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Review of Reading the Old Testament


John Barton, in the book Reading the Old Testament, Revised and Expanded: Method in Biblical Study, seeks to introduce readers to an understanding of the established methodologies of biblical study together with an analysis of the emerging trends in recent years. The book is primarily based on the best scholarship considering that it accommodates readers with and without previous knowledge of biblical study. Through an understanding of the methodologies and the approaches embraced by the author, the reader has the ability to appreciate the clarity and precision used in comparing traditional methods of exegesis and the new critical innovations of studying the Old Testament (OT). The main objective of this review is to assess the purpose and overall structure of the book, explain the approach used by the author in understanding Old Testament issues, evaluate book in terms of clarity and organization, and the level of objectivity of the author in the presentation of his ideas.

Purpose and Overall Structure

The author’s purpose is to develop content for assessing the methodologies that could be used in the interpretation of the OT. Through discussions on the application of various methodologies of exegesis, the main concern is not how each method can be accomplished but the development of an understanding of the motivating element behind each methodology along with observations about how they fall short of their objectives. The author uses Ecclesiastes as a test case through a demonstration of how various methodologies can be used to explain the content. This made the book more intuitive and engaging to the reader.

The chapters of the book begin with a summary of the pre-readings that are to help the reader understand the subject matter before engaging in an exegesis of the OT. From the author’s perspective, an effective comprehension of the content of the book can be improved if the reader engages in initial reading of other books that focus on events in the OT. To capture the attention and urge to continue reading the book, the author ended each chapter in a dissatisfactory tone with a transition paragraph providing a synopsis of the subsequent chapter. This was also aimed at showing how the methodologies of exegesis tend to react to or build on varieties of methodologies that prefer certain type of literature.

How the Book Addresses the OT Issues

The book focuses on the application of methods in biblical study. Barton is devoted to the provision of explanations on the scholarly approaches to the Hebrew Bible. He prospers in giving an objective analysis of the main critical methods used on Old Testament exegesis. An analytical inquiry encompasses the critical approach that Barton embraces. This is because he assesses the progress of biblical readings from an academic viewpoint. By evaluating the content of his work, it is evident that Barton spends most of his time on scriptural studies from the viewpoint of a nonspiritual academic approach, which is divergent from faith-based biblical scholarship or theology. The author succeeds in providing good analysis about the methods by family weighing the pros and cons of these methods with the objective of identifying the potential pitfalls and challenges of different methods. His treatment of canonical criticism, which focuses on reading and analyzing the Bible from a scriptural approach, is relatively unfair and unbalanced in different sections. For Barton, to maintain the objectivity of the methodologies used in Old Testament exegesis, it is important to abandon faith-based approaches that are highly subjective in understanding the content of the Bible (Barton, 1996).  

In explaining OT issues, the book uses varieties of common methods starting with genre recognition and literary competence. These are subjected to literary redaction and form criticism, which are geared towards upholding objectivity in the process of analyzing the underlying issues. The author also uses the canonical approach, historical-critical method, structuralism, poetics, and internationalism. These are also supported by the tenets of methods such as post-structuralism, rhetoric, postmodernism and deconstruction in explaining the text cited in the book of Ecclesiastes, which is depicted as a case study for developing an understanding of the methods presented in the book. Using the book, Barton bestows a set upon the reader methods and tools for operational reading of the Bible. This is accomplished with the objective of enhancing the reader’s understanding of the Bible. Critics may argue that the application of secular methodologies in explaining and understanding leaves limited hope for readers who believe the Bible as the word of God. However, the use of genre and literary forms does not hinder this understanding but provides the reader with an unbiased platform for critical assessment and compression of the underlying issues defining activities in the OT (Barton, 1996).

In the chapter that focuses on literary competence and genre recognition, Barton seeks to develop a set of terminologies that cat as the foundation of all the other methods. For Barton, through these forces, it will be possible for the reader to develop competence in reading the text. For Barton, the successful identification of the genre of a biblical text or book in question whether a hymn, family intrigues or prophetic speech contributes to successful interpretation of the intended message.

