2.1.2 Consequentialism Theory

This theory focuses on value of actions and choices undertaken by users relying on information technology systems and programs on day-to-day basis. The consequentialism theory is therefore different and unique from theories discussed above as it does not focus on users’ moral, social, cultural, and ethical values as they utilize information technologies. Instead, it focuses on users’ manners to ensure they identify, understand, and interpret the significant measures formulated and implemented to enhance information technology security and mitigate the vulnerabilities. By applying philosophical approaches enhancing security measures implemented to reduce information technology vulnerabilities, this theory promotes a sense of responsibility among users. Consequently, cyber criminals can acknowledge use of viruses, phishing programs, malware, and hacking activities enhance information technology vulnerabilities. As a result, they can put an end to these activities leading to enhanced information technology security (Madeleine & Jonathan, 2012).

2.1.3 Deontologism Theory

This theory applies universal duty based virtue of ethics to support and encourage information technology users to uphold cultural, social, and moral ethics and values. This guarantees information technology security to be enhanced and the vulnerabilities mitigated. Persons relying on information technology systems and programs on day-to-day basis should therefore uphold freedoms, duties, ad rights aimed at enhancing privacy, social, and security benefits associated with information technology infrastructures. As a result, hackers, phishers, and persons relying on viruses to violate information technology security measures and users privacy rights through illegal accesses should reform and put an end to such unauthorized, unacceptable, and unlawful activities. The theory is therefore a decision making approach encourage use of common sense to maximize information technology security and mitigate the vulnerabilities (Madeleine & Jonathan, 2012).

2.2 Types of Information Technology Vulnerabilities

2.2.1 Poor Configuration Management

Private and professional computers often rely on internet connectivity to meet and fulfill users’ needs mainly allied to research. For example, a user can use private computer to retrieve information from Google in order to gather facts. Conversely, an employee can use organizational computer to access an internet connection in order to undertake the firm’s operations and functions. Connectivity to any internet network ought to uphold configuration management policies. This reduces information technology vulnerabilities such as phishing and hacking.

2.2.2 Spear Phishing and Targeted Attacks

Cyber criminals mainly hackers and phishers target individuals and organizations they believe hold private and confidential information that should not be illegally accessed and used maliciously. For example, they understand some people store their personal financial information in private computers for reference purposes. As a result, they wait until the user connects to the internet without upholding the configuration management policies in order to access such information. They apply malware, malicious codes, and viruses to access the victim’s emails, websites, and other areas where any form of information has been stored. They either steal, copy, damage, or harm the information in order for the victim to suffer socioeconomic loss (Kakareka, 2009).

Cyber criminals have relied on spear phishing that involves application of malicious codes to acquire an individual’s personal financial information. Consequently, they defraud, destroy the victim’s credit history, or harm the persons’ reputation (Khonji, Iraqi & Jones, 2012).

2.2.3 Botnets

Botnets refer to networks existing in computers that have been comprised by cyber criminals. Phishers and hackers therefore rely on botnets to invade information technology infrastructures in order to commit crime and implement their malicious intentions. IT vulnerabilities concerning botnets include financial losses, social damages, and loss of private, confidential, and sensitive data that should not accessed or retrieved without authority (Kakareka, 2009).

2.2.4 Un-patched Client Side Software and Applications

Personal and organizational computers function due to installation of various software applications. These software and applications should always be updated. This is not always the case as IT users can be either ignorant or unaware. Computers running on old software versions are prone to IT vulnerabilities. Cyber criminals attack such computers especially when they are connected to an internet network. For example, individuals and organizations have fallen victims to phishers and hackers accessing, exploiting, harming, damaging, and/or stealing data contained in computers running on old versions of a software application for malicious use (Kakareka, 2009).

2.1.5 Cloud Computing

Cloud computing allows large amounts of data to be stored and shared especially among large organizations. Delegating data protection services therefore shifts the security architecture put in place to ensure information technology vulnerabilities are minimized and prevented. Thus, as the organization shares the large amounts of data across various resources and assets relying on digital networks availability and encryption issues are likely to arise. Consequently, phishers, hackers, and other cyber criminals can apply viruses, malicious codes, and malware to access the organization’s data. This puts the organization in a vulnerable position as the data can be destroyed, damaged, stolen and used maliciously, or simply harmed in order to ensure it cannot be retrieved and used by the firm for any socioeconomic benefits (Kakareka, 2009).

2.3 Factors Facilitating Information Technology Vulnerabilities

Cyber criminals striving to steal, damage, and destroy data stored in personal and organizational computers implement information technology vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities are artificial as malicious persons accessing information technology infrastructures to attack and result to damages or losses implement them. There is however some natural factors facilitating information technology vulnerabilities.  These natural factors include fires and floods leading to massive loss of data. This factor however is less damaging as the data is destroyed or damaged without malicious cyber criminals gaining access or retrieving the information (Kakareka, 2009).

Most organizations move data among employees consistently and often in order to ensure firm goals and objectives are achieved effectively and efficiently. This however facilitates and enhances information technology vulnerabilities as the data is accessed by several people who can expose it to cyber dangers. All the fifteen organizations reviewed confirmed they transfer and exchange different types of data among employees across various departments and levels in order for firm operations and functions to be sustained. This however provides hackers and phishers with an opportunity to gain access to the data especially when the data is stored in a computer or server. When the organization connects to the internet, cyber criminals implement viruses, malware, and malicious codes to gain access, steal, harm, or destroy the data incurring the organization socioeconomic losses (FCC, 2013).

People should understand information technology security measures they can apply on an individual and organizational level. This is because failure to identify these security measures has enhanced information technology vulnerabilities leading to violation of privacy policies and loss of private and confidential data. For examples, individuals often store data comprising their Personally Identifiable Information, credit card and bank account numbers, work and home addresses, emails, taxpayer identification and Social Security numbers in their personal computers. Failure to acknowledge they ought to install firewalls or an antivirus to prevent illegal access and retrieval of the data enhances information technology vulnerabilities. This is because once they connect to the internet cyber criminals can either hack or phish the personal computer and acquire all forms of data stored. Consequently, they can succeed in identity theft in order to incur the victim socioeconomic losses (Murmuria, Medsger & Voas, 2012).

Failure to classify information while storing it in a computer enhancesinformation technology vulnerabilities as it can be accessed and retrieved using malicious codes aiming to acquire a particular set of data illegally. Information technology users should therefore acknowledge that data classification reduces and prevents information technology vulnerabilities. For example, organizations should classify data into various classes such as the Internal Only Classification comprising of employees’ performance evaluations, audit reports, and partnership agreements. This will ensure persons that should not access the Internal Only Classification data are kept off mitigating information technology vulnerabilities. Consequently, cyber criminals cannot access and retrieve the information as it can be easily detected due to implementation of information technology security policies tasked in monitoring the data to mitigate information technology vulnerabilities (FCC, 2013).

The last factor enhancing information technology vulnerabilities is lack of a plan among individuals and organizations on how to deal with data loss. Unexpected loss of data is common especially if a computer is being accessed by more than one person. Thus, personal computers being accessed by other family members and friends can also suffer from unexpected loss of data in equal measure as rates recorded in an organization. The unexpected loss of data can be due to theft and damaging of the information by malicious cyber criminals. A viable plan to deal with such an incidence should therefore be formulated to ensure the time taken to acknowledge and deal with loss of data is minimal to minimize information technology vulnerabilities. The plan is also vital as it can put cyber criminals in a vulnerable position to expose other persons and individuals they have also attacked and stolen data from for malicious use and socioeconomic losses (Atul, Suraj & Surbhi, 2013).

3.0 Background Information

The proposal seeks to analyze the vulnerabilities of the IT systems and the probable course of actions. The vulnerabilities arise from the security risks from the malwares, viruses and other illegitimate means applied by cyber criminals. These vulnerabilities have reduced levels of privacy and confidentiality among information technology users as they have to be cautious to avoid loss and theft of private data such as personal financial information. Thus, information technology vulnerabilities compromise confidentiality, availability, and integrity of ensuring users and data are protected from unauthorized access mainly perpetrated by cyber criminals (Cook, Waugh, Abdipanah, Hashemi & Abdul, 2014).

Sure way of dealing with these vulnerabilities is development of more security systems to complement IT systems. Innovators should ensure the measures evolve as technology changes, advances, and expands in order to support and secure information technology growth and development procedure. This will ensure advanced threats and vulnerabilities especially committed by cyber criminals are reduced and ultimately prevented. Information technology security should therefore be diligent in order to understand and anticipate risks, threats, and vulnerabilities (Kakareka, 2009).

3.1 Aims and Objectives

The proposal reiterates the importance of IT systems in modern life. However, the effectiveness and security of these systems are marred with vulnerabilities that have contributed to loss of data, and financial resources, reputational damages and identity thefts. The key objectives of the proposal include:

Identify the impact and applications of the IT systemsIdentify the lee ways of current IT systemsIdentify the IT security systems and organizationsIdentify the vulnerabilities in IT systemsDetermine factors that contribute to the vulnerabilities and how they contribute

3.2 Research questions

What are the consequences of nil vulnerabilities scenario on the current IT market?What are the bottlenecks in vulnerabilities research considering the development scenario of IT systems security?How can the IT security be improved with respect to the vulnerabilities?What are the different forms of vulnerabilities and their impacts on IT systems?

4.0 Methodology

4.1 Justification for Impact of Vulnerabilities in Information Technology Systems

The proposal aims at discussing information technology security and vulnerabilities. The study will focus on factors promoting information technology security and accentuating information technology vulnerabilities. The goal of the study is to make use of quantitative research methods for determining the role of vulnerabilities in IT security systems. Using quantitative research methods with an exploratory research design is vital as it will assist in conducting a credible data collection process (Creswell, 2009). The logical justifying principle for use of this research technique is the fact that qualitative research method is used with the objective of understanding a particular phenomenon. As a result, it will enable discovery of the innermost meaning of the study concerning information technology security and vulnerabilities (Creswell, 2003). For instance, use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches shall enable identification of opinions, perspectives, and attitudes aiming to resolve the need to raise awareness and enhance information security while mitigating the vulnerabilities.

Walker explains that the choice of a quantitative research strategy is because it provides the researcher with a platform from where he/she can carry statistical inferences to the study. In the same vein, it will also allow the researcher to use numerical representations (the vulnerabilities instances) while explaining a phenomenon based on the available observations (Creswell, 2003). Conversely, qualitative research approach may be used because it provides insights that will later on allow the researcher to generate theoretical frameworks (Walker, 2005). Thus, the main reason for choosing quantitative research strategy is that the study is based on client’s feedback that force the researcher to determine the different variables used in the research (Creswell, 2003; Creswell, 2009). At the same time, the use of quantitative research strategies enables the researcher to make use of the opinions and attitudes of the participants to support the statistical data (Creswell, 2003; Williams, 2007). Creswell further asserts that, a mixed approach can be helpful in a research study in the sense that it enables the researcher to gain an in-depth understanding of the roles of awareness as regards the importance of information technology security in an organization and individual levels (Creswell, 2003).

4.2 A New and Non-Obvious Technique /Solution to Answer the Problem

The current research study is concerned with determining whether raising awareness on the importance of information technology security promotes safe and secure information systems. It is important to note that there are certain practices that organizations can use in attempts to enhance organizational security awareness related to the importance of information technology security against related vulnerabilities. Some of the possible practices include training personnel and employees, determining the roles for security awareness and establishing an organizational culture to promote security awareness throughout the organization. The real data applied in conducting the research therefore includes identifying information technology vulnerabilities in order to acquire data that can be applied to mitigate them and enhance security levels. This data will be collected among people and individuals seeking to enhance information technology security but face diverse information technology vulnerabilities from phishers, hackers, and other diverse cyber criminals.

After collection of data from the sample selected, it would be possible to come up with the best solution to the current problems being experienced because of advancing information technology systems and programs. The sample will provide the representational situation of the IT vulnerabilities, for example, how the general public deals with these IT vulnerabilities. This would be an appropriate approach to the study. The proposed solution is for organizations to carry out security awareness as an on-going program to make sure that, training and knowledge is not just made available as an annual activity but rather applied to maintain a high level of information technology security awareness on a daily basis. Daily briefings from the IT department and regular trainings from the same department will help increase this awareness. The daily briefings will inform the public/employees of any potent vulnerability realized by the IT department and how best to deal with it. The briefings would be appropriate if the employees have undergone an IT security training organized by this department. Moreover, people have become the weakest links in the information technology security chain. This is because even the latest security technologies are failing to guarantee protection against the vulnerabilities and risks (Caldwell, 2013).

Thus, the proposed solution is appropriate because security technologies can protect core systems from technological attacks although they cannot protect organizations against employees and personnel providing information on social media for cyber criminals to access. The security technologies also fail to ensure organizational employees and personnel are not using various information technology networks putting the firm in a vulnerable position the organization is likely to lose data and violate clienteles’ privacy and confidentiality levels.

4.3 Choice of Data for the Study

Datasets with different characteristics are required while undertaking the study and carrying out experimental case studies. The choice of synthetic data sets is based on the observation that it is essential in meeting certain characteristics that are not found in the data from the questionnaires. In this study, the researcher has planned to use synthetic data set because it is generally difficult to get access to real cyber incident data related to information technology security awareness.

Data sets rely on anonymous data to maintain privacy and confidential levels. Using data sets guarantees privacy to companies and persons willing to participate in the study. In addition, the most viable data sets are to be used in the study with the aim of answering the research questions as depicted in the questionnaire below.

4.4 Questionnaire

Below is the questionnaire in html language to come up with an online questionnaire: The HTML version will be also uploaded to Interact2

<!doctype html>



<meta charset=”utf-8″>

<title>Untitled Document</title>

<script src=”SpryAssets/SpryValidationRadio.js” type=”text/javascript”></script>

<link href=”SpryAssets/SpryValidationRadio.css” rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css”>



<h1>Technical threats</h1>

<p>1.Have you been contacted by someone asking for your credential information?</p>

<form name=”form1″ method=”post” action=””>

<span id=”spryradio1″>


<input type=”radio” name=”eng” value=”Yes” id=”eng_0″>




<input type=”radio” name=”eng” value=”No” id=”eng_1″>



<span class=”radioRequiredMsg”>Please make a selection.</span></span>

<p>2.Who can you trust online</p>

<span id=”spryradio2″>


<input type=”radio” name=”trust” value=”colleagues” id=”trust_0″>




<input type=”radio” name=”trust” value=”Boss” id=”trust_1″>




<input type=”radio” name=”trust” value=”none” id=”trust_2″>

None of the above</label>


<span class=”radioRequiredMsg”>Please make a selection.</span></span>

<p>3.Have you ever given out your credential information to someone claiming to work for a legitimate company?</p>

<span id=”spryradio3″>


<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”yes” id=”credential_0″>




<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”no” id=”credential_1″>



<span class=”radioRequiredMsg”>Please make a selection.</span></span>

4.If yes, did you contact anyone?Who?



<p>5.Have you ever been contacted by someone who had your details and asked for your authentication details to fix a problem with your account?</p>

<span id=”spryradio3″>


<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”yes” id=”credential_0″>




<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”no” id=”credential_1″>



<span class=”radioRequiredMsg”>Please make a selection.</span></span>

<p> 6.If yes, did the person put an urgency to the matter?</p>

<span id=”spryradio3″>


<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”yes” id=”credential_0″>




<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”no” id=”credential_1″>



<span class=”radioRequiredMsg”>Please make a selection.</span></span>

<p>7.If the above occurs, who can you call?</p>


<p>8.Have you ever received a coupon offer giving you money on succeful completion


<span id=”spryradio3″>


<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”yes” id=”credential_0″>




<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”no” id=”credential_1″>



<span class=”radioRequiredMsg”>Please make a selection.</span></span>

<p>9.Have you been receiving emails with grammatical errors</p>

<span id=”spryradio3″>


<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”yes” id=”credential_0″>




<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”no” id=”credential_1″>



<span class=”radioRequiredMsg”>Please make a selection.</span></span>


10.Have you ever received emails from some friends’ or a colleagues’ email address requesting you to send them money?</p>

<span id=”spryradio3″>


<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”yes” id=”credential_0″>




<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”no” id=”credential_1″>



<span class=”radioRequiredMsg”>Please make a selection.</span></span>

<h2>User devices</h2>

<p>11.Are you allowed to bring your devices or storage media to work?</p>

<span id=”spryradio3″>


<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”yes” id=”credential_0″>




<input type=”radio” name=”credential” value=”no” id=”credential_1″>



<span class=”radioRequiredMsg”>Please make a selection.</span></span>

<p>12.If yes, what tasks do you do with it/them?</p>

<input type=”radio”>Copying work information<br>

<input type=”radio” >Storing downloaded movies and pictures<br>

<p>13Are your personal devices password protected?</p>

<input type=”radio”>Yes <br>

<input type=”radio”>No<br>

<p>14.Have you ever lost a personal device or storage media?</p>

<input type=”radio”>Yes<br>

<input type=”radio”>No<br>

<p>15.Does the organization give you devices and storage media to use at work?</p>

<input type=”radio”>Yes

<input type=”radio”>No

<h2>Network security</h2>

<p>16.Does your organization have firewall rules?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No</p>

<p> 17.Are there some sites that you cannot access as a result of this?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>18.Are some sites only accessiblee at certain times?</p>


<input type=”radio”>Yes

<input type=”radio”>No


<p>19.Please list some other sites that you wish to be blocked</p>




<p>20.How do you connect to the organization’s network



<input type=”radio”>LAN

<input type=”radio”>WiFi</p>

<p> 21.Are there some authentication to access the Wi-Fi</p>


<input type=”radio”>you have to use a password

<input type=”radio”>It’s open


<p>22.Do you think that your security online is part of your responsibility?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<h2>Software and applications</h2>

<p>23.Are you able to install any software you want in work computers?  </p>


<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No</p>

<p> 24.Do you verify the source of the software that you download?  </p>


<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No</p>

<p> 25.Please state some of the sources of the software that you download</p>




<p>26.Does the organization provide you with some paid software?  </p>


<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No  </p>

<p>27.List some of the software that the organization provides</p>




<p>28.List some of the software that the organization does not provide</p>




<p>29.Do you have a running antivirus in your computer?  </p>


<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No  </p>

<p>30.Is it up to date?  </p>


<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No  </p>

<p>31.How often do you update it  </p>


<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>Monthly

<input type=”radio”>Yearly

<input type=”radio”>Never  </p>

<p>32.Have some of your computers software malfunctioned?  </p>


<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No  </p>

<p>33.Did you report the problem?  </p>


<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No




<p>34.Have you ever experienced computer problems such as freezing after opening an attachment



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>35.Do you have USB antivirus programs in your computer?</p>


<input type=”radio”>Yes

<input type=”radio”>No


<p>36.Does your antivirus program idenntify threats and eliminate them effectively?</p>


<input type=”radio”>Yes

<input type=”radio”>No</p>

<p> 37.Which antivirus program is provided by your organization.</p>





38.Do you frequently forward emails that you have been forwarded by others?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>39.You can download any email attachment sent to you by



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>friendly strangers

<input type=”radio”>boss

<input type=”radio”>colleagues


<p>40.Do you open spam emails?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>41.Do you report when you get spam emails?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<h2>System Access controls</h2>

<p>42.Have you been assigned specific access rights?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No</p>

<p> 43.Are these rights sufficient for you to accomplish your tasks



<input type=”radio”>Yes

<input type=”radio”>No


<p>44.Who can add or remove your access rights?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No one, they are predefined

<input type=”radio”>Any of the IT staff</p>

<p> 45.How are your user accounts of a system created



<input type=”radio”>

The admin

<input type=”radio”>Me

<input type=”radio”>I dont even own an account


<p>46.How are your user account credentials first delivered to you



<input type=”radio”>

Email from admin

<input type=”radio”>Letter from admin

<input type=”radio”>Text message

<input type=”radio”>Telephone call


<h1>Not-technical threats</h1>

<h2>Password policies</h2>

<p>47.Do you have some password policies in your organization?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>48.What complexities must your password have



<input type=”radio”>

Letters and Numbers

<input type=”radio”>Letters, numbers and special characters

<input type=”radio”>Not defined


<p>49.What is the maximum password length allowed in your organization?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>4-8

<input type=”radio”>8-45

<input type=”radio”>Undefined


<p>50.What is the minimum password length allowed by your organization



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>6

<input type=”radio”>4

<input type=”radio”>Undefined


<p>51.What is the maximum password age in your organization?



<input type=”radio”>

Less than 6 months

<input type=”radio”>6-12 months

<input type=”radio”>more than 1 year

<input type=”radio”>Undefined


<p>52.What is the minimum password age?



<input type=”radio”>

1 week

<input type=”radio”>1 month

<input type=”radio”>1 and above year

<input type=”radio”>Undefined</p>

<p> 53.How do you recover your account when you forget your account?



<input type=”radio”>

The admin reminds me



<input type=”radio”>

I have to set another one and give the admin</p>


<input type=”radio”>I use secret questions and am allowed to create another one



<input type=”radio”>

Once it’s forgotten, the account is gone</p>


<p> 54.Do you ever share your password with others?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>




<p>55.Which information is considered critical to an organization



<input type=”radio”>

Transaction information

<input type=”radio”>Usernames and passwords

<input type=”radio”>Both


<p>56.How do you back up?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>External storage media


<p>57.If not online, how do you store the physical media?



<input type=”radio”>

In server rooms

<input type=”radio”>Unspecified


<p>58.Is the information encrypted?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>59.Are the media password protected?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>60.Who can access the backed up information?



<input type=”radio”>

Admin only

<input type=”radio”>Anyone


<p>61.Who can restore the back up?



<input type=”radio”>

Admin only

<input type=”radio”>Anyone


<h2>Physical access controls</h2>

<p>62.Does your organization have CCTV?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No</p>

<p> 63.Are there guards? </p>


<input type=”radio”>Yes

<input type=”radio”>No


<p>64.What clearance level does one need to access restricted areas?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>Specified level</p>

<p> 65.How are the personnel authenticated into restricted areas?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>Signature

<input type=”radio”>Passwords

<input type=”radio”>None



<p>66.Have you discovered any holes into  the system?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No</p>

<p> 67.Have you ever penetrated through the security mechanism?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>68.Have you discovered any glitches in any of your systems?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>69.Were the glitches present when acquiring the system?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<h2>Socal Media</h2>

<p>70.What information is public on your profile



<input type=”radio”>

Name, Tel, Email, Workplace

<input type=”radio”>Only name, others are private


<p>71.Are your friends/followers able to access your private information?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>72.Have you ever shared sensitive information?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>73.Have you ever used a work email for social media?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No


<p>74Have you ever used your personal email for work functions?



<input type=”radio”>


<input type=”radio”>No



<p>&nbsp; </p>

<script type=”text/javascript”>

var spryradio1 = new Spry.Widget.ValidationRadio(“spryradio1”);

var spryradio2 = new Spry.Widget.ValidationRadio(“spryradio2”);

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4.5 Synthetic Data Sets Description

The initial step in creating the required data set is to search for past studies related to information technology security and vulnerabilities. Consequently, the most viable data sets able to answer the research questions listed above will be selected. In conducting this study, the generated datasets were formed based on age, gender, and industrial group.

4.5.1 Age

The age ranges between 30-35 years which ensures the adult population is the only group to be considered. This is because the age group mainly relies on information technologies to achieve socioeconomic growth and development.

4.5.2 Gender

The two genders, male and female, will be used. The gender feature is necessary in order to promote gender equality and minimize sample bias and errors in sampling and data collection.

4.5.3 Industrial Group

There are at least fifteen different organizations such as communication, transportation and manufacturing ideal in studying IT security and vulnerabilities. The businesses are randomly chosen out of the given set fields and the dataset utilized to discuss IT security and vulnerabilities.

4.6 Experimental Plan

The primary goal of the experiment is to provide recommendations concerning the importance of carrying out security awareness. This process should involve on-going information technology systems and program that can make sure training and knowledge acquired can be applied to maintain high levels of information technology security awareness on a daily basis. The synthetic data sets collected will be useful in determining whether the proposed recommendations are appropriate and feasible when employed and integrated in organizations. It will also be used to determine if synthetic datasets predict the same as the real data collected using questionnaires from the fifteen selected companies to be used in the study.

4.7 The significance of the Experiment

The experiment is important because it will enable the research goals and objectives to be fulfilled and realized fully. Consequently, the necessary recommendations discussing factors to enhance technology security while mitigating the vulnerabilities to be provided and explained in-depth (Walker,2005).

5.0 Experimental Result and Analysis

5.1 Task 1: Introduction

Expounding on the research questions, the first one concerns the technical threats to Information Technology (IT) that individuals should be aware of.  These are vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers to get into a system and orchestrate deliberate attacks. These attackers have serious motives and often come packed with several tricks up their sleeves to perpetrate attacks. Employees ought to be enlightened about them and the most likely techniques they might use.

One of the methods used is social engineering. Social engineering involves accessing users’ information by deceiving them to give it to you. In organizations, employees may be tricked into giving very crucial information that may lead to an attack with catastrophic impacts. My questionnaire shall have questions to users on whether such incidences have happened to them whereby someone tried to obtain credential information from them. The questionnaire shall also assess on who they trust online. It will also ask about the steps they can take in the case someone has accessed such credential information. These sort of questions help me discover just how much deceivable employees are and how best to mitigate these attacks.

