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Sample Social Work And Human Services On Poverty, Charity, And Motherhood: Maternal Societies In Nineteenth-century France Free College Essay Help

Discussion Questions One

 The national challenge to human services professionals is poverty while at an international level the challenge is language barrier. Poverty is an issue that affects humanitarian work. This is because of the fact that one has to address the issues before rendering help in form of financial or material assistance. The advantages of solving poverty issues are as follow. First, the audiences will be able to concentrate and avail themselves to human professional service providers. Secondly, they will collaborate during the sessions hence the goals of engaging in the humanitarian work are deemed to bear fruits (Sheppard, 2010). These are just but some of the reasons as to why a professional social worker needs to solve the issues before engaging the community in any activity. For example, poverty in many nations hinders human services professionals’ effort to implement professional services associated to social work. A professional social worker has to give items such as food and water to enable people attend seminars or lessons.

Language barrier is a challenge faced at the international level as a person has to learn different languages before engaging a community or ethnic groups in a new endeavor (Penn, Romano & Foat, 2011). This goes hand in hand with the learning of cultural behaviors and norms that may hinder success. Addressing the issue in advance has the following benefits. The first benefit is the facilitation of the communication and information delivery system. Another benefit is increased participation due to improved communication endeavor that enables the sharing of ideas and issues. Problems are solved as soon as they arises, hence creating a favorable environment. A good example involves moving out to offer services to a community that is illiterate which is unable to respond to human professionals. Breaking the barriers ensures that the initiative sails through successfully (Glicken, 2012).


Glicken, M. D. (2012). A guide to writing for human services professionals. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Penn, M., Romano, J. L., & Foat, D. (2011). The relationship between job satisfaction and burnout: A study of human service professionals. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 12(2), 123-142. doi:10.1007/BF00869249

Sheppard, M. (2010). Appraising and using social research in the human services: An introduction for social work and health professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Discussion Two

Poverty in Illinois is increasing at an alarming rate. This calls for social change, advocacy and leadership interventions. I hope to use each of these factors in the following manner. Social change includes mobilizing the community at Illinois to embrace modern farming and business trends to alleviate poverty. This will not only enables them make the end meet but also improves their social lives. Most of the residents at Illinois love leisure. Many families do not inculcate work ethic and values. This behavioral attribute needs to change so as to improve the community social welfare. Therefore, using the community leaders and other social figures, I will encourage the society to embrace work ethics as a social value (Lenagala & Ram, 2010).

Leadership influences the way people behave and deal with issues that affect their relationship with others and amongst themselves. Using my leadership skills and competence, I intend to influence the community at Illinois to undertake initiatives that will benefits the community. An example of these initiatives includes the structuring of business policies that may facilitate business undertakings. It makes sure that government creates a favorable environment for business enterprises which increases employment opportunity for quite a good number of the community members (Davidson, Crump, & Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs, 2010). Lastly, advocacy is championing for the right things and actions in the society that aids avert the ordeal. Poverty is attributed to people’s behavior. It comes as a result of a population behavior and perspective towards work. If a community encourages people to work hard and compete for the few available resources, growth is achieved while the vice verse is true (Adams, 2010). Thus, I will advocate for a healthy competition between businesses and employment of the young people who poses a threat to security in the event of massive unemployment.


Adams, C. (2010). Poverty, charity, and motherhood: Maternal societies in nineteenth-century France. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Davidson, F. M., Crump, J. R., & Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs. (2010). Employment, population, and poverty in rural Illinois: Census results, 1990. Macomb, IL: Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs.

Lenagala, C., & Ram, R. (2010). Growth elasticity of poverty: estimates from new data. International Journal of Social Economics, 23(1), 126-140. doi:10.1108/03068291011083008

Sample English Essay on The Scientific Method essay help websites

The Scientific Method

Developing a new product to compete against superior competitors brand is a big challenge to every business. There are several risks involved when developing a new product and, therefore, there are several factors that a business should consider prior to product development. One of the major factors is where the new product will meet customers’ expectations. The business should also consider whether it has enough resources to develop and launch the new product. To minimize the risk, the business should analyze the market using scientific methods to understand the factors that will determine the success of the product in the market. According to Hedges (2009), scientific method refers to the techniques of acquiring new knowledge or investigating phenomena through empirical or measurable evidence. Scientific methods help the business to understand its strengths and weaknesses in order to maximize on strengths and minimize the weaknesses. It also helps to understand the needs and expectations of the customers as well as the nature of the market. A scientific method is a useful tool that can be used to make a decision relating to whether the firm should develop the new product or not.

When developing the new product, the business belief that the product will be superior to the competitors brand, and it will succeed in the market. It is expected that the product will gain significant market share in the first few months in the market. The business also expects the product will receive a continuous growth in sales for a long period hence brings huge profit to the business.  The customers are also expected to become loyal to the product hence attracting more sales. Being superior to competitor’s brand, the new product has high chances of succeeding in the market. When developing the product, the business will ensure that the product has added value than competitor’s brands hence meeting customers’ expectations (Barczak, & Kahn, 2012).

To ensure that the new product succeeds in the market, the business will follow six steps of new product development. According to Cassia, De Massis, and Pizzurno (2012), the first step of new product development involves idea generation. To generate the idea, the business will conduct market analysis using SWOT analysis as well as PESTEL analysis. Ideas will also be generated from the target population, competitors, suppliers, and employees. The second step involves idea screening to identify most viable ideas to be implemented. The third step involves product development and testing. In concept development, the business will incorporate products features that will be appealing to the customers and also satisfy their needs. The concept will then be tested using a number of prospective customers. The fourth step in new product development is business analysis. It involves understanding the nature of the market, in terms of competition, selling price and estimated the profitability of the new product. The fifth step is prototyping and market testing. This involves developing the samples of the product and testing it with few customers to collect their feedbacks. From the feedbacks given, necessary adjustments are made prior to introducing the products in the market. The last step is launching and commercialization of the product. It involves introducing the new product in the market and conducting promotions to create customer awareness (Cassia, De Massis, & Pizzurno, 2012).

To test the hypothesis that the new product is the superior brand in the market, and it will succeed; the business will conduct market a market survey to analyze the performance of the product in the market.  In the market survey, the business will conduct data relating to sales volume, competitor’s pricing, and profitability. Sales volume data will help the business to determine the number of units of the new products that are sold in a given period. The sales volume can be compared to the competitor’s sales volume in the given time to determine whether the product is the superior brand in the market. Pricing data will help to compare the price of the product with the price of related goods in the market. The data is useful for determining whether it is attractive to the customers compared to competitor’s pricing. Profitability data will help the business to determine whether the new product is making the expected profit. To consider the new product success, it is expected that the product has high sales volume that competitors brands. It is also expected that the new product will be profitable in the long-term. The business also expects that the product will sell at a relatively higher price than competitors brand and still attract many customers. The success will also be determined by the market share and market growth of the new product (Barczak, & Kahn, 2012).

The method used to test the success of the product in the market is effective since it will help in making a decision on whether to continue or stop with developing the new product. The method will help the business to understand the nature of the market and consumers need that are not met by the competitors. Necessary improvements will be made to make the product more appealing to the consumers and satisfy their needs (Cassia, De Massis, & Pizzurno, 2012).


Barczak, G., & Kahn, K. B. (2012). Identifying new product development best practice. Business Horizons, 55(3), 293-305.

Cassia, L., De Massis, A., & Pizzurno, E. (2012). Strategic innovation and new product development in family firms: An empirically grounded theoretical framework. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 18(2), 198-232.

Hedges, H. C. L. V. (2009). Research synthesis as a scientific process. The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis, 1.

Sample Social Work and Human Services on Psychological Harassment in the Workplace get essay help: get essay help


Occupational health and safety are frameworks, procedures, and guidelines that are concerned with protecting the health, safety, and welfare of employees or people in the work place. It is affirmed that as a basic human right employees and workers should enjoy working safely at the highest levels, they should be able to carry out their roles and responsibilities in a safe and secure environment devoid of risks and hazards (Hämäläinen et al 138).

Legislation in different countries

These requirements are well defined in pieces of legislation of different countries and ensure that employers are aware on what is expected of them and the likely consequences waiting upon neglect of such legislations. For the success of any business, it is critical to create a safe working environment as this will retain employees and maximize on their productivity. Managers in different organization and countries should make it their responsibility to consider health and safety of their staff in the workplace and ensure that the business does not create problems for the employees and the general public. When this is taken into account unnecessary costs and damage will be avoided providing a strong cornerstone for the business to achieve its long term objectives.

Benefits of health and safety program in different countries

There are numerous benefits associated by creating a safe working environment as healthy workers are considered more productive and take good care of their families reducing the level of poverty in the process (Andersen et al 620).  Safe working environment would ultimately contribute to sustainable development of a country thereby reducing and overcoming poverty.

Secondly, creating a safe working environment would prevent the tragedy of the common arising from environmental degradation through pollution. Protecting the workers and the environment would safeguard future cohorts through elimination of pollution to the environment.

Third, it is clear that well maintained healthy and safe working environment would improve on employee acquisition and retaining as the encouragement and wellness brought on board would encourage the employee. As a summary, the organization would have a positive image outside, improve its staff morale, reduce the level of labor turnover, reduce absenteeism, and reduce the cost of legal wars and fines. To the employee this will increase self-esteem, reduce stress, improve morale, increase work satisfaction and improve the health standards.

United States

The goal of activities in the US is to encourage the health/safety of people and workers in a way that is preventive and ensures early response in case of an accident. The intention is to prevent needless diseases, harms, and deaths that are likely to occur due to the working situations.

In US the reason that warrant such programs include the large diverse population that raise new safety issues, the genetic susceptibility of those people with disabilities, the constantly evolving jobs with a shift to the manufacturing industries and the major changes on the work schedules.

In US, these programs have initiated extensive research in the work environment to come up with different strategies that will prevent injuries and health hazards, in addition, the researchers are coming up with technologies and information that would assist in intervention to protect the lives of workers.

In US there are new approaches that will ensure safety and healthy environment by eliminating hazards that result from design vulnerabilities; these are integrated to protect the worker both at work and at home. The employees have the responsibility of ensuring the safety of their employees while providing them with adequate information on health and safety (United States Department of Labor – OSHA).

Emerging issues on the programs in US is the unrecognized and understanding of safety exposure to nanoparticles in majority of the industries. Nanotechnology is believed to have the potential to employ a large number of workers; extensive research is established to provide evidence of risk associated with this technology and to develop controls and mechanisms that will provide guidance to workers.


Just like in US, Canada the labor code requires that employers are obliged to ensure that the health and safety of any employee is protected while working. The cipher is precise on the duties that the managers offer for control in every effort activity in the job place.

Contrary to US programs, employers in Canada are required to provide safe entry and exit points, provide first –aid facilities, safe clean water and health services in work place, provide adequate information, instructions, training and supervision to ensure safety (Canadian Employment Safety and Health Guide).  Moreover, they are required to provide a response to the employees, who have reported a hazard or a health issue. This can be in the form of written response recommending a policy to protect the employees or anybody granted access to the work environment. The code therefore requires that employee or anybody else be made aware of any foreseeable hazard the person is likely to be exposed.

The responsibilities of the employee are similar both in US and Canada as they are expected to use all safety materials, device and clothing that are provided by the employer to protect the employee from any hazard or accident.

Just like in US, in Canada the government has the responsibility of enforcing all the occupational, health and safety legislations, inspecting workplaces, disseminating health and safety information and resolving all disputes concerning health and safety issues.

Contrasting to US, in Canada there are well established health and safety committees that act as advisory bodies, identify hazards and obtain adequate information about them, assisting in resolving work related cases, participate in work place inspections and accident investigations and to make recommendations to employers on the action required to resolve health and safety concerns.


In Europe the goals and objectives of Occupational health and safety is to improve and implement health and safety rules by enhancing the capacities of business organizations, improving  the prevention of work related diseases while tackling new and emerging risks and hazards. This is similar to the programs in US as the goals and objectives of health and safety of employees are simply to protect the lives of workers.

The pieces of legislation are not similar in US and Europe since in Europe legislation governing the health and safety undertakes to develop coherent prevention policies that cover on the health, working conditions and the relationships of the employees. That of US is meant to protect and provide advisory of the health hazards and accident likely to occur in workplaces.

There is a similarity in the responsibilities of the employer in the US and Europe is to ensure the safety and health of all workers in areas related to work prevention of hazards, provision of information and opportunity of the employees to attend training.

The principles of the programs include elimination of the occupational hazards, evaluating hazards that can be avoided, dealing with the risks and hazards and giving collective preventive measures that will protect the lives of the workers.


The challenges faced by china include lack of work safety awareness, poor work infrastructure, and loopholes in the employer’s management structures.  This is different to the challenges faced in the US that include poor enforcement of the health and safety legislations in the workplaces.

Issues that need to be addressed are continued migration of hazardous industries to the rural areas, shortages of health professionals, inconsistency in enforcing health and safety rules that have led to failure in ensuring the health and safety of the workers. In the US this issues are considered under the emerging issues that focuses on research to solve the current health issues.

China has its program organized based on regulations that govern use of dangerous chemicals, the use of toxic substances and protection against Radioisotope (Rastogi et al 3). A.  All these are aimed at protecting workers from exposure to such substances that might endanger the life of the workers.

Similarly, in US employers have the responsibilities of ensuring that their employees get opportunities on education and training on health and safety, allowing them to access health service facilities for occupational disease diagnosis, the right to know the effects of health hazards in work places and other work related activities and the opportunities to criticize unhealthy practices at work places.

The enforcer is the health department of the government, they are tasked with the responsibilities of inspecting workplaces, and supervising the efforts put in place to protect workers from health hazards and injuries. This is similar to that of US where the government is involved in the enforcement of health and safety programs.

Works cited

Canadian Employment Safety and Health Guide. Psychological Harassment in the Workplace:

            How to Draft a Comprehensive Policy Number 308, May 2006.

Hämäläinen, P.; Takala, J.; Saarela, K. L. Global estimates of occupational accidents in Safety

            Science, Vol. 44, pp. 137–156.2006.

Andersen, L., Clausen, T., Mortensen, S., Burr, H., and Holtermann, A. A prospective

cohort study on musculoskeletal risk factors for long-term sickness absence among healthcare workers in eldercare, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 615–622, 2012.

Rastogi K., Kesavchandran C., Mahdi F., Panday A. Occupational cancers in leather tanning

            industries: A short review. Indian J Occup Environ Med, 11:3–5,2007.

United States Department of Labor – OSHA. Steps to Workplace Driving Safety.  January 26,     2009.

Sample Criminal Justice Essay on Death Penalty is Cruel and Unusual Punishment professional essay help

Death Penalty is Cruel and Unusual Punishment

Death penalty is a common type of punishment issued by most courts of law all over the world. The United States of America, for instance, impose death penalty on some types of criminal offenses such as terrorism and murder. Despite this approach by some countries, most people think that death penalty is a cruel and unusual punishment that does not create justice for the offended parties (Bedau and Hugo 33). There are many reasons, opinions, and school of thinking that support this argument against death penalty. It is also controversial that some countries have legal provisions for death penalty but in practice does not use it. This paper explores some major reasons why the phenomenon should be considered cruel and unusual punishment issued by courts of laws.

The first thing that makes death penalty cruel and unusual is how it is administered or executed; nowadays, it probably takes longer to execute it making the culprit live under prolonged hours of fear, pain, and uncertainty. In America and other countries, death penalty is now administered through lethal injection, which becomes the cruelest and most unusual manner of execution when botched. This is evidenced by the previous botched lethal injection in two states namely Arizona and Oklahoma. In the Arizona case, the process of administering death penalty through lethal injection on Ernest Jones lasted for more than one and a half hours. For more than one hour and half hours, the prisoner, Ernest Jones, was not dead after receiving the lethal injection; he was furiously emitting various sounds, snoring and gasping air. This made it a very cruel ordeal and experience for both the prisoner and the people who were administering the lethal injection (Manski and John 2).

Secondly, death penalty subjects the prisoner under impermissible form of mental torment, which also affects the administrators. The prisoner is mentally tormented from the movement he or she learns of the death penalty verdict. The person cannot think and reason rationally knowing that the hanging moment is just by the corner. This experience is worsened when the execution of the death penalty is delayed; delay is a common incidence in United States and other countries. Once the court gives a verdict for death penalty, it takes several months if not years before it is executed. This actually makes it a cruel and unusual process in the justice system. The waiting time can be longer than 5 years; according to Bureau of Justice Statistics, the waiting time for most prisoners under death row is 11 years and 2 months in United States (Baldus 45).

Death penalty is unpredictable. Besides the length of time, the unpredictability of death penalty makes it a cruel and unusual punishment issued by the justice system. It is not easy to predict whether or when the verdict will be executed. In addition, many people consider death penalty a uniquely dysfunctional type of punishment. This is because it is very unclear to predict how the case will fair if it reaches high court through appeal process. Sometimes the appeal process contributes to the delay of both the justice and the execution of the death penalty. Lastly, death penalty is often postponed before the actual execution making it a very cruel and unusual punishment in the justice system (Cohen and Pat 56).

In conclusion, death penalty is a cruel and unusual punishment that should not be used in the justice system. Its continued use does more harm to the justice system than good. In addition, killing the offender does not create justice to the culprit (Canes-Wrone et al. 21).

Work Cited

Baldus, David C., George Woodworth, and Charles A. Pulaski. Equal justice and the death penalty: A legal and empirical analysis. Upne, 1990.

Bedau, Hugo Adam (ed). The death penalty in America: Current controversies. Oxford University Press, 1998. Print.

Canes-Wrone, Brandice, Tom S. Clark and Jason P. Kelly. “Judicial selection and death penalty decisions.” American Political Science Review 108.01 (2014): 23-39.

Cohen, Beth D. and Pat K. Newcombe. “The Hanging Judge by Michael A. Ponsor–A Book Review: Capital Punishment–Is the Death Penalty Worth the Price?” (2014).

Manski, Charles F. and John V. Pepper. “Deterrence and the death penalty: partial identification analysis using repeated cross sections.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 29.1 (2013): 123-141.

Sample Essay on Potential DNA evidence at the scene of crime admission essay help: admission essay help

Potential DNA evidence at the scene of crime

           Potential samples

The Blood stains, Semen, Saliva, Urine, Hair with hair root, Teeth, Sweat, Body tissues and cells.These samples would be obtained mainly from the window where the culprit got access into and the bed where the crime took place.Apart from the samples, other items would include; the knife, bed sheets, masks, gloves and clothing that might have been left behind by the culpritSince as it was a rape case which involved struggle, the culprit most probably left some small traces of the listed samples on the bed and the window known as touch DNA.

Ways of collection

Some of the precautions include that need to be taken; wearing of protective gear like the gloves and making sure that the samples  are free from contaminants as dust as much as possible, samples should not come into contact.Photographs at the crime scene of  various samples and  specific  areas are taken clearly in all dimensions.Measurement of the knife and the window used by the culprit is also necessary to extract vital information such as the body size estimation of the culprit.Liquid  elements from the crime scene  like blood  are taken by use of swabs, gauze  pads or disinfected cotton wool, dried, put in a paper bag or dry box sealed and labeled to be taken to the laboratory. Liquid samples can also be collected with a clean syringe, Samples on the garments and the knife should be collected  separately with the whole item.After collection of the samples, proper storage is essential as biological samples like the blood is known to bio-degrade easily. Room temperature condition is mostly recommended.

Sample English Essay on Elements of Literature college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Elements of Literature

Emily’s mother has encountered both personal and contextual difficulties, which have made her to make unreasonable choices. She ends up regretting being a parent after encountering several issues, for instance, heartbreaks, low self-esteem, and lack of enough funds to sustain her household. She has lo low income, which makes it difficult for her to meet the family needs well. The increasing demands in regard to the management of her domestic duties have played a role in affecting the relationship she has with her daughter (SparkNotes Editors 2007).

She feels guilty and takes total responsibility for her failure to attend to Emily’s needs. She believes she is the reason why Emily is unhappy. However, she places more blame to social and environmental conditions that are unfavorable to her status as a single parent.  Her optimism that Emily will one day trace the correct bearing clearly illustrates her shortcomings in providing the basic care a child should receive from parents.

Emily’s mother describes her daughter as gloomy and of sickly nature. She, on the contrary, depicts her as jovial, thoughtful, and selfless. She narrates how Emily has survived through the hard toils of life.

Being the key role player in the tale, Emily endures many challenges. The withdrawal nature she depicts can easily be likened to her mother’s in the regard that she keeps a lot to herself despite the many challenges that were present. She supposedly understands family status thus does not ask much from her mother. Her mother describes her as “She kept too much in herself; her life was such she had to keep too much in herself” (Olsen, 2006).


SparkNotes Editors. (2007). SparkNote on I Stand Here Ironing.

Olsen, T. (2006). “I Stand Here Ironing.” Seeing and Writing 3. 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s. 66-70.

Sample Sociology Coursework Paper on Marriage as a Social Institution admission college essay help

            Social reality is significant in the society, mainly because it is based on the daily events that are open to interpretation. This means that people can have different perceptions about an issue but interpretations are normally based on a common communication ground. For example, the views about money, property or marriage may be divergent but there is a common ground of argument. First, money has changed over time, and as a result, the need, access, and use may be different among individuals. Generally, money is a necessity that allows people to access various needs, the basic ones. As such, cases such as crime, which is socially unacceptable in the society, could significantly be reduced if more people could have access to money. Other people are constantly looking for more money through investments in order to make their lives comfortable.

            Marriage as a social institution has also changed over time. Previously, people mainly married for purposes of companionship and procreation (Hall 1). Furthermore, in some communities, parents decided for their children whom to marry. Today, this perception has changed because some people marry due to the fact that they both belong to a similar profession. Furthermore, there are many couples who marry yet they are unable to bear children. This means people marry for different reasons. Property perceptions also change over time due to various reasons. Some people view property as physical assets that are very valuable. As such, they would protect the property they have or acquire more property by buying. On the other hand, some people view property as materials that can be sold when faced with problems. For example, a person would sell his or her car when faced with financial problems. Generally, the changes in social institutions are driven by different needs that people have.

Works Cited

Hall, William. Marriage as a Social Institution., 23 April 2012. Web. 28 October 2015.     

Sample Management Essay Paper on Regional vs Global cbest essay help: cbest essay help



Regional vs Global

While exploring this topic, I will consider two types of organizations, regional and global. A regional organization is a firm that operates within a specific limited geographical zone. Regional firms are always geared around supporting its corporate environment. A regional firm is usually affected by the local economy. The firm is usually centrally managed and tends to support the headquarters, and its strategic selling markets. On the other hand, a global organization is a firm that carries out its business all over the world. The firm integrates all of its branches and focuses its entire marketing strategy on the worldwide scale. In most cases, its products are homogenized as a strategy of lowering costs.

To deeply understand how these two types of organizations are managed and carry out their operations, I will consider Airbnb Inc. and Expedia Inc. in various perspectives. Airbnb is a regional firm whereas Expedia is a representation of a global firm. I will consider their environmental coverage, governance, organizations, strategies they employ, and their market performance. As a result, I will ascertain the challenges they are facing and come up with solutions to such issues.

Study Reason/Rationale

The rationale for this study is based upon a job business in the sense that the organizations under analysis are operating and thus accruing income for the ownership. However, these organizations are unique in the sense that they are still in their growth phase. They are yet to achieve their full business potential and matching returns. However, the two entities under comparison and study differ in scope and rate of growth.

Airbnb vs. Expedia


            Airbnb Inc. is a regional company that runs an online communal marketplace where people lists, seek, and book lodgings online or from their mobile phones. It allows various people within its operational locality to rent out their showcase and extra space to the public. The company was founded in 2008 and has its headquarters based in San Francisco, California (“Airbnb | L2: Benchmarking digital performance,” n.d.).

On the other hand, Expedia is a global online company that also books airline tickets, car rentals, hotel reservations, cruises, and other various services through a World Wide Web. Expedia Inc. was founded in 1996 by Microsoft. The company facilitates its services via a website where customers can book various reservations.The websites have highly transformed the hospitality industry through making accommodation reservation, travel, and other services more accessible to the public (Edelman,B. & Luca M. 2014).

The two companies offer their services in a more similar way but differs in terms of governance, strategies they employ in accessing services, the environment they covers thereby varying their performances. Although with the current success in their market coverages, Airbnb and Expedia have been experiencing some difficulties in carrying out their day to day operations. Nevertheless, every organization is performing well in their various markets.