Barton uses the method of literary criticism in delving into source analysis. He provides an insightful explanation of the development of source criticism as a desire of understanding a text whose genre was not clear. However, this approach finds what it is looking for through the creation of evidence during the analysis process. He provides the documentary analysis of the Pentateuch as a standard example of how literary criticism works (Barton, 1996).

The author also provides details of how form criticism method can be used in the analysis and understanding of the OT. Through this method, it is possible to assess how genres, subgenres and the resulting comments can be used in nay example within the Bible by assessing the extent to which it conforms or deviates from the existing expectations. For Barton, during the application of this methodology, the decisions of the reader about the genre often rely on intuition instead of knockdown proof. He succeeds in providing examples of how through form criticism it was possible to develop the concepts of lament Psalm and praise Psalm. The effectiveness of form criticism, in Barton’s view, is that it reaches back to the oral folk literature among the Israelites. The application of form critic in Old Testament studies especially in Psalm demonstrates that every aspect of the book belongs to a certain type of occasion that defined worship in Israel. Barton advocates for this method because it performs an indispensable service in the classification of literature in the Bible (Barton, 1996).

Barton improves the reader’s insight on the methods of understanding Old Testament issues through the introduction of redaction criticism. This method focuses on the general flow and the meaning of the entire writing instead of an assessment of verse-by-verse details. By assessing the extent to which sources flow together to realize an overall objective, Barton argues that such an assessment will help the reader in identifying the inconsistencies, accidents, or deliberate arrangements. In its strictest sense redaction crisis entails an understanding of how the author used his sources. Through this method, the reader will assess whether it is possible to reconstruct the sources with some degree of certainty and assess the extent, which the author contributed to in shaping of the texts through deletion, addition, or compression. Through such detection, it will be possible to present evidence of the comprehensive picture of the author’s tendency (Barton, 1996).

To facilitate an understanding of how these historical methods are applicable to understanding issues in the Old Testament, Barton uses the book of Ecclesiastes as a case study. He begins by recognizing that the tension defining the book often leads critics into thinking that it is a compilation of different sources. For critics speculating about the genre of the source, the proverbial sayings that existed in the oral form communicated that it was poetic. The redaction critics assessed the conclusion of the source critics to evaluate the extent to which the existing evidence showed that the prices fit together (Barton, 1996).

The book of Ecclesiastes can be subject of misinterpretations considering that in its initial chapters it focuses on the pointlessness of human life and, in the final chapter it asserts the essence of respecting and obeying the commandments of God. From a redactor and literary criticism approach, such confusion arises because the readers consider the book as part of the scripture whose interpretation must be based on the Judeo-Christian belief in divine justice, providence, and retribution. By abandoning preconceptions about the possible meaning of the book and approaching it from an objective approach will help in the identification of the genre, possible historical context and its use when it was written.

An aspect in the understanding of the issue in the OT involves the use of canonical criticism. For the reader, this approach involves reading biblical text and placing it within the context in the biblical canon. Barton uses an example of the book of Ecclesiastes by arguing that since it is part of the Bible, certain approaches must not be used in reading it and bases its interpretation concerning the rest of the Bible. From this assertion, it is possible to develop a conception that there are no internal controls of what comprises a canon. This is because such a decision emanates from outside a text. Barton refers to Childs, a major proponent of canonical criticism, who rules out the validity of allegory and typology in understanding the indeed meaning of a biblical writing. However, Barton identifies the existence of inconsistencies base according to the rues developed by Childs; these elements uphold validity because they are part of the history of the community for which canonical criticism is used to interpret the text. For Barton such denial can be likened to trusting ancients in the selection of canons but not in their interpretation (Barton, 1996).