Phishing is another technical threat whereby attacker poses as a legitimate entity and normally in most cases use emails to request for user usernames and passwords. Once granted this information, the attacker has access to a user’s account and can use it to acquire sensitive information or to perpetrate future attacks. They normally use urgency as a tool to trigger quick and not well thought out decisions by users.  The questionnaire will have questions on whether they have ever been contacted to give out some of their authentication information. It shall also ask on who they might consider contacting incase the information has been stolen. Also, it shall ask if they get emails concerning coupons they can save to get money, whether they get emails with grammatical errors and whether they get requests from friends’ emails to send them money. This information will be used to give tailored recommendations based on the findings.

Another avenue for threats is use of employee devices and removable storage media in their work places. Employee devices such as laptops and storage media such as flash drives may be brought to work by employees and possibly be used to store sensitive information. Some may also carry viruses and introduce them to the previously well-guarded and maintained work computers. Since these devices and media are not subjected to the security controls as organizational devices, they introduce a leak into the organization. They can easily get stolen, misplaced or hacked into and the valuable data be acquired by attackers. This problem will be addressed by looking into whether employees are allowed to bring their own devices, whether they do take office work to their homes and whether they do copy some sensitive information into their own devices or storage media. The findings shall be used to recommend the most viable controls concerning devices and removable storage media.

Another potential area of attack which is the existing security architecture. Is the organization’s intranet protected from the internet, are there existing firewall rules, are some sites blocked, can some sites be accessed only at given times and also which sites the users think should be blocked from access. The questionnaire will also look at the internet usage. There are some sites some employees are not expected to use up a lot of resources visiting. The questionnaire will also assess just who can access the organization internet, are there login procedures and whose responsibility is it to ensure online security.

Software and applications in use by the employees may also be another exploitable area of concern. Trojan horses are malware that masquerade as performing useful tasks but in background perform harmful tasks. Some programs may be used to gather saved passwords, monitor users’ activities, send gathered information to attackers, cause denial of service, cripple other software such as antiviruses and replicate themselves in entire systems. The questionnaire shall ask employees questions about whether they can install any software on the work computers, do they check for the verification of the software, do they check for the source of the software and also if they prefer freeware or paid software. It shall also ask whether they have experienced anomalies in software functionality and whether they reported the problem.

A malware is any malicious software that is created with the intention to cause damage or disruption to a single or multiple systems. They include Trojan horses, viruses and worms. Most of these can be transmitted using attachments, external storage media, downloads or instant messages. Once an employee opens such attachments, storage media or messages, the malware are activated. The questionnaire shall be used to look at the possible exploits that may be used by attackers to transmit these malware. It shall enquire from users whether they might have experienced abnormal computer function after opening attachments or downloads. It will also ask about the state of the antivirus programs installed in the computer and how often they are updated. It will also ask about the sites they download their software and ask on whether they have ever received or forwarded suspicious emails from strangers. The questionnaire will also ask them whether they often open emails that have been sent to spam and whether they report these types of emails. This will enable me to assess the vulnerability of employees to these common avenues used by attackers to spread harmful programs and help to put employees on alert concerning them.

Lastly in technical attacks category are the access controls in the system. Access controls include measures put in place to ensure that only authorized persons have access to some systems (Sampemane, 2014). They generally include authorization and authentication. Authorization involves giving access privileges to users based on their roles and levels. Authentication involves use of login systems to access systems. The questionnaire shall collect data on whether all users have been assigned their respective access rights, whether these rights are sufficient for their roles and who can change these rights. Concerning authentication, it shall inquire the procedure of creation of user accounts, method of delivery of the credentials and who can create or delete user accounts. This information will enable me to give detailed recommendations on these two very critical access controls.

The questionnaire shall be used to also gather information about non-technical threats to information systems. These are threats caused by some weaknesses of the employees of an organization. This will entail information on password policies in use, the implementation of such policies, back up of critical information, physical access rights and the discovered or possible exploits to the controls that are in place. The questionnaire will also ask about the information users have made public on social media such as Facebook and twitter. This will enable the proper assessment of employee weaknesses.

Password policies are the rules in place by an organization to ensure that users adopt strong passwords and maintain their strength (Kent & Souppaya, 2009). The questionnaire will ask whether the password policies are in place and in use. It will be used to look at the character combinations required for any password. It shall also enquire about maximum and minimum password length and minimum and maximum password age. It will also ask about the recovery procedure for forgotten passwords. It will also ask about the sharing of one’s password with others. The collected information will enable a correct assessment of whether the password policies are adequate in minimizing threats and give recommendations to boost the security of the organizations systems.

As concerns back up of critical information, the questionnaire shall look at whether such information is backed up as a contingency measure in case of catastrophes or break downs. It will ask about which information is considered critical to an organization. It shall also look at the back up mechanisms in play, whether it is online back up or in external storage devices. If it is by use of the latter, the questionnaire will enquire on the storage of such media, whether they are encrypted and password protected. It shall also look at the frequency or intervals of the backing up of the information and also inquire about who can access the backed up information and also who is able to restore the backups in the event of a failure. This will be used to gauge the preparedness of the organization for a failure due to attacks or natural disasters. The findings shall also be used to determine whether the backed up information is also secure from attacks too.

Physical access controls are mechanisms used to limit the access to given areas of the organization where sensitive data is stored and also where critical processes are performed (Sampemane, 2014). The questionnaire shall enquire whether there are Closed Circuit Television cameras keeping an eye on the buildings restricted areas. It will also enquire about the presence of guards in restricted areas. It will look at who is allowed in such areas and which clearance level one must have to be granted access. It will also look at the authentication mechanisms of the personnel allowed to access such areas, do they use voice or face scans, biometrics or passwords. These findings will be used to assess whether the restricted areas are properly guarded and whether the persons with access to these areas are verified to be who they are. This will help in drawing recommendations to improve the existing security of these restricted areas.

Over the cause of time, cracks may open up in the security mechanisms that were once effective rendering them ineffective. These may result from laxity of employees mandated with securing the organization or from discovery of some bugs in systems that can evade the guards put in place. Trap doors are secret undocumented entry points to a system used by their developers. Some poor programmers fail to remove these entry points before handing over software to clients. The questionnaire will ask users whether they have discovered some secret access mechanisms or ‘cheat codes’ enabling them access or perform some restricted functions. It will also look at whether the users have been able to penetrate the system’s security mechanisms and if yes, how they did it. Logic bombs are a piece of code that executes when particular conditions are met (Beard, 2011). The questionnaire will also ask them whether they have discovered some glitches or abnormal functionalities that were not there when the systems were delivered and whether they have been reported.

Social engineering mechanisms often involve collection of user information over time to use it to get their trust and thus get them to give them sensitive information such as login credentials or organizational bank accounts information. The payoff from a successful attack is often high and therefore these attackers take time to gather this information. Social media are one of the places where employees might continually give information to the public that can be used by the attackers. The questionnaire will ask on which type of information employees have made public in social media. It will also enquire about how many friends or followers they have and which information these people can access. It shall then ask about which type of information the employees might have shared in the past and they think it’s sensitive. It shall also ask about whether employees have used their work emails in any of these social media or whether they have used their personal emails for work functions. This information will be used to gauge the carelessness of employees in safeguarding their own private information and also whether they have put into risk organization information in their social media. The findings will also help in giving recommendations that will prevent future social engineering or phishing attacks

5.2 Task 3: Results

Results were obtained and the answers were authenticated. Responses with missing parts were not considered. The valid responses were mapped onto a scale of 0 to 100 percent. The final results were obtained at a confidence level of 95%.

1. Have you been contacted by someone asking for your credential information?  Yes70%  No30%  2.Who can you trust online  Colleagues30%  Boss60%  None of the above10  3. Have you ever given out your credential information to someone claiming to work for a legitimate company?  Yes65%  No35%  4. If yes, did you contact anyone? Who? 95% did not contact anyone  5. Have you ever been contacted by someone who had your details and asked for your authentication details to fix a problem with your account?  Yes30%  No70%  6. If yes, did the person put an urgency to the matter?  Yes90%  No10%  7. If the above occurs, who can you call?65% indicated they would call the service provider, 35 % were unsure who to contact, if anyone8. Have you ever received a coupon offer giving you money on successful completion?  Yes75%  No25%  9.Have you been receiving emails with grammatical errors  Yes80%  No20%  10. Have you ever received emails from some friends’ or a colleagues’ email address requesting you to send them money?  Yes80%  No20%  User devices11. Are you allowed to bring your devices or storage media to work?  Yes98%  No2%  12. If yes, what tasks do you do with it/them?Copying work information30%Storing downloaded movies and pictures70%  13Are your personal devices password protected?Yes10%No90%  14. Have you ever lost a personal device or storage media?Yes90%No10%  15. Does the organization give you devices and storage media to use at work?Yes80%No20%  Network security  16. Does your organization have firewall rules? Yes40% No60%  17. If yes, are there some sites that you cannot access as a result of this? Yes80% No20. Are some sites only accessible at certain times?Yes40%No60.Please list some other sites that you wish to be blocked90% of these sites were torrent sites20. How do you connect to the organization’s network?LAN50%Wi-Fi50.Are there some authentication to access the Wi-FiYou have to use a password 60%It’s open40. Do you think that your security online is part of your responsibility? Yes30% No70%Software and applications23. Are you able to install any software you want in work computers? Yes90% No10. Do you verify the source of the software that you download? Yes40% No60.Please state some of the sources of the software that you download70% download from the software websites26. Does the organization provide you with some paid software? Yes80% No20.List some of the software that the organization provides90% of the software were an antivirus and office suite28.List some of the software that the organization does not provide90% of the replies said download managers29.Do you have a running antivirus in your computer? Yes 85% No15. Is it up to date? Yes 30% No70.How often do you update it Weekly30%Monthly50%Yearly10%Never10. Have some of your computers software malfunctioned? Yes80%No20. Did you report the problem? Yes20%No80%Malware34.Have you ever experienced computer problems such as freezing after opening an attachment Yes 20% No80. Do you have USB antivirus programs in your computer?Yes40% No60. Does your antivirus program identify threats and eliminate them effectively?Yes80%No20. Which antivirus program is provided by your organization?80% were Kaspersky38. Do you frequently forward emails that you have been forwarded by others? Yes70% No30.You can download any email attachment sent to you by friends30%friendly strangers10% Boss30% colleagues30. Do you open spam emails? Yes 70% No30. Do you report when you get spam emails? Yes20% No80%System Access controls42. Have you been assigned specific access rights? Yes60% No40. Are these rights sufficient for you to accomplish your tasks?Yes80%No20. Who can add or remove your access rights? Admin80%No one, they are predefined10%  Any of the IT staff10.How are your user accounts of a system created The admin80% Me10% I don’t even own an account10.How are your user account credentials first delivered to you Email from admin70%Letter from admin5% Text message15%  Telephone call10%Not-technical threatsPassword policies47. Do you have some password policies in your organization? Yes 40% No60.What complexities must your password have Letters and Numbers 70% Letters, numbers and special characters20%  Not defined10. What is the maximum password length allowed in your organization? 1-4 5% 4-860% 8-4530% Undefined5.What is the minimum password length allowed by your organization87005% Undefined5. What is the maximum password age in your organization? Less than 6 months60%  6-12 months20% more than 1 year15% Undefined5. What is the minimum password age?below 3 months60%1-12 months25% above 1 year10% Undefined5. How do you recover your account when you forget your account? The admin reminds me10% I have to set another one and give the admin10%I use secret questions and am allowed to create another one80% Once its forgotten, the account is gone0% 54. Do you ever share your password with others? Yes 70%  No30ck ups55.Which information is considered critical to an organization Transaction information 20% Usernames and passwords 20% Both60. How do you back up? Online 20%External storage media80. If not online, how do you store the physical media? In server rooms80% Unspecified20. Is the information encrypted? Yes 30% No70. Are the media password protected? Yes30% No70. Who can access the backed up information? Admin only 60%  Anyone40. Who can restore the back up? Admin only80%  Anyone20%Physical access controls62. Does your organization have CCTV? Yes70% No30. Are there guards?Yes70%No30. What clearance level does one need to access restricted areas? None 25%Specified level75. How are the personnel authenticated into restricted areas? Biometrics30% Signature30% Passwords35% None5%Cracks66. Have you discovered any holes into the system? Yes15% No85. Have you ever penetrated through the security mechanism? Yes15% No85. Have you discovered any glitches in any of your systems? Yes 45% No55. Were the glitches present when acquiring the system? Yes95% No5%Social Media70.What information is public on your profile Name, Tel, Email, Workplace95% Only name, others are private5. Are your friends/followers able to access your private information? Yes95% No5. Have you ever shared sensitive information? Yes60% No40. Have you ever used a work email for social media? Yes40% No60Have you ever used your personal email for work functions? Yes60% No40%

5.3 Analysis of the results

The survey had 150 valid responses. The mean security score was 4 on a scale of 0 to 10. The observed standard deviation from the mean was 3. The confidence level of 95% gave a confidence interval of +/- 4.8. Therefore, the range of security for the true population mean was from 35.2 to 44.8.

Figure 1. The results as presented in a pie chart.

The results clearly show that majority (more than half) of the employees were vulnerable to attacks. This means that calculatedly, only 60 of the 150 respondents were not vulnerable to attacks. Therefore, the remaining 90 employees could be easily tricked into giving passwords, have no active or updated antiviruses in their computers, have shared their private details on social media thus fall prey for social engineering and have so many other vulnerabilities. These results clearly are shocking and paint an ugly picture of employees being mostly reckless and insecure thus jeopardizing the security of an organization and in extension their own security.

Figure 2. The level of awareness of employees towards vulnerabilities

Concerning the level of awareness towards these vulnerabilities, it was observed that 53% of the employees were not aware on some of the active threats they faced daily at the work places. Also, a discouraging 5% of employees were aware of these threats and vulnerabilities but paid a deaf ear and did not take corrective measures. This showed laxity on the side of users in dealing with occurrences of threats and also showed that most organizations do not sensitize their employees on the threats and vulnerabilities.

Under technical threats category, most of the users in general were observed to be easy targets for phishing. In user devices category, it was observed that a large number of the users introduced the organization to external threats by bringing their own devices to work which were unsecured and could also contain malware. Concerning network security, more than half of the responses indicated that their networks were secured, this is primarily because it is mostly the administrators who are concerned with network security therefore reducing the threats that would be brought by employees. Under software and applications, it was noted that employees were introducing the organization to vulnerabilities by downloading software from untrusted sources and having no active or updated antivirus. Under malware, it was also noted that most users were easy prey for spam mails and being used to forward potentially spam mails.

Under non-technical threats category, it was noted that more than half of the users reported good use of password policies by the administrators, backups were done but not secured and there existed proper physical access controls. Most of the users were not aware of holes in their software. In the last category of social media, users terribly failed by giving a little too much information for the public to see and using work email accounts improperly.

5.4 Task 4: Comparison with Previous Studies

After comparing these results with the most updated existing results, they are almost at 100% match. According to Weldon of, a similar study done on 400 companies with 5000 employees revealed the existence of security vulnerabilities introduced by the users (Weldon, 2015) .They reveal the shocking pattern of employees ending up as the weakest links in an organizations endeavors to secure their systems. It however shows that there are improvements as compared to earlier years. It has also shown the continued efforts by organizations to improve the state of their security by bringing in more policies and rules to make it necessary for employees to adopt to the security mechanisms.

This proposal benefits organizations in identifying areas in which users still lag behind or fall short of the expected security standards. It clearly shows the holes that have been left opened by employees hence the organization can devise ways to close them. If left unaddressed, no matter the security measures the organization continues to invest in, they can be belittled by a small mistake arising from ignorance of employees giving way to attackers. The proposal also brings into light some exploitable vulnerabilities on the administrator’s side. From the findings, some administrators were noted to ignore the required security standards when dealing with matters such as the storage of media used for backups, failure to encrypt or use password protection on such media and failing to enforce password policies on users. Vulnerabilities on the administrator side can cause catastrophic impacts to the organization due to the nature of information they have access to and also the access privileges they have. The proposal also shows the organization the areas where it has done a good job in maintaining its security. Finally, it identifies the trends in majority of the user’s behavior as concerns their responsibility in system security and can thus help the organization plan tailored solutions to continually train their users.

6.0 Conclusion

People and organizations utilize information technology infrastructures across the globe for socioeconomic, political, and environmental support and benefits. They should therefore be protected from information technology vulnerabilities in order to ensure users continue to access and receive the supportive benefits they offer. This process should involve various procedures aimed at enhancing security measures. Foremost, the process of addressing and mitigating information technology vulnerabilities ought to involve understanding security risks and threats. These risks and threats like loss, theft, damaging, and harming of data are contained in private and organizational computers. The proposal has depicted the appropriate approach to fight these vulnerabilities. The approach has focused on the human effect in the mitigation of these vulnerabilities. Though these vulnerabilities might result from other factors like system failure, efficiency and down-time situations, human effect has depicted to play a colossal role in vulnerability of IT systems.

The proposal has lined out the common vulnerabilities in the It systems today and how they are mitigated. Major fraction of the population, more than half, are ignorant of these vulnerabilities and are thus prone to cyber-attacks. The credibility (with 95% confidence level) depict the actual situation on the organization systems and why companies experience the frequent data loss or other forms of cyber-attack. The awareness levels differ, as shown in the proposal, though a most enterprises have low awareness levels among the employees. The 53% unaware employees expose the organizations to greater IT security risks and are the weakest links that can be manipulated by criminals. Even a fraction of those aware pay deaf ears to the corrective measures to improve IT security. The study has identified the employees as the weakest link to these IT vulnerabilities comparing with previous studies that have depicted the same results. Future researches should concentrate on the ways of reducing the employees’ vulnerability. Future research plans will identify the best method to reduce these vulnerabilities (mitigated by employees) and the most appropriate method to implement these methods in current organization systems.

Information technology vulnerabilities are therefore serious incidents that can incur national and international industrial sectors socioeconomic losses if they are not addressed and resolved quickly and efficiently.


Abraham, D. S., David, C., & Whitfield, D. (2013). Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyber Attacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy. Cyber Security and International Agreements, Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Number.

Alexander, J., Podgorecki, A., & Shields, R. (n.d). Social engineering. New York: Cengage Learning.

Beard, S. (2011). Logic bomb. London: New York.

Beware of phishing— and vishing. (2006). Nursing Journal, 36(12), 66-71. doi:10.1097/00152193-200612000-00051

Caldwell, T. (2013). Risky Business: Why Security Awareness is Crucial for Employees. Retrieved on 28th Aug from:

Chandramouli, R. (2014). Deployment-Driven Security Configuration for Virtual Networks, 6th International Conference on Networks & Communications (NETCOM 2014). Chennai, India.

Christodorescu, M. (2006). Malware detection. New York: Springer.

Cook, D., Waugh, B., Abdipanah, M., Hashemi, O., & Abdul, R. S. (2014). Twitter Deception and Influence: Issues of Identity, Slacktivism, and Puppetry. Journal of Information Warfare, 13(1), 58 – 71.

Creswell, J. (2009). Research Design: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches (3nd Ed). California, CA: Thousand Oaks. .

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. London, UK: SAGE.

Emmett, R. (2009). Trojan horses. New York: New American Library

Kakareka, A. (2009). Computer and Information Security Handbook. Morgan Kaufmann Publications.

Kent, K., & Souppaya, M. (2009). Guide to enterprise password management (draft). Gaithersburg, MD: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Khonji, M., Iraqi, Y., & Jones, A. (2012). Enhancing Phishing, E-Mail Classifiers: A Lexical URL Analysis Approach. International Journal for Information Security Research, 2(1/2), 236-245.

Sampemane, G. (2014). Internal access controls. Communications of the ACM, 58(1), 62-65. doi:10.1145/2687878

Security and Privacy Symposium and Workshops (SPSW). (2015). IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. European Security and Privacy Symposium Report.

U.S Air Force (USAF). (2009).The Three Tenets of Cyber Security. U.S Air Force Software  Protection Initiative.

Viveca, A. (2005). Information Technology Challenges for Long-term Preservation of Electronic Information. International Journal of Public Information Systems.

Walker, W. (2005). The Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Designs Involving Quantitative Measures. Journal of Research in Nursing, 10(5), 571–582.

Yeh, Q. J., & Chang, A. J. T. (2007). Threats and countermeasures for information system security: A cross-industry study. Information & Management, 44(5), 480-491.

Sample Nursing Term Paper on Philosophy of Nursing ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help


Philosophy of Nursing

Nursing is a practice undertaken by professionals striving to provide specialized expertise based on knowledge and professionalism within the health care sector. The nursing practice therefore relies on unique, skillful, and valuable systems incorporated to assist nurses in delivering high quality services. According to Barbara and Jacob, competent nurses ought to be curios as they undertake their roles with enthusiasm. This ensures they maintain strong professional ethics in order to grow leadership skills applicable in addressing and resolving issues affecting the nursing practice. Observing these requirements guarantees great rewards and high quality patient care. This therefore provides proof that professional development in any ongoing practice ought to involve integration of knowledge with current issues and trends (Barbara & Jacob, 2014).

The Grand Theory comprising diverse models represents complex issues and trends affecting nursing practices on a global platform as it conjectures formal arrangements in health care organizations. The theory therefore comprises of concepts aimed at providing an understanding towards the social world involved in nursing. Based on its broad scope of philosophical, sociological, psychological, economic, political, and religious and components, it addresses principles, guidelines, and disciplines with regards to nursing practices. Thus, it can be applied to explain human behavior as well as the nature of nursing practices based on skills, knowledge, and levels of education attained by nursing practitioners (Sabah, 2005).

Being a Christian nurse involves observing ethics ensuring the practice touches peoples’ lives positively in order to make differences through love, kindness, endurance, and courage among other traits blessing patients across the health care sector. Peoples’ capacity to assist in the nursing practice should also be acknowledged and appreciated as they can resolve issues based on current trends and management styles ensuring the professional levels achieve and maintain human dignity. Current issues and trends affecting the nursing practice include financial, social, cultural, economic, ethical, and legal aspects. They affect persons providing and seeking nursing services at different levels. Nursing students should therefore be provided with skills ensuring they are prepared to deal with issues and trends either challenging or complementing the nursing practice. Consequently, nursing can be shaped into a professional practice within the health care system striving to uplift and improve quality of lives (Barbara & Jacob, 2014).

Christians have a conscience to be responsible as they provide nursing services. This involves upholding the ethical and legal values influencing the nursing practice. It should also incorporate the need to improve the quality of lives on a global platform across the health care sector. As a result, the nursing practice based on the grand theory ought to observe the following aspects. Foremost, nursing should be developed as an exciting practice providing services that should uphold positive a public image. This being the core foundation in nursing aims at ensuring past, present, and future issues and trends influencing nurses are implemented in order to manage the practice positively. In order to achieve this goal however, nurses ought to acquire knowledge on management and leadership skills. This is because all nursing settings require the practitioners to work and function effectively and efficiently through various challenges. For example, budgetary restrictions can hinder some patients to access quality nursing services. Consequently, social, cultural, and religious beliefs can cause conflicts between seekers and providers of the nursing services (Cherry, 2014).


Personal philosophy and plan for ongoing professional development and practice integrating knowledge of current trends and issues is therefore vital. This is because it has enabled nursing practitioners from diverse backgrounds facing similar issues and implementing similar trends with regards to management of nursing to uphold the level of ethics and professionalism the industry requires. For example, as a Christian the nursing practice provides hope, blessings, and love by supplying diverse services aimed at preserving life and improving quality of health among patient. Conversely, other religious groups including Muslims, Hindu, and Buddhists among others also strive to ensure the nursing practice improves quality of life in order to elongate patients’ life spans. Thus, nurses from diverse religious beliefs acquire a universal rights of conscience based on the need to rely on nursing to improve quality of health and lives (Cherry, 2014).

There are however, diverse legal issues that affect nursing practice. For example, some global nations do not regard abortion as either unethical or illegal. Such issues have affected persons willing to venture into nursing on a global platform. This is because they are trained based on different nursing ethics and legal values that do not support or compliment the situation they find in a new setting. As a result, nursing students should be trained to acquire diverse leadership and management skills in order to fit in different settings. Dawn and Susan refer this to career management. Thus, nursing should be managed in order for students and providers transition across various settings, professional levels, managerial time, and opportunities. Ultimately, nursing should be based on health care policies providing current information on how to provide safe and quality services. This guarantees valuable growth and development in the practice tools crucial in sustaining nursing as a profession and practice (Susan & Dawn, 2014).


Barbara, C., & Jacob, S. (2014). Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends and Management. Mosby, Elsevier Inc.

Cherry, B. J. (2014). Nursing Leadership and Management. Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends and Management. St Louis, Elsevier/Mosby.

Sabah, A. A. (2005). Theories and Models of Nursing Practice, College of Nursing, university of Baghdad.

Susan, R. J., & Dawn, V. (2014). The Influence of Contemporary Trends and Issues on Nursing Education.  Retrieved on 20th Oct 2015 from:

Human Resource Management Case Study Essay Sample Paper college admission essay help


Human Resource Management Case Study

Question 1. Yes ABC has a turnover problem. For the past 60 days, six recruits hired ten months ago by the company have resigned from the company.

Question 2. The SRVP, for me, is the problem. As much as those leaving the organization claim it is because of lower pay, managers play a vital role in the development of the employee. There are people working at low wages, but the organization they work for gives the reasons other than money to stay. The SRVP is known to abuse his power; no one can challenge his decision and what he says is final. He is loud, which means he usually screams or shouts at the workers in his department, and has a boisterous attitude. New recruits, especially from college, cannot tolerate this kind of behavior, and the low pay makes them opt to leave the organization.