Description: Background

            Airbnb Inc. is a private company that has its specialization in the travel industry. Since its advent in 2008, the company has expanded to cover about 34,000 cities across 150 countries. Presently, the company handles over 1.5 million listings. The company owes its roots to a move by Brian Chesky and Joe Gebbia. The duo set out to start the inaugural concept of Airbed and Breakfast during an industrial design conference in October 2007. The entry of other players has served to grow the venture into a far flung business that stretches across a wide expanse of regions and covers a considerably large population of clientele (Edelman, B. & Luca M. 2014).

 Additionally, the company has made a number of collaboration ventures that have led to its characteristic growth and capture of a substantial market segment. These companies include Y Cobinator, Greylock, Sequoia, Andreessen Horowitz, DST Global, General Catalyst and a number of players from University Ventures. These ventures have greatly attributed the company’s growth and control of a considerable market share. As of March 2012, the company has a valuation of 20 billion dollars. This is a result of the outfit’s creative and business knit inventions (“Is Airbnb growing too fast?” n.d.).

Expedia has its origin under the parent company Microsoft in the year 1996. Later, the company was purchased by Ticketmaster in 2001. The company that was to change later names to InterActiveCorp kicked off a number of ventures under the Expedia outfit. By 2005, Expedia Inc. had flung out a number of players under its umbrella including Expedia corporate travel (currently known as Egencia), Trip Advisor, Classic Vacations,, and eLong, The company also later bought off a share in the travel metasearch engine Trivago.

The outfit has its offices in Bellevue Washington. The offices are located at downtown in a building known as the Expedia building. According to the company’s first CEO, the name Expedia came into existence by combining ‘exploration’ and ‘speed’. Expedia as a branded outfit operates through 100 points of sale spinning over 60 countries. Additionally, the company operates in collaboration with over 10,000 partners in the travel industry. These include airlines, hotels, high traffic websites, and other consumer brands. These operations run via the Expedia affiliate network powered by their AP interface (“Expedia, Inc. home – Expedia, Inc,” n.d.).

Key Points

Environmental Situation

As noted in the above introduction on these companies, the Airbnb outfit is a vibrant establishment that is based in San, Francisco California. The company has however through the years been able to gain a notable population segment of clientele. The company operates in a large area of over 150 countries. This fact is despite the company having been formed just a few years ago. Thus, it can be gathered that the company is characteristic of enormous, vibrant potential among its players. It has consequently spread to far flung areas in the amount of time that it has been in operation. Therefore, the company is portraying a positive trend towards its coverage area extension (“Airbnb vs. Expedia | Airbnb2015Review,” n.d.).

In comparison, Expedia enjoys a similar far-flung influence on the global platform, albeit on a lower notch. The organization has been in operation since its advent in the year 1999. It is thus practical to note that its progression and spread of business has taken a slower pace than its comparison. In line with this argument, the results that have been achieved in the country of operation and the overall customer reach is relatively lower. It can thus be said that the company contain a relatively lower environmental influence when compared to Airbnb. The same is in line with the spread noted; that is over 60 countries (Edelman, B. & Luca M. 2014).

Aspects of Governance

In an article by Boerner, H. (2015) on the practical aspects of corporate sustainability, it was noted that a large segment of the population was embracing the aspect of new brands. For instance, Airbnb has been able to achieve leadership by disruption of the old business models in the hotel business. The sustainability of existing players has thus been subject to the threat of these new entrants due to the value that the customers are tending to place on disruption pricing. This aspect has played a role in the current state of Airbnb that has been noted to be a new entrant in the hotel business. Therefore, the strides that the organization has taken so far are as a direct effect of the good governance skills that have been inputted (“Airbnb | L2: Benchmarking digital performance,” n.d.).

In line with the research study above, it can be gathered that the established companies struggle to cope up with the development that take place with time. Their survival is largely dependent on the measures that are put in place in line with these developments. It can be thus said that the fact that Expedia has been in operation for a similarly long time since 1999 places it in a similar situation. The challenges that face a company battling with change and the competitive effect of new entrants are playing a role here. Therefore, Expedia’s policy has not been able to match its business prowess with that of its comparatives in business. In summary thus, its performance in the aspect of governance and its effect on the business process is ranked lower than the comparison above.

Organizational Strategy

The performance of a business and the achievement of its set out goals and objectives is largely dependent on the plans laid out on the same. Proper plans are attributed to resultant progress in the right direction in regard to the objectives of the organization. As has already been observed, the aforementioned companies have been able to achieve varying degrees of success within the predetermined durations of time that have been observed. Coordination and sense of common direction are important, especially in a vast and widely spread organizational setup. The nature or course of progress made in an organization is dependent on the decisions made and subsequently implemented by the managerial or leadership helm of the company.

Talking of Airbnb, the company has been able to grow to achieve a valuation of approximately 20 billion dollars. Most of these successes can be attributed to the measures that have been put in place by the leaders of the corporate. The role played by the initial players in the advent of the business are specifically important in this case. Their policy and way of operation serves to impact the results achieved. One aspect of organizational strategy that is greatly attributable to the success achieved is the manner of partnership. The company has over time partnered and received funding from a number of institutions. These grants and sources of supplementary funds have served to create growth and sustainability in the organization.

There are trends that can be noted in the strategy implemented by Expedia as an outfit. The company’s growth over time has been largely attributed to its acquisition of similar profitable brands in the same line of business. The current state of the company can be defined by these strategies and attributable moves that have been employed by the organization. Also important to note is the fact that these strategies are as a result of decisions made by the players in the organization, who are the leaders. Some of the acquisitions have served as a major break for the company and can be attributed for the strides made thus far. However, there are a number moves that have impacted the organization negatively too.  In 2011, one of the subsidiaries in Expedia was involved in a major tax row that cost the company about 6 million dollars. Some of these factors represent the negative detriment of the organizational strategy implemented (“Expedia Inc. –,” n.d.).

Organizational Performance

            The manner in which a company is operating and fairing in its relevant market is dependent on the measures put in place to ensure and ascertain this performance. Performance is rated based on the achievement of set goals and objectives. As thus, it is important for each organization to ensure that its set out goals and objectives are adhered to and thus achieved. A measure of organizational performance is used as a gauge and threshold when making a comparison with competitors and similar players. Performance is measured on the basis of the results and returns achieved by the organization. This measure is thus an important tenet that tends to guide competition among peers.

            The performance of Airbnb can be gauged based on the results that have been achieved so far. As noted earlier, the company has been able to achieve a 150 countries outreach since its advent. The same can be noted on its overall population outreach that is a reasonably large number too. This kind of results are not achievable without the input of matching effort aimed at this given end. The organization can also be said to be performing well, considering the amount of growth that has been achieved within its period of operation. Also important to note, apart from the global outreach and tremendous strides that have been made within this period of existence is the valuation amount that has been estimated to be the company’s worth. The same too is a measure of the company’s performance. Therefore upon considering all these proceedings, it’s explicit that Airbnb is currently performing well in the market (“Airbnb | L2: Benchmarking digital performance,” n.d.).

            In the case of Expedia, performance can be said to be average but not in line to match the amount of time that that outfit has been in operation. The number of years that the company has been in existence widely outweigh the strides that have been made so far. It has been noted earlier that the level of performance is largely determined by laid out policies and the prevailing conditions on the ground. In comparison with the above-mentioned company, Expedia has not been able to achieve a similar market share and business prowess, despite the position that the company is at currently. It can thus be said that the conditions underlying have resulted in the outplaying of the company and thus its relatively lower level of performance in its line of business. Relevant intervention is required to match this void and bridge the gap between the two levels (“Expedia Inc. –,” n.d.).

Issues and Problems

            It can be in summative said that there are a number of issues that serve to influence the performance and progress of an organization in a dynamic business set up. In this particular case, the prevailing situation and measures put in place have served to influence the current position of the named companies regionally and globally.

In the same way, there are factors that have served to hinder growth too. The dynamics that lead to the survival and growth of one business may on the contrary result in the dismal performance of another. For instance, we have noted the effect of new entrants to the survival and coping of the existent players. It seems that the entry of new players and changes with time led to a competitive outplay of Expedia. Thus, its level of performance of a lengthy period of time is unmatched with the effect created by Airbnb that has been in existence for a considerably shorter duration of time (“Expedia vs. Airbnb customer experience @ Pissed Consumer,” n.d.).


                Some of these influences highlighted above have played a positive role and thus served to favor thrive of business practice and spread to other global areas out of the sphere of advent. These factors have majorly favored the growth and spread of Airbnb within the short period in which it has been in operation. There are inherent characteristics in the company that have worked to favor this growth. Expedia on the other hand is seen not to cope up with the trends in its market.

Way Forward

                A company needs to identify the areas that need work in order to make changes, remain competitive and achieve growth. The areas that need work in order to achieve performance are put into consideration. These measures further need to be in line with the prevailing conditions on the ground it at all they are to be realized. Additionally, the mix of factors in play differ depending on the company and its underlying situation. Therefore, the company’s factors need to be explored to before an amicable strategy can be devised.


            Business is prone to the effect of market forces. These shifts that aid to guide the progression of business can be predicted and studied to determine their occurrence, nature, and subsequent effect. Therefore, in the course of business operation, it is important that that players and decisions makers pay regard to the same and incorporate them into the formulation of strategy. In such a way, unforeseen and unpleasant occurrences are predicted and mitigated. This is the key to prudent business practice.


Airbnb vs Expedia | Airbnb2015Review. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Airbnb | L2: Benchmarking digital performance. (,m, n.d.). Retrieved from

Boerner, H. (2015). January | 2015 | Sustainability Update. Retrieved from

Edelman, B., & Luca, M. (2014). Digital discrimination: The case of Retrieved from

Expedia Inc. – (n.d.). Retrieved from

Expedia vs Airbnb customer experience @ Pissed Consumer. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Expedia, Inc. home – Expedia, Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved from

In Pederson, J. P. (2014). International directory of company histories. Vol. 148. Detroit, Mich: St. James Press.

Is Airbnb growing too fast? (n.d.). Retrieved from

Ribbers, J., Kapadia, H., & Airbnb, Inc. (2014). Get paid for your pad: How to maximize profit from your Airbnb listing

Why Expedia isn’t taking on Airbnb: Travel giant still searching for ‘magic bullet’ in sharing economy – GeekWire. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Sample English Essay Paper on Hiring on Intelligence free essay help online

Hiring on Intelligence

One of the appropriate ways that managers can predict the success of the potential candidates is through focusing on their intelligence. According to Ricketts (2011) intelligence is the capacity to “respond successfully to new situations” as well as learning from experiences (p. 72). Intelligence is paramount in hiring because it enables managers to recognized potential candidate who are capable of undertaking certain responsibilities. However, intelligence is not necessarily the best way to predict success in career since it is limited to perceive success in terms of scholastic studies (Ricketts, 2011). Individuals can be intelligent, but if they cannot work with the current system, the company is deemed to fall.

Perceive intelligence can be utilized in hiring individuals in situations where physical appearance is more desirable than talents. In addition, the first impression is essential to the hiring managers, as it creates a picture of the kind of person the candidate could turn out to be. Hiring managers should determine the level of intelligence among the candidates by evaluating their efforts rather than their talents. Many people could term Michael Jordan, a former basketball player, as talented, but he was just a hard working player, who chose utilized most of his time practicing rather than relaxing. Hiring based on intelligence may compel candidates to lie since they want to live up to the expectations of their bosses (Gladwell, 2002).

Apart from the candidate’s intelligence, other factors, such as communication skills, problem-solving skills, as well as the capacity to work in a team are also critical during the hiring process. A student can be smart in passing examinations because examinations demand individual efforts. On the contrary, working with others could prove devastating to such student, hence, failing to attain organizational goals. Communication skills are essential in interactions and dealing with clients. Problem-solving skills are crucial in candidates who wish to become future leaders, and they depend on situations rather than the level of intelligence (Ricketts, 2011). A competent team leader should possess excellent communication skills, in addition to problem-solving skills.


Gladwell, M. (2002, July 22). The Talent Myth: Are smart people overrated? The New Yorker, Department of Human Resources. Retrieved on 28 Oct. 2015 from

Ricketts, C. (2011). Leadership: Personal development and career success. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.

Sample English Essay Paper on Compassion and Justice essay help

Compassion and Justice

            Compassion and justice are issues well understood by the minority and the marginalized communities in the world. The understanding of these terms varies depending on a person’s position in the society. To the marginalized, justice is showing compassion and fairness to people who are of low status. Additionally, justice means punishment for the wrongdoers. The powerful see justice from a different point of view. For instance, some traditional theories of justice argue that the interest of the strong represents justice in the society (Rawls 79). In other words, the personal interest of the ruling group determines how justice is exercised in the society. A different theory argues that justice is depicted by doing well to the friendly and harm to the enemies. The latter approach of justice was highly valid during the colonial periods and the slavery era. The powerful nations enslaved members of the enemy nation and their actions were justified by the latter definition of justice.

However, the idea of justice has transformed over the years and the current generation has varied views. Further, the process through which justice should be served and the process of judging wrong doers vary across the divide. Levi, a former slave uses his story to bring out a new idea of compassion and justice, as he understands it. Plato, on the other hand, presents justice from a different position as an activist for the oppressed (Rawls 160). The arguments from both writers vary because of the positions from which they argue their points. However, a few similarities and differences arise from their definition of justice and compassion. The contrasting opinions of both writers are systematically discussed throughout the paper.

Levi argues that justice and compassion varies depending on the environment in which one lives. During the slavery period, the special squad team killed and burned the bodies of their counterparts for varied reasons. Their compassion did not have a place in such kind of a society. The crematory team did not have self-will or the ability to decide right from wrong because their survival depended on their obedience to the masters (Brown 137). Therefore, it is wrong for people the current world to judge their actions based on the present understanding because situations today are different from what they were at the time.

In contrast to the Levi’s assertion, Plato argues that justice and compassion are constant aspects of human living, which do not change from time to time. An individual is expected to act justly and in a compassionate way, regardless of the surrounding environments. Plato’s assertion is meant to create a certain order in human activities to prevent people from misusing power and authority. The change in attitude towards justice and compassion contradicts the wholesome purpose of justice. Plato argues that justice should serve the whole person and create a connection between a person and the society (Rawls 41). In other words, justice should influence the society, not the other way round. The environment in which people live cannot dictate justice because it is the bond that joins one to the society.

Both Plato and Levi agree that justice and compassion are non-interference acts. In other words, just acts and compassion acts should not interfere with the normal order of the society. The societal approach urges people to consider both personal and societal impacts of their decisions. For instance, in Levi’s views, the possession of power should not deter one from seeking public justice in favor of personal interests. Additionally, the SS squad team during the slavery period should have considered the impacts of their favorable position for the rest of the group (Levi 43). Plato, on the other hand, asserts that justice and compassion are inherent attributes whose purpose is to unite the society and not create power boundaries.

Both of the writers condemn the acts of coercion and the use of power to intimidate justice. Coercion can hinder justice in many ways. For instance, judging the SS crew based on their actions during the slavery period is unjust because they did not act out of own will (Levi 53). On the other hand, compassion should have prevailed while making the decisions to follow the masters’ rules thus making them compliant. Plato argues that political selfishness and excessive individualism are the sources of injustice in the society. Individualism forces people to make selfish decisions that do not benefit the society. Therefore, power should not be used to coerce people to do things that they would not do willingly and neither should it be used to deter the process of judgment.  

In conclusion, human understanding of justice varies from one person to another and depending on the context of the argument. However, a few aspects remain constant including the wholesomeness justice and the non-interference aspect of the same. True justice does interfere with the normal functioning of the society. Further, justice and compassion serve both the individual’s interest and the social interest, thus creating a wholesome effect.

Works Cited

Brown, Adam. Judging “privileged” Jews: Holocaust Ethics, Representation, and the “Gray Zone. New York: Berghahn, 2013. Print.

Levi, Primo. The drowned and the saved. New York: Vintage International, 1989. Print.

Rawls, John. A theory of justice. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009. Print.

Sample Essay Paper Writing college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Because I live with men, I am assured of freshly minted insults every time I interact with them. The creativity factory is always running with these beings. On the odd Friday when it is not, I have no doubts whatsoever that they will revert to old favorites, or return to choice pet names they may have overheard from the wife. If they are particularly stumped, they will switch to the universally acknowledged put downs like ‘madam’, with which they will kill two birds; calling me to attention, and indicating to the occasional passer-by a vital truth; that I have no balls. Since men are likened to Neanderthals, chaos is part and parcel of their lives. Our room, on a good day, is a ripe hive of anarchy.

The anarchy is down to one simple problem; we have a serial food thief on our hands. He has honed his skill to such levels that he now no longer waits for the wee hours. It has led us to erecting signs inviting occupants not to risk leaning their food after meals. As such, the room is occasionally converted into a courtroom, in which cases such as ‘who ate my bread’ and ‘Where is the pie I left on the dining table in I the morning.”

Because I live with men, there is a rigid refusal by all parties to take part in or acknowledge any and all activities that may be construed as immoral. The fastest way to get insulted half to death is to ask the attending roommates how that shirt makes you look. Compliment doesn’t exist in the undertakings of these brutes; neither does this statement stand in for lack of appraisal for looks and appearance. If anyone is stupid enough to, say, put on that nice ‘peach’ shirt that tragically has buttons on the left side, as good brothers, we will ensure his bra and purse all match the shirt.

But the more fascinating thing about this mind-set is that there is a strict no-touching policy. Last weekend, while fighting back tears from the onions I was slicing, my left arm, quickly flicking upwards to forestall the stream, accidentally strayed and landed on the chest of the skater. Admittedly, my hurried withdrawal could have been misconstrued as a caress. The skater stopped mid-step and gazed at me circumspectly. The world stopped as we stood still, eyeballing each other. After almost an hour is when I assured him on how he had really pissed me off. We have since agreed to keep a two-meter buffer between us at all times.

For example, an undeniable perk of living with smart, intuitive men is this; on that lazy Friday, when the devil prevails upon you to invite that stunner from class to your room for ‘just tea’. The skinny one is particularly adept at picking up on your very noble intentions, and will scamper from the room as though it is on fire. The fat one only has to be promised to feature on your blog sometime, and he too will suddenly find himself very busy. He is what we like to call a bit of a slut. There will be some trouble with the married one, but nothing a few veiled threats cannot quickly sort out. Its as a result of this, that it becomes difficult to understand that when you want that privacy to ‘make tea’, these men will practically boil the water for you.

The color of a person’s skin Sociology Essay Sample Paper common app essay help


“The color of a person’s skin does, unfortunately, determine law; the application of the laws is mostly determined race. The question in the US about racial background is widely used to discriminate people from minority groups. This is due to prejudice and stereotype which is rampant in the criminal justice system. The random stops by law enforcement officers have actually become selective in that people from minority groups are targeted. There is a stereotype of individuals from certain groups being criminals because they cannot obey the law. There are reported incidents whereby the random stops by the police are targeted at people who are dark-skinned. The US culture determines how the laws are applied; the laws are just a reflection of our cultural practices in the society. Law is embraced in many practices in our society and the selective application of the law depicts our cultural practices and how people of certain groups are seen.

The government has a prevalence of Xenophobia after the attack of September 11 by terrorists. The prevalence of xenophobia within government destroyed immigration reforms that were supposed to be done in the US and I believe the September 11 attack played a vital role. The US government is reluctant to draft policies and laws that support the path to legalization of immigrants from other countries. In 2005, a poll showed that 72% of Americans favored a program whereby illegal immigrants who work in the US to be registered with the government. The government has not put in place strategies to ensure that a program is implemented due to xenophobic prevalence within it. There is strong evidence that show that xenophobic aggression dramatically increased and became wide spread after the attack within government and the general population.  For instance the American Arab anti-discrimination committee reported that that in 2003 alone there were over 700 reported incidents targeting Arab Americans.

Sample Art Essay Paper on Art History law essay help: law essay help

Art History

In the traditional Chinese society, the artwork was perceived to be one of the major activities mainly in the Shang’s dynasty. Potteries among other metal working processes were prevalent in that era. Bronze being a major material used in the artwork, the techniques and material used are clearly discussed in this essay.

Casting operation requires a mould to make the required shape. The material mainly used in this casting operation included clay, wax, and the inner core. Completion of the operation incorporated many design processes to make the required shape e.g. a cat. The material played a big role in determining the quality and use of the material to cast. For instance, when using bronze to make a cup, the cup looked appealing to the user and lasted longer in comparison with other material. Skills and techniques at hand determined the complexity and simplicity of the object be made. In lost-wax process, the shapes were simply formed, wax put on it to form the precise shape and a mould of clay placed on it. Later, the wax was melted, and the mold put in an upside down so that bronze could be poured into the cavity.

In the Fang-Yi model, clay mould was erected in fitted sections to accelerate easier removal and reassembling around the core. The decoration was high in this type of artwork. Another technique used is the section-mould technique as argued by Davidson, which assisted in decorating and carving inner parts by making lines in the inner part of the mould. Scholars note that some of the complex shapes were formed by casting different parts and then joining them into one mould such as the four ram Zun. These techniques of casting had mould marks to show boundaries of casting. These mould-marks were seen to be weak points by writers and were said to be defects in the casting methods, but this may not be the case. The Shang’s caster thus added flanges not necessarily to reduce the defects, but they were put in places where the marks could be easily grounded.

Bagley understands artistic freedom in this easy by showing different artistic casting methods such as the lost wax method and the section-mould method that he both explains their use in the Shang’s bronze casting and explains with archaeological evidence of the two methods. He continues by showing different objects made by artists thus showing that they had the freedom to make different objects and different complex shapes with the aid of design processes. On the other hand, he understands the constraint by explaining of the defects in moulding and how these defects were eliminated by use of flanges at times but not always. In some cases, the casters had the problem with emphasizing boundaries.

Shang can be referred to as patron since he was a wealthy person who supported artists. It is because many of the archaeological discoveries in Anyang where the ruler body was buried shows that he supported much of this artwork. His role as the ruler was to ensure that bronze and other casting materials were available. Also, he had his craftsmen who ensured that the work of art continued progressively and with complex and nice looking shapes. The shapes were well decorated to please him and other people of higher hierarchy. Thus, Shang ensured high productivity among workers.

In casting bronze, the artist is a person who designs the casting operation. An artist decides on a technique that is suitable for designing a shape, the method to be used, and the final shape required. Since it is impossible to talk about design without the technique, it is necessary to consider a designer as an artist who designs the technique to be used in casting by the caster. Finally, the mechanical work of casting started a long time ago, and the use of flanges was not necessarily to hide the mould marks since these marks were used to mark boundaries in the drawn patterns on the objects. Thus, the art of history in China has much to do with casting techniques and forming processes.

Sample Essay Paper on The intelligence of dolphins ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

The intelligence of dolphins

The choice of this discussion as the topic for the final speech is motivated by love for nature, especially the marine ecosystem. Most important is the amazing intelligence possessed by dolphins.  What is amazing about these creatures is the belief that they are the second most intelligent creatures with only humans displaying greater brainpower.

This intelligence will be explained based on key characteristics of these creatures including the brainpower, learning capacity, feeding habits, need for freedom, and many more (Connor, Richard 587).

The understanding of the intelligence of dolphins has been an interesting research topics for many scientists across the world. Though it is difficult to compare the intelligence of one species with another, as stated, humans being have shown close characteristics with dolphins. Such difficulty exists because in the ecosystem, any animal would be considered intelligent based on the methods it develops for survival (Connor, Richard 587).

One of the main methods that have been used to establish this intelligence is an MRI scan of the brain of dolphins. This has been important in understanding the size of the brain relative to body size, the structure of the brain and how these creatures are able to develop complex behavior and emotions. The development of this magnificent brain capacity dates back 39 million years ago (Connor, Richard 587). This means that the development of their brain, like that of human beings, has been an evolution process and thus All animals share the capacity for emotions, but the part of the dolphin brain associated with processing emotional information is particularly expanded. Hence, a complete speech on this topic will bring to reality the unimaginable capabilities of dolphins.

Work Cited

Connor, Richard C. “Dolphin social intelligence: complex alliance  relationships in bottlenose dolphins and a consideration of selective environments for extreme brain size evolution in mammals.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 362.1480 (2007): 587-602.

Women and Gender Studies Critical Thinking on Branded Masculinity PowerPoint: Initial Summary Analysis essay help app

Branded Masculinity PowerPoint: Initial Summary Analysis

            The perception of an ideal man is defined by the toughness, strength, income, provision and domination over women. A man who greatly qualifies in all these is defined as hyper masculine (Voice thread 3). This definition is largely effected by the media by posting toned bodies as the standards for men, thereby creating undue pressure on the males. Masculine perception assumes women as inferior and thus expects women to play inferior roles such as economic and domestic dependence. This perception further envisages women and children relying on the protection of the men.