The structuralists approach embraced by Barton is relatively different from discussion of this method in other books. From a theoretical perspective, structuralism involves an approach to reading developed in the secular literary studies in which meaning is designated as a function of a system of symbols. Inasmuch as it is possible to apply this method as a framework of explaining all human behavior, Barton distinguishes structuralism method from thinking like a structuralist. In explaining the role of new critic, a secular theory, in understanding biblical interpretations, Barton attempts to explain how from a historical perspective, secular literary studies have evolved to share an association with canonical criticism. New criticism recognizes that when an author develops writing his objective is to enlighten the reader on a subject matter. This makes historical questions about the reader irrelevant and the meaning of the writing has the ability of transcending the original intention. The development of new critic was targeted at lyrical poetry and fiction since they consider writings as artifacts. However, questions have been raised on the extent to which such an approach can be applicable to understanding the Old Testament (Barton, 1996).

Barton notes that rhetoric critics focus on the unity of text. The danger of this approach just as source criticisms that it tends to fulfill its objectives. On reader response, Barton argues that it is always important to assess the elements about a text that leads to the generation of its meaning. Under biblical poetics, there is need to focus on the narrative conventions of text to study the meaning and applicability. In explaining the relationship between postmodernism and poststructuralism, Barton asserts that the latter focuses on showing how an entity defeats its self through self-obliteration (Barton, 1996).

Insight into the Subject and Realization of Stated Purpose

The success of the book lies in its ability to recognize the essence of developing a proper understanding and the place of methods of analysis in OT studies. On one level Barton was writing with the objective of helping students in developing techniques of understanding familiar methods while introducing new one. This was targeted at placing OT criticism against the background of literature studies in the contemporary society. On a different level, Barton uses the discussion on methods in the introduction of the metrical issue. This focuses on the role of methods in facilitating readers with an understanding when reading the Old Testament. Through a wealth of philosophical approaches, Barton attempts to demonstrate how questions focusing on the OT can be understood and answered by readers without a biblical background of the content. The methods employed in the book also focus on ways through which reads can limit the possibility of being encountered with dilemma situations when involved in OT criticism (Dell & Joyce, 2013).

Barton succeeds in upholding the objectivity and integrity of his works by acknowledging that part of the harm arising from biblical studies arises from insisting that there is one correct method of analysis, which if found, could unlock the mysteries that define biblical texts. The danger of this approach in the view of Barton is that it generates more evil and confusion in biblical analysis. This is because it will contribute to the tendency that each newly discovered method will eliminate its predecessors. Such an approach would also degenerate the reader to a non-critical assessor die to prejudice on the best methods to explain the Old Testament (Dell & Joyce, 2013).

Barton supports his argument by asserting that whenever a biblical issue arises, it is important to examine all the existing methods to assess the most plausible based on the genre, historical context and the intended purpose of the text in question. An understanding that none of the methods is perfect will guide scholars into a simple process of demonstrating how each method falls short of perfection. Barton proposes that the process of applying each method should be based on their perception as categorization of insights about the text that may occur to the readers. Through these intuitions it is possible for the reader to arrive at the truth considering that while reading the Old Testament with whatever objective, it is not possible to operate with an idea on an outright correct method because it belongs to humanities (Dell & Joyce, 2013).

One of the ways through which Barton succeeds in explaining the essence of critical reading and application of methods is based on his ability to demonstrate how each method, irrespective of the modesty of its application, is that it generates in its wake a form of circular argument. Barton affirms that reading is not a rectilinear procedure in which one method can be used on a specific text and facilitate a common understanding. This means that the application of any method is based on the existence of a prior understanding of the text, which is part of a methodological reading process.

While eliminating the possibility of bias in his work, Barton affirms that successful reading is critically dependent on the ability to make decisions about the genre and what the text can be read as. This is considered possible when understood under the control of a specific method. This approach in the view of Barton is effective for biblical criticism, which is non-scientific and should be evaluated using proper tools to humanities (Dell & Joyce, 2013).