Question 3. The problem of labor can be addressed by taking the appropriate actions. The first action involves addressing the issues with the SRVP by training him on how to handle and manage the new recruits and all employees as a whole. Secondly, there is a need for the company to revise its compensation plan. I would set the salary to be at the same level with the competitors to prevent the employees from being lured away.

Question 7. The approximate turnover in %

Labor turnover =

Where: number who left ABC in the last 60 day was =6 employees

Average number of the employees =

=47 therefore, the turnover is:

x 100 =12.77%

Sample Religious Studies Essay on Appointment of the Twelve Disciples (Mark 3:14) college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx


Religious Studies-Three Events and Their Teachings

Appointment of the Twelve Disciples (Mark 3:14)

The book of Mark states that Jesus called the people he wanted to walk with and help him spread the gospel of the Lord. He called the people his disciples and the aim was to help him raise future leaders who would continue with the gospel even after he had gone back to heaven. Jesus had prayed to God to give him wisdom to choose the twelve men and therefore they were not called because they were righteous but because God had chosen them for the task

Sermon on the Mountain (Matthew 5-7)

The sermon on the mountain is a remarkable event, which although was neglected in some gospel books, is well illustrated in the book of Matthew. Jesus sat down with his disciples and taught a crowd on the mountain side about the beatitudes and the parables, which were meant to make people have a deeper understanding of the gospel. The teaching covered many areas including fasting, helping the needy, praying, judging other people, false prophets, and the two gates to heaven.

Healing of the Centurion’s Servant (8:5-13)

Jesus had traveled to Capernaum where he met a centurion. The centurion pleaded with Jesus to heal his servant who was paralyzed and was great pain. Being away from home, Jesus had suggested that they go see the servant but the centurion told Jesus that they do not have to go home for the servant to be healed. He believed that just by Jesus saying a word of healing, the servant would be healed.

What role does Jesus play in these events?

Jesus is the son of God sent on earth to save mankind from eternal death. Jesus acts as the link between heaven and earth, and God and man. His teachings are meant to help people repent and turn away from their sinful ways. He preaches about forgiveness and love that whoever turns from his sinful ways and comes to God would have great hope and would experience God’s love.

Identify at least one other main figure in each event and their role.

During the appointment of the twelve disciples, Jesus prayed for God’s guidance. God is a major figure during this event as He directs Jesus on choosing his disciples. Other figure worth mentioning during that event is the chosen disciples who were to be the future leaders and custodians of the gospel. On the second event, sermon on the mountain, the disciples are a major figure as they work with Jesus to ensure people come and settle down to listen to the sermon. They are chosen to assist spread the gospel. The third event, the centurion, is the major figure that approached Jesus. He is given as a good example of a man with faith and what it could achieve for such a person.

What can be said about what it means to be a disciple (follower) in Christianity based on these events?

The events show that to be a disciple, a person must be ready to leave everything behind and follow Jesus, be obedient to the teachings of Jesus Christ, and help in spreading gospel.

What about what it means to be human in general?

Humans are expected to create healthy relationships with both men and God their creator. The teachings and the events show God’s love towards men, and love of a man, such as the centurion to a fellow man, his servant. To be human means caring about other people, and having faith and trust in God.

Sample HR Management Capstone Project Paper on ETISALAT Human Resource Case Study narrative essay help: narrative essay help


ETISALAT Human Resource Case Study

ETISALAT is a leading corporation offering telecommunication services to its customers in Abu Dhabi, and other nations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as well as in some countries in Africa. The company was formed in 1982 by the Emirates Telecommunication Corporation, which had been established earlier in 1976.   Its headquarters are in Abu Dhabi but it provides mobile and internet solutions to clients in the Middle East and Africa, a region with over 2 billion people.  The group serves around 140 million subscribers of their landline and mobile services. The organization provides an array of services including SIM card manufacturing, clearing house bills, payment solutions, technical and managerial training, land and sub marine cable services, data and voice transit, and peering (Kolachi & Akan, 2014).

The company owes its success to its diverse human resource base of around 50000 employees, serving their customers in the 15 countries throughout the globe where ETISALAT offers its services. The company aims to provide uninterrupted services to their customers through their diversified workforce. Etisalat has the best hiring strategy, which takes some weeks in order to get the best. Their human capital has kept them on top of the corporate ladder. They are selected from the best and in a variety of fields related to telecommunications. The company strives to put the right people in the suitable positions to ensure success. The employees are deployed into their various departments including human resource, IT, finance and accounting, customer care and others. The departments work intricately together, making the company one of the most successful mobile, landline, and internet solution company (Etisalat, 2010a).

Human Resource Issues Faced by the Company

Etisalat’s is among the leading employers in the UAE region. It is also known for having one of the most diversified pools of employees. Its staff is drawn from across the globe since the main objective is to attain the best talent in telecommunications industry. However, they emphasize mostly on the UAE nationals. Even with the best strategies of recruiting, training, rewarding and retaining human capital the company faces some human resource challenges (Kolachi & Akan, 2014).

The company faces common problems including retention of the highly competent employees, cost of remuneration, and training. Besides, ETISALAT finds it hard to secure local talents and is forced to recruit more of foreign employees against their policy.  However, the continual development of their existing and new talents is necessary since the telecommunication industry is ever growing (Kolachi & Akan, 2014).

The success of the multinational corporation depends on a number of factors, such as the rewarding program but most importantly, their training and career development. The company chooses the best and makes them competent to carry out their mission of providing mobile, internet, and landline solutions to their wide range of subscribers and clients. The company trains the staff on all features of the business. The employees are trained based on the operations of the organization. For the customer care department and the sales and marketing department, they learn the skills of communication, such as assertiveness, monitoring, and customer care. Other skills provided to the employees in the leadership realm and executives include leadership, management, stress management, team building, and interpersonal skills (Kanz, 2010).

However, their main human resource problem, which they faced in the past, was lack of sound strategies for managing their human resource data. For 15 years, ETISALAT has been using a built in Ingres platform. The earlier framework posed challenges to the human resource staff. With about 50000 employees to manage, training, remuneration, planning, and rewarding proved to be difficult with the old system (Etisalat, 2010b).

There were reports of delayed payments, and lost employees database complaints. The system did not make finding solutions for the problems easier. This led to the dissatisfaction of the staff, which affected their productivity. Hence, some employees who could not stand the problems sought work in other competitor companies. In return, the telecommunication company kept losing some of the most competent employees (Etisalat, 2010b).

Besides disappointing the employees, there was also the problem of redundancy in the department. The Ingres was slow, which made working in the human resource department difficult.  Furthermore, the older system only allowed the human resource department to work on it.  It did not give room for self-service, which could have eased the burden on the human resource department employees.  The system also placed more pressure on the operational budget of the company (Kanz, 2010).

The management of the human capital was not at its worst but it derailed the company, which had already created a niche in the telecommunication industry.  It did not make it easy for the company to compete with other companies providing similar services.  It was also a bad omen for their great choice of employees. As new companies entered the market, the problem became clearer and a solution had to be provided.  It was the only way to gain competitive advantage in the business environment, which had become more competitive (Konlachi & Akan, 2014).


When Etisalat management affirmed that there were problems in the way they managed their human resource, they decided to search for solutions. There were a number of solutions, which were put forward. It was proposed that the Ingres system be improved to handle the needs and the dynamics of the human resource. This was a good solution, since it did not need many funds. Besides, it could only have taken short time. However, improving the old system could not have dealt with its deficiencies, especially when it comes to expansion and integration of other systems (Konlachi & Akan, 2014).

Another proposed solution was to outsource human resource management. However, with the large number of employees, it could have been expensive to outsource. This is because there are monthly charges and entrusting their human resource data to a third party could not have been a good idea.  That is why selecting the Human Resource Management System (HRMS) from Oracle was a perfect solution. It was used to replace the Ingres. Lower administrative overheads, low labor cost, self-service function and local language backing, are some of the capabilities of the new system. Today, Etisalat has the best human resource management systems and strategies in the region, all thanks to the Oracle human resource management system. It has put labor costs to a minimum, made processing of employees information fast, and increased the accessibility of the human resource database to employees and the staff (Konlachi & Akan, 2014).

Personal Recommendations

Etisalat is a great telecommunication organization, which is set to go grow in future. It has already made significant success. By using human resource management system, the company is able to conduct human resource operations including planning, recruiting, training, payroll processing and monitoring among others. However, some improvements in the future could place the leading telecommunication industry in Asia and Africa at a global pedestal (Cacioppe, 2010).  Below are some recommendations:

Big data trend, which is sweeping over the market and for a company as Etisalat.   The big data analytics may ease the process of monitoring the salaries, absenteeism, sale figures, and overall performance (Cacioppe, 2010).Secondly, managing employees from one department can be a challenge. The human resource department can seek assistance from other departments on various aspects of the human capital.Using an integrative approach (Cacioppe, 2010), which involves the employees in the management, could help improve productivity.


Cacioppe, R. (2010). Trends in Human Resource Development and Training. Journal of Human Resources, 28(2) , 55-72.

Etisalat. (2010). Etisalat Academy. Available on:

Etisalat. (2010). Etisalat. Available on:

Kanz, M. (2010). Etisalat. AL Fajer Securities .

Kolachi, N., & Akan, O. (2014). HRD role in organizational development: A case of corporate thinking at Etisalat UAE. Vol. 7(8).  Available on:

Sample Nursing Article Review Paper on Value of Each Type of Study in This Problem my assignment essay help london


Article Analysis

Value of Each Type of Study in This Problem

In the articleElective cesarean delivery: Does it have a negative effect on breastfeeding, Zanardo, et al. (2010) aimed to evaluate breastfeeding rates from delivery to six months after delivery in infants born by cesarean section and infants born vaginally. The researcher used quantitative research method in the study. Quantitative study method was appropriate for the study since it helped the researcher to compare breastfeeding rate between mothers who have delivered through the elective caesarian section, emergency, caesarian section and virginal delivery. The quantitative data collected helps to show that there is low breastfeeding rate in mothers who have given birth through caesarian delivery than those who give birth through virginal deliver. From the statistical and correlation analysis, the researcher was able to conclude that caesarian have a negative impact on breastfeeding rate (Zanardo, et al., 2010).

The article by Wu, Hu, McCoy, and Efird (2014), the researcher used qualitative study method to assess the impact of breastfeeding interventions on primiparous mother’s breastfeeding self-efficacy in China. Qualitative study method was the most appropriate for the study since it helped in the understanding of why there is low breastfeeding rate in among primiparous mothers. It also helped to understand why nursing intervention increased the rate of breastfeeding self-efficacy and breastfeeding duration in the first 8 weeks postpartum (Wu, Hu, McCoy, & Efird, 2014),

Limitations of Each Type of Study in Each of the Types of Studies

In the research to evaluate effects of caesarian on breastfeeding rates, there were various limitations experienced by the researcher. Among the major limitations of the study was meeting ethical requirements. It was difficult to obtain consent from the participant to conduct the study. It was also difficult to maintain the privacy of the participant and confidentiality of the data gathered. Another the major limitation is a large number of research participants, which made it difficult to carry out follow-up interview. The study targeted 2,137 mothers who delivered at the department of pediatrics clinic at University of Pedua School of Medicine. A total of 1567 mothers participated in the study and, therefore, it was difficult collecting the data. There was also a limitation of low response rate. Out of 1567 participants, 597 were excluded from the study. There was also a limitation in the analysis of data due to the large volume of data collected. The quantitative study usually involves a large amount of data hence making analysis difficult ((Zanardo, et al., 2010).

In the study to assess the impact of breastfeeding interventions on mother’s breastfeeding self-efficacy, the researcher also faced various limitations. One of the limitations of the study limited time to collect the data. The data was conducted within three months, and this data was not enough to make a good conclusion. The other limitation was difficulties in meeting the ethical requirements. There were also limitations of limited resources. The study required the researcher to include the new mothers in an intervention program that gave them standardized care after delivery for eight weeks. Setting up the intervention program was costly for the researcher.

How the two Types of Studies Can Fit Together to Address the Problem

Both quantitative and qualitative studies can be used together in both studies to address the problem. The advantage of using mixed research method is to increase the accuracy of the data collected. In the study to evaluate effects of caesarian on breastfeeding rates both qualitative and quantitative study, the method can be used concurrently to increase the effectiveness of the study. The researcher can use qualitative data to formulate the hypothesis and quantitative data to test it. In the other study on how intervention affects the rate of breastfeeding self-efficacy among first time mothers, mixed research method is also applicable. It will help to determine how intervention has increased the rate of breastfeeding and give an explanation of why the rate has increased.


The article by Zanardo, et al. (2010) describe a quantitative study that was conducted evaluate effects of caesarian on breastfeeding rates. The study evaluated breastfeeding rates among mothers who delivered through elective caesarian, emergency caesarian and virginal delivery for 6 months. The study found out that breastfeeding rate was higher in virginal delivery than in caesarian delivery. The study concluded that elective caesarian have a negative effect on breastfeeding rate (Wu, et al., 2014). On the other hand, the article by Wu, Hu, McCoy, and Efird describes a study that was conducted to evaluate the impact of self-efficacy interventions on breastfeeding effects amid primiparous mothers. The study used experiments to collect data. Seventy-four first time mothers were selected to participate in the study. Participants were assigned to an intervention group, and they were evaluated for eight weeks. The result showed that mothers who were involved in the intervention groups increased the breastfeed rate. There the study concluded that intervention had a significant impact in breastfeeding self-efficacy (Zanardo, et al., 2010).


Wu, D. S., Hu, J., McCoy, T. P., & Efird, J. T. (2014). The effects of breastfeeding self‐efficacy intervention on short‐term breastfeeding outcomes among primiparous mothers in Wuhan, China. Journal of advanced nursing, 70(8), 1867-1879.

Zanardo, V., Svegliado, G., Cavallin, F., Giustardi, A., Cosmi, E., Litta, P., & Trevisanuto, D. (2010). Elective cesarean delivery: Does it have a negative effect on breastfeeding?. Birth, 37(4), 275-279.

Sample Management Case Studies Paper on Tiger Surgical Supplies easy essay help: easy essay help


Tiger Surgical Supplies


FranceVietnamMexicoUSAEase of Doing Business Ranking (World Bank)3178397Corruption Perception Index, Score & Rank (Transparency)R- 26, S- 69R- 119, S- 31R- 103, S- 35R- 17, S-74Legal System (CIA Factbook)Civil Law (CL); administrative rather than legislative actsEuropean-style Civil Law System (CLS)CLW with Judicial Review on Legislative Acts (JRLA)State Legal System with JRLAGovernment (CIA Factbook)RepublicCommunist StateFederal RepublicStrong Democratic Follow-upOfficial Languages (CIA Factbook)100% French Spanish (92.7%), Spanish and Indigenous Languages (5.7%)English (79.2%), Spain (12.9%) and others 8.1%Religions (CIA Factbook)Christianity (66%), Muslim (9%), Jewish (7.5), Buddhist (7.5%) Roman Catholic (82.7%), Pentecostal (1.6), Jehovah’s Witness 1.4%  and others 14.5%Protestant (51.3%), Roman Catholic 23.9%, others 25%

2. Was the decision to use a Joint-Venture in Vietnam with a local company justified? Explain why or why not?

The decision regarding the usage of a Joint-Venture in Vietnam with a local company was not justified. This is because the assumptions among other reason arrived when deciding to this move never materialized. The decision relied on the low labor cost and transportation of imports to Southeast Asian countries, good government relations and motivation of Vietnamese workers never materialized.

3. Was hiring Philippe Desmarest to lead the joint venture justified? Explain why or why not?

The hiring of Philippe Desmarest was justified. This is because he was the only person who had shown competence by realizing success in the negotiation he led between these particular authorities for some years. Therefore, he was considered the best candidate who could negotiate with the other Vietnamese.

4. Was Phillipe’s choice to hire Nguyen Tam Chien as the plant manager justified? Explain why or why not?

The choice to hire Nguyen Tam Chien in this particular position was justified. The justification is drawn in the fact that he had the urge as a patriotic citizen to serve his country, and more so he had a quality education that fitted the duties that he was assigned to undertake as the new plant manager.

5. What was the incentive program that was implemented? Explain why it was a good idea or not?

The incentive program that was implemented entailed providing internal promotion for those workers who showed improved productivity, both qualitative and quantitative. In this case, they would now work very hard with the objective of realizing the set goals so as to be promoted. The incentive was not a good idea since all the workers in the organization were Vietnamese who operated under the communist system; discouraging the idea of investing a lot of efforts and resources for individual gain.

6. What would you have done differently if you were in charge of this project from the very beginning? Consider such subjects as organization structure, negotiating, managing, motivating, staffing, mitigating corruption, etc.

If I were the one in charge if this project from the beginning, I would come with motivation factors that would see the employees putting a lot of efforts. In this case, I would come with incentives meant for communal gain, since the workers were from a communist society. On the other hand, I would provide the necessary freedom within the firm, bringing all the employees to participate in the decision-making process, respecting each worker’s view thereby motivating them. Also, I would design a lateral organizational structure to ease communication flow between the employees as the different departments within the organization.

Sample Essay on Individual Reflection Paper Based on a Group Project easy essay help


Individual Reflection Paper Based on a Group Project


Our group is made up of five members with me as the designated team leader. We work through collaboration and teamwork with the complete application of interpersonal skills towards improving and realization of the team’s set objectives, aims, and goals. The group has established a research process to determine the outcomes and strategies created by Whole Foods Market in mentoring its employees for the purposes of achieving career success. The team’s mission entails providing the best professional consulting service that address organizational behavior issues to our client and provide sustainable strategic recommendations. The set goal is to work collectively towards accomplishing our team mission in a timely fashion. The purpose of my paper is to come up with an individual reflective essay based on our group’s project with respect to such elements as the teamwork’s evolution, dynamics, structure and intra-group conflict.

Development of the Group over the Term

I was the group leader, a position that I occupied without any formal or informal electoral process meant for filling the initial vacant post. During the introductory stages of the group, it was required to have a team leader to guide the project. No teamwork can exist without a leader, who is either mutually elected or nominated to assume the leadership role in the partnership and its various structures (Stahl, 2015). It is therefore mandated that before commencing on any activity in the newly formed group, the team members must come together and create an organizational structure with different heads occupying the vacant posts (Novakovic, 2001).

During the filling of the vacant post, I had to emerge and convince myself that I could meet the expectations set for the individual in that position. I did this primarily because none of the group members was willing to assume the leadership roles. Therefore, I had to come in, having in mind that we had a school project to accomplish by the end of the term and at no cost would I give the opportunity for a failing grade

In every group, organizations and multinational entities, the essential of a new leadership has always been felt, since it results in life and ideas that are full of innovation impacting into a great success (Proenca, 2007). As a new leader, who had just emerged and gotten the title and “office”, I confronted a challenge to the new role of driving the whole team alone. Being challenged to show immediate success, it was less the same to the challenges faced by other emerging leaders, both in other school projects and external organizations.

As a new leader, I had an internally overwhelming sense of motivation and pressure to provide immediate success in the newly elevated position. Others who are superior to me, including my course instructor, had an expectation that I was going to lead the group to success, as I had resumed as a leader, with assumptions that I was competent enough. It became challenging for me to undertake all the leadership roles, such as tracing the right paths for the project, with immediate positive results as expected. This is because the success of the group also relied on the willingness of the other members to participate and contribute various ideas such as the best approaches to undertaking when visiting Whole Foods Market. The success of an intra-personal working relationship depends entirely on the willingness of other members of the team to show up and get indulge in the mutually set goals (Schruijer, 2015).

Group Dynamics

Some dynamics occurred between the members and within the group. The experienced dynamics included the forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning stage. During the forming stage, all my fellow peers expressed positivity politeness in during goal setting.  Exploration usually characterizes the stage, viewing on similarities and differences, confusion, lower productivity as well as open communication (KETS DE VRIES, 2007). Some developed anxiety as they had not fully developed comprehension towards the expectation and clear objectives set forth for the group, especially when strategizing on the projects at Whole Foods Market. This dynamism depicted the precise descriptions of the group changes as from the class readings. As we started to integrate together, group members began developing efforts towards realizing who their new colleagues were.

During the storming phase, the members made a step of pushing towards the boundaries that were established during the forming stage. As from the description from the class readings, this is the phase where most of the groups encounter a lot of failures (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2015). At this point, there arise various conflicts with respect to the differing views that are exhibited by each member, believing that his/her ideas in the project are the best (Chevalier, 2007).

During the norming stage, the group started to experience a lot of failures in undertaking some of its set objectives. Usually, it is at this stage where the group members are expected to begin in pursuing those steps towards the actions that are believed to provide the best solutions for their identified weaknesses (Mortensen, n.d.). In the textbook description of group dynamics, at this stage, individuals engaged in an intra-personal working relationship are expected to start appreciating one another’s strengths, as well respecting the group leader.

From all the expectations and description provided by the textbook, the reverse was true within my group members. Despite the fact that the members knew one another better, they failed to show enough socialization with no one seeking the other for help. Among all the five group members, two became worse when they failed to give constructive feedback, even with the limited communications that existed. The two ended up developing a weaker commitment to the group goal, and very few progresses could be traced in the team.

Group Structure

To enhance our goal realization and objectivity, we decided to formulate a lateral kind of organizational structure that could help us. As from the class readings, a lateral organizational layout is one with a grouping of all members of the same task levels, with respect to groups that has the same functionality (Schneider & Pea, 2014). The structure established a hybrid-like mechanism where all the members of the group, despite the status, position and assigned duties, come together and undertake certain roles together.

By embracing the lateral structure, each member of the team had a different role to play. I had my roles as the group leader; others included; assistant group leader, resource management who was also the information seeker, timekeeper, and the group’s secretary. In the process of undertaking the various roles, we came up with a different timeline for the various projects, including Group Charter, Tentative Reference, Company Name and other details, periods for both internal and external analysis. As a result of embracing this particular type of structure, we realized some advantages such as less overhead management, particularly to the school project activities teamwork and eliminated delays. The relation between these recognized benefits was created by the defined network of coordination and duties designed for each member, with the stipulated time frame for each and c

ommunication procedures.

Intergroup Conflict

The conflict experienced in the group was that the expectations set for the team were not followed. We set up early team deadline so that we had a chance to review and make an adjustment before submitting the projects to the professor, and this strategy never materialized. Instead, the group members failed to keep up with the deadline, and most of the time we did not have enough time to review and make changes before submission. Time is one of the most fundamental aspects that have massive impacts on groups’ failure or success. Failure to undertake the various strategies as set within the intra-personal relationship within the stipulated time result into an organization’s failure (Docef, 2007).

There were some cases of absenteeism among the team members, several meetings were unsuccessful, and we never had a meeting where everyone was present. As the team leader, I received some excuses and apologies from the members that they could not make it to the next meeting. Despite the fact that we used to come to an agreement on the most preferred date for the organization to take place, individuals used to come up with personal excuses that hindered them to attend all the planned gathering.

The absence of other members during the meeting meant derailed the overall process of agenda setting and concluding on minutes expected to realize success in the school project. While trying to undertake the work that were agreed upon, those members who were not present during the previous group meeting used to find themselves overwhelmed and lost. Some of them ended up undertaking these actions without self-driven passion for completing them, as the same is realized within another virtual team when it comes to communication. It took a lot of work on myself as the leader to try to keep everyone up to date with information. It’s like I had to repeat myself a lot just to get everyone on the same page, whenever we held another meeting.


Realization of goals within intra-personal groups demands a lot of dedication, discipline and collaboration among the members of the team. As the leader, I encountered some experiences that other leaders of other school projects, as well as conventional projects, go through, and how to enhance my team experience. Indeed, these experiences have played significant roles in shaping me towards becoming better in managing virtual groups in the future. I learned on how to tackle different emerging issues such as absenteeism, anxiety and low motivation among the members, as they are likely to interfere with the realization of the set goals and objectives. For the case of absenteeism, I have learned that the best way forward is to come up with measures such as schedule our meeting when every member will be available. Due to members’ availability, they will all attend the meetings, hence improving the decision-making processes and engagements within the team. When leading the team, I will set a good example for the other group members, in different elements such as time management, collaboration skills and total participation in the school project’s activities.

During the school project, the group experiences various aspects that come along during while engaged in a group activity. We experienced difficulties in time management, resources allocation and staying focused towards objective realization. For the purposes of enhancing my team experience in future, I will come up with measures to counter the difficulties we went through in the school project. For example, I will conduct effective scheduling to accommodate all the group members with respect to availability and time to attend the proposed and set meetings.


Chevalier, P. (2007). Christian Sapin, avec la collab. de Ch.Arnaud et W.Berry, Bourgogne romane. Hortus Artium Medievalium, 13(1), 232-232.

Docef, A. (2007). Collab-Ware: Web 2.0 Collaborative Resources [Best of the Web]. IEEE Signal Process. Mag., 24(5), 149-152.

Group dynamics and team interventions: understanding and improving team performance. (2013). Choice Reviews Online, 50(07), 50-4133-50-4133.

Kets de Vries, M. (2007). Decoding the Team Conundrum. Organizational Dynamics, 36(1), 28-44.

Kinicki, A. & Kreitner, R. (2015). Organizational Behavior. McGraw-Hill Education; 10th edition.

Mortensen, M. Constructing the Team: Inter-Member Compositional Disagreement and its Effects on Team Dynamics and Performance. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Novakovic, A. (2001). Work with dying patients: Team dynamics and team work. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 15(3), 279-294.

Proenca, E. (2007). Team dynamics and team empowerment in health care organizations. Health Care Management Review, 32(4), 370-378.

Schruijer, S. (2015). Narcissistic group dynamics in multiparty systems. Team Performance Management, 21(7/8), 310-319.