            Beauty in women is depicted as young, sexual and thin. Physical strength is perceived to be manly and this offers more power to men. Bodily satisfaction in the society is thus an idealized perception of the women and the male bodies. According to previous research, media outlook of the male bodies results to weight confusion and dissatisfaction among the males (Mohler 13). These perceptions have led to abnormal eating habits and abuse of steroid related drugs among men. It has besides led to variation of male treatment amongst themselves and against women. Present men when compared with past men are tough and full of emotional self-discipline. It is essential for the public to highlight sexual inequality and improve lives of men and women by redefining masculinity. It is also necessary for the media to reduce unrealistic images as visual perceptions of gender expectations.

Response to Becca

            In today’s society, Branded masculinity has been idolized. Just as the poster you see bear a misconception of how the male body is meant to appear. It is true that the pressure on branded masculinity has led to the male body assuming a sex satisfaction object. Women are to become attracted to such ideal bodies for satisfaction. Women likewise are offered varied beauty products to satisfy men. It is however challenging to modify the height to fit in this image.

            The reasoning behind focusing on the height of man is to offer the natural condition, which few are able to meet. In as much as everyone may have that perfect body, few will be able to match the height standards. This is to introduce further new approaches such as surgery to have that ideal mark. Sexual conflicts in men are heightened when the ideal body is beyond the reach of some. Some men fail to acquire this branded body despite their consistent use of the products advertised. Sexual conflict arises when women fail to perceive their counterparts as adverts pronounce.

Response to Karly

            It is a fact that the media plays a significant role in how the public perceive themselves. Both gender are under pressure to conform to the standards of the media. Women are pressurized to acquire slim bodies while men are moved to build their muscles. This is however ideal just as you have mentioned as few people can manage to keep up with these standards. In order to keep up, the public suffers either psychologically or physically. The way forward is to maintain a good lifestyle and overlook the perceptions of the media.

Works Cited

Voice Thread: Masculine Powerpoint. 2015

Mohler, Albert. Man Up or Man Down: Newsweek redefines Masculinity. Huffington Post. 2010, 23rd Septembers

Sample Leadership Studies Coursework on Solving Issues with Servant Leadership Paper cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Solving Issues with Servant Leadership Paper

I work in Hope Group, which is an international chain of supermarkets operating globally with at least a branch in every continent. At its Asian branch I work as a sore supervisor with close to 50 employees under my watch. As the head of the store my role is ensure that goods in the store do not run out and that all the employees do not place excess stock on the counters.

As is custom, we hold meetings on weekly basis to discuss the various developments and changes that have been realized and also make recommendations for the future anticipations. The meeting is attended by heads of departments in the company who represents their employees. Two weeks ago during the meeting, I had this major proposal that I felt was necessary. The proposal was the renovation of the cutlery and grocery store section. As my conscience had it, all the other departmental heads agreed that it was indeed necessary that the store be renovated. The finance department was tasked with making financial estimates after identification of a contractor to discharge the duty. The estimates were to be tabled a week later which means last week was the day for financial approximations for the renovation of the store. However no estimates were tabled and the on enquiry from the department the department head was not present and as fate could have it, no member from the department was aware of such an arrangement.

With the rush to have the repairs done, so as to avoid conflicts with the company’s top management that was scheduled for about one week, the company decided to initiate the renovations during the weekend. However, during the repairs nobody from my department was present making the repair team to mess u the stores causing breakage of some items. These losses meant my department was going to be penalized for all items that had been tampered with. But this was the fault of one particular individual who had failed to discharge his mandate effectively. The failure by the finance department that led to the rush of covering an already done mistake did not serve the purpose but rather spread the risk wider.

Through a situational leadership approach, the person who had granted the individual’s to do repair could have provided directions on how the renovations could be done without possibly creating damage to the commodities in the store. Further directions from the lead contractor when discharging their task in the store could have helped (Christens, 2010).

The servant leadership theory is another mechanism that would have proved a success for the issue at hand. Had the finance head given the employees under him some authority to act on his behalf even in his absentia things would have bee solved. The lack of communication with his juniors proved that those under had developed fear. This greatly affected the total of the department as a whole (Kouzes and Posner, 2012).

The transactional theory could have been of much help to avoid the damages. Had the company’s top management liaised with the stores department on the intended renovation during the weekend, the stores department could have responded by availing several staff members to oversee the repairs and possibly give more directions to avoid the damages that were witnessed. Also, the finance department failure to communicate to his fellow employees on what the company intended to do illustrated the poor relations the department was experiencing (Mumford, 2010).


Christens, B. D. (September 01, 2010). Public relationship building in grassroots community organizing: relational intervention for individual and systems change. Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 7, 886-900.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2012). The leadership challenge: How to make extraordinary things happen in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Mumford, M. D. (2010). Leadership 101. New York: Springer Pub.

Composition Business Plan Essay Paper on Leadership values essay help site:edu

Leadership values

Leadership is an act of influencing and inspiring people to achieve a particular goal. For an individual to be a leader he/she must possess certain values and qualities (Maxwell 265). According to Maxwell, there are five pivotal values, which a leader possesses.

A team of leaders is better than a single leader.

            As the saying goes, two heads are better than one. A group of leaders who are vision propelled can achieve and overcome challenges (Maxwell 268). They can bring on board different ideas and resources hence specialization in comparison to a single leader. This can be accomplished by looking for individuals who are motivated and productive. This makes the organization attain its goals and objectives.

The need for leader at every level of an organization

For an organization to achieve its set objectives and goals, it calls for a well-formulated vision, which leaders can set. In addition, decisions whether long, middle or short-term must be made for efficient operations of a given firm (Maxwell 269). This aspect requires leadership. Therefore, every corporation needs leaders, regardless of the level. The leaders will motivate, find solutions and progress the company.

Leadership is success propelled

 Leader is only allowed to move from one level to another upon making achievements at the current level (Maxwell 281). It means leadership is a journey calling for time, hard work and persistence. How can an individual handle a complex and dynamic task without finding a solution to a simple challenge? Successful leadership is pegged on the achievement of previous tasks.

 Better top leadership is a reflection of good middle leaders

Organization success relies on the middle management. The central leaders’ link both top and low levels hence facilitating operations (Maxwell 277). The central leaders’ good work is reflected in the senior leadership because of either offering critical decisions or easing the top management’s work. Organization should invest in good leaders who make tactical decisions.

All round leaders possess relevant and necessary qualities for any Organization

Some qualities make leader be relevancy and essentiality in any corporation. Those leaders maintain quality such as adaptability, which enables them to adjust to the new work environment. Besides, those leaders do serve, communicate and resourceful (Maxwell 275).

Therefore, based on these values, it can be noted that organization’s growth depends on the management. The firms that achieve the set goals and objectives have the right leaders and employees. The leadership must possess the above values. Nevertheless, I would say that the values make sense to me (Maxwell 275). I plan to utilize them by ensuring that I lead from all levels. More so, the values are very pragmatic and practical to me. I think the author mentioned everything that needed to be covered. Indeed, combined with the knowledge learnt in class, the information has increased my leadership skills.

Work Cited

Maxwell, J. C. “The 360⁰ leader: Developing your influence from anywhere in the organization.” (2005).

Sample Nursing Coursework Paper on Spirituality essay help site:edu


The role spirituality plays in providing health care

The understanding of illness in relation to life-altering events often make people question the real meaning of life and its purpose (Young & Koopsen, 2011). Spirituality in this line of investigation can be stated as sensitive attachment to values encrypted in religion that can help individuals gain insight and heightened understanding of life. Therefore, spirituality in health care provides patients with firm foundation and support that allows them to move from a life of dissonance and brokenness to a life of wholeness while at the same time incorporating into their lives a sense of wellbeing. This line of investigation is well defined by the statement bolded in most healthcare centres, “we treat, God heals”, to mean that healing is beyond technical cure, but rather part of a life journey. In simple terms, spirituality becomes an important concept in patients’ care because it touches on people’s understanding of illness and change in addition to providing contextual thoughts through which disquiets about bodily and mental functioning can be understood, felt or better addressed (Young & Koopsen, 2011).

Conceptual frameworks used to understand spiritual diversity

Even though spirituality is a universal concept that touches on common areas of human concern and capacities, there seems to be great diversity in the world based on how term is understood and applied by psychotherapists or other medical practitioners (Lum, 2011). Spiritual diversity in health care practices can be analysed based on the concepts, assumptions, and premises about science and human nature. Spiritual diversity can, therefore, be examined based on three distinct phases, which include materialism, post-materialism, and dualism.

Materialism– human life is a materialistic phenomenon consolidated by the mind, and constructs like life after death are only false projections of human mind. This means that human life has no firm foundation or transcendent purpose (Meister, 2011). However, maximized pleasure and minimized pains are the only factors that make life reasonable or rather meaningful.

Dualism– the concept is based on the principles of commonalities with the basic premise that individuals are both material and immaterial. Unlike the brain, the spiritual component is non-material and allows for consciousness and self-awareness.

Post-materialism– Every human being is an embodiment of spirit, and is influenced by past positive and negative spiritual encounters (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2013). However, there is still free will and capacity to establish a life beyond trauma and illness, especially through self-awareness and consciousness.


Lum, D. (2011). Culturally competent practice: A framework for understanding diverse groups and justice issues. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Meister, C. V. (2011). The Oxford handbook of religious diversity. Oxford: Oxford University, Press.

Young, C., & Koopsen, C. (2011). Spirituality, health, and healing: An integrative approach. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.   

Zastrow, C., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2013). Understanding human behavior and the social environment. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

Sample Political Science Essay Paper on Democratic accountability college application essay help online: college application essay help online


Democratic accountability

Democratic accountability is a political system in which those in power are answerable to the general public, the leaders have to report to the people and accept sanctions from them. Different countries have unique forms of government for instance currently the US has a democratic form of government whereby leaders are democratically accountable to citizens. The concept helps us to understand comparative politics by making us aware of how leaders in different countries are democratically accountable to their citizens in different ways.

Democratic consolidation

It is the process by which a new democracy matures up in a way that it is unlikely for it to go back to authoritarianism or dictatorship. Democratic institutions grow up and exercise their powers without interference for instance separation of powers is manifested when the different arms of government act independently. Several countries in the world have for instance European countries have grown to mature democracies whereas other countries especially those in Africa are still struggling to consolidate democracy. Democratic consolidation helps us to know the extent to which different countries in the world grown democratically.

Democratic values

These are principles that unite all the people in a particular country; they may be enshrined in the constitution and other relevant documents. Diversity, equality, truth, life, justice, sovereignty are democratic values. This concept helps us to know the democratic values of different countries thus making us able to compare the values from country to country.

Military coup

It is the sudden overthrow of a particular regime; the overthrow may be by a grouping of a country’s institution for example the military. This is intended at disposing the regime and replacing it with a new one. Military coups are common in many states that have not matured democratically. The concept helps us to explore the countries in the world that have experience military coups and the reasons behind the coups.

Patron client relation

It is a political system in which both the client and patron benefit from the other. We have networks that link those who are in power to particular individuals in society. This is a relationship in which voters trade their political support to various leaders in exchange for various outputs in the decision making process when in power. The practice is widespread in many countries in the world where politicians make promises to voters of various goodies if they are elected. The concept is crucial in helping us to understand the level in which the practice is spread across the world. It discourages the organization of civil society groups based on collective interest

State failure

It is the inability of a state to control its territories and exercise internal affairs independently. This happens when rulers in a state are defeated and unable to rule with authority, they lack the ability to role and do not enjoy the monopoly of power. Countries fail for various reasons for instance civil wars or military coups. We have various countries in the world which have failed for instance Somalia.


Non democratic regimes employ several strategies to remain in power. These strategies include measures that mostly rely on repression for instance coercion, threats, political assassinations, gagging the media, violation of human rights and those that do not necessarily rely on repression for instance claiming legitimacy. Repression is one of the strategies that the regimes used to maintain power. Repression helps the autocrats to remain in power, the repressive strategies used include: Political assassinations, changing constitutions threats, gagging the media, Coercion and violation of human rights.

Political assassination is one strategy used by used by leaders in non democratic regimes to maintain power. This ensures that they maintain power without much interference. Political leaders that come up with divergent opinions are killed in mysterious ways. Many leaders in the world in countries that have not matured up democratically have been killed due to their opinions which contradict those of the incumbents.

Threats are also used in non democratic regimes to silence dissidents who try to challenge the government. The citizens who pose a threat to the existence of the regime are threatened in various ways and this makes them to get frightened and quit their agendas thus making the regime to continue ruling.

Leaders in non democratic regimes come up with strategies to ensure that the media doe not paint the regime in bad way. Media houses are forced to broadcast what the leaders want to hear and not the reality that is happening in that particular country. Those media houses that try to air the evils of the regime are targeted and closed down.

The regimes intimidate citizens into certain actions for instance voting in people who are not the most preferred by the people. Intimidation has become widespread in many countries that have not fully embraced democracy.

Violation of human rights is another strategy that is employed by leaders in countries that have not embraced democracy. Human rights are fundamental rights that are universal; leaders in non democratic rights violate the basic rights of people for instance impoverishing certain regions that oppose the government by denying them basic rights like access to resources. This is meant to make the regions poor and thus submissive. Some human rights activists who try to agitate for freedom are killed.

Some strategies which some governments use that aren’t repressive include: claiming legitimacy, Changing constitutions elections and personalism.

Many leaders in non-democratic countries use their powers to change constitutions so as to continue ruling. This is done in countries that have constitutions that stipulate the time limit of a president.  The leaders use the big numbers they enjoy in the legislature or even take advantage of the ignorance of the people to change without following the guidelines that are stipulated. Leaders in non democratic countries brainwash the citizens that the existing institutions are the most appropriate for the well being of that particular state. Many leaders in some non democratic regimes have changed their constitution thus lengthening their stay in power.  They lie to them that the exit of certain regimes will plunge the country into violence; this makes the citizens to get frightened and vote them.

Some non democratic regimes use elections as a strategy to maintain their power. Most of the elections do not follow the standards that are provided in their electoral laws, some even rig their way to power

Personalism is another strategy that is used by leaders in non democratic regimes to maintain power.This is a non repressive strategy used by non democratic regimes to maintain power. The leaders portray themselves as God chosen and they must fulfill certain missions. They insist that for the good of the nation in terms of national unity, prosperity and stability then they must remain in power. The leaders base on their charisma and extra ordinary leadership capabilities to stay in power.

 Control by the ruling elite in China and Iran

Iran is ruled by the Islamic elites composed of the Shi I clerics. They are made up of two main factions who are the left-wing or right-wing faction. Each faction is again divided into two basing on ideologies, the left or right wing designation is based on social orientation.  The system is controlled by influential clerics called the patriarchs who represent the regimes decision making organ. The second ring is made up of high ranking government officials whereas the last ring is made up of individuals who control various entities for instance organizations. The leadership of the elites has an exclusive grip of power but it does not hold monopoly in the politics of Iran. The group is composed of semi-opposition religious members who criticize the regime in matters that are related to religion. Various religious elites hold influential positions control resources of the regime

The Chinese elites are a combination of many groups which include; communist leadership and tycoons. The ruling elites have used a number of strategies to ensure that they remain in power. The ruling elites in china attacked the traditional culture of the country and instigated industrialization The Chinese communist party has maintained power for a long time and has become the ruling elite party. Growing activism and the aggressive media is a threat to the ruling elites in china and is likely to erode the power of the elites.

Both economies of China and Iran are controlled by the ruling elites; the elites in both countries own majority of the properties and this enables them to control the economies. Just like the ruling elites in Iran who hold influential positions in government those in China also hold influential positions that make them able to control the economy.

The ruling elites of China have embraced change and have given space to public opinion whereas the elites in Iran have remained conservative and are yet to embrace change. The Chinese ruling elites have become autonomous and allowed public opinion thus spurring the economic development of the country whereas the ruling elites of Iran have remained conservative.

The resources that have been amassed by the ruling elites in both china and Iran make it impossible for them to be threatened. The ruling elites in china engage in businesses that yield lots of profits. The money they get from the business is used to help them remain in power; this will make them to be stable and to control the masses without facing many problems.

The stability of the elites in Iran can be eroded by the small opposition groups that are opposed to it. The groups have come up though there impact is still negligible but they oppose the manner in which the elites govern them. Public opinion has been allowed in China, the citizens now have a say in how they are governed, and they have become aggressive and demanding. The media also poses a threat to the ruling elites of China because it has become liberal and expresses the views of the public freely unlike before; this is a threat to the stability of the ruling elites.

Marketing Case Studies Sample Paper on City Beach (Retailer) college essay help online

City Beach (Retailer)

Activity task 1.1

Founded in 1985, City Beach is one of the most successful retail businesses in Brisbane. The business falls under the retailing industry, which is one of the fastest growing not only in Australia but worldwide. It retails products such as clothes and accessories. It also retails shoes such as Converse. Moreover, the business provides surfing and skating services, and has also hosted a variety of DJs and celebrities from all over the world including Snoop Dogg. The business has undergone expansion and currently has over 60 stores in Australia, as well as an online store. Some of the prominent and top brands sold by the company include Roxy, Nixon Inc, Oakley Inc., Billabong clothing, Mink Pink, Quicksilver, and others.  The retail business serves customer of every economic level and social class. Besides, customers from every education class enjoy services and products sold by the company. A large percentage of its customers are inclined to entertainment and sports, and these include DJs and musicians, motocross teams, live bands, and pro surf teams. It should be noted that most customers of the business are interested in fashion, and this is the primary focus of the business. Customers can access City Beach’s products and services in its stores located in towns and cities such as Melbourne, Brisbane, Gold Coast, Darwin, Perth, and Sydney. The business also has an online store that has attracted more customers in the recent years. City Beach sells high-quality products, and thus, most of the customers prefer buying the goods in bulk.

Activity task 1.2

The operations of City Beach are affected by the external environment, which entails the political and legal environment. The Australian government formulates policies and laws that regulate information standards as well as product safety, and this has greatly affected how City Beach operates. Moreover, the formulation of the Australian Consumer Law (ACL) has largely affected the operations of City Beach. It should also be noted that the economic and financial environment have affected the company’s operations. The incline of Australia’s economy in the recent years has boosted its operations because funds have been availed for the company itself to expand its stores and for the customers, which has seen an increase in the purchasing power.

On the other hand, there has been a steady increase in the interest rates imposed by the Australian government and other financial institutions in Australia. This has affected the operations of most businesses; City Beach included. The increase in interest rates has been accompanied by serious inflation in the country, and this has seen the prices or cost of materials soar. All these put together have jeopardized the operations as well as revenues collected by City Beach.

It should also be noted that social, demographic, and cultural factors form part of the external environment, which greatly influences the operations of City Beach. First, Australia, like any other country in the world has a rapid evolution regarding fashion and lifestyle. Most Australians are fast shifting and embracing modern and current fashion, and this has forced City Beach to sell fashionable and trendy brands. Besides, the needs of customers in Australia, particularly Brisbane change depending on the time of the year and seasons. As a result, the company has been forced to keep pace with the ever-changing and unpredictable customer needs, and this has greatly affected its operations. Changes in size age groups can also not be ignored, as they have influenced the operations of the business both positively and negatively. First, the population of youths in the country has increased rapidly in the recent years, and thus, the company’s customer base has been expanded. This is owed to the fact that youths constitute approximately 75% of the company’s customer base. Moreover, the rise in Australia’s economy has seen an increase in income for the citizens, and this has boosted the profitability as well as revenues recorded by most businesses, City Beach included. As mentioned earlier, City Beach provides a variety of goods and services to the customers. One of the key services provided by the business to customers is entertainment. Agreeably, the fact that more youths, as well as adults, are participating in recreational activities and entertainment services has boosted the company’s operations.

            An important factor in the external environment that has boosted the operations of City Beach is the development of technology and innovation. Apparently, new computing systems, new machines for production, as well as social media platforms for promotion and advertisement have enhanced the profitability of the business. In fact, the influence of technology and innovation is evident because City Beach is currently one of the most successful retail businesses in Brisbane, and the entire Australia.

Activity Task 1.3

The external environment for the retailing industry in Australia is experiencing changing customer needs and preferences. To keep pace with the ever-changing environment, City Beach should introduce new products such as skateboards to satisfy the increased interest of youths in skating. The business should also come up with a restaurant that will provide fast food to the increasing occupational groups in towns and cities. The business should also introduce sports facilities such as field tracks, swimming pools, and open parks to capture the huge population of customers interested in recreation and entertainment services.

Activity Task 2.1

StrengthsWeaknessesWide customer base Trained and skillful employees Strategic location A variety of products and services Quality products and services  Insufficient infrastructure to support the increasing customer population Inability to keep pace with changing trends and lifestyles Few employees

Activity task 2.2

Target Market Attractiveness

Target Market Segments 

A: Recreation

B: Entertainment

C: Fashionable clothes

D: Leisure

Rating CriteriaTarget Market Segments  ABCD1.Market size981062Growth potential861053Level of usefulness to customers68944Affordability to customers77465Level of competition891046Quality and image86857Cost of entry and exit310378Amount of promotion needed69849Ease of distribution and delivery8510910Costs+ extent of production/service production changes needed9797 Subtotal72758157

Activity Task 2.3

As seen above, City Beach plans to venture into recreation, entertainment, leisure, and the sale of fashionable clothes to capture the wide market and customers. However, one of the potential competitors that City Beach could face in its bid is Riverlife Adventure Centre, which covers all the mentioned market opportunities.  The following, are the strengths and weaknesses of City Beach’s potential competitor.

Riverlife Adventure Center

StrengthsWeaknessesWide customer base A variety of leisure and recreation activities Strategic location-Lower River TerranceNo provision of retail services Few employees

Activity Task 2.4

From the above activities, it can be seen that fashionable clothes provide the greatest market opportunity for City Beach, and hence, it should focus on adding to its already existing stock. The market segment that provides a good marketing opportunity for City Beach is entertainment, and hence, it should come up with a variety of entertainment services and facilities to attract more customers.

Activity Task 3

Costs are what are incurred in terms of finance and other resources in the establishment of a business whereas benefits are the resources that are obtained or realized from a business.

Opportunities and threats are factors that exist in the external environment of a business and can influence the failure or success of the business.

Advantages and disadvantages over potential customers are the positive and negative chances that a business has in relation to probable customers.

Sales forecast is the prediction done of a business’s future sales.

Return on investment potential is the ability of an invested resource to benefit the investor.

Production capacity and equipment focuses on output and how the equipment or machinery used, is balanced with the raw materials.

Product modification is the attempt by businesses or companies to make changes to their products to extend the product life cycle; brand name is a name that is given to a product and is widely recognized by customers; packaging refers to how good or products are presented to customers; design is the pre-planning of a particular product; feature refers to a distinctive attribute or characteristic of a particular product

Pricing strategies are the factors taken into account before a given value is put to a particular product.

Promotional mix is a combination of strategies or methods used to market a product or a group of products.

Distribution channels are paths followed by goods to ensure their movement from a seller to a buyer.

Service requirement and support refers to the statement that a customer gives a service provider concerning how he or she expects a certain service.

 Budget requirement is an estimate of costs required to operate or run a business.

Sample International Relations paper on International Political Economy professional essay help: professional essay help

International Political Economy

            20th century, as Wallerstein explains, welcomed major economical changes that saw countries work together to achieve global objectives (Wellerstein, 2005, p.1263). However, before globalization was achieved, there were major changes that took place. The colonial periods were marked with exploitation of resources from non-European world in order to build a strong economy in Europe. Increased anti-colonial sentiments and movements prompted freedom and economical autonomy in Asia and African countries. This meant that countries which were once under colonial regime could develop themselves without relying on their former colonies. Wallerstein believes that proper policies would help the poor countries develop to become as technologically modern as the other rich countries (Wellerstein, 2005, p.1266).

            The period between 1945 and 1970 was considered developmentalism period, which was marked with great triumph of historic anti-systemic movements (Wellerstein, 2005, p.1273). On the other hand, the period between 1970 and 2000 was considered globalization period. A great decline of these movements, which are also referred as the Old Left, saw significant growth in capitalism-world economy. A clear reflection of the fall of these movements, as Wallerstein points, is the spreading anarchy in the 21st century (Wellerstein, 2005, p.1267). The fall of these movements saw the rising of capitalism-economy, which in itself, is very unstable and vulnerable to shift and sudden destructive currents. Wallerstein disputes the opinion that capitalism sets a difficult humanistic systems, that it is inefficient, and the fact that it guarantees poor economic growth.