In his thesis, Barton argues that criticism is a descriptive quest that is characterized by an analysis, explanation, and codification of questions, which perceptive readers put to the text. He differentiates this methodology to reading from a dogmatic discipline that prescribes rules about the best techniques of reading a text. His approach has the ability of being well disposed towards the methodologies in question so long as their achievements are concerned. His methodology also tends to embrace intense critic of each of the methods in respect to their claims of supremacy (Dell & Joyce, 2013).


Barton considers the methods of reading and understanding the Old Testament are in themselves theories of how to achieve literary proficiency. In the book, this is realized through four basic variables. These are the writing, reader, the authors, and the reality regarding the historical or theoretical nature of the context of the writing. The methods of analysis are inclined into emphasizing one or an interplay between variables and this is the technique of gaining competence. The book was successful in using the biblical methods in showing their relationship with theories and assumptions. In an attempt to fill the existing in the literature in biblical study, Barton introduces readers of the Old Testament to critical methods and the debates questions arising from the use of the methods. This results in the development of techniques of arguing for certain convictions about the place of methods in the study of the Old Testament.


Dell, K. J., & Joyce, P. M. (2013). Biblical interpretation and method: Essays in honour of John Barton. Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Barton, J. (1996). Reading the Old Testament, revised and expanded: Method in biblical study,Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

Terence J. Keegan, Interpreting the Bible: A Popular introduction to biblical hermeneutics (New York: Paulist Press, 1985).

Exum, J. C., & Clines, D. J. A. (1994). The New literary criticism and the Hebrew Bible. Valley Forge, Pa: Trinity Press International.

Sample Literature Research Paper on Nathaniel Hawthorne: Young Goodman Brown compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help


Nathaniel Hawthorne’s ‘Young Goodman Brown’ is an exemplary twist of the conscious expectations vis a vis the unconscious yet comprehensible aspects of life. The setting as well as the descriptive detail of the story depicts the interconnection between the dark and the light in life. Furthermore, the story also alludes to the thin line between the good and the evil nature of mankind. It establishes a premise for suspicious consideration of possibilities in the characterization of men based on the observed features as opposed to their actual characters exhibited in enclosure. The distinction between individual values and the perceived vices of others can result in contemptuous outlooks, which to some extent result in melancholy and dread. From the story of Goodman Brown as depicted in the short story, it can be deduced that Hawthorne’s work is descriptive of a dream rather than a satanic trick. The eventualities in the story also distinguish it from key features of reality stories.

            Young Goodman Brown has been described in numerous counts on the basis of the psychoanalytic critic theory. According to the works of Murfin (502 – 514), psychoanalytic criticism is based on the perception that dreams are to some extent, psychic explorations. While this perspective is not lucidly explained by the author, it brings about the impression that through dreams, it is possible for people to foretell or to experience a foreboding of events to come. Applying this to the context of Hawthorne’s story brings about a different consideration. In the story, the main character, Young Goodman Brown, can be said to have been experiencing a dream. The difficulty of separating the dream from the psychic elements entailed therein fosters the adoption of Murfin’s perception. For instance, the author clearly describes sounds, voices and names that are known to the main character in real life (4-5). Voices of Deacon Gookin and voices that the persona recognized to be of his wife, Faith, both form part of the exceptional experiences that the main character undergoes.  In normal dreams, such experiences may present faces but the voices and the names are in most cases hidden from the person experiencing the dream. This implies that there is a possibility, that Young Goodman Brown’s experience was not simply a dream, but a psychic experience embodied in a dreamlike outlook.

            Besides the psychic perception about dreams, the psychoanalytic theory is also associated with the distinction between the conscious and the unconscious. Moores (par. 1- 4) and Murfin (503) assert that the human nature is characterized by an ego as well as a super ego. While the ego directs man’s actions in the conscious, the super-ego encourages man to indulge in self-sacrifice for the benefit of many. Moores (par. 3) describes another nature referred to as the alter –ego. The three concepts of human nature bring the impression that human nature can be controlled either within or without the person. The ego controls human activities through the personal conscience, and consistently reminds one of the path they should tread. On the other hand, the super- ego mainly motivates men’s actions from an unconscious, seemingly absent perspective. The alter- ego exposes the dark self of man, resulting in a never- ending conflict between the conscious self and the unconscious self. The story of Goodman Brown can be used in the description of the three descriptive that can be attached to any individual.