Schneider, B., & Pea, R. (2014). Toward collaboration sensing. Intern. J. Comput.-Support. Collab. Learn., 9(4), 371-395.

Stahl, G. (2015). Conceptualizing the inter-subjective group. International Journal Of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 10(3), 209-217.

Swanson, D. (2011). Literature-based Resurrection of Neglected Medical Discoveries. Journal Of Biomedical Discovery And Collaboration, 6, 34-47.

Sample Homeland Security Essay on Texas Homeland Security Strategic Plan essay help app


Texas Homeland Security Strategic Plan

In the article “Governor Abbott releases Texas Homeland Security Strategic Plan 2015-2020” appearing in the writers inform of a joint strategic plan towards securing Texans by the Texas Office of Homeland Security and Texas Homeland Security Council. The strategic plan released by Texas governor Greg Abbott runs between 2015 and 2020 and provides a vision for the state. The plan addresses developing security challenges within the state, with the aim of formulating the best approaches in the prevention, prevention and mitigation of the effects of any potential attacks and disasters. The plan additionally provides a framework for the response and recovery from such eventualities if they occur (, 2015).

Within the plan are guidelines on handling of numerous other issues such as border security, the consequences of criminal organizations as well as terrorist and cyber attack risks. Other issues in focus according to the plan include the threats to critical infrastructure, natural disasters and industrial accidents.  Conclusively, the Texas Office of Homeland Security has the responsibility of coordinating the implementation of the strategic plan (, 2015).

The strategic plan is not only ambitious, but also takes care of some of the most current threats to important sections of the Texans. Thus, by formulating a strategic plan that involves interagency coordination, the plan is more than welcome as it assures Texans of their security, as well as a response plan in case of any disasters. It is important however that the plan takes into consideration other units of law enforcement and disaster response, including these agencies to ensure coordinated responses  to prevent any disaster from happening, during the disaster as well as during the recovery period from the disaster.

References (2015). Governor Abbott releases Texas Homeland Security Strategic Plan 2015-2020. Retrieved from

Nursing Essay Sample Paper on Educational Preparation online essay help: online essay help


Educational Preparation


Many scholars have argued that nursing education and quality care provision should be structured in a better manner to obtain a qualified workforce in relation to the challenges and changes of the modern health care system. According to the AACN fact sheets, the current nursing workforce is followed by research in terms of knowledge and the amount and readiness of the university education, as a way of enhancing the current degree of knowledge in the country (Herbert, Moore, & Rooney. 2011). The differences between associate degree and baccalaureate degree can be noted even from their definitions. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the implications and diverse perspectives applying to the nursing education among college and university education levels.

Associate Degree Nursing:

This can be defined as the nursing education that takes 2 to 3 years to complete. Students need to complete NCLEX RN to be licensed as Registered nurse. The associate degree was started in the late 1957 to deal with the shortage of nurses following the world war by reducing the duration of education to only 2 years and improving nursing education (AACN, 2014). This program was seen to be very successful, as the associate degree graduates pass the NCLEX and always implied the adequate level of clinical nursing competence. Thus, the graduates of the colleges can qualify to work, as nurses in major hospitals due to the level of knowledge.

Baccalaureate Degree Nursing:

It defines an education level, which entails the concepts of nursing, which is offered by any acceptable tertiary school. It also lasts for 4 to 5 years involving the 2 years of general education and 3 years of core nursing units which offers the nurses with experience and ability to undertake professional roles and further graduate studies.

The graduates of BSN are qualified to become RN and can take the NCLEX.  Baccalaureate was initiated in 1946 when the U.S congress passed the GI bill of rights. This sought to bring up veterans to obtain vocational training and college education. This program leads to the increased enrolment of the nurses in the military as they benefited from taking up the nursing education degree. It also helped in the creation of entry nursing concepts.

Competencies of the ADN:

It takes two to three years of nursing knowledge, which exposes the candidates to improved nursing knowledge, will minimal research. This has influenced the current health care systems due to the dynamic approach of health care. Nurses are provided with the knowledge to promote holistic patient care and their involvement assists in creating new standards of the health care system (Herbert et al., 2011). Nurses would not be able to accomplish their tasks well compared to other medical practitioners. Recent surveys and research have indicated that most hospitals expecting to gain quality care are reducing the recruitment of ADN nurses. However, the ADN are commonly known for providing bedside care at reduced costs.

Competencies of the Baccalaureate Degree Nursing:

A Baccalaureate Degree Nurse has adequate exposure to a longer period of education with wider knowledge of the nursing curriculum. BSN involves advanced nursing courses including leadership, nurse management, administration, and extensive patient care among others. BSN nurse can work well as administrative nurses as well as offering bedside nursing services. They also possess skills to present themselves more professionally as other health care team such as doctors (Herbert et al., 2011). At times, they can act as the advocates for their patients in the different levels. Moreover, they are trained to conduct in-depth research on the improvement of health care. The BSN graduates also able to offer more unique skills to their nursing work as they provide safe patient care. The nurses usually obtain recognition among other health care experts. Since, it offers an experience and additional skills on education on nursing obtained during the BSN education.

Patient Care Situation:

An example of patient care situation is the palliative care. Patients are not able to relay their requirements, to withdraw and deny themselves. An ADN nurse would progress to record patient refusal of drugs without better assessment or an understanding of the problem. Since, they are trained to offer medication, feed the patients and check their vital signs (Grand Canyon University College of Nursing Philosophy, 2015). The palliative care relates to educational background and the strictness of the various clinical perspectives without clear preparation for graduate programs. This limits their knowledge and requirements towards the patients only.


In such situation, a nurse will understand the spiritual importance in a terminally ill patient and thus, emphasize on the involvement of their families and implication of the spiritual issues. A BSN nurse will talk and listen to the nurses slowly. This will assist in improving the relationship and trust between the patients, family, and caregivers.Finally, the report by “The Nation’s Magnet Hospitals” indicated that nursing excellence and improved patient outcomes would require for nurses and nurse managers to have completed a baccalaureate or graduate degree in nursing.


AACN. (2014). The impact of education on Nursing Practice. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. P. 6. Retrieved from

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)(2014): Fact sheet: creating a more highly qualified  nursing workforce as a resource. Retrieved from

Grand Canyon University College of Nursing Philosophy.(3/22/2015). Retrieved from NRS430V.v10R.GrandCanyonUniversityCollegeofNursingPhilosophy Student 3-24-14.docx.

Herbert.K, Moore. H, & Rooney. J, (2011): The ochsner journal. Retrieved from

Sample Leadership Studies Essays on How should Jake manage the board write my essay help


How should Jake manage the board?

A company’s board of directors is responsible for financial, legal, insurance cover, creation of rules and regulations within the company. They set policies and regulations, while the management of the company enforces them. Everyone starting from the company’s board chair to the customer is charged with the responsibility of protecting and careful handling of data and improving the security of the company. Jake should manage the board by making explanations to the board about these prerequisites.

Fraudsters are becoming sophisticated each new day thus making it difficult to track (Rollins 27). Jake should elucidate this situation to the company board and make a calling of a unified voice that brings together all stakeholders, corporate communications, executive management, operations and technology in the in setting strategies to mitigate future hacking. Jake should also bring to the attention of the board that no company that uses the internet for anything can guarantee its customers 100% data safety. Further, the company board should take the hacking seriously as a global threat, and collectively find and implement a remedy.

Jake should further bring to the attention of the board members that crisis planning and management should be a continuous process that should involve the reflection and discussion of all potential risks facing SimplePay Company, lessons learnt from the hacking and putting right strategies to mitigate the problem.

Should Jake resign? If not, what should he do?

Based on the fact that hacking was propagated by external fraudsters and that no company across the globe can guarantee its customers 100% safety of data, Jake should not resign. As CEO, he took the appropriate steps of quickly informing the stakeholders about the security breach. Jake should instead carry out a reflection and discuss the situation with the SimplePay Company’s board on how to strategize by improving technology to mitigate future hacking. At personal level, Jake should exhibit operational leadership in navigating out of this scenario.

Operational leadership

Operational leaders ensure that things get done in an effective and efficient manner within the company. These leaders create systems to transform needs into solutions.

Fraud-management policies

Jake should implement fraud-management policies by putting in place infrastructure and technology needed to address the immediate concern and future mitigation of the problem. Jake should also conduct a complete overhaul in the IT department and find out what works and what does not. He should then steer for changes in the technology used by the company in order to mitigate future hacking. Hackers use sophisticated and modern technology (Rollins 36). Jake should put in place and keep reviewing the company technology to ensure that it is up-to-date.  All IT experts should identify weak links and prescribe the right remedies.

Enhancing communication channels to restore public trust

The CEO is an architect of enhancing communication channels within the company (Maxwell). Jake should monitor the company’s daily operations, supervising the undertakings of each of its operational units, and the discharge of duties of the company’s employees in all areas. He should further create policies, guidelines and instructions to ensure that things happen the right way and at the right time within the company.

Jake should also encourage employees to report any discrepancy. The communication department should be prompt in addressing the customer concerns. This will ensure a smooth running of the company as well as faster recovery of the injured reputation of this the SimplePay Company. For instance, Michelle should help him in engaging with customers and the media.

Creating solutions and mitigating the problem

Jake should be a problem solver by create a permanent solution to ensure the company is always ahead of hacking fraudsters. He should ensure that the company puts in place latest technology and employs competent IT expertise. He should further propose and suggest to the company board additional capacity so as to initiate and create a long lasting solution to the company.

Can forcing a resignation make things worse? Why?

I agree with Cary Horenfeldt, the vice president of MasterCard Processing at MasterCard, Asia Pacific that forcing a resignation will make the situation worse. This is because forcing the CEO, Jake, to resign will give victory to the crime perpetrators by shifting the crime the CEO. Based on the fact that the hacking was done by external fraudsters will mean that forcing the CEO to resign will be a scapegoat to addressing the real problem. The company board needs to understand fully the hacking process and how best to remedy future hacking instead of forcing Jake to resign.

Forcing the CEO to resign will further hurt the injured reputation of SimplePay Company. The CEO and his team handled the situation well by quickly informing all stakeholders and customers about the security breach. They were indeed sincere and acted swiftly as is required of a CEO. This demonstrates his commitment and sincerity towards the company. Forcing resignation will further put SimplePay’s public image in bad shape.

Many companies have reported a decline in sales immediately after forcing a top manager to resign. For instance, Target Company recorded a 3% drop in stock when its CEO Steinhafel was forced to resign (Maxwell).

SimplePay Company should take the incident as an opportunity to re-organize and create a unified approach that brings together corporate communications, executive management, technology and operations in the bid to secure that SimplePay Company’s system is secure against future hacking by fraudsters.

Work Cited

Maxwell, John. “The operation leader often influences success of others”. Houston Business Review. 2004. Web. 01 Nov 2015. <Http://>

Rollins, Steven. Essential Project Investment Governance and Reporting Preventing Project Fraud and Ensuring Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance. Boca Raton: J. Ross, Incorporated, 2014. Print.

Sample Business Studies Dissertation Methodology on Mixed Methods Research for Nursing and the Health Sciences melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help


Research Methodology

1. Research background

The paper aims at researching the academic integrity of business online courses offered in Saudi Arabia. The study on the integrity of online teaching is limited, as most researchers and scholars have not dwelt much on it. The academic integrity of the online courses is very wide and to this effect, this research will focus on the best methodology to apply in the study with regard to the teaching practices. Many higher learning institutions in Saudi Arabia have embraced the concept of online teaching but the outcome of the courses offered through online means may differ from the traditional ones because of the teaching methods (Baghdadi, 2011). The ability of educators to deliver their message to the students effectively influences their academic success (Alshwaier, Youssef & Emam, 2012). There are learning institutions that combine the in-person and online teaching methods but there are also others that use full online teaching where the students do not meet face to face with the teachers. Different students have varying methods of understanding thus it is important for the institutions of higher learning to implement more than one strategy of instruction.

To achieve optimum results in online teaching, the instructors are required to ensure that the students understand the academic integrity of online courses. The teachers must explain to the students the values or principles of online learning. The instructors are also required to ensure that the students understand the need to practice the academic integrity when doing their online examinations and assignments.  Creation of an academic integrity contract between the instructors and the students is an essential way of enhancing integrity in online courses.  However, most of the institutions of higher learning are less concerned with the academic integrity, especially in relation to the methods of teaching adopted. Online courses are very convenient especially for the students who have to attend to other economic activities such as jobs (Sait et al, 2008). The flexibility of the online classes is meant to suit the specific needs of the students and the method of learning is gaining popularity by the days.  Due to the large number of students who depend on the learning method, it is important to assess the performance of the students who take online courses with those taking similar courses in the regular system (McCabe, Trevino & Butterfield, 2002).  There have been cases of cheating and plagiarism among the students who pursue online courses. It is thus impossible to assess the real impact of the teaching methods used due to the cheating. The nature of the teaching methods adopted in online learning is partly to blame for the poor academic integrity in the courses because it is the responsibility of the teachers to sensitize the students on the need to uphold the integrity.

2.      Research questions

The study will be aimed at answering the following questions;

What are the perceptions of the teaching staff and the students on the academic integrity of online courses?What are the factors that shape the perceptions of the students and the teaching staff on academic integrity of online courses?

3.      Paradigm

To carry out the study effectively, it is crucial to consider the paradigm or a guide that helps in decision making. It helps the researcher focus on a more specific area of study thus enhancing accuracy. The study will adopt a post-positivism type of paradigm to investigate the perception of the academic integrity in the business online courses in Saudi Arabia. The research will narrow down to the teaching practices used in the online courses to come up with the best conclusion on how the methods used in teaching may affect the academic integrity of online courses. Post positivism holds that any theories that exist can be revised considering new research findings (Creswell & Plano, 2007). This is the most appropriate paradigm for the study as it will be helpful in establishing new insights on the teaching methods adopted in online learning.

4.      Methodology

Going by the nature of the research problem, the most suitable methodology is the exploratory mixed method research. The online mode of studying does not have many years in practice thus the amount of past research available is inadequate (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004). In fact, the study on the perception of students and the teaching staff on the academic integrity of online courses will be the first one to be done in Saudi Arabia. This makes the exploratory mixed method research methodology the most suitable. Further, the methodology is suitable for collection of data where the variables and instruments are not available in a particular region. The exploratory mixed method research is also important in helping the researchers make explicit philosophical positions (Plano-Clark et al, 2008). Multiple methods of data collection will be used in the study to enhance the accuracy of study results (Creswell & Plano, 2007).  The quantitative research applied in the methodology will aim at assessing the frequency of constructs. To enhance the understanding of these constructs, the research will use qualitative method. The integration of the different forms of data from the qualitative and quantitative research will enhance the strengths of data while minimizing the weaknesses (Jick, 1979).

4.1. Phase One: interviews (qualitative method)

The study will consider a convenience sample of the two study groups, that is, the students and the teaching staff. The number of individuals who will be interviewed from the two groups ranges between eight and ten. This is a convenience sample size that will be helpful in determining the perceptions of the groups on online courses and the factors that shape their perceptions. Using interviews as primary data collection method enables the researchers to explore the perceptions of the interviewees accurately (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009). It is thus an appropriate method of data collection in the study. The study will employ the structured interview used in qualitative research (Hollway & Jefferson, 2000). This entails asking the respondents predetermined questions and the interview does not take long compared to the structured and semi-structured one. The maximum time that the respondents will spend in the interview is twenty minutes, thus making the study less time consuming.

By using the interviews, it will be possible for the interviewees to understand the social phenomenon under investigation in a deeper way as compared to using quantitative methods such as questionnaires (Boeije, 2002). Interviews are especially useful in situations where there is inadequate literature about the study question (Crouch & McKenzie, 2006). The interview questions will be open-ended so as to obtain as much information from the respondents as possible. The open –ended questions allow the respondents to explain their answers further beyond giving a yes or no response (DiCicco‐Bloom & Crabtree, 2006). The method is most suitable for the study because it will allow the researchers to determine the perceptions of the respondents on online learning. The use of close-ended questions would not be appropriate because it does not give the respondents space to express their feelings and it may be difficult for the researcher to determine their perceptions (Kitzinger, 1995). The use of pilot interview will help the researchers to determine if the research questions are easy to understand so as to decide whether to go ahead with the major data collection or change the research questions (Fossey et al, 2002).

4.1.1. Analyzing the data collected from interviews

In order to enhance the understanding of the responses provided by the participants, it is important to carry out a qualitative data analysis. Data cannot be helpful unless it is accurately analyzed. The analysis helps in identifying the similarities and differences in the views of the respondents. The most appropriate method of data analysis in the study will be coding because it is easy to understand. The main elements that are used in data analysis include labeling that helps the researchers distinguish similar views for the rest thus making work easier. Coding also helps in identifying similar concerns raised by the respondents (Weston et al, 2001).

Open coding is the first step in the data analysis and it enhances the accuracy of the data analysis. It enables the researcher to distinguish different concepts within the area of study (Sandelowski, 2000). Data is broken into small concepts under different headings and subheadings to enhance its interpretation (Cassell & Symon, 2004). Axial coding is the next step that involves confirming whether the concepts identified in the open coding are relevant to the area of study (Rabiee, 2004).  The axial coding determines the effects and the contexts of the identified concepts so as to draw accurate conclusions (Basit, 2003). The last phase in the data analysis method involves transferring the final categories of data into data tables as a way of organizing the data results for analysis (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005). Effective data analysis will lead to formulation of the survey questions necessary in the quantitative research.

4.2. Phase two: surveys (quantitative method)

Due to the nature of the study, the methodology used will allow an integration of qualitative methods through interviews and quantitative methods through survey. The research will involve a comprehensive survey of the students and teaching staff from the Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University business college. Most of the online courses are related to business and humanity courses thus the sample will be the most suitable in the study. To narrow down on the sample size and characteristics the study will only be conducted to the students who are enrolled in the 2016 first semester and their teaching staff.  Through the survey, it is possible for the researcher to determine the accuracy of the survey instruments in relation to the sample group (Neuman, 2005). The survey is useful invalidating the research model, a factor that determines the accuracy and reliability of the findings of the study. The survey is also helpful in assessing the perceptions of the respondents in a study (Ott, Longnecker & Ott, 2001). This makes the exploratory mixed method research a suitable methodology in the study because it allows the combination of both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis (Williamson, 2002).

4.2.1.      Analysis of the survey’s data (quantitative method)

Once the survey is complete, the researcher will analyze data using the SPSS so as to find solutions to the research questions. This will be done through factor analysis and correlation. The factor analysis helps the researcher uncover the possible causes of a phenomenon (Andrew & Halcomb, 2009). In this case, it would be helpful in determining the factors that shape the perceptions of the students and the teaching staff on the academic integrity of online courses. The SPSS allows the researcher to carry out a statistical test of data to determine the level of correlation (O’connor, 2000).  The strength of this correlation determines the extent to which the data is statistically significant (Lorenzo-Seva & Ferrando, 2006).

4.2.2. Research findings

To have a comprehensive data analysis it is important to compare both the qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data collected through interviews is different from the quantitative data collected through surveys but the relationship between the two types of data may be helpful in drawing accurate conclusions on the study (Kitahara, Westfall & Mankelwicz, 2011). Qualitative data is presented in non-numerical form and its analysis is also on non-numerical methods such as coding. The data can be useful in identifying the feelings of the respondents towards online learning (Lanier, 2006). The quantitative data in this case will be helpful in answering the first research question on perceptions for the academic staff and students on the business college about the academic integrity on the online study. The quantitative research on the other hand focuses on data that can be enumerated because it uses close-ended questions (Hayton, Allen & Scarpello, 2004). The data collected from this method is likely to be in numerical figures thus easier to analyze using software such as the SPSS. The quantitative data that will be collected in this case will be helpful in answering the second research question on the factors that influence the perceptions for the academic staff and students on the business college about the academic integrity on the online study.

5.      Validity and reliability

A test in research is said to be valid if it is able to measure the required variables effectively.  Validity is specific to a given use and interpretation. The major considerations that researchers apply in determining the validity of a test include the construct, content, consequences and the assessment criterion relationship (Finelli et al, 2005). Validity is affected by various factors such as the response, nature of the groups being interviewed, criterion used and the nature of the evaluations done (Shenton, 2004). Reliability on the other hand refers to the extent to which the test results are consistent.  Although reliability is necessary in determining the extent to which research findings can be generalized, it is not a determinant of the validity of the research (Golafshani, 2003). This implies that it is possible to have an invalid but reliable test. However, it is impossible to have a valid test that is unreliable. Due to the nature of the research questions, the test on validity and reliability of the study must be carried out on both qualitative and quantitative aspects.

5.1. Qualitative validity

The researcher will use the triangulation validity method as it is the most appropriate due to the nature of the study. This will involve using different types of data to test the results and determine the extent of validity. The combination of different sets of data strengthens the extent to which is reliable. The use of triangulation validity has been criticized by some opponents, who argue that it is not possible to reduce the error in test results simply by combining a number of methods or data. Before arriving at the data different methods use varying assumption thus combining the data may yield inaccurate results (Morse, et al, 2008). The proponents of the triangulation validity argue that the method is appropriate as it enhances accuracy of the results by combining the data.  They argue that using a single method or data cannot enable researchers to conclude about a phenomenon accurately. By using multiple methods, it is possible for the researcher to develop a deep understanding of the variables under investigation (Östlund et al, 2008). The validity method will be used to compare the different perceptions of the students and teaching staff on online learning through triangulation of sources. The other method that can be used in triangulation is the analyst triangulation that provides different ways of interpreting data. This can be used in determining the factors that shape the perceptions of the teaching staff and the students on academic integrity of online courses.

5.2.      Qualitative reliability

To enhance the qualitative reliability, the researcher will have to document all the processes and steps in data collection methods. In this case the researcher will document the process of interviewing, the sample size and the sampling techniques used to determine the size and the interview questions. The researcher must exercise credibility, confirmability, dependability, and transferability. These aspects are very important in positivist research and they determine the extent to which the study is trustworthy. Credibility implies that the research measured the intended variables.  Using research methods that are scientifically proven to work is a way of enhancing credibility. In this case, the use of exploratory mixed approach of methodology can be used to indicate credibility of the study. The use of triangulation is also a means of testing the reliability of the study (Thomas, 2006). The other factor that proves that the study is reliable is the extent to which the researcher is able to apply the literature review in the specific field. Transferability is concerned with the generalization of the study results such that the results can be applied in different situations. In the study, the number of students and teaching staff considered will involve only the students enrolled for the studies in a single semester in only one learning institution. This is a small percentage of the students and teaching staff population in Saudi Arabia. However, the extent to which the research carried out will be reliable to be applicable to a wider population will depend on the degree of transferability (Östlund et al, 2008).  .

Dependability implies that should the test be carried out using the same respondents and the same methods of collecting data the results should be consistent. It is important for the researcher to fully document the details of data collection methods so that even the future researchers can relate with the study. Confirmability is the other factor that the researcher must show to indicate the reliability of qualitative research. The instruments used in data collection and analysis must be subjective as opposed to objective. However, this is not possible in some instances because the questions used in the interviews and questionnaires may be objective as they are compiled by human beings. It is important for the researcher to document the steps followed in data collection and analysis as well as the concepts that justify the use of various techniques.

5.3.      Quantitative validity

For quantitative research to be valid, the researcher will be required to apply the concept of internal validity that focuses on the extent to which the study results are free from systematic error. The internal validity obtained through the survey will be determined by the extent to which there exists a relationship between the variables under investigation (Kisamore, Stone & Jawahar, 2007). This implies that in the study, the validity of the survey will be indicated by the relationship between the perceptions of the students and teachings staff and academic integrity of online courses. The extent to which the study results will show a difference between the dependent and the independent variables will determine the validity of the quantitative dat. Although this method is useful in testing the validity of the study results, it is affected by factors such as selection bias, maturation, and change of instruments. These factors may alter the accuracy of the validity leading to erroneous conclusions.

5.4.      Quantitative reliability

To test the reliability of the survey, the researcher will have to use the internal consistency by applying the Cronbach’s alpha. It is used in measuring the extent to which a set of items or groups are closely related. Even if the results a high value for the Cronbach’s alpha, this is not an indication that the results are not dimensional. The technique cannot be used s a statistical tool as it is a coefficient for the reliability or the consistence of the results.

6.      Sampling strategy

There are various methods used in the sampling and they are determined by the research design that is adopted (McCabe & Pavela, 2004). In the study, the most appropriate research methodology is a mixture of the qualitative and the quantitative aspects thus dictating the type of sampling strategy to be used. The sampling strategy involves determining the sample size, nature of the sample, access of the sample to the research and the sampling type.

a). Sample size

Phase one: interviews

The sample size is important in determining the extent to which the research findings can be generalized thus it is a crucial element in sampling strategies. The study aims at carrying out qualitative research using a small sample size of 8-10 respondents, both the students and the teaching staff.  Though the sample size may seem to be small, it is sufficient in academic research according to a research carried out by Bunce & Johnson (2006).