            United Nation played a vital role in enforcing developmentalism through various campaigns. In 1970’s the United Nation declared a decade of development.  Wallerstein is not certain, despite major approaches of globalization, on whether the world will at some time attain general equalization of resources (Wellerstein, 2005, p.1270). Financial crisis that posed great challenged to big nations compelled the need to enforce developmentalism strategies. It was believed that in order to save the economy weak nations, it was necessary to strengthen the internal markets and impose high tariffs on imports.

            Drainville believes that the world system is not only polarized but also polarizing (Drainville, 2008, p.236). The countries at the bottom face great challenge from the approach of world system that is politically and morally intolerable. The contrast presented between the two divides makes the aspect of globalization questionable (Drainville, 2008, 237). The countries on the lower end are seeking solution that would help them come to the top, while the countries at the top are pushing world system approach as a result of their own initiatives that threatens the human existence. Masses in the developed nations have pressured the governments systems to tackle issues that affect global climatic changes. The underdeveloped nations are invited to assist in tackling global calamities have been created by the developed nations.

            Drainville (2008) reveals that social forces were sheltered from the decision making process that lead to creation the current globalization (p.240).  The resistance to neo-liberal globalization questions the politics behind the systems. The idea behind resistance to globalization is in the motive behind its creation. The main issues is not what will tackle immediate dilemma in the world system, however, the basis upon which successor world system will be created (Drainville, 2008, ). Developing nations are responding skeptically to the globalization system (Wellerstein, 2005, p.1276). Wallerstein feels that their skeptical approach is justified. Governments of the weak nations have quite often fallen casualties to major economical tragedies as a result of external interferences. It is important for these countries to employ strategies that will minimize external interferences. The government in these nations should ensure vital policies are enforced in order to prevent the conditions in their countries from worsening (Wellerstein, 2005, p.1274). The governments have a great role to play in ensuring the economic development in their countries.


Drainville, A. C., 2008. Resistance to globalisation: The view from the periphery of the world economy”, International Social Science Journal, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 235-246.

Wellerstein, I., 2005. After Developmentalism and Globalization, What Next? Social Forces 83(3): 1263-78.

Sample Literature Critical Thinking on Use of Symbols and Metaphors in “The Golden Cangue” essay help free: essay help free

Use of Symbols and Metaphors in “The Golden Cangue”

Use of symbols and metaphors has been a common practice among many authors, as they endeavor to portray human experiences in their work. Eileen Chang is one of the writers who have exploited symbols and metaphors in most of her work. Her work, which is full of morals and realistic events, usually incorporates metaphors and symbols to express the paradox of human experience. The Golden Cangue is a story that touches on unjust social systems as portrayed by an elite family that wants to dominate others through its wealth. Ts’ao Ch’i-ch’iao, a girl from a poor family, is being coerced to marry Chiangs’ crippled son. Some of the symbols incorporated in the story include the pebbles, the cangue, and the moon while the metaphors include the moon, the cangue, and the mirror. The use of symbols and metaphors in The Golden Cangue depicts the every-day events that happen in the society, which include compromised love, conflict between responsibilities and self-fulfillment, conflict between family members, and endurance.

Moon is a predominant symbol in Chang’s world, which she uses to illuminate the irony of love in The Golden Cangue. Chang uses the moon symbolically to depict continuity in human experience. The moon has been utilized from the start of the novel towards its conclusion to depict life’s journey that consists of both desirable and undesirable moments. Just like the new moon, which does not produce enough light, Ch’i-ch’iao’s life began as humble girl who hailed from a poor family. Her life changed as she grew up, where she experienced a continuous suffering throughout a span of 30 years. The misery began when Ch’i-ch’iao became a daughter-in-law and persisted even when she was a mother-in-law. The suffering the daughter went through as a daughter-in-law transformed her into a cruel mother-in-law, a situation that was experienced even before her death. 

The moon particularly denoted the mixed feelings of longing, hope, cheerfulness, as well as frustration and sorrow. Ch’i-ch’iao experienced all those feelings, which kept on repeating themselves as the moon does every month. Although the time has passed and many people have died and replaced by another generation, the patriarchal principles remained and continued to preoccupy the new generation in the cycle of oppression. As the moon goes through its 30-day-cycle, so do the daughters-in-law encounter struggles from their mothers-in-law, which generates an unyielding model of female subjectivity that is experienced by the lives of daughters-in-law. 

The “golden cangue” is a symbolism that depicted the viciousness of Ch’i-ch’iao, the leading character, who seemed to be imprisoned by fate, but also punishing. A cangue is a wooden tool, hanged at the neck of petty offenders as a form of punishment (Gray, 2002). Ch’i-ch’iao was perceived as a woman who was full of life, with a humble origin, but her marriage to a gentry’s family destroyed her character, as she became an object of ridicule from her new family members and maidservants. As Ch’i-ch’iao continued to suffer from class prejudice and sexual dissatisfaction, she reserved her desires for many years as she waited stoically for her inheritance. She allows her heart to be tormented by the disability of her husband.

Ch’i-ch’iao’s love towards her lover who belonged to her class was so strong that her heart was a “deep lake, stirred up with waves”. This statement depicted how genuine love is unlikely to end even when people that love each other are miles apart. The mirror is another symbol that Chang has exploited in her work to indicate a reflection of individuals characters. Whatever Ch’i-ch’iao had gone through as a daughter-in-law is being reflected to her daughter, who is unsettled in her relationship. A blood lineage breeds same characters, and this is supported by the saying “A dragon breeds a dragon, a phoenix breeds a phoenix”. Although individuals are capable of changing their reputations, they hardly change their characters.

Ch’i-ch’iao’s talks were filled with grievances and teasing language that meant to heart others. When her younger brother-in-law teased about her husband, Ch’i-ch’iao reacted “as if she held scalding hot melted candlewax in her mouth”. This was an illustration of frustration, since she was reluctant to discuss her husband’s situation with anyone. In the context where Ch’i-ch’iao is offering counsel to her daughter on choosing a partner, she use the “slapping one’s own face” symbolically to mean the shameful feeling of opting for the worst choices when one has already squandered the chance for the right choice. When an individual is desperate for something, he/she does not mind about what had been overlooked before, as long the choice fits the current needs.

Chang’s use of metaphors is meant to express bitter feelings and experiences. Her prowess in the use of metaphors enabled her to articulate complicated events into easy and comical expressions. Metaphors are used in the story to offer an idea of what the author is trying to explain in his/her work. According to Larson (2013), metaphors are utilized in numerous stories to lay emphasis on essential positions in dramatic ways. Metaphors enable the readers to grasp the concepts of the author, in addition to making the author’s work more interesting. The golden cangue is itself a metaphor that expresses the oppression experienced by Ch’i-ch’iao. It depicts that Ch’i-ch’iao is trapped in repression, despite being conscious of her life. Ch’i-ch’iao’s marriage to a crippled man was like hanging a cangue on the neck for no apparent reason. She could have married her boyfriend, whom she had known for long, and who belonged to her social class.

When Ch’i-ch’iao was being tormented by her own sanity, she feared gazing outside where the moon dazzled brightly to an extent of making “one’s hair stand.” It is apparent that the moon cannot make the hair stand, but the author used the phrase to depict how life outside could be more fulfilling, though Ch’i-ch’iao could not dare to leave her husband. The presence of fear in Ch’i-ch’iao’s mind has made almost everything in her life to look different. She did not want to believe in what she was seeing. She feared her husband’s eventuality while her mother-in-law, as well as the maidservants, who were below her in the social class, but did not respect her.

When Chang mentioned that the elders used big hats to suppress people, she meant that the elders had to be easily recognizable to demand respect from other people in society. If they dressed just like ordinary villagers, maybe no one would have taken them with the seriousness they deserved. Chang also noted that the elders kept on browbeating people with their high-sounding words. This does not necessarily mean arm-twisting people, but rather using their well-articulated words to advice people on morals and consequences of improper behaviors.

The mirror is used as a metaphor to mean something that is not real. The mirror is capable of becoming an unending absentee, or emptiness, without a show of true face. Ch’i-ch’iao’s daughter-in-law is portrayed as having committed suicide yet this was not the cause of her death. The mirror is a reflection of what life has been for Ch’i-ch’iao, and such a lifestyle has been inherited by her daughter as well as daughters-in-law. Life is an intangible concept that is built on vague meanings and structure. Individuals can visualize themselves in the mirror, and by looking at the image in the mirror, they can conceptualize their own reflections. However, individuals can only utilize the cognitive meaning of life since they cannot define life holistically.


Gray, J. H. (2002). China: A history of the laws, manners and customs of the people. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.

Larson, C. U. (2013). Persuasion: Reception and responsibility. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Sample English Book Review on The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness essay help site:edu

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness

Book Review

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness is a 2012 manuscript authored by Michelle Alexander that discusses on matters related to racial or racism issues more specific issues leaning towards African-American males as well as mass incarceration in the U.S. The book racial issues highlighted and discussed in the manuscript  blow the lid so to speak on the horribly manner the U.S criminal justice system works in addition to how the War on Drugs relates with race, economic classes, employment, housing,  level of education, public benefits as well as voting rights. This paper stands as a critical chapter by chapter book review on the six chapter manuscript.

Michelle Alexander is an alumna of law from Vanderbilt University, and is a well-known civil rights activist as well as best seller author of various “revolutionary” articles such as “Behind Bars” (Feb16, 2011). She has also co-authored manuscripts for example, “The Colour of Sunlight “which she partnered with Diane Rose  published on Apr 30, 2010, “Redefining Black Power: Reflections on the State of Black America” with Joanne Griffith  published on Feb 28, 2012,and the latest “Race to Incarcerate: A Graphic Retelling” with, Sabrina Jones  published on Apr 2, 2013. However, her most notable book is “The New Jim Craw” released on Jan 16, 2012 sold over 175,000 copies in six weeks. The reason for these high sales is founded on the fact that it (the book) is highly controversial basing on racism towards African Americans not from individuals or radical groups but from the government itself.

In Chapter 1 ‘The Rebirth of Caste’ Alexandergives a short passing history of racial social regulation in the U.S through slavery and compares it to the current and other U.S governments. “Caste” as Alexander defines it is a “select racial group of individuals who are supported by an inferior situation of law as well as tradition. …which is a representation of the old Jim Crow and the U.S present-day system of mass imprisonment” (Alexander 12). As one reads through the chapter it is evident to realize the authors request to get answers on the question of how and why how the 14th and 8th amendments do not safeguard African Americans similarly how the War on Drugs gives unconstrained power to law enforcement to seize, search and arrest blacks under the pretence of an individual showing suspicious behaviour. She concludes the chapter by challenging the Supreme Court which she advises makes it so hard for individuals in the black community to sue law enforcement officers for racial discrimination, to adopt an open and honest dialogue, where all Americans should recognize the racial dissimilarities as a positive point in diversity hence bring an end to slavery.

In Chapter 2 ‘The Lockdown’ Alexander gives focus to how the current criminal justice system has used the notion of ‘War on Drugs’ as a platform for mass incarceration. Alexander suggests in this chapter that “not much has changed since The Jim Crow law of the 19th century” (Alexander. 24). This is placed in regards to the War on Drugs launched during Nixon administration was in a way similar to the old Jim crow, and it then became fully functional during Reagan’s period, and subsequently backed by Bush and but only improved or dropped during Clinton’s era. The major similarity of this matter is the fact that the rules on the drug war are suspicious hell bent on marginalizing the African American community. By statistics more African Americans are stopped for random check-ups by the police than whites, the police label these “safety searches” to benefit citizens (Woodward, 33). The reasons for this search and seizure checks are poor and only draw a proper case of racism This in turn is the reason she says not much has changed from the Jim Craw period.

Further into the book one would find Alexander uses Chapter 3 ‘The Colour of Justice’ to discourse on how race influences the criminal justice system. The major talking point in this chapter as presented by Alexander is how racism has played a large part of bias judgments in the criminal justice system by highlighting a number of cases. For instance, In McCleskey v Kemp, represented a case where a black defendant was accused of killing a white victim and throughout the case the defendant was most disadvantaged hence making him end up as a victim of the death sentence. It should be noted that all throughout the case the Court received overwhelming evidence that put the defendant on the back foot but all this proof was never substantial to warrant the death penalty in the State of Georgia, this in turn made it relevant to allow Alexander suggest that race played a major role in the sentencing both on the victim and defendant side (Stuntz, 23). Other court cases for example the Purkett v Elm case similarly put fair justice beyond reach with the racist use of an all-white jury. This was so unfair to the point of Alexander suggesting that prosecutors could get away with ridiculous as well as self-contradictory reasoning to show that they did not essentially come as racist in placing their argument. Other than the above cases Alexander presented many more cases which the courts used racism to make final judgment.

After unfair judgment many African Americans face jail time however, the mistreatment does not end then. In chapter 4, ‘The Cruel Hand’ Alexander explains facts of how commonly African Americans are misjudged by the current government and society at large. In this chapter gives a detail account on issues faced by a black individual after being released from prison. Subsequent to an unfair trial, convicted detainees lose their privileges to public housing, several classes of welfare rights including food stamps in addition to loosing employment opportunities due to restraints on acquiring licences for a superfluity of occupations. These right infringements also include complications in obtaining private transport as well as some forms of public transport in daily runabouts. This then brings up the merry go round phenomenon which see’s released prisoners find their way back to correctional facilities. Through her explanation on the matter of infringed right Alexander allows readers to see that African Americans are not natural criminals as the new Jim Crow system suggest but victims of circumstances.

Alexander uses chapter 5 ‘The New Jim Crow’ as an correspondence to show different parallels as well as similarities between the old Jim Crow caste systems and the  current system of mass incarceration, which she suggests the creation of a contemporary or new age racial caste system. It is by factual statistics that at present that the U.S has a higher population of its African American male population imprisoned than an equivalent sample during the height of apartheid period in South Africa. In Washington DC, it is estimated that 3 out of 4 young black men are more likely to serve time in jail and this statistics is no different across America’s states. These figures are come about notwithstanding several studies which show that whites. However, Alexander in a minor authority points out the only dissimilarity between Jim Crow to mass imprisonment or detainment in the current system is that the present racial caste system poor whites individuals are also in judgment. She however suggests that “Whites being imprisoned due to the war on drugs does not suggest a change in target communities, however they are just collateral damage” (131).

In the last chapter of this book ‘The Fire This Time’ Alexander highlights on issues that would deal with both the present and future approaches on dealing with the mass imprisonment of the black community watershed currently experienced in the U.S. her discussions include various corrective strategies that would reverse the development as well as maintenance of ‘caste’ mostly by streamlining the justice system through its structural and conceptual context that are barriers in one way or another.

In conclusion, Alexander makes a clear suggestion that she does not explain that whites are bad people, but the employment of certain bias mechanisms seem to favour one race than the other. Although there are dissimilar notions about the Mass Imprisonment of the black community however the bending of the rules relates it to the old Jim Crow. Michelle Alexander’s understanding of the matter has provoked a chain of reactions among Americans who were reluctant in discussing the issues facing their minority counterparts. The segmentation of the by-chapter explanation makes the book highly detailed and very specific on its matter and is a good platform for various racial reforms.

Work Cited

Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow – Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness.New York, NY: The New Press, 2012. Print.

Stuntz, William J. The Collapse of American Criminal Justice. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011. Print

Woodward, C V. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.

Sample Management Essay Paper on Gratitude online essay help: online essay help


Part 1: Planning

The two aspects of gratitude skill that are most important to me are; the emotion of thankfulness and appreciation, and action. The two are the particular aspects of gratitude power that I would want to learn in my social life. It’s high time I realize that various positive things in my life go unnoticed and unrecognized. There are also positive things that my colleagues do in our social life, as well as ideological and economic life, that I never take the time to recognize and appreciate them. I am hoping to apply thankfulness and appreciation, and action since they will help me be more aware of good events that people do.

    I am going to use this skill in a class setting. In our class, the course instructors always ask us to work in collaboration partnership for some particular school projects and topics. I have never been a group leader in either of the previous and current team works that we are conducting some of the assigned topics. All the projects assigned in the group works are always graded. Therefore, they affect our end term results since they are directly added to semester exams.

    The groups always have selected team leader who is assigned the leadership duties in the team, guiding the members in the partnership with various multidisciplinary approaches. In all the groups that I have always been part of, we’ve recorded excellent performance, which have always boosted my grades at the end of every semester. Despite the respective contributions of all the group members, I have realized that the panel leaders always play significant roles in giving direction to the team. It’s high time I start expressing gratitude to my group leaders through appreciation, thankfulness and actions about the same, at the end of every semester.

To apply this skill, at the end of every group session, I will be creating time with my group leaders and make them understand how relevant they are to my academic success. I do believe that the best success indicator will be getting a positive response from my group leaders after creating time and showing them gratitude.

Part 2:  Evaluation

After making efforts o expressing my appreciation to my group leaders, I realized that I was successful in the whole personal decision. They would call back and thank me for alerting them that whatever they were doing were great and could not go unrecognized. They got motivated in undertaking their leadership tasks in the group, which became more appealing and fantastic to other group members, who later increased their levels of dedication in the class projects.

In the future, I am planning to improve on my gratitude expression by use of gifts and surprises, which I will present to my group leaders for their excellent work. The funniest thing that stood out for me on what I have learned is that it is so crazy easy to show gratitude to everyone around me.  And with almost every single situation, I got a smile out of showing my appreciation, which in turn made me feel good.   

Marketing Essay Paper on CoCo2Go (Unprocessed Coconut Oil) melbourne essay help

CoCo2Go (Unprocessed Coconut Oil)

Our product is a 3 oz spray of coconut oil to be used for Fresh Breath and Gum Hygiene. We have sought to invest in this particular venture since coconut oil has emerged as the new hype around the country, promising a lot of demand for our product. I have come up the best strategy that our organization will use in developing, marketing and selling the offering. The organization will be able to create a sales plan for defining the potential market since we have a deeper comprehension of our product. We are targeting all women, men and kids, irrespective of their age since our product can be used by both the young and adults in the society.

Through setting the sales goals, we are going to come up with very concrete and measurable units, as well as simplifying them into manageable portions. We are going to sell 200 units to end-users within a month and sell 300 to regional independent retailers within a period of months.  We are going to undertake our sales by selling directly to the consumers through the organization’s website and crafts shows. The selling team has to develop various sell sheets that will be sent to the independent retail outlets. The sell plans will have the targeted accounts and timelines, and for the purposes of final consumers, we are going to reach them through eBay, different classified ads, and the company website.

The firm will commence by selling the directly to the consumers, since this will provide us with confidentiality on the product’s demand and creating contact with customers, for feedbacks on the quality and packaging. The organization will have to a host a home party to share CoCo2Go with friends, as well as friends-of-friends, selling through local social groups and emailing the created network.  Apart from the common brick-and-motor retail outlets, we shall make use of catalogs, Television shopping networks as well as online stores will enable us to conduct online marketing for the product.

Sample English Paper on Hills like White Elephants AB admission college essay help

Hills like White Elephants AB

In the exposition we are presented with the experience of two characters that the author identifies as a man described as an American and a girl who they are together. The pair is described as sitting outside a train station while waiting for a next to take them to Madrid.

In rising action, the two engage in a discussion about asking for beer in the course of the wait for the train. However, the discussion takes another turn and this time round they are discussing about the hills that lie adjacent to the rail station. The girl likens the hills to white elephants due to the hugeness. They further argue on whether they should follow procedure or not to follow.

The climax in this article occurs when the conversation is halted by Jig asking them to stop talking. It says, “Would you stop please please please please please please please stop talking?”

The falling action in this article is when the man, the American enquires about the feeling of the girl. The girl later replies, after a brief smile, “I fell fine.” “There’s nothing wrong with me. I feel fine.”

The denouement in the story comes about when the couple has ordered another drink. The action is comes to an end when the author presents the American having a drink at the bar, while walking back to where the girl is and when he passes through the curtain towards the girl who according to him may be felling lonely. Its however, not described how events transverse thereafter for this couple and the rest of the passengers. And questions that still linger in our mind is whether, the couple managed to travel to Madrid and whether the indeed followed the procedure or not.

Entrepreneurship Case Studies Paper on Report On Case Study medical school essay help: medical school essay help

Report On Case Study

            Magic Muffin Company is a case of a small institution in the food industry located at the Newport harbor. The company operates during summer, a time when the population of the people visiting the harbor triples. The organization has seen great financial growth since its inception, although it operates at certain periods of the year. The owner of the business, a renowned person in the food service industry intends to expand the business to other areas to create more market for the products. The owner hopes that the success that the business has shown in the current location will replicate to the new location, although with a few more inputs in terms of finances and marketing. Currently, the organization prides itself in being the only shop at the Newport harbor that offers muffin as the primary product. In this connection, this paper will seek to determine the viability if the muffin business opportunity at the inception of the idea and in the next five to ten years. Further, the paper will seek to determine if the Newport harbor store provides ideal opportunity and return on investment to the business owner.

Business Viability

            The muffin business opportunity is quite viable based on the current trends and the future projections. The nature of the market is point worth of consideration while evaluating the viability of a business idea. Muffins have a wide variety of consumers who are willing to spend on quality products. Muffins are readily available products and their fair prices make them a center of attention for many people. The potential market size for muffins is enormous, especially at the harbor where the population quadruples during summer. Almost all the people in the world are potential muffin consumers; therefore, a rise in the number of people frequenting the harbor makes the business idea viable (Guo, 2012). Further, muffins are part of the impulse buying products; therefore, as long people see them, the market is bound to grow. According to the business analysis report, the business did pick up quite well with many consumers flocking the magic muffin company’s premises.

However, muffins are junk food, something against which nutritionists are constantly cautioning people. Therefore, it makes it hard to determine the viability of the business in five to ten years in a world where people are so conscious of their health (Down, 2010). Women are the major consumers of muffins and with the notion of body weight management it is hard to predict the future of fast food stores around the world. Health diet propositions make the business opportunity unviable for the future.

            The trend of the market is another issue that makes the muffin opportunity viable at the time of the business conception. The market is constant in the sense that every summer, people will always increase at the harbor. The stability of the market makes it possible for the businessperson to estimate effectively the financial gain that each summer season is going to raise. Business predictability is an essential factor to consider while setting up a business (Kamoroff, 2011). It allows the owner to estimate the risk factors and develop contingency plans in the worst-case scenario. The market is growing as well because every summer period is characterized by an increase in the number of people visiting the harbor. The growing market places the business at an ideal phase of growth, hence a viable idea.

            Competition for the business is quite low, especially at the harbor because none of the stores selling muffins makes it a primary product. As such, magic muffin has an ideal opportunity to market the product and produce high quality products by focusing on the muffins only. Additionally, the two stores at the harbor selling muffins are rather small, thus reducing the competition to a manageable situation. The two shops cannot effectively serve the population of the people visiting the harbor in the summer, thus creating a business opportunity for magic muffins. The food service industry has very low entry limitations because the industry is characterized by fragmented markets of manufacturers and retailers. Any people with the right expertise can survive in the food service industry. The relationship that Meg, the owner of the magic muffin company has with the industry places the business in an ideal competitive position. Further, high demand and low supply give the businesspersons the power to make ideal decisions such as pricing and the rates of production in the industry. However, the low entry requirements to the industry pose a threat to the future of the muffin business (Sutherland, 2008). The viability of the business for a period of between five to ten years is blurry. 

            The infrastructure at the harbor makes it possible for the business to thrive. The connectivity of different transport systems makes it possible for suppliers to provide the necessary materials to the business in time. The availability of an ideal infrastructure reduces the cost of production and increases the return on investment (Landstrom, 2007). Additionally, the materials needed to produce muffins are readily available. The company can source the products locally, thus reducing the cost and the complications of transportation from one place to another. The nature of the business as well does not require much space: muffins can be sold along the roadside or in a big store as long as they are visible to the consumers. The nature of the business, therefore, reduces the complication of certain infrastructure, thus making the business opportunity viable.

            Personnel training and management is another issue that makes the business opportunity viable. The food service practices are highly common to most people, thus making it easy to get human capital. In addition, the owner of the business is a renowned person in the industry, placing her in an ideal position to determine the right people for the job. Training is easy in the food production industry as well as in sales and marketing. Further, the strategic location of the industry does not require much marketing skills to further the business idea. The ease of training people in the food service industry reduces the cost of production, which makes the business lucrative. Further, Meg being an expert in the industry, she would require less input in training the new employees and managing the business at the same time. The muffin business does not require a wide range of personnel to run. The same people who produce the products can act as marketers and sales persons at the same time.