From the story, the interactions between the ego and the alter- ego are observable in the journey taken by Goodman Brown from his house to the point of discernment in the wilderness. For instance, while leaving his wife on the street, he thinks of the evil he is about to commit and promises himself that it would be the last evil he would commit before coming back to her for the rest of her life (Hawthorne 1). This is the conscious self that reminds one of the paths they should follow. At the same time, there is the alter ego, or alter personality, appearing in the form of his shadow. The man with the serpent as a walking stick is the alter- ego in the story (Hawthorne 2). His intention is to prove to the persona that evil is in every man’s nature, and he does this through perfected exemplification. Using all those to whom Goodman Brown looked up are used as examples of how evil men can be. People such as his Goodman’s grandfather and father, his catechism teacher as well as the pastor and the deacon are all mentioned by the alter ego (Hawthorne 4). The main objective of this action would be to divert Goodman Brown from the good way he had chosen to tread. Using the known elements of his life to mislead his steps appeared to be the most logical explanation of the alter- ego’s actions. The super-ego is evident in the Goodman’s actions confirmed through the claims that he moved without actually pushing himself to or rather, he found himself moving (Hawthorne 6). Such is the nature of the super ego which drives men from the outside in terms of conscious awareness. In this case, it is probable that while the narrator may not have been aware of the occurrences and the decisions happening within him, he could have acted contrary to the directions of the super ego and the alter- ego.

The perception of dreams as psychic impressions appears plausible in multiple personality aspect of the story. On the one hand, it shows the multiplicity of other people’s characters while on the other; it shows the multiplicity of Goodman Brown’s potential character. According to Moores (par. 3), the story depicts the meeting between the physical Goodman Brown and his shadow. In this regard, the man with the serpent walking stick is the shadow, which portrays the in-depth character of Goodman Brown, which his other self could not come to terms with earlier. It depicts the in-built evil in Goodman through the use of an alter- personality. Through the convictions and the removal of every aspect that the main character depends on for survival in the righteous realm, the alter- ego creates an environment that gives the persona an opportunity to do evil. For instance, all the pious men and women that the persona looked up to initially as well as his pious wife, whom he hoped would be his only physical support besides the heavens above, have been progressively eliminated from the righteous zone (7 -8). In this way, the alter ego gets the main character to change his perception about the world as well as about people as a whole. He loses hope in life and does not have fun anymore. Life presents more questions and suspicion to the persona instead of hope and calmness.

The contradiction between the conscious personality and the unconscious can at times bring about negative feelings as depicted in the story of Goodman Brown. In most cases, such thoughts result in depression as well as other personality conditions that require counseling to be addressed. While the possibility of the story being a dream is eminent, the impacts it has on the persona are not as expected of a dream. At the same time, it is impossible to foretell of the psychic capability of the experiences held by the persona. The loneliness at the end of his perceived ordeal as well as throughout the persona’s ensuing life depicts life changing experiences that could have marred his peaceful existence to a large extent. It depicts loss of hope and direction and complete loss of optimism. From a psychoanalytic perspective, the condition of the persona towards the end of the story portrays the condition described as Oedipus complex (Murfin 504). Individuals suffering from Oedipus complex face fears, anxieties and anger that are the results of repressing their actual wishes or feelings. Upon experiencing such fears, the victims may experience dreams that remind them of their status relative to what they portray to the public.