Phase two: surveys

Quantitative research focuses more on a larger sample size than the qualitative research. The survey will be carried out on all the students at Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University second semester and the teaching staff that are working at the same time.

b). Sample

The sample determines the quality of research as it dictates the suitability of the responses in relation to the area of study. To determine the academic integrity in the online courses in Saudi Arabia, it is important for the sample to be individuals within the learning institutions in the country. The sample will include two groups of people, the teaching staff, and the students who are knowledgeable on the online courses. The whole institution cannot be used as a sample thus the study will only include the individuals enrolled to learn in the second semester of 2016 together with the teachers who are scheduled to teach.

c). Access

The researcher will have to obtain a permit to administer the survey and interviews to the respondents by the Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University. To get the permission to interview the students, the researcher will need to contact the dean of student affairs. For the teaching staff, the researcher will be required to obtain a permit from the dean of faculty affairs and employees. Prior to collecting the data, the institution will provide a written permit.

d). Type of sampling

Both the qualitative and quantitative methods of research will use convenient samples. The interview will use a convenience sample of 8-10 respondents. The sample of the survey will also be a convenient one owing to the fact that it will be based on just one university in the country.

7.      Unit of analysis and sampling

Unit of analysis is one of the crucial elements in research that provides the researchers with focus when carrying out their activities. It represents the major entity that the researcher will be analyzing (Thomas, 2006). In the case of academic integrity related to online courses in Saudi Arabia, the unit of analysis is the opinion expressed by the students and the teaching staff. The unit of analysis is determined by the interpretation of the data collected. The perceptions of the students and the teaching staff on the academic integrity of the online courses represent the main subject under investigation. The unit of sampling on the other hand is represented by the nature of the respondents that is, the teaching staff, and the students. The unit of analysis and sampling are important in determining the accuracy of the research findings.

8.      Instrument of data collection

The instruments that will be used in data collection are determined by the methodology that will be adopted. The exploratory mixed method exploratory research will be used in the determining the instruments of data collection. The fact that the method uses a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative research implies the use of data collection instruments suitable for both methods.

Phase one: interviews

Interviewing is a suitable method of collecting qualitative data. The research will use the instrument to obtain data from a minimum of 8 to ten students and teachers from a Saudi Arabian university. The instrument is efficient in data collection in the study as the researcher will be in a position to clarify any unclear responses from the interviewee (Kisamore, Stone & Jawahar, 2007). This would not be possible of the instrument used was questionnaires. The use of interviews in collecting qualitative data is important in enhancing its accuracy due to low probability of bias from the respondents.  The instrument is relatively easy to use and cheap when it comes to data analysis. However, the instrument has various challenges that may reduce the accuracy of the data collected.  The interviewer may influence the reaction of the respondents if they are too objective leading to inaccurate conclusions.

Phase two: surveys

Survey will be used as a data collection instrument for the quantitative research. The persons to be surveyed will include all the teachers and students enrolled in semester 2, 2016 in the college of business in Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University. Surveys are easy to develop and administer and they can be in various forms such as through telephones, online and paper. The mobile and online surveys are very efficient in reducing the cost of research. Through the surveys, the researchers are able to collect a large amount of data thus enhancing the accuracy of the study findings. However, the surveys may temp the respondents to provide answers that are inaccurate as long as they portray the best out of them (McCabe & Pavela, 2004).

9.      Limitations and delimitations of the methodology

It is not possible to collect data that is fully accurate because of the weaknesses of the data collection instruments and the sample size. The users of the research findings will have to consider the limitations and delimitations of the methodology to determine the extent to which they can rely on the findings.

Limitations of the research methodology

The use of mixed research exploratory methodology is important in enhancing the validity and reliability of the data but there are limitations that may lead to questioning of the same. The research will use convenience palming in data collection for both the qualitative and quantitative research. According to Chertok & Gilleland (2013), this method of sampling is inaccurate due to the ease with which the data is accessible. The other limitation relates to the use of secondary data. There are few secondary resources that have literature on the academic integrity of online learning in Saudi Arabia and this affects the reliability of the study findings.  The data collected in the quantitative study may not be adequate to explain the complex phenomenon in the study. The researcher may find it difficult to explain the factors that shape the perceptions of the respondents on online courses. The use of a small sample size in the qualitative research may limit the generalization of the results to wider populations. The data collection in qualitative research may consume more time compared to other instruments of research.


These are the factors that define the boundaries of the research thus limiting the generalization of the study findings.  The delimiting factors can be controlled by the researcher to enhance the quality of research done.  They include the research objectives, theoretical frameworks and research questions. The study is likely to be affected by the fact that it uses only one university. The nature of teaching practices and learning environment differs from one institution to the other. It is therefore inaccurate to use the data collected to other institution since they may have a different situation. Individual perceptions depend on various factors such as their level of satisfaction in the school administration that is very different from the scope of the study (Kisamore, Stone & Jawahar, 2007). The researcher can be able to put the condition under control by using various learning institutions from different locations. The research aims to collect data from the college of business in the university but this is also a delimiting factor. There are other colleges that still use the online learning methods whose contribution to the study might bring new insights. The researcher has the ability to control this by including the students and teachers from other colleges apart from business.

10.  Ethical considerations

The fact that the research will involve human beings makes it necessary for the researcher to address the ethical issues that may arise. The research will only take place after the university grants a written research permit to the researcher. The researcher will also explain the objectives of the research to the respondents before the data collection begins. The study will also ensure a high level of professionalism by making sure that the information provided by the respondents remains confidential.

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Film and Theatre Studies Paper on To what extent has digital technology helped to establish greater realism in the cinematic experience descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help


To what extent has digital technology helped to establish greater realism in the cinematic experience?

The uptake of digital technology in the entertainment industry has been nothing short of phenomenal. In particular, digital technology has completely changed the experiences of filmmakers and viewers alike in the film industry (Thompson &Bordwell, 2010). What this appears to suggest is that the entertainment industry has not been left behind in embracing the latest technological developments. Digital technology is the use of electronic software and hardware (Fitzgerald, Kruschwitz, Bonnet & Welck, 2013; Purse, 2013). This technology has irreversibly altered how we view film studies as well as our approach to film culture. Computers have found widespread application in the various phases of film production. They are also widely used in the post-production stage of the film industry. In addition, computers are also widely used in the distribution and exhibition cinema (Branigan & Buckland, 2013). The essay endeavours to explore the extent to which digital technology has helped to establish greater realism in the contemporary cinema, especially its role in eliciting simulation and manipulation during film production and its effect on the experiences of filmmakers and viewers.

Digital technology has enjoyed increased use in enhancing our cinematic experience in the contemporary cinema industry (Fair, 2013). For instance, digital special effects and CGI (computer generated imagery) are widely used in contemporary cinema, especially with respect to action blockbusters (Whissel, 2014). Indeed, such digital special effects as monsters, scenery, and explosion have been abundantly used in leading blockbuster film (for example, the 2001-2003 trilogy Lord of the Rings (Pyke & Jackson, 2003).  In addition, Digital Intermediary (DI) has also found widespread usage in blockbuster films as they aid in the removal of unwanted details such as graffiti from images (Buckland, 2009). For example in Amelie, a 2001 French blockbuster entailed the removal of graffiti on the streets of Montmartre (Jeunet, 2001). In addition, DI could also entail changing of details (for instance, fixing a bright blue sky or dark blue sky), or adding other details (for example, the creation of huge crowds even though previously only a few people had been featured). The use of digital special effect in mainstream cinema is not only confined to Hollywood films, but it also documented across the globe, such as in Joon-ho Bony’s 2006 Cinema The Host (South Korea), Timur Bekmambetov’s 2004 movie Night Watch (Russia), and John Woo’s 2008 film Red Cliff (China), among others. Such global visibility of digital special effects is a clear indication of “the globalized nature of computer culture and the dispersed spread of software skills” (Branigan & Buckland, 2013, p. 138). Digital technology dominates virtually all areas of cinema production and consumption (Buckland, 2009). For instance, the emergence of digital cameras has made it possible to produce low-budget cinemas. In addition, digital technology has also changed how film is distributed and exhibited. For example, the internet is now widely seen as an ideal platform for releasing films of a certain genre.

De Luca (2013) reports of a significant increase in the use of digital projections in cinema, a development that the author has attributed to the increased production of 3D films (De Luca, 2013). In addition, the website YouTube has gained popularity as a platform where amateur filmmakers can showcase their talent and in this way, compete with the mainstream cinema industry. It has also aided in the dissemination of low-cost films. This, along with the increased availability of affordable cameras that are also compatible with mobile phones has significantly changed the culture of contemporary cinema (Buckland, 2009). Digital technology has also played a huge role in rapidly changing virtually all the stages of contemporary film production. It has for example enabled the modern filmmakers to “storyboard, shoot, and edit their films in conjunction with the computer manipulation of images” (Prince, 1996, p. 27).

The increased popularity of realism in film theory in recent years is largely attributed to the ability of digital technology to elicit simulation and manipulation (De Luca, 2013). Even as digital overrides the photochemical support provided by contemporary cinema, it has raised questions as regards its former uncomplicated association with the real. This has not hindered the evolution of digital technology as evidenced by the uninterrupted adoption in the contemporary film industry. The ease with which we have witnessed the invention, perfection, and testing of new technologies is a testament to this claim.

The increased use of digital cinema techniques and equipment in the film industry in recent years has started to invade an area that was once the preserve of photographic film (Thompson & Bordwell, 2010). However, experience with past evolutionary iterations show that the development of such technology does not qualify as a precondition of sorts for modern quality in contemporary cinema but rather, it acts as another alternative available to film-makers (Henderson, Martin & Amazonas, 1999). To further underscore this claim, there is need to explore the apprehension about digital technology from a number of film directors, even as such renowned film directors as Robert Rodriguez and George Lucas have been seen to register enthusiasm at the unprecedented possibilities that digital technology would afford them in film production. Thompson and Bordwell note that, “many cinematographers, directors, designers, and other professionals were upset at the prospect of the death of photographic film, as were many movie fans, but the rise of digital cinema seemed inevitable” (2010, p.713).

Nonetheless, cinema fans should banish the thought that the adoption of digital technology by the film industry on a large scale would affect cinematic quality negatively (Dargis & Scott, 2012) as only the filmmaker possesses such powers. Digital technology in the film industry brought life imaginations and illusions to the overall experience of cinema (Purse, 2013). Morphing software in conjunction with other novel technologies have helped to mask the flaws usually liked to contemporary film effects technology, including composites and blue screen. Sobchack (2000) reports that the effects of computer-generated morphing have further helped to obscure conceal the line between illusion and reality. As technology in the film industry becomes more sophisticated, the illusions experienced in film production are more evident, further pushing the film industry into an era of enhanced digital realm (Sobchack, 2000). For instance, Sobchack (2000) reports that the development of laser-based Pixar scanners during the mid-1980s facilitated smooth progress of morphing when Photoshop technology emerged in the late 1980s (Young, 1999). It had a huge effect on the ease with which images in film production could be manipulated, as well as their level of quality (Bolter & Grusin, 1999).

In trying to emphasize the strong link between realism and continuity as practised in contemporary film production, Buckland (2009) notes that digital cameras enable filmmakers to capture images during film production with a similar resolution to that permitted by the analogue camera. This greater continuity therefore imparts greater realism into the process of filmmaking. Inferences regarding realism as practised in cinema production are often associated with abstractions of indexicality, according to Henderson et al. (1999). The authors further note that these abstractions of indexicality integrate photographic image with the corresponding point of reference (Henderson et al., 1999). This link further functions as the point of divergence between formalism and realism in film theory (Andrews, Hockenhull & Pheasant-Kelly, 2015). Such an approach to the notion of realism in film production hinges on the idea that unlike line drawings or paintings, photographic images are indexical signs. In other words, their connection to referents is rather existential or casual (Purse, 2013).

The instructive nature of photographs means that they resemble the objects they are supposed to represent. It is virtually impossible therefore, to divorce photographs from their referents (Stam, 2000)given the causal connection between the two. On account of it being a photographic medium, cinema has enabled theorists to come up with theories of realism related to the indexical nature of photography. For example, in developing his realist aesthetic to photography, Andre Bazin relied on what he referred to as the “objective” nature of photography. On this, Bazin was alluding to the fact that a photograph image is mechanically related to its referent, devoid of space and time conditions (Buckland, 2009). All key technological innovations are intended to enhance the film fan’s sense of having experience ‘real life’ at a time when he or she is watching a film.

Even as the above argument can be readily implemented in the production of ‘analogue’ film, one is likely to encounter various challenges when used in the digital era (Bolter, 2001). This is due to the ability of digital technology to alter our idea of the image. Simply put, the rise in the popularity and usage of digital technology in contemporary cinema has radically changed the relationship of film viewers with the image. While analogue image tended to have ‘constructed’ meaning, this is not the case with digital images. This is further proof of the replicating nature of photographs, even as digital imagery has been likened to an interpreting portrait.

Digital technology has however rendered film recording in photographic style antiqued (Wheeler, 2003). Besides taking over the principle of the medium, digital technology also fundamentally changed how we view and integrate film production and review (O’Hehir, 2014). Whereas analogue images are, by and large, rigid, on the other hand, digital images can be manipulated by both filmmakers and the viewers. There is need therefore to view digital images as essentially replicate construction, which radically changes their connection to the audience. Prior to the digital era in film production, film-makers introduced sophisticated lighting in the hope of developing an artificial atmosphere that would enable them to record film amid a colour and sound complicated result paradigm (Thompson & Bordwell, 2010). The medium was further developed by the use of montage, along with the increase application of editing in film (Ricciardelli, 2014). While this helped to further progress the narrative features of cinema, it came at a price; the simplicity and clarity of the film image was affected. This thus paved way for the emergence of unconventional or alternate cinematography like the contemporary ‘hand-held’ or deep-focus camera style (Gromala & Bolter, 2003), an adaptation that has in turn changed the audience’s view as well as the aesthetic appeal to cinema.

Other key areas of contemporary cinema that digital technology seems to have had a big influence on is with regard to the elements of sound and framing of image. Even as analogue cinema entails the capture of human characters by an analogue camera, in contrast, digital cinema usually entails changing the appearance of human characters (Wardrip-Freun & Harrigan, 2004), notably with regards to “air brushing”, in the digital morph, (Fitzgerald et al., 2013) and in changing facial expressions. Through digital technology, filmmakers have managed to change cinema into a fragment of animation, as opposed to the vice versa that was the norm with conventional movies. Digital cinema thus entails a departure from what Buckland (2009) calls “avant-garde cinema” where the main focus appears to be on the magnification of the image to realism.

This form of realism has only been made possible thanks to digital cinema. However, it puts to question our conventional ideas of space and time (Buckland, 2009). In this sense, digital cinema as made possible by the advent of digital technology could be regarded as post-human. While cinema through the centuries has endeavoured to depict the impossible in such a manner as to suggest that it is possible, on the other hand, digital technology affords cinema the luxury to assume full post-humanist significance (Henderson, Martin & Amazonas, 1999). There is also a deeper connection between realism as used in contemporary cinema and realism as applied in digital cinema. The key unifying aspect in both contemporary cinema and digital cinema is continuity. This technique has been widely used in realism.

In contemporary cinema, continuity of space and time is often established via aural and visual cues like lines of sight, use of off-screen space and sound bridges. Digital cinema also entails the use of continuity, albeit at a greater level. In this case, continuity is achieved via the use of cuts that connect images, though no cutting is actually achieved in the real sense. Buckland (2009) has examined the unbroken continuity in his analysis of the film, “War of the Worlds” directed by Steven Spielberg. The 150-second shot that Spielberg presents to the viewer features the three main characters: Ray (Tom Cruise), his daughter Rachel (Dakota Fanning), and his son Robbic (Justin Chatwin), who is trying to clam down his frightened sister. The most important thing to note about this scene is that its occurrence does not seem to involve even a single cut. It thus offers us “real time” or temporal continuity, thereby affording us a sense of enhanced realism to the scene. This has been achieved by ensuring there is no stopping of the camera movement. It thus circles the three characters as they move out of and into the vehicle. This is in accordance with the theory of cinema that Andre Bazin sought to advance and which states that spatial and temporal continuity aids in predicting realism.

The depiction of cinema as a photographic medium has led to the development of theories of realism by cinema theorists in relation to the indexical position of the photographic signal. Andre Bazin has made use of the “objective” nature of photography as a basis for his realist aesthetic that is intimately connected with its referents. Other significant cinema realists have underscored the important aspect of a recording medium that photography shares with cinema. Kracauer (as reported by Henderson et al., 1999) opines that film is an add-on to photography. He further notes that cinema and photography share “a marked affinity for the visible world around us” (Henderson et al., 1999, p. 395). For subtle and obvious reasons, digital imaging questions photographic realism ideas that ride on indexicality.

This notwithstanding, realism can still be used as a tool to anchor objects in digital imaging. Examples include the use of surface texture detail and realistic lighting (for example, highlights, shadows, and reflections). In addition, digital imaging aids in twisting, contorting, and bending physical objects in such a manner as to sneer at indexicalized referentiality (Andrews et al., 2015). It is also possible to infinitely manipulate a digitally created or designed image. In this case, the complex algorithms contained within the computer memory determines its reality, as opposed to its mechanical conformity with a referent. What this means is that while digital imaging can work in accordance with a different ontology as opposed to indexical photographs, it can as well operate differently from photographically coded realism.

The evolution and increased adoption of digital technology in contemporary film has meant that filmmakers no longer have to rely on the physical capacity of the camera to represent and transport for their viewers. Consequently, the old adage, “seeing is believing” appears to be no longer the case in contemporary film. Through digital technology filmmakers are finding it increasingly easier to achieve increased realism in contemporary cinema. If at all we are to fully appreciate the huge role of digital technology it transforming cinematic, it is important that we also evaluate the point of divergence of digital imaging from photographic realism and the abstraction of ideas of realism in film production. In this way, we shall be in a better position to acknowledge just exactly how digital technology has totally changed our experience with contemporary cinema as filmmakers, critics, or viewers.


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Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bolter, J.D., & Grusin, R. (1999). Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge,

Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Buckland, W. (2009). Film Theory and Contemporary Hollywood Movies. London:


Dargis, M., & Scott, A.O. (2012). Film Is Dead? Long Live Movies. How Digital Is

Changing the Nature of Movies. Retrieved from



De Luca, T. (2013). Realism of the Senses in World Cinema: The Experience of Physical

Reality. New York: I.B. Tauris.

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Technology: A New Strategic Imperative. Retrieved from


Gromala, D., & Bolter, D. (2003). Windows and Mirrors: Interaction Design, Digital Art, and

the Myth of Trans-parency. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Henderson, B., Martin, A., & Amazonas, L. (1999). Film Quarterly: Forty Years, a Selection.

California: University of California Press.

Jeunet, J.P. (Producer). (2001). Amelie. France: UGC-Fox.

Joon-ho, B. (2006). The Host. South Korea: Showbox (SK).

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return of the king [Motion picture]. New Zealand: Imagine Films.

Ricciardelli, L. (2014). American Documentary Filmmaking in the Digital Age: Depictions of

War in Burns, Moore, and Morris. New York: Routledge.

Stam, R. (2000). Film Theory: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell

Sobchack, V.C. (2000). Meta Morphing: Visual Transformation and the Culture of Quick

change. Minnesota, Indianapolis: U of Minnesota Press.

Thompson, K., Bordwell, D. (2010). Film History: An Introduction. New York, NY:


Wardrip-Fruen, N., & Harrigan, P. (2004). First Person: New Media as Story, Performance,

and Game. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Wheeler, P. (2003). High Definition and 24P Cinematography. Oxford: Focal Press/ Elsevier Whissel, K. (2014). Spectacular Digital Effects: CGI and Contemporary Cinema. Durham,

North Carolina: Duke University Press.

Young, P. (1999). The Negative Reinvention of Cinema: Late Hollywood in the Early Digital

Age. Convergence, 5(2), 24-50.

Sample Literature Essays Paper on Importance of Human Relationships in Early Childhood-Harriet the Spy free essay help online


Importance of Human Relationships in Early Childhood-Harriet the Spy

Harriet the Spy is a children’s novel published in 1964. The novel was written by Louise Fitzhugh and looks at the life of a small child by the name of Harriet. She has the dream of becoming a spy some day and she is supported by her nanny Ms Ole Golly. Ole Golly’s encouragements see Harriet venture into the routine life of observing her classmates, people within the neighborhood and her friends and then writing down the things she has observed about them (Fitzhugh). She has a good relationship with her two friends; sport and Janie. However, things change for worse when her nanny leaves their home to go and stay with her boyfriend, Mr. Waldenstein. Harriet is left with her parents who are always occupied with work and her life just becomes so unbearable. The novel proves that human relationship is very important in early childhood.

An intelligent kid with set  routines, which she follows diligently can be destabilized when a person closest to her leaves her .she may even start regressing on her development milestones she has passed through already.  A child need to be encouraged by her close relations and people within her social cycle such as the care-giver and the parents to pursue their dreams as lack of this would even lower their grades and affect their relationships with their friends. A child may get frustrated and especially when he or she does not understand why the person close to them had to leave. Such a child would be so affected and may start forgetting things that she never used to forget and even drop her good habits such as completing assignments in time.

Every child needs a good and healthy relationship with an adult. The relationship can create impacts on other relationships that the child has and would affect how they live their lives (Underwood and Lisa143). The novel has demonstrated that human relationships are characterized by specific features. This paper discusses these features and they include:

Relationship with an adult matters

The novel Harriet the spy has demonstrated that the relationship between a child and a caretaker has a significant effect on the well-being and general development of the child. Relationship between children and the people who are important in their lives play a very critical role in their development. These relationships are considered to be one of the active ingredients that influence healthy child development. This relationship is evident in all societies, not considering the differences in child-care practices.

It is crucial to bring out the importance of the relationship between professionals and parents. When the parents of a troubled child visit a professional, she should apply her competence in determining the effectiveness and the role played by close friends and relatives in the life of young child. Such collaborations are very central in any family- centered practice. In early childhood intervention measures, what is delivered is as important as how it has been delivered (Seligman and Lourie). The intervention by a professional helps in identifying what could help save the child from getting worse

Relationship with an Adult Affects Other Relationships

There is an aspect of parallel process whereby a child’s relationship with adults close to her parallels her relationship with other people. By experiencing how these close relations with her, the child would learn how to be with his or her friends and other people in her life. She would form and modify feelings and views of relationships through her closeness with the people. A care-giver who is warm, responsive, and available to the child would make the child be the same way with her friends and other people she meets.

When the a close care-giver or relations leaves, a child would change and even after doing  bad things to other people including her friends, she would still remain deviant and unapologetic. Parents and caregivers should know how to relate to their children and show them what to do not only through words but also by being good examples to the children. When the caregiver who left contacts the child again and advises her on what to do, then child most probably do as she or he is told. The advice plays a key role in mending her relationship with the people she is left with and those that she has created enmity with.

There Is A Flow of Parallel Processes Human Relationship

Every relationship has a flow on impacts regardless of the level of that relationship. The relationship that a child’s parents initiate with the a professional  creates  effects that would flow down to the relationships that the parents have with their child  and to the one they have with the teachers in school. The single relationship between parents and the professional can lead to better relationships between them and their small child leading to much better life for her (Lemay 27).

A good relationship with a child professional would encourage the parents to spend more time minding about their baby’s welfare. They would contact the teachers and talks to them regarding the state in which their child is in and the teachers would possible reciprocate the parent’s effort by doing their part in making child’s life better. The youngster should be given opportunity to continue with the dreams she had as she writes articles and edit the work done by others. Professionals must therefore ensure that the relationships they create with the parents would lead to relationships that are more productive with other people who influence the child’s life.

Effective Relationships Have Same Characteristics at All Levels

In early childhood, relationships with their caregivers are affected by the same factors that affect relationships in all other levels (Zastrow and Karen 357). The ability to understand a child’s feelings, to strengthen and empower the relationships, to moderate stress among others are all very important in creating effective relationships with young children. Sound relationships are important and must be nurtured in all ways possible to enable the optimum development of the child.

Engagement is very important in starting an effective relationship with a child. A caregiver should tune into the child’s world, understand her experience and perspective, and then create a personal connection with them. Teachers are also categorized as caregivers and they must ensure that they treat their pupils as their own in order to understand them better and be able to tell whenever they are troubled. Parents should not let their work deny them the joy of being with their children because failure to do so would mean that their children would suffer in silence.

A relationship between a child and an adult must involve responsiveness on the part of the adult for it to be effective. Adults must be able to respond appropriately and promptly to the communications, signals, and the changing moods of their children (Maria 242). These signals and communications could be verbal or non-verbal such as body language and facial expression. Thecaregivers must be able to recognize the signals that the children send to them make a sense of that signal in their mind and talk to the child in an appropriate manner that would help the child get over the difficult situation he or she is facing.

Parents should be able to read the feelings and emotions of their children. It should not have to be realized from her diary or a notebook but should be seen from the child’s face, her action and even her body language. Caretakers, including parents and teachers have the duty of ensuring that the children who are under their care are well taken care of and their needs met appropriately.

Professionals who deal with parents with troubled children must use clear communication. When a case needs a family-centered intervention, the service delivery must involve good communication skills by the professional to enable them build warm relationships, monitor communications, listen effectively, and support parents. The professional must be able to identify communication breakdown in the relationship, restore it, and encourage parents to initiate communications with all the people who have influence on the child.

It is unfortunate that some parents are so quick to be rough with their children. They fail to acknowledge the emotional feelings of their children and this always works negatively for both the parents and their child. The professional should acknowledge these feelings from the child and use them to initiate a helping process for the child. Emotional intelligence is important in such relationships and any parent who is not able to understand and be aware of his or her child’s emotional state would have trouble in bringing up the child in the right manner. Children’s emotional intelligence develops early and the caregivers and parents have the duty of promoting this development in their children through responsive and nurturing care.