            The muffin business produced higher returns than the cost of production, thus making the business opportunity viable. Any business opportunity must provide rewards to the investor to make it viable. The muffin business as mentioned before does not require much human capital, which makes it easy to manage financially (Longenecker, 2012). Further, the materials used for the production of muffins are readily available, thus cutting down the cost of production. The muffin business does not require a long supply chain because the owner can source the products locally and find a personal means of transport to move the goods to the store. The availability of good infrastructural services such as roads and other means of transport help to reduce the cost of production. The market for the product is stable especially because of the increased income among women who are the major consumers of the product. Therefore, the level of returns on investment makes the business viable both at the present and in the future.

            The raw materials for making the muffins and running the business are highly affected by inflation because of their relationship with agriculture. The changes in the price can highly affect the business, but the costs are taken care of by the high demand of the products. However, he margins through which these raw materials are affected by inflation is manageable especially for a small business. The changes of muffin prices, in addition, do not affect the success of the business because people are always willing to purchase the product at different prices. On the other hand, some of the raw materials such as sugar that are used in the production of the muffins receive certain incentives from the government. An example of such an incentive includes duty free importation and has an indirect impact on the food service industry (Guo, 2012).

            Generally, the viability of the muffin business presently is unquestionable, based on the results presented in the income statement. The business thrived in every aspect and at an alarming rate. However, the future of the business is unclear because the fast food industry faces many threats, especially now that people are more concerned about healthy living. Further, the quick growth of the business could be an indication that the lifespan of the business is short. Expanding to different locations will create new challenges for the company and hinder further growth. The ease with which entrepreneurs join the industry also poses a threat to the future viability of the business (Kamoroff, 2011). Fast food products are losing value in the current world and many nutritionists have criticized muffins as unsafe for healthy living. Therefore, although the viability of the business presently is indisputable, the future of the same is indistinct.

Does Newport Store Offer Good Opportunity and Return On Investment?

            The Newport store offered the best opportunity and return on investment to the magic muffin business in many ways. The location of the store made it easy for the company to reach a wide range of consumers within a short period. Due to the size of the store, the customers had to sit outside, which attracted more people to the store for curiosity purposes. Meg got an opportunity to meet different people who were willing to invest in her small business and create something for the whole world to partake. In other words, the store provided an ideal opportunity for the business to expand to other areas through the investment of various people and the word of mouth (Down, 2010). Many people from varied locations visit the harbor during the summer season and they could take the word about the muffins to their hometowns thus creating business opportunities for Meg. Further, the willingness of different people to invest in the business is an indication that the magic muffin company was a lucrative business with a chance to grow into the rest of the world.

            Most importantly, the store gave the company an opportunity to test the viability of the project without risking further investments. The location of the store did not require a big business house to run. Therefore, the use of the small space did benefit the company financially, thus improving its return on investment (ROI) (Landstrom, 2007). The harbor is place with a business friendly environment where business houses are readily available. Both the business people and the consumers allow for business growth by charging relatively considerable prices for products. The government as well made it easy for Meg to run her business by allowing her to use the streets as a resting place for her clients. The sitting area drew more attention to the store. Further, the sitting area helped to raise the amount of revenue accumulated because it is easy for people to consume more products while resting. The sitting area gave a chance for the investors to interact with Meg and raise the desire to expand the business to new locations. The location offered proximity to current and existing markets, thus improving the chances for the business to progress in the future. The size of the store and the availability of the necessary materials helped in raising the return on investments. The cost of establishing the business was quite low yet the revenues were so high beyond the expected results.  

            The store offered good opportunity for the business and high return on investment because of the proximity to suppliers. The ease with which suppliers provided the good made it easy to cut down the cost of production. Further, the location of the store allowed the business operator to acquire the goods locally, thus avoiding the use of long supply chains that at times affect the progress of the business negatively. In addition, the store had limited hidden costs that often hinder the progress of a business. The size of the store did not require much development neither did the décor, which reduced the cost of setting the business up. In addition, the production of muffins does not require complicated infrastructure and technology, which further helped to cut down the cost of production (Sutherland, 2008). The size of the store made it easy to manage which helped to increase the returns on investment and the overall financial gain of the business.

            The safety of the store based on the location as well as the considerable taxes provided the business with a good opportunity for growth as well as financial gain. The state laws offer ideal deals for small business operators to inspire the spirit of entrepreneurship in people. Therefore, Meg did not spend much on licenses considering that her business was going to run for only two and half months. Further, the store did not require a complicated décor because of the location of the business, which helped to raise the return on investment. The harbor is a highly populated place during the summer period, which raises the safety of businesses in the area. The increased numbers of people attracts the need for security for the citizens, which further guarantees safety for business operators. Other than business safety, the security of the consumers also affects the business positively (Longenecker, 2012). Customers can purchase the products at any time of the day, which helps to raise the income and expand the business.

            The choice of the store location had a great impact on the magic muffin business. Meg chose a location that did not have threatening competition from the existing businesses, which helped in growing the company. Operating in a free environment presented an ideal opportunity for the business executive to learn new modes of operations that could work well in other localities. The store acted as a testing ground for Meg ideas of a muffin business as well as a center to connect with key stakeholders in the food service industry. The competition at the harbor was more about complementary than competitive. A complementary kind of competition helps to expand the knowledge of the business providers about the industry as well as create more opportunities for the organizations (Down, 2010). Complementary organizations further help to balance the demand and supply of goods and services, thus giving the producer a higher bargaining power in the industry. As such, the magic muffin company had the ability to set the prices of the muffins at a considerable price to beat the cost of production thus raising the level of ROI.

            In conclusion, the magic muffin company is a successful organization in the food production industry and its growth depicts a promising future. The location of the business creates a good opportunity for growth and a high ROI presently. However, the long-term viability of the business is unclear based on the current concerns on junk food and human health.


Down, S. (2010). Enterprise, Entrepreneurship, and Small Business. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Guo, R. (2012). Understanding the Chinese economies. Place of publication not identified: Academic Press.

Kamoroff, B. (2011). Small time operator: how to start your own business, keep your books, pay your taxes, and stay out of trouble. Lanham, Md: Taylor Trade Pub.

Landstrom, H. (2007). Pioneers in entrepreneurship and small business research. New York, N.Y: Springer Science Business Media.

Longenecker, J. (2012). Small business management: launching and growing entrepreneurial ventures. Mason, OH: Southwestern Cengage Learning.

Sutherland, J. (2008). Essential Business Studies for Aqa as Le. City: Folens Ltd.

Sample Essay Paper on Application for research position professional essay help

Application for research position

               It is with extraordinary interest that I am presenting this application letter to be considered for an opening of medical research fellowship program at your credible institution. I am Bachelor of medicine holder from Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, where I graduated with a decent GPA. In addition, I am an accomplished pediatrician who has served in diverse hospitals under distinctive limits. I trust that securing a position at School of Medicine and Health Sciences in alliance with the Medical Faculty Associates at the George Washington University will help me in realizing my vocation objective. Note that my professional objective is to end up one of the best pediatricians and the best specialist in my general vicinity of specialization. In addition, it is my target to exceed expectations as a researcher together with the written work of the therapeutic articles that are identified with my territory of specialization. It is amid my training period that I built up enthusiasm for the field of clinical research. I especially appreciated challenges concerning the clinical research that includes preventive consideration as a method for comprehension of the human subjects in connection with the particular components (Fleischmann 4).

             I am a dedicated person who dependably makes progress toward only flawlessness. My responsibilities have empowered me to be grants a few awards and honors. First, I was recompensed as an intern of the year at the National Guard Hospital in Jeddah. Besides, I was likewise honored the second position prize in the competition of the internal medicine department, Um al-quraunive. Third, I figured out how to drench the most noteworthy imprint in my class amid the pediatric pivot. I trust that through securing this position at your institution will help me in thinking of the option strategies for taking care of developing pediatrician issues under the present practices (Ronchi 91). I anticipate further talks about my application.

Work Cited

Fleischmann, Arnold Walter. Report on National Health and Medical Research Council Fellowship, April-August 1973. 1st ed. Vol. 3. Blakehurst, N.S.W.: A.W. Fleischm    

Ronchi, Lucia Rositini. “Writting Research Application Letter.” Medical Research &                              Application Medical Res. Appl. 1.3 (2014): 91-92. Print.

Psychology Essay Sample on We are intelligent melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

We are intelligent

The case of Anna and DJ is one for the ages. It defies almost every aspect of social status quo and turns society’s notions upside down the idea of a mentally challenged individual finding within themselves the capacity to clearly express their emotional disposition. However, according to the article, DJ was a fully mature adult in the physical sense and possessed all the facets his unimpaired counterparts have. In addition to this, his ability to express frustration and happiness by chipping and screaming presents the idea that he retained emotional capacity and capability. Thus, despite his mental incapacities, he had within himself the ability to feel as well as desire love, affection and attention. Therefore, like any other aspect of life and interaction that DJ enjoyed or disliked, he had the capacity to present his consent or rebuttal for it. Despite the idea, his ability to provide consent lies only with Anna’s testimony, the other characters mentioned who carried out consensual relationships indicate the possibility of his consent.

However, despite his ability and the possibility of consent, DJ was Anna’s student, and both he and his family depended on her for his very development and expression. Her duty to him was to ensure he acquired the best in communicative abilities to ensure his optimal navigation through the rigors of life. She should have, therefore, due to her status over him, made the decision against pursuing the sexual relationship.

Whereas human emotion can be argued to be beyond the simplicity of black and white, anyone claiming the capacity to love as in the case of Anna should have the interests of others before their own. Although the sentence seems somewhat harsh, Anna had placed her objectives before those of her family as well as those of DJ’s family. Her sexual involvement with her client does deserve some punishment but not in the magnitude she received. It is my opinion that the sentence she received, though it may have some legality, outweighed her actions.

With reference to the pioneering case of McDonald, it is safe to say the assistive communication technology is not only proven but applicable in assisting those with cerebral issues to indicate their desires as well as portray thought. However, the main question would be at whether the motions exhibited by the patient were theirs or the imagination of the individual assisting them to express it. The extraordinary ability displayed by McDonald stands as testimony to the ability of this method, and the rebuttal of the question as to whose ideas are being projected by the motions. According to her educator Rosemary Crossley, McDonald was able to communicate with the assistance of other individuals besides herself. This view was put to the test and proved truthful when she managed to spell two words in a court hearing regarding her right to leave asylum, well as her ability to acquire a college education. It is also clear that the incapacity to perform motor skills is not a clear indicator for incapacity to carry out cognitive learning. The assistive communication technology only seeks to mediate regarding the enhancement of the motor abilities of persons considered mentally impaired. However, despite social categorization and classifications, for the mentally impaired, the credibility of this method is brought to question by the reported differences as inconsistencies not unique even to its pioneers. While those whose only hope for communication depends on the method can make their fervent efforts, it is yet proven beyond doubt.

English Creative Writing Essay Paper on Straightening My Path summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Straightening My Path

Ever since we were small, my brother and I have always been encouraged by our parents to go to church. My family is very religious which is expected since my father is a reverend in a local church. I remember attending Sunday school when we were small and whenever we missed the service because of oversleeping, my parents would get mad.

Since the age difference between my brother and I is two years, I always knew I was different since I was not into things that boys liked. I found things that girls did very interesting and fun like applying nail polish as well as dressing dolls. Furthermore, I also found myself being attracted more to boys than girls. I always suppressed these feelings since the church always discouraged such thing terming them immoral.

When I got to high school, my life changed, I met new friends who had the same personality as me, and it is only then that it dawned on me that I was gay.  My new friends who were mostly gay started introducing me to gay night clubs. Although this clubs did not allow people below the age of eighteen years old, my friends ensured that we got fake identity cards. When in this clubs I felt at home and I felt like I was understood.

By senior year in high school I gathered enough courage and decided to tell my family. The reaction I got was nowhere near what I expected. My father obviously was the most hit by this news, and he even went to an extent of abusing me physically and emotionally. He even told me that he was ashamed of being a father of a gay child. I can remember vividly when I can home late one week after I disclosed the news and he assumed that I was having sexual relations with other men. He beat me very hard on the head with a broomstick such that I was rendered unconscious for two hours.

My father beating me changed me completely; I decided to prove to him that I can do anything I wanted. Thinking that I was hurting him, I decided to do the exact thing he accused me of doing. I slept with any gay guy I knew who I considered attractive and sometimes without even using protection. I did not care anymore about the reputation of my father as a reverend. I was so focused on settling scores with my father that I was sacrificing my body to do that.

The members of the public became part of the problem instead of the solution. They would not embrace anybody who dared to be different. I strongly felt that most of the members of the public were ignorant. They assumed that anybody who is gay will not go to heaven. This to me was a form of judgment and the holy Bible itself says that we should not judge one another. The society distanced itself from me as if I was suffering from a contagious disease.

A wake-up call came when my healthy started deteriorating and after going to the hospital, my worst fears were confirmed. The medical professional informed me that I was infected with the deadly disease called HIV aids. I was very bitter towards God since I could not understand why he had made me gay in the first place. I was enrolled in therapy, and the doctor advised me to tell my family. They took the news hard especially my mother but through therapy she and I accepted it. I changed my ways and even and so did my father since he started warming up to me. I felt encouraged and even given medicine and diet directions so that I can live longer. I blame nobody for the stupid choices I made and the company I kept, but now I view life in a different light; that of optimism for the future. I came to learn that even a gay person can live life to the fullest just like everybody else. However, the support of the family and friends is very important. My father introduced me to a verse in the bible that has always given me encouragement whenever I am in doubt. Proverbs 3:5-6 – Trust in the Lord with all your heart, and do not lean on your own understanding. In all your ways acknowledge him, and he will make straight your paths.

I came to learn that revenge does not actually solve anything but in the real sense it serves to destroy a person even further. I feel that the public should be educated on what it means to be gay so that they can stop discriminating against them. This according to me will ensure that people live in harmony and at peace with one another.

Social Work and Human Services Essay on wear and tear of the human cells college essay help online

Social work and human services

From a gerontologist perspective, aging brings about wear and tear of the human cells. The brain activities reduce with old age. Therefore, senior citizens ought to be protected from the choices that they make because their cognitive abilities diminish and become akin to those of adolescents. Just as adolescents are not considered capable of making rational decisions, senior citizens’ ability to exert cognitive rationality is also compromised. Senior citizens ought to be given support for their choice of action because aging indicates that they are incapable of making sound decisions. By lacking the capacity to make sound decisions, senior citizens face the possibility of being conned by people. For instance, a senior citizen can easily be tricked by a bank to acquire the loan without considering the full effect of repayment.

Based on the general imbalance theory, which states that the nervous system, endocrine, and other bodily systems fail with aging; it is obvious that senior citizens require protection because an acute failure of such body systems can lead to unpopular decisions. Fro instance, consider the old man was driving a vehicle and suddenly acquires a nervous breakdown. T is likely that the situation would lead to an accident on the road. However, the old man did not commit the crime on purpose, but simply yielded to the forces of nature. As such, senior citizens require support and protection because their body systems may fail at any time without notice. 

In criminology, the violent or delinquent behaviour is acquired and depicted over time. A senior citizen may not have engaged in crime for their entire life, but due to the genetic aging of cells, the rationality between good and wrong becomes increasingly small. Genetic theory of aging proposes that cells are programmed to die after their biological clock expires. Therefore, it can suffice to indicate that senior citizens may have genes aging and dying which control the ability to discern between wrong and right. Therefore, they may make mistakes and believe that they are acting in a proper manner.

Senior citizens have a different perception of the universe as indicated by the DNA damaging theory. Since senior citizens have lived most of their lives understanding and obeying mainstream laws, they simply begin to question each activity as to whether its end is beneficial for man. The approach is made worse by the fact that vanity glares at them with the possibility of eminent death. Therefore, aspects that would make the mid-aged human beings fear death do not apply to the senior citizens. The senior citizens come to terms with the possibility of vanity and in it; they change their perception of the universe. Suffice to posit that there will be a conflict in a society where ideologies are in extreme opposites.

Ultimately, senior citizens are easily gullible and susceptible to fraud. It is evident that senior citizens can easily be defrauded without detecting a thing. According to Cumming and Henry’s disengagement theory, senior citizens seem to have momentous memory lapses in which they instantaneously disengage from reality. Therefore, senior citizens face serious elements of acute memory lapses, which make them easy to defraud. Therefore, the law society ought to protect the senior citizens from their bad choices keeping in mind that they have enormous and instantaneous memory losses. Senior citizens may not track changes and patterns to identify fraud.           

Sample Geography Creative Writing Rediscovering the Golden State: California Geography descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help


a) In Selby (204), cultural landscape according to Carl Sauer is the representation of the preoccupation of a place by phenomena.

b) The most recent definition of cultural landscape today is that it is a representation of the human works and nature

The gold was found initially at the Sacramento Valley in the 19th century. Marshall, a carpenter found gold flakes in the American River at the bottom of Sierra Nevada Mountains near Coloma in 1848. The influence of the Gold Rush increased the Californian population as many foreigners came to settle in California.a) Hollywood cutting edge lifestyle influenced California’s population. In the early period, California was home to those who had no acting skills. Pull factors have been economic, unemployment and money

b) Business men and developers were both in and out of the San Francisco Bay. Economic and environmental are legally pull factors

c) Farmers and agriculturalists were willingly out in the Central Valley Farm. Pull factors included environment being wet for the soil is to produce

d) In dust Bowl versus the Okies, dust refers to the people behind the great depression.  This is because there was the bed era with dust wherever.

5.         According to the population, farmers and agriculturalists were out

6.         a) Migration is the movement of people from one place to another in such of better living standards         

            b) Net migration refers to the selected movement of people in a place for specific needs

            c) Immigration refers to the inner movement of people within a region while emigration refers to the movement of people outside a particular place only

            d) International migration refers to the movement of people from places worldwide to a particular place. This form of migration also refers to overseas migration

            i) People have been moving from Asia, China, South Africa, and Mexico to California

            ii) The new origin of California is M.H

7.         a) Factors that influence migration patterns include economic stability, war, peace, migration policies, government acts, employment, food, and security.

            b) In California, these factors included economic where the Mexicans desired a better life, wars in the case of the Central Americans and warmer weather for older people.

            c) Barriers included language and unemployment

                        1. Current Dust Bowl vs. Okies; In current dust bowl is the period where dust storms are endangering the environment and agriculture causing them to migrate to from Oklahoma to California in search of better living standards. Therefore, Current dust bowls had more and severe barriers to development than okies

                        2. Place utility is defined as the character, which further defines the value of a product in relation to its place of origin

                        3. Chain migrations refer to the continuous chains of foreign immigrants who are allowed to settle in US based on the laws of permanently residency

                        4. A refugee is an immigrant who has fled his own country to a host country for fear of war or peace and desires safety

                        5. Overpopulation refers to too many residents within a place

8.         i) Recent immigrants born and the citizens vary in terms of household size (Selby 255). The immigrants are much more than the citizens are. There are at least three children in every household while the citizens have maintained at most two children per household

            ii) Citizens have a higher income than the immigrants do

            iii) Education at 25 years and older is higher among the citizens than in the immigrants

            iv) The residents hold a higher job position than the immigrants

9.         New immigrants are majorly found in the major cities. They are mostly international immigrants such as the Chinese, Indians, and Africans found mostly in Los Angeles

Works Cited

Selby, A. William. Rediscovering the Golden State: California Geography. (2nd Ed). NY: John Wiley & Sons. 2005. Print

Sample international Relation Research Paper on The United States and Israel: Strategic Cooperation and Counter-Terrorism free college essay help

The United States and Israel: Strategic Cooperation and Counter-Terrorism


            Developing an effective mechanisms and policies to fight terrorism, both internally and globally, have become crucial to the United States in general and to the Bush administration in particular. Ever since the traumatic event of 9/11, people started to question America’s ability to withstand the effects of terror. Moreover, the 9/11 event and its aftermath is seen as what drew the former United State’s president, George W. Bush, closer to Israel, which in turn shifted and strengthened the course of the American-Israeli relations. This followed months in which strategic cooperation between the former United State’s president, George W. Bush and former Israeli Prime Minister, Ariel Sharon had thawed.

            This paper aims to analyze the shift, discussed above, which took place after September 11th, 2001 using the “special relationship” paradigm and the “American national interest” paradigm. Such analysis will help determine the nature of America’s strategic cooperation with Israel, with a special focus on the strategic cooperation regarding the war against terrorism. In addition, this paper will shed a light on America’s counter-terrorism campaign and its impact on the American-Israeli relations. The strategic cooperation between the United States and Israel is discussed with the aim of presenting a fuller picture of the impact of terrorist attacks in general and the “9/11” attack in particular on the American-Israeli relations (bond 2015). In doing so, I will draw, among other sources, upon the memories of former US President, George W. Bush, former US Vice President Dick Cheney and George W. Bush’s former US Secretary of State in the two terms: Condoleezza Rice and Colin Powell. Brought together, this paper enables us to develop a more comprehensive and integrated understanding of the overall impact of the “9/11” event on U.S-Israel relations.

            Despite the fact that the United States has faced similar threats of terror attacks to the ones Israel has faced, the risks for the United States were substantial but not existential like in Israel’s case. Israel is forced to face Palestinian terrorists who focus narrowly on nationalist-separatist objectives, whereas al-Qaeda, US’s enemy, is a global network with broader political and ideological ambitions. It is needless to mention that despite the differences described above, the similarities had urged the US to modify Israel’s strategies in its counter-terrorism campaign. Since Israel and the United States both face a common enemy – a group of Islamic extremist who are willing to sacrifice their own lives in order to carry out terror attacks – the notes resulting from Israel’s way of dealing with this enemy were outlined by Israeli counterterrorism expert. It was commonly thought that such notes could be relevant to the US campaign against its enemies, the greater in which is al-Qaeda. 

To best understand how and why the “9/11” event shifted and strengthened the US-Israeli relationship; I will analyze it through the lens of the special relationship paradigm and the American national interest paradigm with the attempt of answering whether the 9/11 has renewed the special relationship between the two states during the bush administrations or not.

The Renewal of the Us-Israeli “Special Relationship

                   There exists several agreements, actions, and statements issued between the U.S. and Israel that offers a reflection of the alliance’s strength, and the special nature of the relationship, evolving over the last half century into a web of military, economic, academic, bureaucratic and personal connections. In explaining the relationship between the United States and Israel it is necessary to reveal what the words special and strategic, used in this analysis, in fact mean. The word, special is used in the context of my paper to mean that the United States (US) and Israel have designed their relations for a particular purpose, which is more than simply answering the American national interest.

To note that relations have been exceptionally good is opposite to say casual and epistemologically one may draw comparison to the United States and the United Kingdom; in so far as the level of cooperation between the US and Israel in economic activity, military planning, execution of military operations, nuclear weapons technology, and intelligence sharing. And while the word itself ascribed to Winston Churchill’s speech in 1946, I intend to use the specific mention by John F. Kennedy in his meeting with Israeli Foreign Minister Golda Meir as a start point.

“The United States, the President said, has a special relationship with Israel in the Middle East really comparable only to that which it has with Britain over a wide range of world affairs. But for us to play properly the role we are called upon to play, we cannot afford the luxury of identifying Israel–or Pakistan, or certain other countries–as our exclusive friends, hewing to the line of close and intimate allies (for we feel that about Israel though it is not a formal ally) and letting other countries go. If we pulled out of the Arab Middle East and maintained our ties only with Israel this would not be in Israel’s interest.” (Piper 2005)

When examining and analyzing the nature of the relationship between the United States and Israel, one must recall that it can be done through, both the national interest orientation paradigm and the special relationship paradigm. According to Ben-Zvi (1993), the special relationship is seen as a collection of general attitudes and sentiments in American public opinion that underscore the like-mindedness, and resemblance between the two states and societies in terms of their: (1) pioneering spirit, (2) heterogeneous social composition and (3) democratic values.

Dating back to the 1960’s, former U.S. president, Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ), truly believed in the American- Israeli relations and saw it through the special relationship’s lens. Despite the fact it has been commonly thought that such relationship has reached its peek in the 1960’, I argue that the shift in 2001—between U.S. and Israel— after the “9/11” traumatic event has revived the special relationship between the two. Through this argument I wish to present to you a modified model of the special relationship. In 2001, unlike in 1960 where a common ethos brought the U.S. closer to Israel and formed the special relationship between the two, it is a common enemy, terror, who brought the U.S and Israel closer to each other this time.