They should be aware of their child’s emotions, recognize their emotional expressions, and use the opportunity to teach and be close and listen to their children. The caregivers could empower children as a way of improving the relationship between them and helping the child develop in the most appropriate ways (Carey 8). Parents, teachers, and all other caregivers should emphasize on a child’s strength and help them develop and grow towards achieving their full potential as this would greatly promote the healing process. The strength-based approach would help children to believe in themselves and their abilities. It would also make them see life differently and gain power on how to get over negative situations.

Relationships Can Change a Child’s Brain

Human beings are changed neurochemically and neurologically by relationships. In children, these changes could be either good or bad depending on what has caused the changes. Children develop in line with interpersonal relationships they have with others and the quality of attachment from such relationships determine the neurological development of the child. Positive relationships can program the brain of small children and enable them to heal from their troubles. The professional services have a great role to play in reprogramming any child’s brain


Many children are suffering silently because of the poor relationships their parents have created between them. Parents need to learn how to cultivate effective relationships with their children and get training if necessary to enable their children have a good and productive early childhood. Other caregivers such as teachers and nannies must be close to the children under their care so that they can help them grow and develop better to achieve their childhood dreams.

Works Cited

Carey, Seamus. The Whole Child: Restoring Wonder to the Art of Parenting. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. Print.

Fitzhugh, Louise. Harriet theSpy. Collins Modern Classics. Hammersmith: London. Harper Collins Publishers.2003.Internet Resource. Retrieved from

Lemay, Raymond A, and Hayat Ghazal. Looking After Children: A Practitioner’s Guide. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2007. Print.

Maria, Bernard L. Current Management in Child Neurology. Hamilton: B. C. Decker, 2005. Print.

Seligman, Linda, and Lourie W. Reichenberg. Selecting Effective Treatments: A Comprehensive, Systematic Guide to Treating Mental Disorders. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2013. Internet resource.

Underwood, Marion K, and Lisa H. Rosen. Social Development: Relationships in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence. New York: Guilford Press, 2011. Print.

Zastrow, Charles, and Karen K. Kirst-Ashman. Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.

Sample Literature Essay on Nikita Mikhalkov: Between Nostalgia and Nationalism nursing essay help: nursing essay help



In Act II, Scene VII of as You like It, Jaques says to Duke Senior: “All the worlds a stage, and all the men and women merely players; they have their exits and their entrances, and one man in his time plays many parts…” (Shakespeare).  According to me the director intended so present to us the symbolic nature of how people’s lives, especially aristocrats in Russia during the 19th century where they are closely watched and scrutinized. The stage also acts as a divide for Russia’s upper society from its servants and workers. The stage is where the members of the upper society (aristocrats) belong while the servants and workers in the story belong in the wings and behind the stage.


Due to her determination and choice of living life by herself, Anna is likeable. Through her desires for a good life and her courageous nature, she is able to make her own life decisions. Her struggle finally ends up in suicide since the man she fought for turned against her. He was all she was fighting for, and now that the whole society was on her neck, she could not bear the pressure without the backing of Vronsky, her love (Roberts 158).


It is evident that Anna is punished for being a female and no other reason. Her counterpart Vronsky leaves unpunished despite the proof that they were both guilty of the same crime. Unlike Vronsky who coexists freely with other members of the society, Anna undergoes condemnation as a result of the crime. Comparably, her cynicism is so devastating but later justifies her end. The end of Anna comes about as a result of her undying love for Vronsky, which goes to the extend of rendering her as an outcast in the society. Anna’s last hope of ideal happiness is wrecked by the oppression of those around her (Beumers 101).

Work cited

Beumers, Birgit. Nikita Mikhalkov: Between Nostalgia and Nationalism. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004. Print.

Roberts, Graham H. Other Voices: Three Centuries of Cultural Dialogue between Russia and Western Europe. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Pub, 2011. Internet resource.

Sample Communication Research Paper on Case Study of Cable News Network (CNN) custom essay help


Summary of an Article

The study aimed at analyzing the perception of college students towards the use of social media. Various patterns of how news is received by colleges students as well as the role of news media in enhancing social life through a case study of Cable News Network (CNN). The research majorly dwelled on the importance of national and international news media in regard to continuing college students. It also investigated the improvement of reliance to CNN as a source of both national and international news as progression in college students went about.

The study used a telephone survey with a sample of 630 Kentucky university students between the ages of 18 and 22 with from both genders but females (52.2%) were slightly more than male (47.8%).

From the study, there was an increased importance on the use of both international and national news media among college students in a span of one year. This improvement was exceptional in relation to traditional media. Also, CNN was the most preferred news source for college students as there was increased reliance on it in a span of one year.

According to the study, college undergraduate years are a great opportunity for students to acquire specific characters such as the orientation towards news and also enhanced socialization. CNN has been integrated in the college students’ learning system enabling them to identify themselves with the outside world. The study found out that all news media avenues were preferred for both national and international news leading to the erosion of viewership in regard to traditional media networks CNN viewers were found to differ significantly from non-CNN viewers in their heavier use of daily newspapers, weekly news magazines, and late night local news viewing.

Sample Engineering Essay Paper on Engineering Roles my assignment essay help


Engineering Roles

The roles of engineers are to design projects, solve engineering problems, develop new ways and technological solutions, apply engineering analysis when ascertaining failures in machines, and conduct research for specialized engineering work and management. Others are to contribute to the development of engineering theories, apply the code of ethics when serving customers, public or organization and machine design (Management 44)[1]. Each role here is guided by principles adopted by the engineering board to ensure that members conduct themselves in a professional manner.

One of the roles I am interested in is designing projects in computer engineering systems.  This role involves the process of coming up with new designs and structure for computer especially the systems (Slivker 34)[2]. The most amazing thing in the engineering world is the manner in which engineers develops small computers that have high performance speed. Computers have enabled people solve problems in the business world as well as individual world. In addition, the role incorporates the work of designing cables and peripheral devices that connect and operate together with the computer (Sommerville 23)[3]. Computer networking is also featured in this field. Accuracy in doing the work is not an option for practitioners because these devices must perform to the level of customer expectation. In the event a fault is detected, the whole process is deemed to start again.  I would like to design complex computers that will perform a variety of task for companies (Coyne and Davis 36)[4]. This is because the current devices in place present challenges in term of processing speed and breakdown.  In conclusion, engineering is a professional field that is not only influential to humanity but also makes work easier, thus offering solutions to technical challenges (Adams, Turns, and Atman 130)[5].

Works Cited

Adams, Robin S., Jennifer Turns, and Cynthia J. Atman. “Educating Effective Engineering Designers: the Role of Reflective Practice.” Design Studies23.1 (2013): 123-150. Print.

Coyne, Edward J, and John M. Davis. Role Engineering for Enterprise Security Management. Boston: Artech House, 2010. Print.

Management, Association U. S. A. I. R. Computer Engineering. london: IGI Global, 2011. Print.

Slivker, V I. Handbook of Mechanical Stability in Engineering. Place of publication not identified: World Scientific, 2013. Print.

Sommerville, Ian. Software Engineering. Harlow: Addison-Wesley, 2010. Print.

[1] Management, Computer Engineering

[2] Slivker, Mechanical Stability in Engineering

[3] Sommerville, Software Engineering

[4] Coyne and Davis, Role Engineering for Enterprise Security Management

[5] Adams, Turns, and Atman, Engineering Designers

Sample History Essay Paper on Qin Dynasty grad school essay help: grad school essay help


Qin Dynasty


Qin was a kingdom in the China of today and it was found in the central of city of Xian. The rulers of the dynasty could use many ways to make the kingdom bigger. Bringing power together and enlarging the kingdom led to many good results in making the dynasty more balanced. The Qin people created the government and conducted state issues based on being loyal people to their king and to supporting a strong army. The emperor had total power over everyone but he was usually checked by other important people in the government. This was useful so that he did not use his powers badly.  The Qin dynasty defeated many states around it and put place oppressive laws, which ended up making the China of many states into an empire with a central government that was authoritative (Li, X. (2012). The emperor was successful in his mission and China was one nation governed from a central point with all the powers being given to the emperor.

Over 200 years, B.C.E., the dynasty of Qin, was the single very powerful state within what today we call China. It had a strong army that helped it in winning other nations and communities that lived around thus making it so powerful during that day. War was always seen among the many small kingdoms that surrounding it during that time until it was called the Warring States era. The kindgom slow by slow defeated most of its neighbors and counted its powers making it to be the most powerful kingdom in that region in that day.

The first emperor of the dynasty did not only unify China, but also went about standardizing writing, weights, and measures throughout his kingdom, this was used to promote internal trade among the newly acquired states. The Qin dynasty became large for the reason that the first emperor pushed the dynasty’s borders south to current day Vitnam, and current day Korea.

The kingdom had big rulers who helped in consolidating and making its powers more. They achieved this by using special methods thus making the kingdom to grow and become who of the powerful dynasties to have ever existed. The most influential person in the history of the kingdom was known as Shang Yang, he who was a firm believer in the ideology known as Legalism. Legalism says that very mean punishing laws were necessary to keep the people in order and to make them follow the laws of the kingdom. Working under the king, Shang Yang became prime minister of the Qin kingdom and gradually began making changes in the government thus making it a strong state with many laws. Shang wanted total loyalty to the king and this was achieved when loyal followers were rewarded basing on their loyalty and abilities rather than just being of high and noble birth. The young Qin Shi Huangdi became a strong believing person in Legalism and when he became king, he used it to make his rule stronger and the Qin government.

Several changes were made in the army and this helped the dynasty to even consolidate its powers and make it to conquer other states thus expanding its territories.  Just to add on the changes that were made in the army, Shi Huangdi made many changes that were aimed to further unify the dynasty and make governing to be much easier.  First, the Qin imposed their own Legalist form of government in territories that it had conquered and dominated.  The form of government involved rewards for those who were loyal and harsh punishments to those who were disobedient so as to keep order.   Also, the state had absolute control over the people who were the subjects and were supposed to surrender all their rights to the states so as to enjoy certain rights from the state. The people who saw themselves to be noble losed most of their traditional powers and were also forced to move from their country homes to the capital at Xian.  This way the Emperor could better keep an eye on them and more easily stop any plans for fight back that they might plan. This helped to ensure that the state was in control of everything and no one posed a threat. The powers of the nobles were cut to only those of doing things that were official and for this reason the government was in control. “Specific policies were enacted during the reign of the dynasty including the same ruts for carriages and the same script for writing” (Zhang, 2015).

The growth of the dynasty had big results on the stableness of the kingdom because many things came up with the growing of the kingdom. Many different languages came up that led to confusion in communications thus making the dialects to be made standard. The currency used was also made common so as to make trade to be much easier within the kingdom. This made the people of the kingdom to easily trade with other kingdoms. This made the challenges that came with trading without using currency less.

Many public works projects were also done because of the unity that was seen in the dynasty. The dynasty became even more stable. A protective wall was built in the north to stop other bad tribes from getting in. For instance, the Mongols were enemy to the good of the kingdom. The building of the Great Wall of China came with many bad things. It came with large financial load as well as human life, and this made the people hate on the Qin emperor by his people. Most of the wall that was built has not been there over the centuries but some parts of it have been put into today’s Great Wall.

The interaction with different cultures within the kingdom brought good changes in the way the dynasty was ruled. Many languages came up because of the different communities that were part of the kingdom. There language of the kingdom was made common due to the varieties that had come up because of the coming together of the many groups. This brought a consistent way of communication throughout the kingdom and brought unity into the dynasty thus making it to be more strong and powerful. The standardization of dialect made the king to rule easily for the reason that communication was made easy and subjects understood what was expected of them for the strength of the kingdom.


Even though the Qin dynasty did not live long, it had major impacts that brought about several changes and established what we know today as the country of China. Qin making common the written language allows all Chinese people to communicate easily and to share a common culture. Money was first used in the qui dynasty and this shows the positive impacts the kingdom had both to the ancient and current society.


Li, X. (2012). China at war: An encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.

Zhang, Q. (2015). An introduction to Chinese history and culture

Sample Nursing Case Studies Essay Paper on Contraception for Adolescents college essay help online


Contraception for Adolescents


The APN’s role to this case is to provide guidance through counseling to Jocelyn taking into consideration that nurses in practice have a limitation when it comes to role play in particular treatments. By providing thoughtful consideration of respect to autonomy, professional gaining and social welfare nurses are able to provide dependable care (McCrink, 2010).


The adolescent stage makes individuals feel completely different from other individuals by developing a strong feeling of invulnerability which makes them have a feeling of immunity from whatever ailment that they may be suffering from (ANA, 2010). Providing emotional responses and ethical dilemmas to patients also puts them into proper perspective. It is with this regard that informing the parents will enable Jocelyn heal observe her intake of contraceptives.

The belief that parents should be responsible for contraception may indicate the adolescent’s self-identity as a child, requiring her parents to take responsibility for aspects of health care. This creates tension between her biology, as a sexually mature, fertile woman, and her stage of development, as socially dependent upon her parents. The need for parents to take control of this aspect of their children’s health care may run counter to the societal expectation that parents will discourage adolescent sexuality, and that fertility control is the responsibility of the individual.


The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Ethics Workgroup has developed a framework for addressing clinical (and administrative) ethical issues (Ulrich, Taylor, Soeken, O’Donnell, Farrar, Danis & Grady, 2010). It is a high opportunity for her to understand that her health is more important than anything thus neither her consent nor anything else will make her better other than heading to the direction of the nurse practitioners.


The best contraceptive for Jocelyn is the pregnancy control contraceptive since she has no plans to start a family. Going as per increased indulgence in sexual activities, preventing pregnancy is a priority. Pills and condom use will be reliable and these additional methods may have prevented earlier unwanted pregnancies (Foster, Jackson, Cosby, Weitz, Darney & Drey, 2008).


American Nurses Association. (2010). Nursing’s social policy statement: The essence of the profession (3rd ed.). Silver Springs,MD: Nursebooks..

McCrink, A. (2010). Ethical nursing practice, why it should concern us all. Nursing for Women’s Health, 14, 443–446.

Ulrich, C. M., Taylor, C., Soeken, K.,O’Donnell, P., Farrar, A., Danis,M.,Grady, C. (2010). Everyday ethics: Ethical issues and stress in nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66, 2510–2519.

Foster, D. G., Jackson, R. A., Cosby, K., Weitz, T. A., Darney, P. D., &Drey, E. A. (2008). Predictors of delay in each step leading to an abortion. Perspectives in Sexual and Reproductive Health, 40,6–16.

Sample Coursework Essay Paper Sociology college admission essay help: college admission essay help



There are two main reasons as to why Amish children only attend school through eighth grade. First, the Amish engage in trades that involve manual work and craft. Second, they deem that if their children are educated past eighth grade, they might presume ideas that oppose their religious values. They reject the social security tax because they think of it as a part of obligatory insurance premiums. They believe that enrolling in any insurance plan expresses unbelief in God. The growing purpose of technology has created much tension between the contemporary society and the Amish relating to their limited application of technology.Adolescence is a phase in life that is limited by time. Hence, we cannot conclude that it is expanding. However, due to economic uncertainties, children are forced to live with their parents even past their adolescent stage. In this sense, when adolescents live longer with their parents at a given age they become adults.When my friends pressured me to attend a night party, I was against the idea but I later gave in since all my friends were attending. I was unhappy with the outcome because the next day, I was too sleepy to go to school.The four reasons for punishment are reintegration, reckoning, incapacitation and dissuasion. To some extent, these four rationalizations are contradictory. While deterrence uses punishment as a warning to deter people from offending, retribution supports actual punishment. Apart from retribution and incapacitation through execution, other justifications lack assured results. Rehabilitation violates the idea of retribution in that; it focuses on reforming the offenders than punishing them for their offences. In retribution, punishment is meant to demonstrate open condemnation for the offender’s misconduct.Every entity desires to have an affluent life .One’s possessions and reputation are often used as a reflection of a successful life. This notwithstanding, building a personal creative potential is equally significant for a high life. Creative individuals are of good reputation and highly honoured in the society.The expansion exhibited by McDonald’s and KFC restaurants constitutes desirable development. First, this expansion has created multiple job opportunities thus reducing poverty and raising the living standards.  Secondly, the government in countries where these restaurants operate collects taxes thatare used for further developments. Thirdly, the multiple franchises earn the restaurants profit. Given building a good reputation, the companies can create projects that benefit the society. Erotic alludes to an alluring kind of beauty that engages not only the senses but also aesthetics and the judgment on how given figures illustrate beauty. Conversely, pornography consists of books, videos and other materials that demonstrate sexual acts to arouse sexual feelings.The available natural resources are adequate to support human life. Some changes that can be made in pursuit of an ecologically sustainable way of life include preservation of the environment and adopting measures that curb environmental pollution. I would not support government regulations that are aimed at reducing fertility as a way of cutting down high population growth. Ideally, slow growth in population begets slow economic growth because the low population will not have strong purchasing power. This creates slow growth in economy. Additionally, these measures decrease the number of working age as compared to the number of retired people. I would not willingly accept lower living standards because it is degrading to humanity.

Sample Sociology Paper on Immigration Law and Marriage summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help


Immigration Law and Marriage

Question: Does immigration really interview and test the couple about personal information, which is applying for citizenship?

Answer: Yes, the Immigration department carries out a thorough authentication process to validate a particular marriage. If a person lacks proper documentation it is regarded that he/she is not legally married or rather the marriage is not legally recognized. As if that is not enough, after presenting the documents to prove the legality of the marriage, a person is also required to prove that if at all he/she was in a previous marriage, the marriage was terminated.

According to the United States immigration law, it is believed that a legal marriage in a person’s native country is still legal even in the USA. It becomes hard at times to verify the validity of an immigrant’s marriage status if there are variations in the laws governing marriages between two different countries. For instance some countries do not provide their citizens with certificates as proof of marriage especially cases where traditional ceremonies are used as a representation of marriages.

When applying for American citizenship, immigrants have a provision under law allowing them to prolong their stay awaiting approval as citizens if they are married to Native Americans. Strict laws apply for marriages done outside the United States; these types of marriages are regarded as a breakthroughs for individuals inhabitation of United States. In such a scenario, special visas are granted to the immigrant prior to the confirmation of his/her marriage.

Other legalities include the existence of a relationship two years before the marriage where green cards are issued for a maximum of two years while awaiting confirmation of the marriage’s legality.

HR Management Sample Essay Paper on Organizational Change custom essay help


Organization Change

Question 1

Team conflicts could emerge in the form of personal-role conflict. In organizations where there are unclear guides on the role of each member, conflicts are bound to occur. For instance, if old sales team members afford the items to customers through the old organization culture, the new team may feel that the behavior is consuming too much time. As a result, their objectives to serve customers may clash with that of the old members. Moreover, the new team might make major difference in the presentation of the manufactured products to the customers with little effort, hence conflicting with the old members.

Poor team management means confusion in the role taking. Building team-based organizations result to organizing team members around processes rather than departments and functions. Indeed, when everyone knows what to do and how to do it, it brings cohesion and mutual understanding between members. Accordingly, both the old executives and the new executives can monitor their efforts to see if the expected output occurs and takes remedial actions when needed without conflicts. The concerted efforts by the CEO to provide assurance of role clarity will bring both the old members and the new members into alignment with the new paradigm of the company.

Also, teams are likely to experience relationship conflicts when newcomers join the organization due to the presence of overt social categorical differences in teams. According to social identity theory, people find it difficult to cope with the categorical differences within their team as they derive part of who they are, their self-concept, from important group memberships such as their work team. For example, the sales manager might not mingle well with the vendor relations managers particularly when one of the members is new in that capacity. Subsequently, people perceive that working with others who behave in similar ways, are trustworthy, and conform to their worldview. They tend to view fellow team members in a more positive light compared to outsiders. The new executives in the cloth manufacturing industry become the victims of an “out-group denigration bias.” In case they possess innovative ideas, conflict will emerge since some of their ideas may be unclear to the old team. Still, the old executives might question whether the new members work with the team’s best interest in mind.

Failing to train the new members in an organization could contribute to myriad problems ranging from confusion to their new roles in the team to not knowing where to offer supports in case their colleagues are experiencing challenges. Member of a new team, for instance, might wreck the sewing machine due to incompetence in its operation. The solution in such cases is to provide extensive training to the members, hence an effective and efficient mix of a given task. Training could involve educating individual members in different functional areas, thus allowing shared responsibilities. Through training, it is easier to communicate the objectives of the organization to all members, thus making it possible to achieve the end results. Interactive management, where both the old and new players participate, limits the potentials of conflicts by the proper understanding between one another.

Organizational socialization is the concept whereby new members are transformed and integrated to become part of the organization. Due to the elastic personnel needs, it could be significantly important for the CEO and the industry in implementing the socialization concept. Indeed, it enhances role adjustments, thus ensuring proper integration and consistency between the old and new executives. The reduction theory posits that socialization reduces misunderstanding between members of a time, thus contributing to their satisfaction in different roles.

Question 2

Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is a term used to describe the highest ranking executive in a company, whose role ranges from managing company’s resources to decisions making.

CEOs play a management role within the organization. They can appoint or dismiss the employees whenever there are ultimate and logical reasons for doing it. Oversight of the progress of critical matters and functions of the company is another critical role of the CEO. This goes hand in hand with complying with government policies across all the activities performed within the organization. For example, the CEO ensures that safety measures are observed in top-down system to prevent incurring unnecessary cost through accidents. Still, complying with the government policy on licensing of the workers is mandated by the CEO.  This aspect simplifies the full and correct accounting practices.

Decision making on the critical matters is another area where the CEO exercises their power. However, this occurs with exception to the decisions that require the definite involvement of the board members, supervisory council, and the shareholders of the organization. The board of directors has the capacity of monitoring the management behaviors of the CEO and corrects him where there are errors. The supervisory board conducts the review procedure, hence supplementing the CEO with the powers to delegate and command the best practices within the company without the occurrence of faults. For example, the board members review the salaries of the employees and propose the best decisions to solve workers aggression. Such cases persuade the CEO to follow the articles of association to act within the codes of the ethical decision-making and remain on board with the rest players.

CEO plays the representation role for the company in relation to third parties. Moreover, the representation powers are prevalent in the court proceedings, and transfer of assets subject to the requirements of relevant decisions of the members. The CEO is in charge of contract, monetary transactions, and signing of the projects that are intended to improve the performance of the company. The exception of this policy is in the case of registered collective representation of the industry. Perhaps such a case emerge, the collective representation of the organizations is through CEO and board members who bear the rights for transacting on behalf of the company. Alternatively, the CEO can appoint one of the managing directors the capacity to represent the company in its operation with relation to the third parties. Subject to the legal powers bestowed upon the CEO, it enables him to remain in the pole position to implement the decisions that determine the core values of the company; hence its culture.

CEO solves critical company contingencies through power base that helps to survive criticism for poor performance or unexpected outcomes, as well as to sustain competence performance to overcome the market competition. For instance, the supreme position guarantees his power to speak on behalf of the company as well as to sign for any funds received. The power base prepares the CEO to take the company’s reign to the next management without fall of its productivity.

Coercive power is gained by coercing others through the fear element. This aspect is exercised through punishing the non-performers, sanctioning ineffective employees, and harassing those with opposing ideas contrary to what is said by the CEO. This power ensures that nuisance executives and directors are prevented from mobilizing the employees, hence pulling together all resources necessary to develop the company.

Connection power entails CEO connection with the influential members from within or outside the company. Employees respect people with authority since they have the capacity of promoting them to better positions in the organization. Similarly, CEOs with high connection voltage are avoided, allowing them to execute various duties without pressure or negative criticism.

Reward power is based on the CEO’s ability to reward the best achievers within the organization. This ability enables the CEO to control the pay received by each employee, commanding increment of the best performing employees. The rewards may also be in non-monetary, prestige and esteem.

Question 3

A flatter organization and a wide span of control ensure that the managers or CEO can communicate effectively to all the stakeholders and employees of the organization. For example, the plant manager will have time to match different responsibilities with the resources available, hence maximizing time on the production practices rather than rectifying problems and bringing confusion in the company. Besides, a wide span of control facilitates sharing of responsibilities without over-utilizing some workers while underutilizing another unit. This is crucial since it improves the interaction of employees with different layers of practices within the organization.

In a flatter organization, the level of bureaucracy is minimized and decision-making is attained with ease. This means that employees can attend to customers’ requests such as loans and insurance claims without the interference from the top management. Less bureaucracy means the reduction of cost in the form of time and finances. In a manufacturing company, for example, the supervisor of the manufacturing system must ensure that the maintenance engineers and the development engineers directly report to him on the job progress.

However, a flatter organization and a wide span control have disadvantages that affect the organization directly and indirectly. While it would be feasible for a single manager to be in charge of many subordinates, a wide span control may slower the operation behaviors of the organization. It is because; different managers are likely to possess dissimilar interests in the company. As a result, they may tend to attend to a given problem with different perspectives, meaning that even commands may not be the same. Different managers delegating duties and responsibilities to workers could bring confusion, hence poor participation, and productivity.

Still, a flat and wide structure of the organization could hamper the forward growth of the company and well as career development of the employees. While the managers might show commitment in overseeing the performance of all the stakeholders, it could be hard to evaluate the behaviors of some employees. Some workers might be greedy to win financial favors after according support to the clients. This vice could simultaneously dwindle the profits and the general performance of the organization. The flexibility in decision-making will be complicated by the wide control span since it will consume much time in examining the contribution of every stakeholders. A narrow span of management would be ideal in such situations. The time spent in structuring and implementing decisions is converted into production, thus raising the performance of the organization.

In an organization where employees directly meet the clients’ requirements, democratic leadership could look fitting in such organization. However, that is not the case. Organizations where employees can do whatever they feel like might have a negative impact in the long-run. While the employees have the freedom to transact business on the behalf of the organization, it may slower the performance of the business through sluggishness in the sustaining the core values. Still, some employees’ behaviors might turn into questions of ethics. Dishonest and corruption from the hungry employees may lead customers to turn down the services offered, hence reducing the income that the company would generate. To prevent such outcomes, autocrat leadership is most appropriate, where the CEO or one director make decisions and delegate power to other subordinates. Through this approach, the employees would be coerced to submit to commands of the supervisors. Moreover, loyalty, working morale, honesty, and integrity are cultivated in the organization.

Question 4

Organizational change refers to change of the management structure and the production techniques from a known form to unknown form. For example, the company may plan to multiply the level of production but the means of doing it remains at stake due to numerous factors. The driver to organization change may include the customers’ demand, information technologies, competitive environment, prestige, and government policies. A given change is strategic when it affects the entire organization. Conversely, when a change is limited to a specific component of the organization, the change is treated as incremental.

A change agent is a person or a component that helps the company to become more effective and productive. It may be internal or external. An internal change agent, for instance, may involve appointing managers or employees to oversee the implementation of a change in the organization. Similarly, consultation from outside the organization may indicate an external change.

An external change agent presents options that are more radical to the organization, thus multiplying its productivity and level of service to the customers. Still, such a change creates the possibility of examining a wide range of alternatives within the organization.

People change type focus on the individuals participating in the business operations of the company. This change agent intends to improve the morale through motivation of the employees. Moreover, it reduces the levels of absenteeism and turnover of employees, thus improving the production and quality of the services rendered. Managers prefer this approach for job enrichment, goals setting and behavior modification.

Analysis also acts as the changing agent. It focuses on the evaluating the organization structure so as to boost the output and efficiency. Using the organization’s analytical systems and research activities help to change from the old production methods to the modern operation behaviors. This change is enhanced by the availability of the technology and the communication facilities. For instance, introducing advanced computer systems could improve the communication and data processing practices.

Several challenges necessitate the need of bringing change within the business arena. For instance, the internet availability supports customers with information about health related matters. Health organizations require internet availability to remain promising to the clients while improving the service delivery and operational models. Adopting the internet technology helps in fighting infectious and deadly diseases. Still, it helps in reducing the risks posed by the new medical products that are intended to curb the prevalence of deadly diseases.

Strategic change presents a challenge to the organization on the means of penetrating into the new market. Through diversification and opening of the outlets, integration of management and operational structures is necessary. It means that, a company that wishes to implements a feasible decision making strategy will require a change in its hierarchical organization.  Therefore, the strategy acts as the changing agent.

Finally, central to modern organization change is the competition. When a company producing similar products brings in a new team in their organization, more competitive team will be needed to sustain the competition presented by the opponent. It will involve absorbing more creative and innovative teams, who possess ideas of pushing the organization to the next top level. For example, bringing in young blood will add vigor and creativity in organization. In fact, sticking to one production technique could bring the business into financial setbacks.

Sample Business Studies on Propagating Welfare Exit by Enhancing the Individual and Contextual Factors gp essay help: gp essay help


Propagating Welfare Exit by Enhancing the Individual and Contextual Factors

Literature Review

Welfare dependency is a major problem in the United States of America attracting the attention of all government agencies. Welfare programs were coined to act as a safety net for people living under the poverty line but have since become a lifestyle for the poor. The desire to shift the focus from welfare dependency to personal responsibility and independence is an issue that has faced many challenges over the years. The demarcation between the deserving and the undeserving welfare recipients is not clear. In fact, the issue has raised many concerns among different people with the opponents of the movement arguing that people should receive drug tests to determine their eligibility. Other people argue that only people who are led to poverty via uncontrollable factors should be eligible for the welfare donations (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). For instance, widows are considered eligible for the program because their source of inability to support the family is not self-inflicted. Single mothers, who have never married, on the other hand, are considered undeserving of the welfare help because their situation is as a result of their choices in life.

The debate on the eligibility of the welfare program support has attracted a lot of attention from scholars and theorists. The classical economic theorists argue that people depend on welfare programs because they do not want to work. Classical economic theorists attribute poverty to personal incapability and the choices that one makes in life. In other words, the theories blame the victims for allowing themselves to depend on the welfare programs while there are other options in life. Most of the welfare depend persons are considered morally deficient in classical economic theories.

On the other hand, the sociologist theories criticize the neoclassical economist theories for ignoring the structural factors that cause people to live in poverty. The desire to determine the causal effects of the increased dependence on welfare programs has led to increased research on the area of risk factors that lead to dependency. Temporary assistance for the needy families (TANF) is one of the organizations that try to propagate the exit plans for welfare dependent people to reduce the cost of the welfare programs and in turn alleviate poverty in the community (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). To achieve success in alleviating poverty and reducing dependency on the programs, one must understand the risk factors and the ways to mitigate these problems.

Long-term dependency is highly associated with unwillingness to work but research indicates otherwise. Most single mothers dependent on these programs still have some form of paying jobs. However, their low skill and lack of quality education limits their access to well paying jobs thus making it hard to leave the welfare programs. The single mothers depend on both the welfare aid and the small income from their low paying jobs because none of their income sources can sustain families efficiently (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). Additionally, research indicates that the level of dependency among the black people is higher than that of the whites. The level of unemployment in America makes most black men unmarriageable thus leading to higher numbers of single mothers among the blacks. Lack of quality education and the support of the male partners in families have led the single mothers to view the welfare aid as a lifestyle rather than a safety net.

Unskilled labor does not help to exit the welfare programs because the work associated costs do not match the income earned from the jobs. Additionally, the increasing number of teenage mothers poses a challenge to the exit plans. Teenage mothers tend to make the welfare programs a lifestyle because the disruption between their education and motherhood leaves them no chance to pursue higher education. The cycle then follows with low skills and unskilled employments that cannot fully support a family. Lack of affordable childcare, limited access t suitable jobs in affluent suburbs as well as high housing and transportation costs limits the success of the welfare exit programs (Telleen & Sayad, 2012).

The rational choice theory argues that people often take the most appropriate choice to their problems. In this case, people dependent on welfare programs prefer to stay in the programs than to engage in unskilled labor that can barely sustain a family. Additionally, getting people out of the welfare program without an ideal source of income do not tackle the issue of poverty because such parents are bound to have welfare dependent children hence the continuation of the cycle. Welfare programs that focus on work programs should focus not only on the reduction of dependency people but also on the stabilization of those who exit the programs to prevent further dependencies (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). Access to suitable jobs, improved education levels through training, and reduced number of teenage mothers can go along way in propagating the welfare exit programs for welfare dependent people. Further, welfare programs can promote the formation and maintenance of two parent families especially among the blacks and the prevention out of wedlock children to enhance the exit programs. A focus towards cutting poverty rather than reducing dependency can propagate the exit programs and provide a success independent life for the welfare dependent persons.

Research Questions

How can the TANF program shape the society to prevent further welfare dependencies among single mothers?How can TANF use the individual and contextual factors to ensure successful exit programs for welfare dependent people?

Research Model and Graphical Representation

The study on transition mechanisms from welfare dependencies to the job market is based on two theories emanating from sociologist theories and neoclassical economic theories. The human capital theory emphasizes on the responsibility of an individual in choosing whether to depend on welfare programs or choose alternative options. In other words, the human capital model places the dependency blame on the victim. On the other hand, the neighborhood theory from the sociologist group of theories argues that the environment in which people live determine their socio-economic status (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). In this case, single mothers who dependent on the welfare programs are a product of the societies in which they live. Therefore, for TANF to facilitate effective exit program, it should focus on strengthening societies to produce better citizens while advancing the individual factors pointed out in the human capita theory.

Teenage parenthood Lack of skills Lack of quality education

High cost of living Lack of quality jobs Discrimination Unemployment

Individual FactorsContextual Factors

Formation of two parent families Educate the dependent persons Offer training Enhance cohesion in the society Provide avenues for suitable jobs

Welfare Dependency

Successful Exit Plan

Poverty alleviation

Reduced dependency                                     reduced dependency


Improving Individual and Contextual Factors Enhances a Successful Transition from Welfare Dependency to Personal Independence

Previous researches indicate that contextual and individual factors promote the high levels of dependency on welfare aid among single mothers. Therefore, a reverse program can reduce the dependency habits and promote self-development among these people. Individual issues such as lack of quality education and poor skills can be improved by training people and offering short education programs for people dependent on welfares to foster their exit plan. The success of the dependent persons after the exit program depends on their ability to compete in the job market (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). Further, with the availability of ideal jobs and support programs in the community, single mothers can raise independent children thus reducing the burden of welfare dependency in the future.

Social Cohesion in the Neighborhood Leads to Low Welfare Dependency and Low Levels of Poverty

Social cohesion in the society can prevent excessive dependency on welfare programs by equipping people to self-manage their economic situations in a better way. Additionally, social cohesion reduces the stigma and the discrimination against the poor, which often enlarges the gap between the rich and the poor. People dependent on welfare programs lack quality education and the right skills because life in towns and cities is fragmented into social classes. Only the wealthy have access to quality education and ideal training programs. Therefore, the poor end up in a vicious cycle of poverty and continuous dependency on government help. Enhancing social cohesion can eliminate these challenges and create an avenue for the financially challenged person to acquire similar education and training programs (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). Further, social cohesion helps in reducing the number of children born out of wedlock hence reduced number of single mothers and welfare dependency.


Telleen, S. & Sayad, J. (2012). The transition from welfare to work: processes, challenges, and outcomes. New York: Haworth Press.

Women and Gender Studies Essay on Labor and the Environment in Canada essay help us


Labor and the Environment in Canada

Dave Bennett’s article ‘Just Labor’ published by the Canadian Journal of Work and Society in 2007 has explained the labor situation in Canada by starting with a comparison of the state of affairs between Canada and the UK where he came from. Bennett remarks about significant changes that have taken place since the 1980s, especially the increased number of staff members. The labor unions have diversified to incorporate outsiders who are not part of the labor fraternity, but engage in specialized functions. Then again, his article is based on the Fire Brigades Union (FBU) in Canada where he was a member (Bennett 1).

However, one of the major differences he identifies between UK and Canada is industrial relations. The industrial relations system in Britain was very informal and it was characterized by less arbitration, fewer limitations on taking industrial actions such as strike, and unenforceable collective agreements. Canada, on the other hand, had contrasting characteristics; enforceable collective agreements, highly restrictive regarding organizing strikes, and other draconian rules and regulations. Here, Canada seems to have oppressed it workers more due to the extreme rules imposed on union actions compared to the British. Another major difference concerns trade unionism that appears to be so different from Canada and UK. Bennett points out the high ratio of staff to members in Canada and non-payment of union staff whereby only a few elected officers and secretaries were paid for their work (Bennett 1-2).

The health and safety issue is, however, what Bennett has discussed more comprehensively. He notes there is no big difference between Canada and Britain since both of these countries have established laws on health and safety, and codes of practice. Bennett was able to take over at the Canadian Labor Office (CLC) as a representative of health and safety whereby he brought various significant changes in the department. By the time he takes office, however, there are several important laws on health and safety including the right to participate or join health and safety groups under union management, the right to information about hazards in the workplace, and the right to refusal of working under unsafe and unhealthy conditions (International Labor Office).

Bennett sees loopholes in the stipulated safety and health laws since they are more focused on workplace standards rather than on the rights of the workers. He argues that with those laws it was easy to work in a place where rights are assured, but still be vulnerable to serious health and safety hazards. However, new things come up whereby workers fight to have the issue of physical injuries and deaths is looked into. Another issue that workers need be included in health and safety agenda is environmental protection. The CLC then commenced smaller committees to drive the agenda whereby a ten-point program was produced to ensure a worker’s perspective on the environment and connection to health and safety are observed (Bennett 3-7).

The CLC has an environmental liaison group that is represented by environmentalists from the national and regional group. The different approach it has applied makes it unique compared to other labor unions. However, Bennett explains how CLC experienced various hurdles in their efforts to ensure a green environment. Another major area that CLC wanted to be solved is the pollution that affected the environment on which the worker lives and works. However, other groups would put pressure on them to stay away regarding the issue of environmental conservation especially their move to conserve forests (Bennett 3-7).

Works Cited

Bennett, D. “Labour and the environment at the Canadian Labour Congress – The story of the convergence.” A Canadian Journal of Work and Society (2007): 1-7. Print.

International Labor Office. Ergonomic Checkpoints: Practical and Easy-to-Implement Solutions for Improving Safety, Health and Working Conditions. Geneva: International Labour Office, 2010. Print.

Sample Healthcare Research Paper on Protein Supplements get essay help


Protein Supplements

Protein supplements refer to protein and nourishment sources, and sustenance items, that are used to assist weight competitors and lifters to achieve their wanted daily admission necessities. There are various protein supplements and they include the following; protein bars, protein powders, feast substitutions, and weight gainers. Nearly all protein supplements have over 20 to 30 grams of protein. They also come in different flavors for instance; we have those from organic product enhanced protein powders that are mostly used in treating and cream seasoning weight gainers. Protein supplements are one of the popular nutritional supplements consumed by athletes due to the belief that they reduce fatigue, increase muscle mass and enhance recovery.

Weight Gainer, it comprises of whey protein. It is used by body builders or athletes who have problems of taking enough calories to compensate the large amount they burn through doing intense exercise (NHS.UK 1).

Whey Protein, it is a protein supplement used as a byproduct when processing milk into cheese (Etcheverry 1).  It is important because it helps in fat loss and enhances the growth of lean muscle. Whey is less costly and it comes in diverse flavors for instance, true and tried vanilla.

Soy Protein,it is categorized among the few plant protein sources that provide all the required amino acids. It is prepared from soy bean that have been hulled and dried to make soy flour. Soy protein is very important because it plays a vital role in improving the immune function of the body and promoting bone health.

Benefits of Using Protein Supplements

Protein supplements come with many benefits to the consumers. The benefits include:

Grab and Go,It is very easy to purchase protein supplements because one is only required to visit a shop or a supermarket grab it and go away with it.

No Refrigeration and Exceptionally Versatile, One is not required to keep protein supplements under refrigeration because they are exceptionally versatile. This enables one to use the supplements at his preferred time. Additionally, protein supplements can save your cash because most of them are less costly making it affordable to most people.

Furthermore, proper protein timing is important to expanding muscle pick up because they reduce damage of muscles and delayed onset muscle soreness (NHS.UK 1). Consumption of whey helps in preserving muscles.

Should we be taking protein supplements? The question remains unanswered for the fact that we have a range of protein supplements and an individual circumstances will govern whether they will benefit or not.

Side Effects of Protein Supplements

Water Retention, Intake of proteins in high quantities especially when one is not eating enough carbohydrates can make the body become ketosis. One’s kidneys then overdrive when trying to get rid of these substances making it difficult for the body to retain water. This increases the dangers of dehydration especially if a sports woman or man loses fluid through sweat when doing exercise. Dehydration not only has a negative impact on the kidneys, but it can also have an effect on the functioning of the heart.

Fat Gain, Consuming excess protein in form of protein supplements adds extra calories. Based on the fact that the body cannot store proteins in its original form, if one does not burn these calories by doing a lot of exercise, or taking part in weight bearing activities to build his muscles, there is a likelihood of extra fats being converted into fat. An increase in the amount of proteins consumed together with calories without doing physical activities is most likely to lead to a similar gain in both muscle and fat, which may not be one’s target when one supplement protein powder.

Acne, Acne is majorly a hormonal disease and causes pimples or spots on an individuals face. Daily and milk products like whey protein comprise hormones that are most likely to increase sebum. Consumption of protein supplements like whey causes acne. This is because whey has a hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1. IGF-1 is usually regulated by a human’s body (Mooers 1). Overconsumption of acne makes an individual’s body to produce more oil. Excess use of IGF-1makes skin cell to increase very fast resulting in the clogging of pores. Whey protein powder is usually pasteurized twice forming complex protein and sugar that cannot be easily digested.

Damage to Kidneys, Increased use of protein usually put a lot of strain on the kidneys because of the ketones that are produced from such a diet and the need to release them. The condition for individuals with reduced kidney functions can worsen and may even result in reduced function in people with healthy kidneys.

Aggression, the majority of bodybuilders consume protein supplements. Studies indicate that extreme use of protein supplements causes mood swings and aggression. This is because protein supplements have metals like mercury and lead that are accountable for mood changes and aggression respectively. Creatine has some similarities with whey protein and when consumed in large quantities it causes aggression, anxiety, and panic attacks.

Gynecomastia, Gynecomastia refers to breast tissues enlargement in men. Soy proteins have increased levels of phytoestrogen. The chemical structure of phytoestrogen is identical to the structure of estrogen. This implies that it has a similar hormonal effect on human body just like estrogen.

Hypertension, Studies indicate that protein supplements for example whey help in reducing hypertension. Beverages with whey protein play a significant role in reducing hypertension in individuals whose blood pressure has been formerly high. Whey protein has an outcome on the production of nitric acid which plays a significant role in regulating blood pressure.

In conclusion, protein supplements have both good and bad effects depending on how someone uses the supplements.

Works Cited

Etcheverry, Paz. ‘Kaplan University: Protein Supplements: The Good, the Bad, and & the Ugly…’ N.P., 2015. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.

Mooers, Devin. ‘Whey And Acne: Does Whey Protein Cause Acne?’ Clear Skin Forever. N.P., 2013. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.

NHS.UK. ‘Bodybuilding and Sports Supplements: Facts and Dangers – Live Well – NHS Choices’. n.p., 2015. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.

Sample Critical Thinking Paper on Essentials of Strategic Management gp essay help: gp essay help


Discussion Board

Boeing used organizational design strategy to turn around its business in the manufacture of airplanes. This resulted in the company attaining superior business financial performance. The process involved the following issues. They include reshaping the organization structures, leadership, behaviors, functions and customer relationships. Boeing engaged in an intensive process of changing the business structure that hindered innovation and efficiency amongst workers. Therefore, the leadership structure changed from bureaucratic leadership to transformation leadership where members contributed to the development and growth of the company as a whole. Aligning the company’s vision to the goals and structure enables higher productivity and efficiency while reducing cost of operation. Moreover, it involved carrying out SWOT analysis to determine the strength and weaknesses of the organization (Hill and Jones 32). This helped come up with attainable goals both in the short run period and in the long run period.

Managerial functions were devolved in the sense that they embraced the delegation style of leadership where workers would make crucial decisions that enhances efficient operation. Strategy managers have ample time to concentrate on the structuring and learning of strategic goals and vision of the company hence able to advice the workers accordingly (Kesler and Kates 34). Lastly, organization design covered employee-customer relationship, which was deteriorating. The reason behind this is that competition in the market was intensifying and customer satisfaction was going down due to the delays in the supply of airplanes. Working closely with the customers aided Boeing capture and maintain its clients especially through the personalized services rendered, increasing customer satisfaction. The end result was increased profit for the organization. This is how the company managed to avert the operating inefficiency experienced before, due to structural limitations (Hill and Jones 23). Thus, the firm identified its competitive performance in the market.

Works Cited

Hill, Charles W. L, and Gareth R. Jones. Essentials of Strategic Management. 2nd ed. Boston: South Western, 2008. Print.

Kesler, Gregory, and Amy Kates. Leading Organization Design: How to Make Organization Design Decisions to Drive the Results You Want. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011. Print.

Sample Cultural and Ethics Studies on the Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Climate writing essay help


The Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Climate

Annotated Bibliography

Carle, David. Introduction to Air in California. Berkeley: U of California P, 2009. Print.

The source is a book which talks about the climatic change in California. One of the most influential chapters in this article is about industrial pollution. It therefore offer credible information about the gases released into the air by companies that help steer the economy ahead. However, the situation needs to be addressed by different environmental agencies.

EPA. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions | Climate Change | US EPA.” US Environmental Protection Agency. Unites States Environmental Protection Agencies, 12 Sept. 2015. Web. 28 Oct. 2015. <>.

This source is a website article on the environmental pollution through carbon emission. The article provides alternative causes of action to reduce the amount of gases in the air that deplete the ozone layer. It gives proposal on the way forward concerning the rate at which carbon is produced.  The research was conducted by a formidable institution hence authoritative.

Isley, Steven C., Robert J. Lempert, Steven W. Popper, and Raffaele Vardavas. “The effect of near-term policy choices on long-term greenhouse gas transformation pathways.” Global Environmental Change 34.1 (2015): 147–158. Print. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.06.008

This journal is based on a research finding about greenhouse gases. The world has been faced with the problems, administration and control of carbon gases in the air. Countries have been coming together from time to time to try and get a lasting solution for this menace. However, very few countries are ready to walk the talk due to the accrued economic repercussions. This information is well covered in the article.

Kavita Suranaa, and Laura Diaz Anadona. “Public policy and financial resource mobilization for wind energy in developing countries: A comparison of approaches and outcomes in China and India.” Global Environmental Change35.1 (2015): 340-359. Print.

The authors articulately show the measures adopted by developing nations in solving environmental issues. This has not been a walk in the park due to financial constraints experienced by individual countries. In addition, developed countries turn a blind eye towards conservation initiatives and they are the biggest polluter of the ozone layer. This is according to a comprehensive study carried out between china and India. Consequently, wind energy is being adopted as a measure of conservation by some of the developed countries to replace traditional energy generation methods that pollute the environment.

Pasgaarda, Maya, Bo Dalsgaardb, Pietro K. Maruyamab, Brody C. Sandeld, and Niels E. Strangeb. “Geographical imbalances and divides in the scientific production of climate change knowledge.” Global Environmental Change 35.1 (2015): 279–288. Print.

Knowledge about climatic change in the environment is crucial for the development of a nation. Most countries have experienced climatic change that causes harsh conditions such as floods and strong winds that culminate from increased heating by the sun. This knowledge contributes a lot to my research by giving insightful ideas and critical information on environmental issues.

Rafelski, Lauren E., S. C. Piper, and R. F. Keeling. “Climate Effects on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over the Last Century.” Iop Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 61.5 (2009): 100-150. Print. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1307/6/4/042026

This journal is rich in factors that causes or produces carbon dioxide. Some of the conferences held to discuss the issue have denoted that reduction of carbon gases in the air is dependent on a country’s policies that guide companies about the emission matters. An example of the effects widely discussed in this document includes: loss of aquatic animals, ozone layer depletion and seasonal cycle changes.

Stern, P. C., O. R. Young, and D. Druckman. “Identifying and explaining framing strategies of low carbon lifestyle movement organizations.” Global Environmental Change 35.2 (2015): 307–315. Print. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.009

The article is structured along the united nation initiatives to reduce the rate of carbon emission. The strategies adopted at a national or international level may not effectively cater for the environmental needs of nations in the world. Many strategies instituted by government end up failing because of lack of local support from the industrial sector that is the main source of income for the state.  The diverse approaches provided by the authors make this article to be one of the most influential journals in this field of environmental studies.

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. “How Much Carbon Dioxide (and Other Kinds of Greenhouse Gas) is Already in the Atmosphere? | UCAR – University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.” UCAR – University Corporation for Atmospheric Research | Understanding Atmosphere, Earth, and Sun. National Center for Atmospheric Research, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2015. <>.

Green house gases have been attributed to the environmental degradation and negative effects not only to the human beings but also to plants. Death has occurred in places where concentration of these gases is on the high level hence causing conflict between nations. Dumping of computers  and carbon products in poor countries has also been on the rise hence need to tackle the elephant in the room as quickly as possible to prevent further damage. Thus, this website offers very useful information and new perspective on the same issue.

Works Cited

Carle, David. Introduction to Air in California. Berkeley: U of California P, 2009. Print.

EPA. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions | Climate Change | US EPA.” US Environmental Protection Agency. Unites States Environmental Protection Agencies, 12 Sept. 2015. Web. 28 Oct. 2015. <>.

Isley, Steven C., Robert J. Lempert, Steven W. Popper, and Raffaele Vardavas. “The effect of near-term policy choices on long-term greenhouse gas transformation pathways.” Global Environmental Change 34.1 (2015): 147–158. Print.

Kavita Suranaa, and Laura Diaz Anadona. “Public policy and financial resource mobilization for wind energy in developing countries: A comparison of approaches and outcomes in China and India.” Global Environmental Change35.1 (2015): 340-359. Print.

Pasgaarda, Maya, Bo Dalsgaardb, Pietro K. Maruyamab, Brody C. Sandeld, and Niels E. Strangeb. “Geographical imbalances and divides in the scientific production of climate change knowledge.” Global Environmental Change 35.1 (2015): 279–288. Print.

Rafelski, Lauren E., S. C. Piper, and R. F. Keeling. “Climate Effects on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over the Last Century.” Iop Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 61.5 (2009): 100-150. Print. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1307/6/4/042026

Stern, P. C., O. R. Young, and D. Druckman. “Identifying and explaining framing strategies of low carbon lifestyle movement organisations.” Global Environmental Change 35.2 (2015): 307–315. Print. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.009

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. “How Much Carbon Dioxide (and Other Kinds of Greenhouse Gas) is Already in the Atmosphere? | UCAR – University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.” UCAR – University Corporation for Atmospheric Research | Understanding Atmosphere, Earth, and Sun. National Center for Atmospheric Research, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2015. <>.

HR Management Research Paper on Journal of Computer Information Systems cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help


Human Resource Management


Human resource has evolved from several forms and functions. These changes are also present in the manner in which organizational human resource managers are carrying out their roles in managing the working force. Evolution of human resource has occurred from the old ages when human force was under intensive abuses like slavery to modern times where human effort is being valued and appreciated as an integral force in the success of organizations. Human resource is the combination of managerial and employees’ functions with performance. Human resource management on the other hand refers to the management of a company’s manpower through human resource. In other terms, HRM also implies the human resources role of managing employees, including recruiting, selection, training, compensating and evaluating (Desser, 2005).