To start, I would like to stress out George Bush’s knowledge of the special relationship’s importance and draw your attention to a text from a speech he gave at a press conference in Kennebunkport in 1992:

“I want to take this opportunity to say a few things about the relationship between the United States and Israel. This is a relationship that goes back more than four decades to Israel’s birth in 1948. This is a relationship that’s been tested in times of peace and war, one capable not only of weathering differences but of accomplishing great things. This is a relationship based on a shared commitment to democracy and to common values, as well as the solid commitment to Israel’s security, including its qualitative military edge. This is a special relationship. It is one that is built to endure.” (Bush, 1989)

In this passage we can see that former U.S president was, indeed, familiar with the importance of the special relationship as well as with the definition of the special relationship paradigm. However, the president has failed to show that in the first months of his first term that took place during the years 2001-2004, such mark is being made relying on the absent of the special aspect of the relationship between the two countries — U.S.A and Israel. 

Which took a huge leap when the state Department’s campaign to craft an international coalition against terror, which appeared to be leaving out Israel while seeking to include prominent terror- sponsoring regimes such as Syria, Iran, and Yasser Arafat’s Palestinian Authority. This was despite the dramatic outpouring support offered by the Jewish state that included spontaneous blood-donation drive late that same night, the immediate declaration of a national day of mourning, and the empathy felt by a great many Israelis. This gave rise in the first few days to a quiet hope throughout the country that perhaps this horrific turn of events might assist Americans in understanding the nature of Israel’s own decades-long battle with terrorism; Israelis were taken aback by the U.S.

Strategic Cooperation

There is very little that makes the United States similar to Israel. The two countries are located in different geographical locations or continents and their sizes differ. However, despite their differences it is not a disputed fact that both states are developed democracies built by several immigrants. This fact makes the two states share several values. The relationship between united states and is Israel is built in shared values and mutual understanding

. There are no recorded instances where the United States has used its massive economic ability to influence relations with Israel. Thee united states has been the biggest defender of the Israel nation at the United Nations general assembly. Both nations have also had a rich Christian background and therefore espouse strong aspirations for human rights and freedoms and equality. The united starts since the early 1948 have always offered immense support for the Israel economy. They were also instrumental in the settlement of Jews who were persecuted during the holocaust that led to one of the worst humanitarian crisis in Israel.

Americans have taken keen interest in the vulnerable situations that have befallen Jews from neighboring states like the Soviet Union, Palestine among other states. The American government has provided funds to help Israel finance relocation of Jews from hostile host countries to their homeland. The Israelites have also always kept their timelines regarding repayment of financial loans from the United States.

The relationship between Israel and United States is mutual and supported by strong contacts between populations of the two nations. Most Jews have relatives and friends in the United States than in any other country. It is therefore to the interest of United States to support Israel which its location in the Arab world has come with dire security challenges. United States was among the first countries to recognize the statehood of Israel in the Middle East. They have also benefited from tourism that has flourished over time. America and Israel also have several students studying in various institutions in either country. The continued relationship has developed huge interest from United States to protect Israel citizens and the many business interests shared by both countries.

During the cold war era, Israel demonstrated that it was indeed a worthy ally of the United States. The Soviet Union was in a military competition with the United States and the threats it posed to its interests and the people was tremendous. The soviets armed several states that were ready to attack American interests. The PLO was also armed by Russia to cause instability and the Americans needed an ally in the Middle East to diffuse these groups and safeguard its interests. Israel being a great beneficiary of United States armament demonstrated the superior weapons by using them to neutralize the soviet funded groups.

 The effort by Israel is credited for diffusing the war because it engaged the Arab states with advanced weapons. The Arab states could not rely on the soviet weaponry and therefore were forced   to change their allegiance an inclinations to a much superior state. Israel was also credited with leaking secret technology used by the soviets to the Americans. The Americans were in turn able to develop more advanced countermeasures to the already existing soviet weapons. Israel has always stood by the United States in the Middle East and its support has been unwavering. Its contribution in dealing with the greatest American adversary cannot be ignored.


The relationship between the two states is mutual and each state has benefited from the other. A very developed scientific environment has made cooperation between the Israelis and Americans grow exponentially. There has been cooperation in scientific research, web developments and research including advanced web technology, business entrepreneurship skills and development and other modern technological developments. These fields have lad to collaboration which has been mutually beneficial. Innovation has been at the core of development and both countries lay a lot of emphasis on funding and research to facilitate budding innovative skills for sustainable future development. Israel is well known allover for its advanced technological development in agriculture, security, information technology and human health.

Israel is an arid country but its immense contribution in agriculture is admirable. The Israeli state has been able to sustain its production in agriculture by using irrigation. These products are exported to supplement the food products in the United States. The technology used in production is also shared with the United States and therefore empowering American farmers. Moat American industries have also invested heavily in Israel. Examples of such companies are the IBM which specializes in production of computer hardware. These companies have also employed Israeli specialists who have made invaluable contribution.

The strategic understanding and cooperation between the United States touches on every aspect of the American statehood. The relationship having been started in the 1948, its resurgence and revival of strong understanding happened during the war that lasted for 6 days in the 1967. The relationship has been buttressed by continued dialogue and cooperation among the two countries military training, intelligence and equipments. The military cooperation is necessary because of the location of Israel in close proximity to terrorist radical cells posing existential threat to Israel. The stability and existence of Israel is a priority to the United States

The military assurances from the United States have ensured the existence of the Israeli state as it currently is. Rogue nations like Iran and Syria have been deterred enough not to destroy Israel despite it being the only Christian state in the Middle East. Terrorism is a major threat to the United States and the government will do anything to eliminate terrorists and their activities that threaten the interests of the United States anywhere in the world

. Israel is one of the biggest American partners in fighting terrorism. The two countries have launched counter terrorism measures effective enough to eliminate terrorism. To eliminate terrorism the two countries have fought the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, radicalization as is the norm in several Middle East countries, terrorism by state as is the case with Palestine. The Palestinian state has severally refused to recognize Israel as a state and has continually used means that border on terrorism to intimidate the Israeli state.

The United States has been a victim of terrorism like the 9/11 among other terrorist activities in other countries that are aimed at harming the interests of United States and its interests. There was a serious paradigm shift after 9/11. Terrorists have also threatened Israeli interests like the Kikambala hotel attack in Mombasa Kenya a few years ago. Both countries are determined to end terrorism having been made prime targets of terrorism.  Islamic radicalism is one of the greatest challenges facing to the United States and to a very big extent Israel due to its location.

 Military cooperation between Israel and the United States has led to development of advanced weaponry and other military hardware useful for both offensive and defensive mechanisms. Israel with the help of United States has developed a very advance defense system that has been very instrumental in intercepting missiles directed at its population by terrorists in Palestinian territory. The Americans have also kept a sizeable number of weapons in Israel just in case there is need to launch an attack from Israel for the defense of Israel and its interests. Strategic military partnership was clearly seen in 2004 during the Hamas Israel war. The United States sent its top military personnel to advice IDF on the appropriate military response to Hamas without harming innocent civilians in Palestine. The Americans also funded the defense system used by the Israeli defense force (Hersh 1991).

During the George w Bush administration between 2001 and 2009, then prime minister Ariel Sharon cemented a good understanding with the American president. After the heinous act by the terrorists led by Mr. Laden on the twin world trade centre towers, the presidents held a meeting  with Mr. Sharon soon after. The Israelis were not pleased at how the United States was treating Israel. However the off the cuff remarks were unfortunate. Whereas the Americans wanted all terrorists cells eliminated, it was unhappy at how the Israelites chose to execute innocent Palestinians.

The Bush administration was credited with coming up with a road map for establishing a Palestinian statehood and on the other hand not threatening the livelihoods of the Israeli people. The Americans were more interested in a peaceful end to frequent violence experienced between the two nations. The Bush administration was also against expanded settlement of Israeli homes on the Gaza strip. There was need to take into account that there were so many changes that took place after the original road map in 1949 that cannot be implemented currently. There was need for a peaceful co existence between Israel and Palestine. However, the Americans were committed to protecting Israel in the world stage. The Americans have vetoed several resolutions they see as being detrimental and unfair to the existence of Israel as a state. They have emphasized on fairness at the United Nations Security Council.

The Americans also supported the Israeli economy by providing the much needed jet fuel necessary to sustain its air operations and in this regard in July 2006 the Americans shipped jet fuel worth $210 million. Military weapons were also a priority for the United States. The Israelis needed to defend themselves from the Hamas and other terrorists and so they received an assortment of weapons for peaceful means. American government was against the use of any weapon that would cause indiscriminate deaths like the cluster bombs and the dumdum bullets. Whereas the United States was committed to supplying weapons to the Israeli government, it made sure that the weapons were used appropriately on the relevant targets and not on civilians.

The support for the e Israeli government during the Lebanon Israel war in 2006 came as a shock many. The American government was against a resolution calling for an immediate ceasefire despite several European and Arab countries calling for an immediate ceasefire. The bush administration stood by Israel at all times maintaining a relationship spanning several decades ago.

The Counter-Terrorism Campaigns’ Impact on U.S.-Israeli Relations

Counter terrorism is at the core of the United States- Israel relationship. The Israeli government is probably one of the few peaceful countries that have received the highest number of attack from terrorists from all sides of its borders. Israel would probably not exist as it is it not the United States protection it receives. Several agreements and memoranda have been signed but the most significant one being the 1980 memorandum of understanding which made Israel a friend of the United States.

 There were several understandings and memoranda signs there after that were geared at developing the Israel state, offering protection from powerful countries bordering it notably the then soviet union which had expansionist tendencies. The measures on counter terrorism also included joint military exercises which were beneficial to both sates, sharing of intelligence, military hardware development (Rabil and Phares 2006).

The need to fight terrorism was renewed in 1996 where the two states established an elaborate framework to fight terrorism. This agreement was elaborate because it involved the creation of new military quick response teams, positioning of advanced weapons within Israel, joint military development of weapons that can respond to the new dynamics in the world order. Every year saw an exponential growth to the military cooperation and was bolstered further after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

Israelis are some of the most intelligent people on earth and have excelled in developing cutting edge technologies in several aspects of the society. They have well trained anti terrorism unit rivaled by none in the world. They have had to deal with so many terrorist attacks than any other military unit in the world including the United States. Their skills in counter terrorism are mutually beneficial to the United States. The Israeli army has protected American interests both in Israel and the United States due to their advance intelligence gathering skills. They have one of the best administrations managing its team of counter terrorist officers. The United States in return ships an assortment of weapons to be used by the Israeli defense force. The weapons are received as an aid package where Israel must use 75% of the money received to purchase American hardware.

Counter terrorism efforts have also included the supply of high tech screening devices for the Israeli airports to deter terrorists and their weapons in planes. This has helped secure not only Israeli interests but also those of the United States and its allies. It should be noted that planes were used by terrorists to kill so many civilians at the world trade centre on 9/11. President Bush in going with the previous traditions enhanced the American friendship with the Israeli government.

Present State of the U.S-Israel Relationship

There was however, a huge policy shifts during the current Obama administration. Whereas there was no severing of the long existing relationship with the Israeli government, there was change in tact on the American approach to the treatment of the Israeli neighbors especially Iran Syria and Palestine. The president sought to embrace the diversity in culture between the west and the Muslim world. It would not be prudent to impose western culture which has been the greatest cause of friction with the Muslim nations. The Muslims should be treated as partners in weeding out Islamic radicals within its countries. Collective punishment will only lead to more radicalization and therefore undermine counter terrorism measures put in place. Collective punishment also put the statehood of Israel under threat other than causing isolation (Rose 2015).

It is felt much that the relationship between Israel and the perceived biasness of the Americans towards Israel has been a catalyst for disunity and radicalization. Obama’s view was that the west has provoked the Muslim world and that’s why radicalization is on the rise. There is need for Israel to make concessions to Palestine since it is a much weaker power compared to Israel. Obama made a critical evaluation of the long existing relationship and for its sustainability; hard decisions in tandem with the dynamics of modern times had to be considered. According to the president, this will go a long way in making Israel safer and free from terrorists.

The current American president also supplied Israel with advance precision weapons and sophisticated planes that would only take on specific targets only. This will minimize on collateral where innocent civilians are killed and thereby creating more radicals baying for revenge of innocent civilians.

The Obama administration has done a lot to try and anchor the United States- Israel relationship in law by signing the United States strategic partnership act of 2014. This legislative document is aimed at enhancing the cooperation Israel shares with the United States. This document also bestows the responsibility on the United States to provide security and ensure its safety is guaranteed in the Middle East. This law will also go a long way in improving business and opens doors for sharing of technology and intelligence.

Latest developments in the Middle East do not look impressive at all. The threats from the Golan Heights do not seem to be going away soon. Hezbollah fighters represent a very big threat. There is great clamor for armament in the Middle East reminiscent of the cold war era style. The Syrians have lately acquired latest advanced weapons from Russia. The Syrian government recently acquired the advanced p-800 Yakhont missiles which pose a threat to Israel. On the other hand has had a clamor for nuclear weapons aimed at neutralizing Israel (Hitchcock 2013).

 The Obama administration has however negotiated for a halt of such programs in the meantime and therefore does not represent an immediate threat but an existential threat. Turkey is also a strong economy but its close support for Hamas a terrorist group according to the United States and Israel is not encouraging. The United States has also provided training and armaments to the Lebanese army; however the fact that the Lebanese share weapons with Hezbollah is worrying to Israel. Hezbollah represent one of the single largest threats to Israel due to its organization and weaponry. The Obama administration is however trying to mitigate Israel efforts by making sure its actions do not endanger its ally.

Future of Israel-United States Relationship

 Ever since the inception of the Israel United States relationship began decades ago there have been several advantages associated with this arrangement. There was significant advancement of the relationship after the end of the Second World War there was more impetus to increase the cooperation for a much peaceful Israel. Efforts were put in place to end the frequent Lebanon and Syria relationship therefore making Israel more peaceful. This peace enjoyed by Israel instead translated to development of closer economic and political ties between the United States and Israel. The peace achieved also heralded a new dawn on how Israel was perceived by its neighbors who were initially opposed to its statehood (Eizenstat 2012).

It should be noted that the main catalyst for a closer Israel us relationship was more political. This was so because Israel was a weak nation located between Muslim nations. The fact that majority of Israelites were Christian Jews made the relationship with its neighbors complicated and the united states was at hand to protect Israel.

The United States has always harbored some fears with the technology it shares with Israel and its close proximity to the Arab states. It is the intention of the United States to create a friendly environment for working with Israel neighbors. The United States is however careful not to get its military technology. It is to the interest of United States for peace to exist in the east and that includes Israel and all its neighbors without being seen as the enemy of the Arab world.

The need for stronger cooperation between the United States and Israel is more relevant in the future because they share common interests in the world arena. The threat of terrorism is a shared concern, weapons of mass destruction in the hands of rogue nations is a threat for both nations. Iran has been a constant threat of Israel and there needs to be a stop in their pursuit for a nuclear weapon. The Obama administration has entered into a ten year agreement with Iran for a halt to any nuclear activities in return for essential aid and lifting of the long term sanctions imposed on them.

American government has come up with a strategic us Israel document to be canvassed before congress. This document will guide the mutually beneficial relationship between the United States and Israel especially regarding trade, terrorism and military. It is intended to strengthen the relationship to the future. Israel currently receives about three billion dollars in aid every year down from five billion previously. This is due to the fast growing economy of Israel. The United States is however committed to strengthening ties with Israel to the future.  The United States however sees need to improve on relations with the Arab world and make them partners in combating terrorism. Israel also needs to change the way it interacts with its neighbors to achieve a lasting solution to the perennial conflicts with its neighbors.

For the future, Americans will continue developing stronger cooperation with Israel in sharing military technology, agriculture and tourism. However this relationship has to be formalized too avoid it being reversed at will by the incumbent administrations. Peace shall remain at the core of United States interests and seek to ensure a peaceful co existence of Israel with its neighbors.

Whereas all the steps taken by the United States support Israel, it also makes Israel more dependent on aid as opposed to developing its own economy to self sustaining levels. The relationship with Israel has come at a cost to the United States which has been seen as treating Israel as a more special nation than the rest. This has created animosity and there is growing need to change this detrimental course.


It is the interest of the United States to see a peaceful Israel. A peaceful Israel with therefore mean that the relationship between the two countries is not only defined by the need to provide security but mostly by the need to expand bilateral relationship between the two countries.

It is a shared view allover that Israel should do more for the world security and ensuring there is peace in the Middle East. With a fast growing economy, the country should re evaluate itself from the notion that it is a weak state in need of protection. Israel has a powerful economy and should take center stage in providing security in the Middle East.

 There is also need for change of tact in the way Israel deals with the Palestinian state. Israel should first recognize Palestine as a state. They should then engage in constructive mediation meant art reconciling the two states. Unfair Israeli occupation and expansion at the Gaza strip is a complete disregard to the issue at hand only causes more conflict.

With a much bigger economy and developed military, Israel should use deterrent means to deal with isolated terrorist acts. The collective punishment Israel often rests to only serve to create more discontent and radicalization.

The Palestinian state also needs economic support and the end of the imposed blockade by Israel. The denial of basic and building materials by Israel creates more discontent in Palestine. There is need to pursue peace and peaceful means of solving teething issues between the two neighbors.

The United States also has to change its perceived biasness to other states surrounding Israel. The Middle East nations should see the United States as an ally and not as an adversary. A positive perception of the United States as a fair arbiter will make sure that Israel is not a target for terrorist activities. Arab and Middle East should be allies in the fight against terrorism. If all these measures are put in place, then there shall be a peaceful middle east and by extension Israel.

The enactment of laws to guide the relationship is a good gesture but on the other hand it may not be the best solution to enhancing a relationship built on mutual interests. A good relationship should be flexible to the several dynamics that exist. A law may create room for disagreements in future. The stability and the economy so much stand on it and should therefore not be made part of the responsibility of the United States.


The relationship between the United States is built on mutual understanding and shared interests. For decades it has stood so much turbulence including several wars that have been fought by Israel. The United States has always been a worthy partner to the Israeli state.

From the early 1990 trade balance increased from just under $6billion to an excess of $20billion. There has been such an exponential increase all through to 2014. An increase of over 200% in Trade between the two countries have withstood great economic turbulence like the recession experienced in the united states and all over the world in 2008. Business relationship with Europe and other Arab countries were greatly affected by the economic downturn. The effects of September 2011 also affected the balance of between United States and other economies (Alkim 2012).

Israel is a partner of United States and the single largest one in the Middle East. The partnership has been able to yield tremendous intelligence on terrorism and terrorist activities enabling the United States deter further attack s on its soil. The relationship between the two countries is mutually beneficial to both states.

Sharing of technology in other fields like research in agriculture and medicine is also very beneficial to both states (Goodman 2012). The United States has on time to time purchased drugs and medical equipments from Israel which have had a very positive impact.

At the back of all this relationship is the need for joint counter terrorism efforts. The United States has shared not only intelligence with Israel but has also had joint military and police training programs (Mott 2002). These programs have equipped the United States security forces with skills to fight terrorism. The two countries have also carried out joint research on development of effective weapons and intelligence gathering equipments capable of managing terrorism. An enhanced relationship is mutually beneficial to both states.

 The Obama administration has had Israel as a strategic partner and is intent at ensuring the relationship develops further. He encourages a change in tact so as to improve the bad perception among the Arab states of its role in the Middle East and in enhancing world peace. The future of the American Israel relationship is bright and it is in the interest of both countries that the long standing relationship goes on unhindered.




Alkim, H. H. (2012). Dynamics of Arab foreign policy-making in the twenty-first century: Domestic constraints and external challenges. London: Saqi.

Ben-Ṣevî, A. (1993). The United States and Israel: The limits of the special relationship. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

Bond, L. (2015). Frames of memory after 9/11: Culture, criticism, politics, and law

Eizenstat, S. E. (2012). The future of the Jews: How global forces are impacting the Jewish people, Israel, and its relationship with the United States. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.

Goodman, H. (2011). The anatomy of Israel’s survival. New York: PublicAffairs.

Hersh, S. M. (1991). The Samson option: Israel’s nuclear arsenal and American foreign policy. New York: Random House.

Hitchcock, M. (2013). Iran & Israel. Eugene, Or: Harvest House Publishers.

Mott, W. H. (2002). United States military assistance: An empirical perspective. Westport, Conn. ;London: Greenwood.

Piper, M. C. (2005). Final judgment: The missing link in the JFK assassination conspiracy. Washington, D.C: American Free Press.

Ross, D. (2015). Doomed to succeed: The U.S.-Israel relationship from Truman to Obama.

United States, Bush, G., & United States. (1990). George Bush: 1989. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration.

Sample Physical Science Essay on Perfect Candidate english essay help

Perfect Candidate

A perfect candidate is a person who is able to mobilize the public to work hard in terms of tax contribution and safeguarding the country’s wealth in order to build the nation. He has the following attributes. The first involves applying zero tolerance to corruption that denies people an opportunity to exercise their own rights and freedom. Second, he is dedicated to help alleviate poverty amongst the population by offering employment opportunities to the youths. Third, has good experience to run the government in the best way possible hence will take the country to a higher level. Currently, the candidate is involved in delivering charity works and offering useful advice to the current government in various capacities as need arises (Trent, Short-Thompson, Mongeau, Metzler, Erickson, and Trent 123).

My perfect candidate stands for change in terms of economic progress. The reason as to why he will win this election is because he is the most experienced person in public administration amongst the candidates and presents the best agenda for America. He is also in his mid sixties so being the youngest in the pack. This has an advantage in terms of the largest voting bloc, which comprises of young people who are between the ages of twenty to fifty five (Gaffey 120).

However, the perfect candidates differ with personal ideal candidates in the following ways. One way is that he falls short of firsthand experience for the position of vice president or position of equal magnitude. My ideal candidate is the one who has served the government in a position closer to the seat of the president. Another difference is that the candidate has constantly made controversial speeches meant to sideline some immigrants and ethnic communities living in America (Donovan and Hunsaker 134).

Works Cited

Donovan, Todd, and Rob Hunsaker. “Beyond Expectations: Effects of Early Elections in U.S. Presidential Nomination Contests.” Ps-political Science & Politics12.2 (2009): 134-150. Print.

Gaffey, Laura L. “United States House Elections Post-Citizens United: The Influence of Unbridled Spending.” Election journals 23.3 (2012): 90-120. Print.

Trent, Judith S., Cady Short-Thompson, Paul A. Mongeau, Maribeth S. Metzler, Amber K. Erickson, and Jimmie D. Trent. “Cracked and Shattered Ceilings: Gender, Race, Religion, Age, and the Ideal Candidate.” American Behavioral Scientist 22.4 (2010): 123-146. Print.

Sample Social Work And Human Services Case Studies on essay help writing: essay help writing

Case Assessment and Diagnosis Assignment

Environmental/ Psychosocial Stressors

One of the biggest influences on Astrid’s condition is her dysfunctional relationship with her mentally unstable mother. Ingrid is cruel, selfish, and hypocritical, and this resonates in Astrid’s life. From the onset, Astrid wants to be like her mother and do right but her actions affect her immensely. Even while in prison, Ingrid’s letters gyrate between being berating and caring, and this impacts negatively on Astrid. Ingrid does not show Astrid the love she craves, and this lack of affection takes a toll on her emotionally (King, 2008).

The second influence is the hardships Astrid encounters in the foster care system. The negative experiences she encounters lead her to have social anxiety and stigma. In each home, she encounters immense difficulties and finds it hard to fit in. In the first home, she encounters a jealous, loud mouth Starr, who shoots her (Kosminsky, 2002). In the second home, Astrid witnesses Claire’s suicide that she blames on her mother. All the negative influences she encounters have an emotional toll on Astrid, who cannot seem to find love and care, or a perfect family in which she feels secure.

Despite the difficulties she encounters, Astrid is resilient. She always manages to make the best of all situations. Even when she is shot, she fails to name who shot her to protect the other kids. Astrid also does not develop trust issues due to her situation with her mom and foster parents. She manages to discover her identity away from her mother. She becomes an independent woman who also learns to forgive and love. One of her vulnerabilities is that she is gullible. She is always doing her mother’s bidding and cannot seem to shake her off. Astrid is also easily impressionable. Olivia manages to make Astrid use her womanly wiles and sexuality, as seen in the part where she performs fellatio on a boy. Astrid is also sexually confused, has a negative cognitive style, and is temperamental.

One of the ways that Astrid copes with her challenges is through conformity. When Starr pressures her about religions, she adapts by accepting Star’s religion. She also responds to the difficulties by dissociating herself from her surrounding and feelings. She constrains her ability to feel emotions as evident in her relationship with Paul. Dissociating oneself from others and the traumatic experiences might help in preventing disappointments and in accommodating the overwhelming experience to continue functioning (Simmel, Barth, & Brooks, 2007). By conforming to situations, one also reduces the load of stressors.

Developing a therapeutic relationship with Astrid would entail focusing on her strengths, especially her resilience. Active engagement with Astrid would aid in helping her forget her dysfunctional relationship with Ingrid. I would, however, allow her independence to dictate some events so as not to become intrusive or controlling. I would also strive to be genuine and transparent about her feelings and responses. Astrid is lacking stability in her life, a mother figure, and siblings.  

Some ethical issues to consider include how to deal with Ingrid, the negative influence who can still be pivotal to Astrid’s recovery. Another issue is addressing Astrid’s conformity. The trait might be useful especially in getting her to adhere to the intervention procedures, but it would cause her to continue being dependent on people (Reamer, 2003). Other ethical issues would include getting consent for difficult treatments and Astrid confronting the people who had a negative influence on her life.

Application of Theory

Two theories that can be used in Astrid’s situation include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and solution-focused therapy. CBT asserts that people get better emotional, relational, and spiritual health when they utilize counseling (Cooper & Lesser, 2014). In CBT, the therapist is constantly exploring and planning changes in the patient as the situation changes (Whitlock, Orleans, Pender, & Allan, 2002). The flow of counseling is thus straightforward, logical, and natural. It also involves the use of a ranking scale for monitoring behavior change. Solution-focused therapy, on the other hand, is geared towards enabling patients model a desired future for themselves (Cooper & Lesser, 2014). It involves exposing the patient’s history and provenance of the difficulties through observing how the patient reacts to the questions asked. Solution-focused therapy and CBT can be used together to aid the patient in recovery. CBT will be used in strengthening the emotional, spiritual, and relational health of the patient while solution-focused therapy will be used in constructing a desired future for the patient. The use of the two together elicits better results than when used individually.

To engage the evidence-based interventions, I would first identify the traumatic experience the patient has as well as the underlying causes of the traumatic experience. Next, I would analyze how the patient reacted to the troubling experience and the coping mechanisms they used (Michie, et al., 2005). Next, I would identify whether the patient is still exposed to the causes of the traumatic experience. I would also seek to cognize the vulnerabilities and strengths that the patient has and her relational norms to people. To explain the interventions to the patient, I would first proffer a case similar to hers and explain the outcomes that the patient had (Grol & Wensing, 2004). I would then show the patient that I empathize with her and that the intervention used in the similar case could work in her situation. I would then go ahead to elucidate the intervention in detail.

As we move to the treatment-planning phase, I would establish a trust mechanism whereby the patient is free to talk to me about her experience with the whole exercise. Being transparent with the patient about her feelings and her emotions as well as creating an enabling environment for feedback will enable me to cognize the progress already made. Determination of progress is essentially for formulating the next step in the process. I would also give the patient a range of choices regarding what she thinks can be the next step in the process basing on her progress.


Cooper, M., & Lesser, J. G. (2014). Clinical Social Work Practice: An Integrated Approach (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Grol, R., & Wensing, M. (2004). What drives change? Barriers to and incentives for achieving evidence-based practice. Medical Journal of Australia, 180(6), 57-60.

King, L. (2008). The Science of Psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Kosminsky, P. (Director). (2002). White Oleander [Motion Picture]. USA.

Michie, S., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Lawton, R., Parker, D., & Walker, A. (2005). Making psychological theory useful for implementing evidence based practice: a consensus approach. Qual Saf Health Care, 14, 26-33.

Reamer, F. G. (2003). Social work in a digital age: Ethical and risk management challenges. Social work.

Simmel, C., Barth, R., & Brooks, D. (2007). Adopted foster youths’ psychosocial functioning, a longitudinal perspective. Child & Family Social Work, 12, 336-348.

Whitlock, E. P., Orleans, T., Pender, N., & Allan, J. (2002). Behavioral Counseling Interventions: An Evidence-based Approach. Am J Prev Med, 22(4), 267-84.

Sample Nursing Discussion Conclusion on The experience of night shift registered nurses in an acute care setting: a phenomenological study summary and response essay help

Article: The experience of night shift registered nurses in an acute care setting: a phenomenological study.

Author: Valerie Valdez Anderson

Article Review

In a study to determine experiences that night shift registered nurses undergo in acute contextual settings, Valerie Anderson used a phenomenological qualitative research method to answer the research questions. The question, “what are the experiences of registered nurses working in night shifts in acute areas?” aimed at developing a clear understanding of the negative impact of working during the night in extreme settings.

The p-value is the statistical sampling outcomes used in tackling a research question. It principally determines the probabilities in the study (Lang and Secic 46). For instance, in this study, a purposeful technique was used in sampling with 5 registered nurses used as the respondents to direct interviews. A six level data analysis method was adopted, dividing the process into individual and combined protocols, with each protocol addressing the interview questions as it is composed. For instance, the individual protocol addressed the interview questions using individual inferences while the combined protocol used group inferences to determine the interview questions.

The p value in this study was determined by testimonial narrations from the respondents with no specific intended purpose, thus making the respondents to freely share without any time limits. The base of the standard rigor did not follow a quantitative evaluation but rather a phenomenological approach. The study went further to reveal the typical essential results structure. This is where all relevant data in regard to the research question was synthesized. The demographic data results were identified using the typical essential structures of the participants sample results (Anderson 52). The p value enabled the researchers to identify the information that helped in providing insights concerning factors that increase retention of registered night shift nurses with regard to improving their satisfaction, productivity, and patient care.

Works Cited

Anderson Valerie V. The experience of night shift registered nurses in an acute care setting: a phenomenological study. Montana: Montana State University, 2010. Print

Lang, Thomas A, and Michelle Secic. How to Report Statistics in Medicine: Annotated Guidelines for Authors, Editors, and Reviewers. New York: American College of Physicians, 2006. Print.

Sample Political Science Research Paper on American Foreign Policy my essay help uk: my essay help uk

American Foreign Policy

1.0. Introduction

After the attacks orchestrated in September 2011, the obligations of the United States and the Middle East became a subject of much importance. Additionally, the Arab spring that was prevalent in the North African region became a subject of renewed interest and increased relevance (Cole 23). The events of this occasion emphasized the importance of the obligations shared by the US and the Middle East. Moreover, there is a rise and virulence of Anti-Americanism in the Middle East, and this undermines the foreign policy of United States in a region that is vital to its national interests.

The American foreign policy makers always want to gain a better understanding of the nature and dynamics of the Arab public opinion. Similarly, among the Middle East nations, the streets can flare out of control, and this can cause a major destabilizing force in the region (Duggan 57). The dissection will analyze the obligations between the US and Middle Eastern countries, and their importance. Additionally, it will scrutinize the benefits accrued by both the United States and the Middle East. The relations between the US and the Middle East have to be favorable, and this will create a favorable atmosphere that will solve political problems, and enhance peace and security.

2.0. Obligations between the US and the Middle Eastern Countries

2.1. Obligations of the US

The United States has many obligations that concern the Middle Eastern countries. First, the United States has an obligation to ensure that there is a noticeable reduction or elimination of the prevailing security challenges in the Middle East region (Halabi 7). Security is critical for the United States and the Middle Eastern nations, and in the Middle East territory, the events orchestrated by terrorist groups have been catastrophic in many ways. Terrorist groups such as ISIS, Hams, and Hezbollah have always been a challenge to the security framework in the Middle Eastern countries, and the US aims to reduce such security threats. Additionally, Syria and Iran have been a tremendous challenge when it comes to security, and the US signed a deal with Iran to ensure that its nuclear endeavors do not threaten the security of the country and the world at large. Moreover, the Israeli/Palestinian dispute has been another shortcoming of security in the Middle East (Harms 40). Now, the US has an obligation to renew the leadership structures in Middle Eastern countries by engaging the key allies and its partners in the region, and this results in the elimination or reduction of security threats in the Middle East.

            Secondly, the US has an obligation to embrace the dignity agenda in the Middle Eastern countries by advocating the empowerment of the citizens and the building of democratic governments in the region (Jacobs 45). Additionally, the US has to guarantee the prosperity of the Middle Eastern countries by ensuring that there is the integration of the region into the international economic order. Moreover, the US has to ensure that there is a change in the Middle Eastern countries, and this has been challenging because change is a gradual process that can destabilize a region and cause occurrences such as the Arab Spring. However, the US has an obligation to eliminate the authoritarian status quo ante in many Middle Eastern countries (Rahman 34). Thus, this promotes the formation of democratic governments in the Middle Eastern territory. Ultimately, the US has an obligation to guarantee a positive future for the Middle Eastern countries, and it does this by advocating democracy in Iran, Syria, and other Middle Eastern territories.

            The United States has an obligation to address the gap that separates it from the Middle Eastern countries, and it has a duty to facilitate peace agreements (Singh 19). For instance, in the Israeli, Palestinian conflict, the US continually supports the Israelis and this in some way alienates reformist social movements and discredits the foreign policy in the region. The US must understand the Arab public opinion and the Arab populations react when they formulate specific foreign policies. More intently, the US has an obligation to address the growing Anti-American sentiments in the Middle Eastern countries, and the US has to repair the Arab world’s perception of the American motives and values. More precisely, the US must address controversial issues that relate to its activities in the Middle Eastern countries (Viotti 83). Such controversial issues include the invasion and occupation of Iraq, the doctrine of preventative war, the aggressive counter-insurgency operations and air attacks in Afghanistan, and the backing of militaristic and expansionist elements in Israel. Thus, this will improve the American image in the phase of hostile Arab public opinion. For improvements to be evident between the Middle East and the US, the perceptions of both Arabs and Americans have to be positive, and the US has an obligation to ensure that this occurs.

2.2. Obligations of the Middle Eastern Countries

First, the Middle Eastern countries have to ensure that the region seizes to be a territory of censorship and control (Yacoubian 497). More precisely, the Middle Eastern countries have an obligation to embrace human rights in line with the set international conventions. The Middle Eastern states must advocate democracy, fair trial, and freedom of speech, association, and movement for all its citizens. Moreover, the issues linked to gender disparities have to be extinct or minimal appropriately. The obligations between the US and the Middle East are heavily dependent on the rule of law in the Middle Eastern countries, and embracing human rights and eliminating censorship and control is a critical obligation of all Middle Eastern countries (Ziadeh 70). Additionally, democracy facilitates peace and a state that respects the citizens’ rights respects the rights of its neighbors. Thus, this culminates in a stable Middle Eastern region, and all the countries in this territory have an obligation to guarantee a stable Middle Eastern locale.

            Secondly, the Middle Eastern countries have an obligation to abrogate the activities of terrorists and extremist groups in the Middle East. After the September 11 atrocities, the US became extremely vigilant on its foreign policies about the Middle East territory (Cole 34). Terrorist affiliations such as ISIS, Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hezbollah act as a threat to the peace and stability of the Middle Eastern region. Such terrorist affiliations facilitate the destruction of the relationship between the US and Middle Eastern countries, and this causes the US to take countermeasures, and in the end, there is a compromise of the peace and stability in the Middle Eastern region. All Middle Eastern states have an obligation to guarantee peace and stability to all its citizens, and to do this, they have to eliminate the strongholds of all terrorist and extremist groups in the region.

            Thirdly, the Middle Eastern territories have an obligation to refrain from the manufacture of chemical and nuclear weapons, and if they do so, it has to be in line with the international set provisions (Duggan 61). The issue of chemical weapons attracts much controversy in the Middle Eastern countries. In the past, there have been reports that President Bashar al-Assad utilized chemical weapons on some rebel groups in the country, and this resulted in a catastrophe in Syria. To date, the civil war in the country is at its peak, and the Syrians are encountering death and displacement from their homes and such events do not guarantee peace and stability in Syria and the Middle Eastern region. Additionally, Iran has been a center of attention in the past because of issue linked to the manufacture of nuclear weapons (Halabi 97). However, there was the brokering of a deal between Iran and US. The Middle Eastern countries have an obligation to adhere to the set UN provisions, and they must address the issues of nuclear weapons in line with international agreements and conventions.

3.0. Importance of the Obligations between the US and the Middle Eastern countries

3.1. Elimination of Terrorism

The elimination of terrorism is crucial to the obligations of the US and the Middle Eastern countries. More intently, the cooperation between the US and the Middle Eastern countries is essential in the struggle against terrorists and extremist groups (Harms 106). In the prior periods, the US has not been in a reconciling mood with most of its enemies in the Middle East such as Iraq and Iran. Additionally, the overemphasis of military frameworks in addressing complex social, political, and economic challenges in Lebanon, Iraq, and Iran results in the strengthening of extremists and terrorists. Moreover, because of overemphasizing military frameworks there is a weakening of the moderate voices in the international community, and this makes legitimate counterterrorism efforts to be tough (Jacobs 205). The obligations between the US and the Middle East are important because they eliminate the need for constant use of military force, and this results in the elimination of terrorist and extremist activities in a more effective manner.

3.2. Promotion of Interdependent Economic Relations

When both the US and the Middle East value their respective obligations, then there is the promotion of interdependent economic relations between the two factions. Additionally, when there is an interdependent economic relationship between the US and the Middle East there is the promotion of peace and stability, and all political problems obtain amicable solutions (Rahman 35). All of this depends on the obligations between the US and the Middle East, and both sides have to show commitment towards their respective obligations. Undoubtedly, this will result in a favorable economic relationship, and this is of utmost importance to the Middle Eastern territories and the US.

3.3. Promotion of Peace Deals

Because of the obligations between the US and the Middle East countries, the Iran deal came into play. Thus, this avoided military engagements between the US and Iran. Any military engagement would have been catastrophic because innocent civilians would be casualties and the terrorist frameworks would flourish because of such military endeavors (Viotti 304). Additionally, the obligations between the US and Middle Eastern countries are crucial for the relations between Israel and the Palestinians. The Palestinians continually demand an independent state and Israel is not willing to budge on this issue. The US can reach out to the Israeli public and political scene to win their confidence on cooperating with it to negotiate with Palestinians on issues relating to the West Bank settlements and other matters (Singh 20). Thus, the obligations between the US and the Middle East are important because they have a chance of facilitating some form of common ground in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. 

3.4. Promotion of Democracy

Although the counter attacks on Afghanistan were catastrophic, in the end, a democratic government became evident under the leadership of President Karzai. The obligations between the US and the Middle East promote the formation of democratic states in the Middle Eastern nations (Yacoubian 497). Moreover, such obligations result in the vigilance of the international community on matters linked to democracy. Thus, the Middle Eastern states avoid the tendencies of censorship and control, and they appreciate the importance of human rights.

4.0. Benefits for Both Sides

4.1. Benefits for the US

First, the US has several interests in the Middle East and the existence of an obligation between the US and region results in many benefits. First, the US guarantees the security of Israel and its national security. The US aims to prevent the security threats emanating from the Middle East in the form of terrorist activities or the manufacture of the weapons of mass destruction. More intently, the US must prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear artifacts, and it must stop Syria from utilizing the chemical weapons it already possesses (Ziadeh 250). Because of the obligation between the Middle East and the US, the United States can guarantee security for itself and Israel.

            Secondly, the US longs for the free flow of energy, and this makes it extremely concerned about the matters linked to the Middle East because of the existence of crude oil reserves in the region (Cole 40). Although the United States will depend less on imported energy because of its enhanced production of natural gas, it still has to follow up on global oil prices. Moreover, the US has concerns about how its allies in Europe and Asia access energy and most countries in Europe and Asia depend on the oil in the gulf. Hence, there being an obligation between the US and the Middle East the United States can guarantee a stable oil market.

            Thirdly, the US has several military bases in the Middle Eastern region. Such military establishments exist in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia (Harms 304). Because of the obligations existent between the US and the Middle Eastern countries the US can run its military bases adequately, and this enhances its security infrastructure in an immense manner.

4.2. Benefits for the Middle Eastern Countries

First, the Middle Eastern countries avoid US sanctions.In the past, the US has persistently held grudges with its enemies, and this culminates in the imposing of sanctions against enemy states (Jacobs 43). The sanctions punish the innocent citizens in a country as opposed to punishing the rogue states. The current obligations between the US and the Middle Eastern countries protect the Middle Eastern countries from many sanctions.

            Secondly, the people in the Middle Eastern countries access their essential human rights. The human rights include democracy, fair trial, gender equality, and the freedom linked to speech and expression (Viotti 88). Thirdly, the Middle Eastern countries become secure because terrorist links weaken and the promotion of peace and secure environments becomes evident. Finally, the resultant economic interdependence makes the Middle Eastern countries prosperous as they enrich themselves by exporting their sufficient crude oil reserves.

5.0. Conclusion

 The obligations of the Middle Eastern countries and the US are several, and they include eliminating terrorism, embracing democracy, brokering peace deals, promoting economic interdependency, and preventing the production of weapons of mass destruction. The source of wrangles and regional instability in the Middle East is the Arab-Israeli conflict (Jacobs 39). The obligations between the US and the Middle Eastern countries avail a glimmer of hope towards a renewed and sustained commitment to peace and economic prosperity in the Middle East.

Works Cited

Cole, Juan R. I. “US Middle East Policy in Obama’s Second Term.” ECSSR (Abu Dhabi).Emirates Lecture Series.99 (2013): 0_1, 1, 21, 23-31, 33-41.

Duggan, Sean E. “Redefining the Relationship: Reclaiming American Public Diplomacy from the US Military in Iraq.” The Middle East Journal 1 (2012): 53-78.

Halabi, Yakub. US Foreign Policy in the Middle East. Abingdon, Oxon, GBR: Ashgate Publishing Group, 2009. Print.

Harms, Gregory. Straight Power Concepts in the Middle East: U. S. Foreign Policy, Israel, and World History. London, GBR: Pluto Press, 2010. Print.

Jacobs, Matthew F. Imagining the Middle East: The Building of an American Foreign Policy, 1918-1967. Chapel Hill, NC, USA: University of North Carolina Press, 2011. Print.

Rahman, Khalid. “US Middle East Policies and their Consequences.” Policy Perspectives 7.1 (2010):33-60.

Singh, Michael. “Change in the Middle East: Its Implications for US Policy.” Harvard International Review 33.1 (2011): 17-21.

Viotti, Paul R. American Foreign Policy, and National Security: A Documentary Record. Upper Saddle River, N.J, USA: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005. Print.

Yacoubian, Mona. “Bridging the Divide: The US Efforts to Engage the Muslim World.” The Middle East Journal 3 (2009): 494-498.

Ziadeh, Radwan. Power and Policy in Syria: Intelligence Services, Foreign Relations, and Democracy in the Modern Middle East. London, GBR: I.B. Tauris, 2010. Print.

Sample Health Care Research Paper on Cultural Humility Community Project – LGBT COMMUNITY essay help writing: essay help writing

Cultural Humility Community Project – LGBT COMMUNITY

As a younger generation of Chinese immigrant to America I understand that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual or Transgender (LGBT) individuals go about their lives much like heterosexual individuals as their similarities to the rest far outweigh differences. This for a few years has been a general view to many likeminded younger generational publics not just Chinese immigrants like I. However, not all the people in the society are as receptive as I am mostly older generational groups from my racial background. This paper represents a result of a Cultural Humility report through Reflection into a CBPR of the LGBT community in San Francisco.

Most historians approve that there is proof of homosexual activity as well as same-sex love in every documented culture, whether such relationships were acknowledged or not. In my Culture  as a Chinese-American I was taught that only relationships between two opposite sexes are considered as “normal relationship” and any other form of relationships are regarded as “immoral” would not be discussed publicly(Boyd, 2003). This notion has been existence for decades causing, the older generations inflexible to accepting different sexual orientations mostly of the LGBT community even though they are currently living in the U.S and not China. It should be noted that sexual orientation movements of rights and freedoms started as early as the 1950s by the Mattachine Society that saw to solve sexual orientation disparities. Currently a vast proportion of America’s lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender adults (90%) say society has become more acceptable of them as equals(Gendlin, 2010). However, some scholars do not view this as a reality as LGBT stereotypes are still used to public life with or without knowledge. Cases of homophobia in schools have risen over the past decade as many students are ‘coming out of the closet’ furthermore many adult LGBT individuals are not fully liberal with their sexuality in their workplaces. I conducted a survey form interviews on LGBT groups and individuals to fully understand how they integrate with the community.

My first interview was with a LGBT group living and conducting their business in the Market District and Castro District. The Castro District is well known for being the first Gay neighbourhoods in the U.S and is a prominent symbol of the LGBT culture in the U.S with streets painted with the culture rainbow. The town is known to be founded by the LGBT community and has maintained as the image as such. In the Market district the view is not as similar as that of the Castro district. The LGBT are recognised and are part of the community but not as active as Castro. The area community allow the LGBTs to partake in any of their sexual freedoms but not to affect the rest of the public in any form of illegality meaning respect to public property hence no streets are painted as that of Castro district. The identification of LGBT individuals and groups in this area are made up of different classes of LGBT group.

Methodology (interview)

The methodology used for data collection used in my research was interview. This method is highly suited since the issue of LGBTs is subjective to several factors for example, demography, social background (culture), current surrounding and personal perspective just to mention a few. However this being stated the most influential media of drawing a perception of the gay is through the media that plays a positive and negative role to the gay community and their surroundings. My first interview was with a LGBT representative of a local university who herself is a lesbian. I later asked the same questions of the interview to LGBT working class and finally Chinese American LGBT community.

Interview questions

When did you realize your LGBT identity?

According to Caroline a student at the San Jose State University, she identified herself as a Lesbian through a social group in campus in 2013. She unlike many other lesbians only knew of her sexual orientation during her adolescence where she felt far less drawn to social norms of dating men. From this point she found a LGBT group that enabled her understand her dissimilarity in sexual orientation to the rest and she later learnt more of it before she disclosed the matter to her parents who helped her know more about herself. Unlike Caroline, Owen who is a working class citizen in the Bay Area has been identifying himself as a gay man since 2008 during campus and even after. According to him, his sexual experiences as a heterosexual man were very challenging and he felt out of place until he meet another Gay student who he could relate with.  Currently in his mid-thirties he has a serious gay relationship that he identifies with for the last five years. May last interviewee Jeni Cho is just like I a Chinese American citizen who has been living in San Francisco Castro district for several years now. Her case is unique as she stays alone far from her parents who she parted with in 2011 after opening up on her sexual orientation right after university. She has identified herself as a lesbian since 2011 when she felt she was socially and financially stable to do so.

What obstacles have you encountered because of “coming out of the closet”?

“I have been brought up in a Christian back ground in  a  society  where heterosexuality is  often  presented  as the  only  acceptable  orientation and homosexuality is regarded as devilish” Caroline said. According to her statement her coming out as a lesbian put her family and her religious commitment to question and many of the society members were sceptic of them at first. She also had a problem explaining her orientation because many were challenging her thinking and saw her as young and confused. Owen on the other hand was first shunned by friends and family experience estrangement from social networks he was once a part of. As he grew identifying himself as a gay man, he has had to crow with the constant fact that other heterosexual men feel uneasy with him in social areas like clubs and restaurants and more so at the gym. As for Jeni Cho her whole world changed when she came out. The Chinese culture does not persecute LGBT but it does not accept them either. It simple ignores them and only accepts heterosexual couples as legitimate couples. During the time she came out as a lesbian her parents tried to convince her not to follow such an ideology of sexual orientation. “My parents went to an extent of getting me male suitors as potential husbands…they really were set to only see me as heterosexual” says Choo. To this date even after her family accepting her situation many of her relatives see her as a cursed member of her clan.

Would you consider yourself different from the heterosexual gender community? If so, why?

According to Caroline, she is very much similar to the her heterosexual environment. “Being a lesbian does not make her any incompetent or inattentive in class work” Caroline asserted. One cannot see that according to Caroline she as a person is similar to another and her sexual orientation does not identify her personality however she does acknowledge that in some social areas she is very different. On the other hand Owen feels he is very different as he was shunned by family and friends and views this as the heterosexual community stating their difference. To him religion and social rules sets him aside and disapproves normal society rights such as same sex marriage even in the termed “the gay capital” in San Francisco district of Castro. In accordance to Ms. Choo she is a complete world apart, as she is not just judged by the normal heterosexual community but also the Chinese American Society. Her perspective is that the Chinese community does not recognise her sexual orientation and there is no discussion on the matter furthermore she says her refuge the non-Chinese American has a negative perspective on the matter.

How do you feel about the SF LGBT community? Do you feel that you are part of this group?

The lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community in San Francisco regarded as one of the biggest, most influential, and prominent LGBT societies around the globe, in terms of lobbying for LGBT rights as well as activism. The city itself has, holds many pro LGBT, nicknames more notable “gay capital of the world”, as well as “the original “gay-friendly city”. LGBT culture is also dynamic within corporations that are situated in Silicon Valley. According to Owen and Caroline the San Francisco region is well place to well understand how GLBT individuals are. According to them this is one of the places they can actively be of their sexual orientations and views, with Gay and Lesbian social centres that allow them to live normal life. According to Ms. Choo the community in San Francisco is a refuge that she is well suited to hence she stays along 20th street. However, this community does not identify with her as her community as many Chinese-American older generation individuals are not ok with her sexual orientation.

In conclusion, from my understanding as a younger Generation of the Chinese American Community I respect sexual orientations from different perspectives. However I fail to understand why many older generations refuse to make such a similar view. Due to these factors, many LGBTs are left to face a lot of challenges from various fields of the community. According to interviews by Caroline, Owen and Ms. Choo clearly asserts that the LGBT community still faces discrimination but on a minimal rate than before. For the Chinese American community is still not receptive to the notion of change on sexual orientation basis. In summary LGTBs still faces discrimination based on stereotypes and nonfactual claims that will take time to fade.


Boyd, N. A. (2003). Wide-open town: A history of queer San Francisco to 1965. Berkeley: University of California Press

Gayellow pages usa. (2015). New York: Renaissance House Pub.

Gendlin, F. (2010). CultureShock! San Francisco. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) Ptd Ltd.

Sample Political Essays Paper on Political/Social Change essay help free

Political/Social Change

            Leadership styles portrayed by leaders today definitely define their political direction. People, especially in developed democracies, would prefer to put someone with high integrity in any political office. As such, the behaviors portrayed by an individual would greatly determine either his or her success or failure in the political arena. Therefore, accountable, morally upright, and high integrity individuals are more likely to positively sell their agenda to voters. Any citizen seeking for political change would be very cautious on the kind of leaders they choose. First, a leader who seeks to transform the well-being of a state through developments would be seen a good person to the public. For example, a leader who brings projects, such as employment creation for residents of a given city would be considered as good person or prince of that city.  

Secondly, an individual who acquires wealth or tries to gain popularity through corruption and violent means would be seen as evil in the eyes of ordinary citizens. This is because people perceive evil deeds as unethical in the contemporary society. As such, these individuals would have a negative impact towards the social well being of citizens. On the other hand, people do not usually realize that some leaders use evil means, such as property theft to be considered heroes or princes. In addition, ordinary citizens seeking deep social and political change view evil individuals as people unable to address moral issues. Socially, such individuals could promote vices, such as robbery, which are unacceptable. Politically, such evil people are considered as unable to portray transparency as a form of leadership. Generally, a citizen would consider a good leader a prince based on ethical and developmental behaviors, such as integrity, transformation, and transparency.                 

Sample Ethics Critical Thinking Paper on The Doctrine of Employment-At-Will write essay help: write essay help

The Doctrine of Employment-At-Will

            In most cases, employment at will refers to a doctrine that most of the business entrepreneurs embrace. The principle states that the employer or an employee has a right to dismiss his/her work relationship at any time without giving or being given a notice and incurring any liability (Sentell and Robbins, 2008). Employers members in the United States presume employment at will to be at-will, contrary to what most of the countries across the globe practice. They allow employers to terminate work relationship only for a cause. However, an exception to this doctrine exists in Montana, which requires employers to terminate workers relationship after the probation period of six months. Consequently, employers have no right to fire individual employees with legal employment agreement as well as labor union contracts under employment at will doctrine. In fact, companies are not required to dismiss individuals who exercise all kinds of rights under public policy, especially when filing workers compensation claims. Companies do negotiate with employees when entering into an agreement to ensure that all recruited members possess high-level satisfaction. The cause for termination may arise in the case of poor performance or all sorts of misconducts though the contract may outline situations in which termination may exist.

The Legal and Ethical Issues Surrounding Employee and Consumer Privacy

The employers who practice and adopt employment-at-will assume that policies are ethical. Nevertheless, it does not mean that all cases that are legally permissible under the doctrine are ethical. Sometimes employers may ethically adopt certain policies that allow them to avoid the legal burden of establishing the staunch reason towards employee dismissal. The employers must uphold the ethical standards and ensure that they exercise their duties in line with legal dismissal rights. The three basic ethical boundaries that guide every employer when exercising their legal rights under employment at will include employers should desist from firing employees for any reason that is not accepted by the state, federal, or those that are recognized by the judicial exceptions to the doctrine regardless of the status of an employee. For example, the case of a supervisor who seeks approval to fire his/her secretary for not having prepared false expense report for her boss does not qualify for employment at will doctrine. It is clearly indicated under the doctrine of employment at will that no one should exercise legal duties for personal benefits (Roehling, 2003).

It is recommended that whenever employers want to terminate the employment relationship, it is crucial for them to be certain and have sufficient evidence for the cause of dismissal if required by legal officials. John, for example, who posts a rant on his Facebook page to criticize the company’s customer, can be dismissed under employment at will doctrine regarding his misconduct that violates the company’s reputation. Consequently, under the rules and regulations that govern every institution, no person should use an organization’s asset for personal benefit. Thus, what Bill did by using BlackBerry issued by the company to run his own business was unethical, and he would be dismissed under employment at will doctrine. The provisions of such evidence that violate the legal requirement stand to defend any discrimination that may exist, and thus reduces the liabilities on the breach of contract.

It is evident that Maryland employment at will is highly practiced by employers of different states in many situations. A case where a member of Bowie State University Police Department (Tyson Lawson) claimed of his arrest being unconstitutional, saying that he was not made aware. By objecting his arrest, he was dismissed to have violated the chain of command by reporting his arrest claiming that Lawson tried to change the original custom and culture of the department for his personal beliefs on how the arrest was conducted. The administrative judge objected Lawson’s petition on his arrest though Maryland’s high court did not agree with the administrative judge, quoting, “The employee needs not “possess a purely altruistic motive for the disclosure.” Mr. Lawson’s denial to a wrongful arrest met the interest of public welfare, and the case is seen as a whistleblower. Even though the university police department terminated Lawson’s employment relationship, the rule used in employment at will was inappropriate Lawson v. Bowie, 603 So.2d 356, 361 (Hicks, 2008).

The Common Law Exceptions towards Employment at Will Doctrine

Public policy is one of the exceptions that are widely covered under common law to protect employees from adverse violation by employers, though in certain cases, the court fails to recognize a separate public policy. For all States that recognize public policy, exceptions are only accepted in cases where it is well defined in the constitutions. Often, the courts prohibit dismissal of employees whenever they refuse to engage in illegal conduct for personal gain. For example, the case of Anna whose boss wants to fire her on the ground of being absent upon denied leave request for jury duty. All sorts of a fraudulent act are not acceptable and meet employment at will doctrine. However, employees are not right to contest their dismissal based on personal thought that their character is in agreement with the law. The courts will not ascertain the reliability of their dismissal of employees if the statutory law and the employment contract grant them rights over termination.

The law also forbids any form of constructive discharge. It usually involves forcing an individual to either resigns or demoted with an ill intention of preoccupying his or her job position. Such constructive discharges are unacceptable under the at-will doctrine. Even though employers have a right to employment at will to discharge employees at any time without any notice, termination of work relationship may not be applicable when a person pursues publicity that is recognized under employment rights and obligation (Dunford and Devine, 1998). Employers, therefore, can be held responsible and liable for the wrongful act. The public policies exist in two major categories. The first category is the dismissal of an employee upon fulfilling a legal obligation or pursuing a right that favors public interests underlined within the constitutions or case laws. If employers terminate the employment relationship with an employee on refusal to have sexual relations, he or she would be liable. The claim is based on the federal policies that forbid sexual harassment. Consequently, if an employee is dismissed for having reported any suspicious actions that are fraudulent, he or she would be liable for protecting the whistleblower on the ground of public policy. Other misconducts are related to violation of human rights.

The actions on jurisdictions hold that public policy fully lies in tort rather than contract. All employers are responsible for all the damages caused to employees by employment termination. If the employers breach the existing contract during termination, the employee can recover all the incurred losses and any other damages caused by infringement of their rights. The contract remedies may also provide grants for emotional distress, pain or suffering and punitive damages, which may warn employers from terminating employment relationship with employees. The best vindication to public policy tort only exists when dismissal is in good faith but if the employer affirms termination, he or she must build a good cause that supports the action. The operation manager of the company must avoid both written and verbal assurances to employees when entering into an employment contract. Nevertheless, when such information is communicated, especially through writing, a disclaimer must be clarified that it would not alter with employment at will doctrine. The organization should also avoid unwritten policies except for limited cases where employees could be fired for good cause.


Dunford, B. B., & Devine, D. J. (1998). Employment at-will and employee discharge: A justice perspective on legal action following termination. Personnel Psychology, 51(4), 903-934.

Hicks, M. J. (2008). Estimating wal-mart’s impacts in maryland: A test of identification strategies and endogeneity tests. Eastern Economic Journal, 34(1), 56-73.

Roehling, M. V. (2003). The employment at-will doctrine: Second level ethical issues and analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 47(2), 115.

Sentell, E., & Robbins, R. (2008). EMPLOYMENT AT-WILL. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 11(1), 1-15.

Sample Education Research Paper on Challenges Faced by Saudi ESL Students in the US in English Writing essay help websites

Challenges Faced by Saudi ESL Students in the US in English Writing


Saudi Arabian students just like any other ESL student, studying in the United States of America faced writing problems (Al-Shawairkh & Bradford, 2014). In addition, they also experienced various challenges such as cultural, political, as well as personal challenges. Notably, one of the reasons behind Saudi Arabian students having trouble when it comes to English writing is because of the big difference in regards to the writing of English and writing Arabic. The differences between writing English and Arabic are very diverse because it spans through nearly all the aspects of writing. These writing aspects include word structures, styles, and the organization in general (Al‐Mubarak & Adamchak, 2013). Another reason behind struggling by the Saudi Arabian while English is their uniqueness in embracing oral communication than the written communication. This is because most of the Arabs prefer to speak than to write (Watson & Wolfel, 2012). Therefore, they find it very difficult to learn a new language such as English by both writing and speaking it. Moreover, Saudi Arabian students studying in the American universities have trouble when it comes to English writing because of their unique culture that embrace oral communication (Al-Shawairkh & Bradford, 2014). Consequently, they would rather listen and talk as opposed to writing and read.

Challenges Faced by Saudi ESL Students in the US in English Writing


The research study is at a critical time when the American colleges and universities are experiencing an influx of ESL students, including those from the Saudi Arabia (Al‐Mubarak & Adamchak, 2013). Unfortunately, the American universities and colleges offering the ESL academic programs have come under scrutiny because reports have emerged claiming that the ESL international students are experiencing learning difficulties (Kukulska-Hulme, 2003). Most of the learning difficulties that the international students face while undertaking their learning at the American colleges and universities can be blamed for their inability to read and write English as expected (Al‐Mubarak & Adamchak, 2013). This is evident from the writing samples they submit with the applications. As a result, this research study may come as a sign of relief for both the universities and the students because it may try to identify and address the reasons behind the failure of the ESL students, particularly those from the Saudi Arabia from writing English as expected. Therefore, the purpose of this study will be to identify and address the English writing challenges faced by Saudi ESL students in the United States of America.

Literature review

The United States of America has some of the best higher learning education institutions and system in the whole world (Al-Shawairkh & Bradford, 2014). This lures international students to migrate to the US in search of quality higher education. As a result, many colleges and universities in the US have a population of students from numerous cultural backgrounds including Saudi Arabia. Interestingly, these international students have faced diverse challenges as they strive to acquire education at the higher learning institution in America. (Pennington & Hoekje, 2010).There have been arguments that have tried to explain the underlying causes behind the inability of the Saudi Arabian ESL students from writing English effectively (Kukulska-Hulme, 2003). One of such arguments claims that Arabians are good talkers than writers. According to this argument, Arabs have the culture of talking and listening as opposed to reading and writing. Therefore, they experience a conflicting cultural practice in their host country that embraces reading and writing. This clash in culture makes learning quite difficult for the Saudi Arabian students undertaking higher learning in United States of America universities (Al-Jarf, 2006).

Another argument that has emerged and has tried to explain the reason behind the struggling of the Saudi Arabian students in writing English is the differences when it comes to the English language and the Arabic language. These two languages are so different in nearly all the aspects. This is to say that they are structured, organized, and styled (Al-Shawairkh & Bradford, 2014). Therefore, Saudi Arabian students find it very difficult to learn the new language, English. In this case, it is expected that the college and university administrators should come up with the program that institute offering English lessons for the Saudi Arabian students that face writing difficulties. This would ensure smooth language transition from the Arabic language to English as a language (Ardis, 2009).

Another argument that can explain why the Saudi Arabian ESL students experience English writing problems is the manner of which English is taught in their native country. In Saudi Arabia, English is taught as a second language where spellings and pronunciation are not emphasized at the elementary level (Al-Jarf, 2006). Consequently, the Saudi Arabian students tend to experience both written and spoken difficulties when they pursue higher learning education in America. Therefore, the Saudi Arabians in their country are not giving writing and reading the English language the seriousness; it deserves. Additionally, most of the American professors that teach the Saudi Arabian have noted that most of the students tend to think in Arabian but write in English (Ardis, 2009). As a result, they end up distorting the meaning of what they intended of writing. In this regard, the best solution for this is to give recommendations to the implementers of the education curriculum of the Saudi Arabia to revise their curriculum with the objectives of addressing the above-discussed shortcomings at the earlier stages of education (Watson & Wolfel, 2012).

This research study is important for not only the Saudi Arabian students but also other ESL student studying in the United States of America. In addition, this study would also be beneficial to the American colleges and universities offering the ESL programs to the international students. The fact that the study has identified and tackled one important challenge that is writing English would be crucial to the American colleges and universities in devising ways of assisting the ESL students to overcome this challenge. Moreover, this study would also assist the ESL international students specifically those from the Saudi Arabia on ways that they can employ to overcome the English writing problem (Al‐Mubarak & Adamchak, 2013). The reason for this study is to depict the linguistic challenges confronted by four-year program Saudi Arabia ESL College undergraduates when writing English in America. To understand the arguments mentioned above better, two theories would be discussed the cultural competence theory and cultural shock theory namely.

Cultural competence theory

Cultural competence theory can be used to explain how individuals can coexist harmoniously in a multi-cultural environment just like in the case of the American universities. It is important to note that there are four components of the cultural competence theory. They include awareness of an individual’s views of the world, the individual attitude in regards to the differences in cultural practices, the skills of individuals in dealing with the cross cultures, and awareness of different cultural practices around the world (Watson & Wolfel, 2012). As a result, for the individuals to survive in a culturally diverse environment just as in the case of Saudi Arabian students’ in American universities, they must exhibit a combination of these components of the cultural competency theory. In particularly, Saudi Arabian students must be ready to embrace aspects of other cultures especially reading and writing English to cope up and overcome the challenge of English writing (Leavitt, 2010).

Cultural shock theory

Cultural shock theory tries to explain social difficulties that an individual can experience because of visiting or migrating to another nation. The main reason behind the cultural shock is the sudden change of environment by the affected individual (Winkelman, 2014). The new environment brings with it new challenges such as new culture, new climatic conditions, and new social stratification. According to the cultural shock theory, human beings are adaptive creatures.  As a result, they tend to readjust to their new surroundings within a very short time (Winkelman, 2014). Psychologists have attributed the overall success of this theory to the tendency of human beings to readjust their behaviors in accordance to their surroundings. Consequently, this theory has tried to explain how individuals can survive in a new surrounding with very new cultural practices. On the same note, cultural shock theory can be used to explain why a section of the international students from Saudi Arabia has successfully overcome the problem of the cultural difference in the America. Therefore, it provides the vital hope that the ESL Saudi Arabian students can also overcome their writing problem. Consequently, this theory could be very helpful in motivating the Saudi Arabian ESL students who experience challenges related to the English writing (Peacock, 2012). 


Every new non-resident immigrant individual experiences hurdle in adapting to a new environment. The same applies to the international students who seek to further their education in America. The international students in the United States of America have a problem adapting to their new environment because of a sudden change from their conventional home countries. First, most of the students from non-English speaking countries have a problem studying in English. A good example is a student who originates from Arabic countries, such as Saudi Arabia. This study will not only assist in addressing the English writing plight of the Saudi Arabian students in America but also provide a platform for the formulation of policies that will ensure a lasting solution for all the international students. However, it is important to note that this study will bring the implementation of unity and harmony among different countries and America particularly Saudi Arabia (Leavitt, 2010). The following are the aspects that would be addressed by this study. The first one is the reasons behind the English writing challenges by the ESL Saudi undergraduate students in the United States. The second one is the relevant solutions that can be used to resolve the identified causes of the English writing among the Saudi Arabian students studying in America.


 This section of the paper would address the research design, instruments, and participants, together with the procedure for data collection.


            To understand the English writing challenges that are faced by the Saudi Arabian students in America, a qualitative research study will be designed using an intrinsic case study approach. This approach is relevant to the study because it allows for the usage of different concepts and theories in describing my case. Besides, it also provides a detailed description of my case that will be helpful in gathering a holistic data for my study. This study encompassed a research survey that will be designed to assess English writing problem among the ESL students undertaking undergraduate programs in United States of America. In addition, the study will also cover the experiences of the lecturers as far as their encounter with the Saudi Arabian students studying in America is concerned regarding English writing. This design will aim at collecting the data randomly from the eight Saudi Arabian ESL students as well as two lectures that have handled ESL students, particularly from Saudi Arabia.


 The participants for this research project will be eight ESL students from the Saudi Arabia undertaking undergraduate programs in the University. All of the eight participating students will be selected from students that have just joined the university to the students that are about to finalize their undergraduate programs. It is important to note that the selection of the participating students will be done on a random basis. Particularly, those who will be selected from the newly enrolled to the university will be four while those who are just about to graduate will also be four. Besides, gender will also be considered where out of the eight that will be selected students, three will be females while five will be males. 

 Apart from the Saudi Arabian students, lecturers also will take part in this study. The number of lecturers that will be involved in this study will be two. These lecturers will be selected based on their experience handling ESL students, particularly from the Saudi Arabia. At this point, gender will not be a big factor, therefore, out of the two lecturers that participated, one will be a female while the other male. However, the selection criterion will be voluntarily based. The lectures as participants will be needed to fill in questionnaires as well as read the essay samples that were written by the participating students.


 The two instruments that would be used during this study are the questionnaire and the sample essay writing examination. The questionnaires would be issued to the lecturers who had an experience handling Saudi Arabian students while the students would be given a sample essay examination of writing. It is worth noting that I would conduct the development of the questionnaire. The contents of the questionnaires will include the common problems that are related to English writing such as punctuations, language use, styles, structure, and general organization (Ardis, 2009). The main aim behind issuing of this questionnaire to the lecturers would be to gather information regarding their perceptions on the students’ common writing mistakes.

 Through the questionnaires, the lectures will ask on how best this writing problem could be resolved. In addition, the lecturers also commented on the questionnaires whether their perception matches the writing errors from the written essay samples after reading them. A sample of written essay being another instrument would be purposefully used to collect the actual data concerning the written errors that Saudi Arabia usually commits while writing The English language. The topic that would be given to the participating students to write about will be a very simple one, and it was about “My Experience in America.”  The written samples will be important because they provided a source of the referencing point where the common feedbacks from the lecturers are compared with the actual mistakes on the ground. Therefore, the ESL students, particularly from Saudi Arabia, used it to dispel or confirm the common feedbacks that the lecturers normally make concerning the English writing problems.


Both the students and the lecturers that would participate in this study would be selected within the University with the permission from the University. The university would provide the names of the lecturers that have handled ESL students, especially from the Saudi Arabia. I would select those that I was to involve in the study at random. Then I would organize a meeting with them one at a time with the aim of requesting them take part in the study. At the time of the meeting with the lectures, I would explain my study and would issue them with questionnaires after explaining the contents of the questionnaires to them in detail. They would be granted 45 minutes to fill the questionnaires based on their experience with the Saudi Arabia students regarding English writing. The questionnaires would consist of the following parts punctuations, language use, styles, structure, and general organization. All of these parts had Likert scale items namely1=Never, 2=Always, and 3= Sometimes. The lectures would be expected to fill the questionnaires by circling the appropriate answer that suits the situation.

 On the other hand, the participating students would be randomly sampled after the University provided a list. I would also arrange a meeting with them to explain the objective of my study. Then I would assign them equally to the two lectures who would issue them with the sample essay to be written. The students would then be granted 50 minutes to write the essay sample but would be told not to include their names but would be expected only to include the gender. After 50 minutes, the sample essays would be collected by the lectures and evaluated to check for the writing errors. The available errors would then be compared with those that have been perceived by the lecturers from their usual feedbacks. This would be followed by comparing the result from the sample essay with the questionnaires that the lecturers filled earlier.


The results of the students would be tabulated as in the tables below.

Table 1: lectures feedback on students punctuation

ITEMNEVERALWAYSSOMETIMEDo your students use a coma to separate sentences?   Do your student use full stop at the end of a sentence?   Do your students use question mark at the end of the question?   Do your student use colon?   Do your students use semi colon?   Do your students confuse a coma with a full stop?   Do your students confuse a colon with a semi colon?   

Table 2: lectures feedback on the students language use

ITEMNEVERALWAYSSOMETIMESDoes your student use words appropriately in all the situations?   Do your student fond of confusing and with hand?   Do your students use the right vocabulary in all the situations?   Do your students use the right adverbs?   Do your students know how to use conjunctures?   Do your students confuse nouns with pronounces?   Do your students confuse verbs with adverbs?   

Table 3: lectures feedback on sentence structure

ITEMNEVERALWAYSSOMETIMESDo your students perfect in sentence structure?   How often do your students use long sentence?   How often do your students use short sentence?   How often does your student face the problem of run off sentence?   Do your student have problem with sentence fragment?    

Table 4: total writing errors of the students concerning punctuation, language use, and sentence structure

ItemTotal errors of 8 studentsPunctuations language use Sentence structure 

From the above results, it is evident that the lectures perception of the writing problems is true. This is because most of the Saudi Arabian students have a problem of writing English. Particularly, the aspects of English writing that the Saudi students have difficulties in include sentence structure, language use together with the punctuations. These writing errors were evident from the essay sample that the student wrote.

Limitations of the study

The two limiting factor that can compromise the validity of this research includes the threat validity as well as the external validity. To start with, the sample size can be a source of threat to the research. This is because using a small sample such as eight individuals can hugely contribute to the inaccuracy of the collected data. This is because it can fail to provide an accurate representation of the larger population. Another limiting factor is the unreliability of the data. The participants making intentional writing mistakes can contribute this can eventually compromise the validity of the collected data. However, the research work has tried to address the issue of biased by involving experts in data collection together with taking care of gender.


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Al‐Mubarak, K., & Adamchak, D. (2013). Plight of Saudi Arabian students enrolled in U.S.

universities. Biodemography and Social Science, 11(1), 267-273.

Al-Shawairkh, A., & Bradford, J. (2014). Perceptions of the Saudi Students Attending

American Universities. Social Education, 1(1), 357-362.

Ardis, B. (2009). The familiar enemy: Chaucer, language, and nation in the hundred year’s war. Linguistic Journal, 3(2), 30-44.

Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2003). Chapter One Language Learning Defined by Time and Place: A

Framework for Next Generation Designs. Left to My Own Devices: Learner Autonomy and Mobile-Assisted Language Learning Innovation and Leadership in English Language Teaching, 3-20.

Leavitt, R. (2010). Cultural competence: A lifelong journey to cultural proficiency (4th ed., Vol.    2, pp. 157-196). Thorofare, NJ: SLACK.

Peacock, J. (2012). Culture and the Future: Culture A Problem That Cannot Be Solved. Culture as Given, Culture as Choice. Culture: Beacon of the Future. American Anthropologist, 2(2), 361-363.

Pennington, M. C., & Hoekje, B. J. (Eds.) (2010). Language program leadership in a changing world: An ecological model. Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Watson, J., Siska, P., & Wolfel, R. (2012). Assessing Gains in Language Proficiency, Cross

Cultural Competence and Regional Awareness during Study Abroad: A Preliminary Study. Foreign Language Annals, 3(1), 62-79.

Witte, A., Harden, T., Harden, A. R., National University of Ireland, & Maynooth. (Eds.) (2009). Translation in second language learning and teaching. New York: Peter Lang.

Winkelman, M. (2014). Cultural Shock and Adaptation. Journal of Counseling & Development,

2(1), 121-126.

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