Initially under HRM, the managers did not concentrate so much on the information of organization employees. This is because of too much paper work involved which would consume a lot much time, energy and costs. This gave in to the introduction of the HRIS system. HRIS is an acronym for Human Resource Information Systems which refers to a process of developing information technology for effectual administration and management of human resource functions and applications. HRIS is a processor system in computers entailing a database which trail all employees and their detailed information in an organization (Gill & Johnson, 2010). HRIS is basically a system for gathering, storing and exploring data of a company’s employees (Hendrickson, 2003).Through HRIS, the HR manager gets the best opportunity to improve their input through planned direction of an organization.

In developing HRIS technology in Fortune 500 Company, I would recommend several issues to be considered. In the first place, I will deeply look at what exactly the organization needs to match all the requirements. Getting the correct HRIS is not an easy task but through careful planning and by coming up with a clear portrait of the organizational needs can simplify the process of acquisition of the accurate software.

The HRIS is a relevant input in this organization because of its energy, time and cost effectiveness. There are five important systems in HRIS to be applied in Fortune 500 organization.


Recruiting in broader terms entails all activities undertaken in an organization with an aim of identifying and attracting potential employees (Breaugh & Starke, 2000).This is an integral function of human resource managers in drawing human capital in the organization. E-recruitment has become an online development for HR in companies across the world in getting their new work force (Bussler & Davids, 2006).Using online recruiting process in Fortune 500 Company will be useful in easing the selection of workers.

E-recruitment will use the internet to draw possible workers in the organization. It basically involves advertising open positions in the organization on an online platform in the HRIS software application. Using this type of recruiting model is useful for this organization because it addresses the issues of successful recruiting strategy which like demographic factors and cost implications.

Using information in the HRIS system in the organization about the existing employees will also play a critical role in enhancing the likelihood getting the best match for a given opening in the company. There is also a reduced application cost and procedure which will attract a large pool of applicants for the opening. This will make the organizations get the best match from a variety of applicants due to a tight screening process.

It is evident that recruitment is one of the centre HR activities in an organization. This needs to be well planned and conducted in an efficient and successful way. Using databases of information in the HRIS software in the e-recruiting process provides the best platform in ensuring that the process is effective and successful for the company.


Selection of employees in an organization involves the process of taking a step beyond recruitment. It implies making of a decision about a particular individual who fulfills the organizations requirements to fill in the open position thereby hiring him. The process of e-selecting entails sorting applications, contacting the potential employees, closing the deal and incorporating the employee into the organizations culture.

Applying e-selection system will assist in settling for the best potential employee. These are candidates who have the right knowledge, skills and ability to step in the organization and fill the vacant position. One of the challenges we as HR managers are faced with in out duties is to develop the precision of selection process in order to meet organizational requirements. Using e-selection provides a concrete evidence for the process altogether.

This technology will cut down on the time and resources used to handle the selection process. The use of e-learning in the selection procedure in this organization is effective as it will increase the flexibility in the selection analysis and administration. Using the traditional methods require candidates to physically appear before the organization’s selection panel from the HR department. However, applicants will now use e-learning platforms on the organizations websites to take the web based tests in different localities.

Through e-selection, the organization will also be able to improve on the value of selection evaluations to the candidates in order to get the best fit. In as much as the organization has developed the capacity to analyze the competence of a selection evaluation, HRIS important in presenting longitudinal performance information for appraisal the efficacy of selection test. This is important in projecting the long-standing performance.

Self-Service & HR Portals

Employee self-service incorporates a combination of technological system which enables users who are employees and their line managers interact directly using their HR information. They are able to query, assess and act on matters in the organization. This system is also called employee self service, manager self service, employee direct access system or HR portals. Through this system, paper work is done away with in the office since all employees and the directors will transact their business on an online interactive platform.

Self-service and HR portals systems will allow organizational leaders of this organization to access a variety of data or information regarding their employees. It will also enable me as HR directors develop my function paper work concerning the employees with a lot of ease. This will enhance the system because information on employees’ resume, merit assessments, and other employee track information is readily available. The application system will provide an extensive podium for my effective execution of duties pertaining my office and position.

By allowing the employees and line managers have a single secure portal provided by the system will offer the employees an easy way of updating and recording their information. This will also allow the work force to edit and make change request as they come along and HR managers confirming the requests instantly. The flexibility and platform of this system also allows both the employees and managers to carry on with the stated tasks not necessarily in the organization premises but anywhere they are provided there is internet connection.

Self-service & HR Portals are vital in allowing the HR Director with an opportunity to carry out responsibilities in an undisturbed manner. Over the years, the work of the human resource manager has been hindered severally because of too much handling and compliance clerical work. The system however does away with all these clerical stages providing the HR manager a platform to play a crucial role in the company operations.

E-Learning & Training

E-learning encompasses courses or programs of learning, and education training in which electronic appliances and applications are used for knowledge creation, management and transfer. It stands for applications and processes including web-based knowledge, computer based learning and digital collaboration among many others.Content in e-learning is relayed via the internet while e-training on the other hand refers to the delivery of learning, training or teaching through an electronic means. The system also uses computer or other electronic devices in providing important knowledge or expertise enhancement information.

Most organizations across the globe including Fortune 500 Company require a flexible personnel in order to achieve its goals and objectives. In the situation that this organization is implementing dynamic e-learning and training systems for employees, they stand a chance of being flexible in dealing with different circumstances they find themselves in within the organization. This therefore implies that e-learning and e-training are efficient ways the organization can increase the competence level of the workers.

The human resource in today’s economic sector is the fundamental factor for the success of any organization. When the human resource is effective, capital is also raised. Effective human resources in this organization will therefore enable it exploit different resources and increase production levels. Different other leaders or departmental heads are responsible for upholding this organization’s position. The most effective way of achieving all these is through increasing our employee’s knowledge levels thorough learning and training. It is to this effect that courses like e-learning and e-training which are on job practices widen proper knowledge, skill and capability of the employees to foster the growth of organization. These methods are cost and time effective as the employees do not have to leave get the knowledge while working at the same time.

Performance Management

Performance management involves a well developed program within an organization that addresses personal and the company’s performance issues in order to come up with an effective and healthy organization’s culture. Performance management goes beyond annual assessments. Their main objective is to translate goals into results thereby not only focusing on employees but on the organization as a whole (Fitz-enz & Davison, 2002).

For an effective optimization of employee performance, it is indispensable to have a reliable system which records employee objectives and evaluate them with his performance with relation to achieving the objectives. The goals too must be well defined thereby requiring an effective system established for achieving a commendable performance. This means that HRIS is important an system which will aid in establishing performance footpath, and managing performance reviews. Incorporating the system provides effective performance management services like optimal goal setting, quick feedback and tying actions to consequences in an optimized manner.


In conclusion, it is evident that there are several types of human resource information systems. These systems have adequately increased the performances of organizations across the globe. HRIS play a critical role in saving organizations from time, energy and costs in their operations. Incorporating the systems in Fortune 500 company will not only make my work easy but will also move this organization to the next level due to the benefits involved. Given the population of employees in this organization, the system will help in maintaining an effective database inventory that will be helpful in implementing plans and strategies aimed at moving this organization to greater heights.


Bussler, L. & Davis, E. (2006). Information systems: the quiet revolution in human resource. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 42(2): 17 – 20.

Desser, Garry. (2005). Human Resource Management (10th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall, USA.

Fitz-enz, J. & Davison. (2002). How to Measure Human Resource Management (3rd ed). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Gill, J. & Johnson, P., (2010). Research methods of managers. Journal of Labor Research, 24(3), 381-394.

Hendrickson, A., R. (2003). HRIS: Backbone Technology of Contemporary HR. Journal of     Computer Information Systems.

Sample Geography Essay Paper on Human Geography “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu


Human Geography

Geography, defined as the study of the surface of the earth as the space occupied by the human population, plays a fundamental role in the interpretation of contemporary issues in policing. It is divided into two; physical and human geography and the latter’s role in the interpretation of contemporary issues in policing cannot be ignored. According to human geography, an individual’s context or location in the world influences or shapes his or her view of the world and the people in it. Simply put, it shapes the theories, beliefs, or perceptions that a person has about another. In the interpretation of contemporary issues in policing, the location of a person clearly underlines the activities that he or she may get involved. It is easier for policing agencies to make interpretations of contemporary issues in policing while leveraging on a person’s context or location, which are concepts that can only be learnt by having a thorough understanding of geography.

Moreover, the interpretation of contemporary issues of policing is dependent on the geographical concept of philosophy, which aims at or focuses on the clarification of thoughts in a logical manner. Without the integration of philosophy, thoughts remain cloudy and indistinct, and thus, the solution to a problem or situation remains compromised. A geographical concept, philosophy too plays a key role in policing agencies. It enables policing agents and agencies to make clear and sharp boundaries regarding activities or operations in the sector. Thus, in the interpretation of contemporary issues in policing, having knowledge about the concept of philosophy is important, and this can only be achieved by having a more thorough understanding of the discipline of geography.

Sample Marketing Critical Thinking Essay paper on Customer Service Problem essay help for free


Answer Questions

Question one

Certainly, there is a customer service problem that has a negative impact on them resulting in a poor customer experience. There is a discrepancy in the way some customers are treated such that there is a non-fair categorization of the customers based on from whom they purchase the compactors. From the investigations, it is clear that those customers who purchase the compactors from the distributors receive better services that those who purchase from the authorized retailers. The poor customer services go to an extent that the compactors take long to be delivered, sometimes installation is not done, and customer do not receive the proper guidelines on how to use the compactor and are left to figure it out themselves from the users’ manual.

The distributors are also seen to mislead the customers on where they can purchase the product. They compel them to deal with them directly thereby ignoring the role the retailers play in supply chain management. To compound the problem, the installers portray a gross act of unprofessionalism by being rude to the customers with whom they Aare meant to establish a strong business relationship.

Question two

Though the distributors are exploiting the retailers, they are not likely to complain because this will trigger personal differences with them. Since the system was that the retailers acquired the goods from the distributors for reselling, there it appears that if any wrangles of any kind exist between the retailers and the suppliers, then the incensed retailers would be on the losing end. They could also force all transactions between Handy Andy and the customers to be direct and completely keeping the retailers out of the picture.

Question three

The marketing vice-president should redesign and redefine the distribution channels as a way of gaining a competitive advantage. This can be realized by having strategic and efficient distribution channels. This will enhance the success of retailing. Further, the intervention of the marketing vice-president will be required in cleaning the name of the company and creating a better image following the bad customer experience that has been experiencing. This will enhance productivity through production and retailing operations of the organizations.

Question four

This is a problem for Handy Andy because the distributor purports not to be separate entities from the organization. They appear to make deals that are outside the operations of the company. This would result in a conflict of interest leading to counterproductive. This is done the aim of frustrating the efforts of the retailers, which is not only a bad approach in the supply chain but also brings out an ethical issue. The net effect is that there will be no customers’ satisfaction and hence ruined loyalty.

Question five

The best approach is to email a brief survey about the installation experience within three to five days of receiving a warranty activation form. This gives the customers enough time to gauge the quality of the service. Further, in the absence of the installer or any persons within the supply chain, the customers will not be under duress to fill the forms, and there is a high chance that the responses on the experience will be more honest since there is no fear of intimidation.

Question six

Retailing without the intervention of the distributors has several advantages. Such include;

Retailers tend to be closer to the customers and them, therefore, understand their needs better and work to fulfill them.Unlike distributors, retailers carry out marketing activities more effectively.Information from the company is easily communicated to the customers while feedback from the customers is easily relayed to the company.

The disadvantage of not involving the distributors is the likelihood of poor inventory management. This is because the distributors play a key role in inducing both push and pull demands.

Question seven

It is not too late for Handy Andy to attempt service recovery. The company can still explore a variety of alternatives that can help fix post purchase dissatisfaction. This can be done through apologizing to the customers, and then take responsibility and offer the customers something of value that will win then back to the organization. For example, they can offer subsidized overhaul offers or commit themselves to cheap servicing of the equipment.

Sample Nursing Coursework Paper on Nursing theory writing an essay help: writing an essay help


Nursing Theory.

Nursing metaparadigm is a global concept that describes the main interest of nursing and it is made up of four integral parts that are nursing, person, environment and health. The concept is important in nursing theory since the four parts represents main areas of focus during the patient care.

Metaparadigm Grid

Metaparadigm conceptTheorist 1Callista RoyTheorist 2 Martha RodgersMy metaparadigm definitionsPerson          According to Roy, a person is a biopsychosocial being who continuously interacts with changing external and internal environment.Martha defined a person as an irreducible pandimensional energy field that has pattern characters and expresses unique quality as a whole and cannot be anticipated in parts.In this metapardigm, a person does not necessarily mean a patient; it can be more than one person, patient’s friends or even family members. Nurses attempt to empower patients to manage their health while making them feel like their health and wellbeing is cared (Alligood, 2014).  Health          Roy defines health as the ability of a person to adapt to the environment and hence develop effective coping responses. The description further defines health as both the condition and a process of being and becoming integrated as a whole.Martha describes health as the ability of a whole person’s energy field to interact successfully with the whole of the environmental energy field. Health as a component of metaparadigm refers to the wellbeing of a patient that includes generic factors, and their emotional, intellectual and spiritual wellness. Nurses should ensure all these factors are well considered when attending to patients (Kaakinen, Coehlo, Steele, Tabacco, & Hanson, 2014).Environment          Roy’s definition of environment referred it as world around and within the person who is in her point of view an adaptive system. The environment according to Roy includes every circumstance, condition and any influence that surrounds and has an impact on the growth and behavior of a person.Martha describes the environment as an irreducible energy field that is identified by pattern and exists as an essential constituent within a given human field.Environment refers to everything that surrounds patients affecting their illness and gradual healing. The environment includes both external and internal factors such as culture, mental states, locations hence necessitating nurses to ensure a suitable environment for patient’s recovery (Alligood, 2014).Nurse          The theorist describes nurse as an individual who attempts to manipulate stimuli that allow patients to deal successfully with the changing environment.Martha defined a nurse refers to an individual who maintains and promotes health, preventing diseases through conducting diagnosis, interventions and rehabilitations of the affected person.Refers to an individual who has acquired skills in nursing to carry out a diagnosis, assessments interventions, planning and evaluation of a patient’s health (De Chesnay, 2014).


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theory: Utilization & application (5th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

De Chesnay, M. (Ed.). (2014). Nursing Research Using Grounded Theory: Qualitative Designs and Methods in Nursing. NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Kaakinen, J. R., Coehlo, D. P., Steele, R., Tabacco, A., & Hanson, S. M. H. (2014). Family health care nursing: Theory, practice, and research. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: FA Davis.

Sample Research Paper on Illegal Migration in the United States (Against) common app essay help


Illegal Migration in the United States (Against)


IntroductionDefinition of illegal immigrationThesis Statement: Illegal immigration emerges as the basis of controversy resulting to diverse challengesMajor challenges resulted from illegal immigration:Overpopulationhigh number of people rely on the available resources thereby resulting to overconsumptionThe quality of education is wanting as there are diverse focus to meet the needs of the peopleIncrease of environmental issues such as environmental degradation are effects of overpopulationIncreased rates in crimesIllegal criminals pass through and cause havoc to the citizensYouth gangs are arising due to poor quality education and lack of education in totality. These have also resulted in violent crimesDanger to the society as anxiety and psychological issues ariseUnemploymentPovertyPoverty leads to increased crime, a negative sociological and economical effectsRecommendationsConclusionSummary of the issuesSummary of the recommendationsReferencesBibliography

Illegal Migration in the United States (Against)


Several challenges experienced in the US are a repercussion of illegal immigration. Overpopulation, environmental challenges, and increase of crime rate are some of the prevailing confrontations in the nation. Illegal immigration emerges as the basis of controversy resulting in diverse challenges. There is a need for the government to manage immigrants as an approach to curb social problems. This study addresses the controversy of illegal immigration in America. The study focuses at the challenges, and recommendations to curb the problems.


Illegal immigrants have had modifications since early 1990s due to changes in the policies (Chiswick, 1988). These modifications have led to diverse definitions. Presently, illegal immigration is a term referring to movement of people from a poorer country to a developed nation against the laws. Illegal immigrants search for security, peace, and better sources of living from these countries. Previous research shows that the aliens come from middle class economically (U.S. House of Representatives, 1986). Illegal immigration has been a major challenge in America as long as the immigration laws were present. The first illegal immigrants were the Chinese. They illegally gained entry to America due to political relations between the two countries. Lately, these immigrants gain access from different places, and for diverse purposes (Djajic´& Michael, 2014).


Illegal immigrants are related to diverse challenges. First, they strain the political relations between America and their countries (Haddad & Balz, 2006).  America as a developed nation may enforce some legalities, which can vastly affect developing nations and thus their relations. Illegal aliens cross to US due to economic challenges in their nation or for criminal activities. Socially, the immigrants come with limited education, resulting in increased cases of crime. Limited education and their status prevent them from acquiring prestigious lifestyles and job opportunities. Most resort to crime for survival, increasing insecurity in America. These immigrants, due to idleness form youth groups and gangs, which terrorize the citizens. They also face psychological challenges, and emotional turmoil due to separation from friends and relatives and anxiety (Seigel, Jeffrey & Gregory, 1981)

. Economically, they add up to the already overpopulated number. This leads to overconsumption of the limited resources (Günter & Úrsula, 2009). The level of education has been reducing due to the high number of students enrolled at limited institutions. Additionally, these immigrants often have limited understanding of the English language. Environmental degradation has been rising due to overexploitation of the resources (Mumford, 1985). The American citizens have been competing for similar positions with the immigrants. This has forced more than a million citizens to search for greener pastures in other countries. The economy growth reduces, as some of the citizens are unemployed, others have low-income jobs while others continue to search for greener pastures.


Among the recommendations of managing illegal immigrants incorporate implementation of the IRC 1986 Act (Chiswick 1988). According to this policy, the government through the immigration agency can penalize the employers who knowingly offer opportunities to the immigrants. This approach will force employers to acquire the details of all employed refugees, and send to the government for verification. Illegal immigrants other than the relations of the legal immigrants offer amnesty. These immigrants can be deported back to their nations of originality. These approaches also have limitations (Djajic´& Michael, 2014). First, the Americans cannot willingly perform some jobs, and this may kill the industry if employers do not seek for employees from other nations. Deportation and amnesty heavily relies on the relationship between America and the nation of origin. There are some nations, which are not willing to conquer with amnesty policies. Another approach is for America, through the trade organizations and EU, to form an agreement with developing and neighboring nations (Spence, 1979). In these agreements, the nations can conquer to protect their borders against intrusion and illegal movement of the citizens. This will reduce the cost of maintenance of borders in America (Connelly, 2012). The last approach is to continually secure the borders against intrusion. This is tasking economically to American government.


Illegal immigration has led to diverse challenges in the US. Among them is overpopulation, environmental challenges, and increased crime. This study has addressed related challenges and offered recommendations to curb the problems.

Annotated Bibliography

Djajic´, S., & Michael, S. M. “Controlling Illegal Immigration: On the Scope for

Cooperation with a Transit Country.” Review of International Economics. 2014. 22(4): 808-824 DOI:10.1111/roie.12137.

The source highlights the increasing cost of EU nations in managing borders as an approach of controlling illegal immigrants. In U. S., patrolling officers were going round the borders eight times more in 2002 than they did in 1986. This is in implementing the IRC 1986 Act. During this period, the budget grew of the agency increased by ten. The authors analyze the implications of the relations between destination country and poorer neighbor in connection to immigration management.

Buchanan, J. P. (2009). “Hire Americans, Not Illegals.” Human Events. 2009, 19th October. 865-866

According to the writer, there are increasing cases of unemployment among the Americans. For more than 21 months, Americans have been struggling to apply for employment without much achievement, increasing the rate to 9.8 %. For every one opening, there are at least six unemployed Americans. This source is significant as it highlights the rate at which Americans are jobless and the basis for the increased economy hardship. Almost one million Americans have further quit their jobs due to low wages. The employers are in the catbird’s seat as they can cut the wages despite the desperation of the citizens. This is arising due to increased number of illegal immigrants in the country who are willing to do all kinds of jobs. Buchanan goes on to highlight the effect of immigrants in the labor force, thereby highlighting the economical challenge caused by illegal immigrants. Most of the illegal immigrants settled in the country or overstayed their visas creating a surplus of redundant labor.

Chiswick, R. B. (1988).  “Illegal Immigration and Immigration Control.” Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2(3):101-115

Chiswick defines an immigrant from the political, economical and policy approach. He further highlights the objective of IRCA as removal of illegal immigrants from the labor market. From the source, there are two approaches of dealing with the immigrants through the policy. The first one is to grant amnesty and the second one is to penalize the employers who knowingly employ the aliens. This source offers an approach in curbing this issue and limitations in this source. Through this study, the reader comes to understand the economic analysis of the aliens and its consequences.

Connelly, C. C. (2012). “Illegal Immigration through the eyes of a child: Patricia Riggen’s La misma luna.” Studies in Latin American Popular Culture. 30: 94-109

Riggen draws the attention of the audience to the positive experiences of the immigrants in America. This film is however contradicting the masculine status quo of the immigrants as exploitative and tragic. This Mexican film highlights the love between a mother and a son that overcomes every obstacle including international borders. Positive results are a blissful ending defines the movie. The application of a child as the protagonist emphasizes the perception of the immigrants. This source is significant in this study as it highlights the benefits immigrants have when working in America. The source as well underlines real life elements such as financial and emotional challenges on the family, exploitative employers and fear for deportation.

Mumford, D. S. (1985). “The Overpopulation problem as it affects the United States: A Step towards a Societal Response.” The Humanist. Pages 14-21

This source is highly essential in this study as it reviews problems related with overpopulation because of illegal immigrants accessing the nation. The author cites nuclear war, environmental degradation and depletion of resources as consequences of overpopulation. According to the author, all these challenges affect national security over food, resources and diseases. He compares Africa with America in terms of the problems. American industrialization heavily relies on agriculture. When unemployment is rising, the sector is greatly affected. The author asserts that as the Latinos are increasing so are their desires to permanently settle in America. There are needs to therefore protect national security to protect poverty rate in neighboring places encroaching America

Spence, A. “European Nations Move on Two Fronts to Secure Supplies of Strategic Materials,” Wall Street Journal. 1979,September 9. Page 1.

This source highlights the problem of overpopulation in relation to the Catholic Church viewpoint. Overpopulation is among the worries of the American leaders due to threatening of the resources. Among the approaches is for the church to review its policies as regards family planning and population control. One of the approaches according to the author in overpopulation is controlling population as China.

Seigel, J. S., Jeffrey S. P. & Gregory, J. R. “Preliminary Report on Existing Studies of the Number of Illegal Residents of the United States.” In Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy, U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest, Appendix E, Papers on Illegal Migration to the United States. Washington,

D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 1981, pp. 13-40.

Immigrants in USA enjoy diverse benefits. This is due to more privileges acquired than in their original countries. Aliens from Mexico enjoy economic stability, food security and protection, which is rare in their nation due to increased population and overexploitation of the resources. These immigrants are said to acquire technological benefits in relation to other privileges. These have changed their perception towards America despite harsh employers and segregation. Thus, majority of them are likely to make America their permanent residence. This information calls on the relevant agencies to ensure that every immigrant adheres to the stipulated rules for citizenry. The move is to protect the nation from challenges related to illegal immigrants.

U.S. House of Representatives, Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: Conference Report, Report 99-1000. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 1986, 14th October

From the source, it is still uncertain as to the quantity of assistance neighbors are to acquire in for the immigrants and the quantity the destination country is to offer as a means of intensifying immigration management. Success of this predicament lies on the internal policies between the two nations. In America, to control the aliens, North African neighbors must be willing to implement measures necessary for preventing undocumented aliens from moving out of their territories to EU. American states must besides be willing to protect their borders from inflows of these immigrants.

Haddad, Y. Y. & Balz, J. M. 2006. “The October Riots in France: A Failed Immigration Policy or the Empire Strikes Back?” International Migration.44 (2):23-34

According to the authors, the immigration agency has roles to perform to ensure that the immigrants adhere to the policies stipulated by the IRC. This is to minimize the number of immigrants to one immigrant out of every 400 American citizens. This resource is useful in the study as it highlights some of the security challenges related to illegal immigrants.

Günter, H. B. & Úrsula, J. G. (2009). “Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts.” Springer. Page 304.

The authors are keen on the environmental challenges related to overpopulation in America. According to their studies, more natural resources are depleted in managing the population. From the study, it is clear that the Latinos are increasing in their population and its government is assuming this threat. The population increasing in that nation and other nations in Africa has seen more of the illegal immigrants crossing over for greener pastures. America’s economy is thus on the verge of collapsing due to increasing demands.


Buchanan, J. P. (2009). “Hire Americans, Not Illegals.” Human Events. 2009, 19th October. 865-866

Chiswick, R. B. (1988).  “Illegal Immigration and Immigration Control.” Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2(3):101-115

Connelly, C. C. (2012). “Illegal Immigration through the eyes of a child: Patricia Riggen’s La misma luna.” Studies in Latin American Popular Culture. 30: 94-109

Djajic´, S., & Michael, S. M.(2014) “Controlling Illegal Immigration: On the Scope for

Cooperation with a Transit Country.” Review of International Economics, 22(4): 808-824 DOI:10.1111/roie.12137.

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