Founding the explanation of the story on the concept of Oedipus complex, it is possible that Goodman Brown himself had been repressing desires to walk along the path of darkness to some extent. He may have felt chained within the societal expectations as explained through his reasons for resisting the wilderness’ path. For instance, he cites the respect that both his father and grandfather had within the society. He reports that he cannot continue on the dark path at night due to the probability of being met by others who knew him differently. The response of the alter ego to his suggestions gives the impression that everyone has a dark side and that no one ever talks about their own dark side. The only other person who is aware of an individual’s dark side is their shadow. The voices in the conscious versus those in the subconscious mind can result in personality conflicts, which bring about feelings of bondage. In real life, such feelings can be repressed and/ or ignored and pushed to the subconscious. In the dreams, the same feelings persist and are experienced as if real to the victim (Murfin 506). The same was probably the case with Goodman Brown, resulting in greater pressure and even higher chances of fear. By actually experiencing the dream and being unable to separate the dream from a psychic manifestation or a real occurrence, Goodman Brown is affected throughout his remaining life cycle.

Themes in the Story

In Hawthorne’s story, the key theme that emerges is that of juxtaposition. The combination of good and evil brings about the greatest impression of juxtaposition in the story. For instance, the combination of the nature of the main character as depicted through descriptions of feelings, the known and the unknown actions and the hidden desires depicted in the dream brings about the impression that it is impossible to separate different natures of human life. The same juxtaposition characterizes each and everyone’s life. From the members of the church, church leaders and even the young ones such as Goodman Brown, the duality of life is eminent. Each of the characters in the story depicts a double nature combining a good side which is portrayed to the general public and to those who know them in a positive light. The same people hold a dark side that is only visible to the others with whom they engage in the deeds of darkness. In each of these people, each of the sides perfectly hides the nature of the other and prevents them from associating with those whom they consider to possess different characteristics. For instance, all the members of the Salem District who are considered to be pious and who abhor evil in the daylight accept and mingle with the same evil in the darkness of the midnight and away from the eyes of other pious ones. None of these people judges the other in the darkness where their deeds meet. This shows perfect combination and assimilation of good into evil instead of the good repelling the evil as is expected. Such juxtaposition creates the perception of the inevitability of human evil in spite of the positive perceptions created by man.

The combination of different characters also fosters the theme of pretense, particularly through the depiction of Oedipus complex in Goodman Brown. From the descriptions made by various authors such as Murfin and Moores, Oedipus complex is associated with the presence of competing personalities as depicted in the story. There can only be one explanation behind this perception. The explanation therefore is founded on the argument that throughout his life, based on the story from the beginning, Goodman Brown has lived a life that is characterized by piety. However, there is a resident evil in him, which drives him towards accepting his companion’s proposal for a meeting despite being fully aware that the impending meeting was to initiate an evil trail. Furthermore, his decisions are made consciously with the intention that his Faith should not be aware of the evil in him. He even promises himself that he would not engage in any more evil activities after the final evil act. The description of the coming night prior to actually meeting and discussing with his companion portrays a conscious awareness of the intentions of the night, and the work that is to be done. The description only purposes to show the level of pretense that can be availed in a man’s heart. The same is depicted through the actions of Faith. As her husband leaves, she whispers his desire to have him by her side at least for that single night. Her actions and the final events in the story clearly indicate the kind of pretense that is associated with individuals who understand that their words have no potential of diverting the decisions of others. In the case of Faith, she knew her husband already made the decision to travel and her own plans were in place. The efforts to convince him were also made in pretense as evidenced by the turn of events later in the story.

The theme of pretense trends through the entire story, not only among the major characters but also among those in whom they believed and laid their trust. It is the exposure of such characters that lead the main character into depression and the melancholy that forms a major part of his life after the dream. The realization that everyone he knows, from the catechist to the deacon and his dear Faith, all have alternative personalities drives the persona to the brink of despair as he loses interest in life (Hawthorne 8-9). He becomes suspicious of all he sees based on his experience of their negative sides. The same impact is felt in reality when the things that one holds precious or of value are ridiculed and taken for granted through pretense. By showing Goodman Brown that all those who taught him his values are walking in the path of darkness, his alter- ego made it impossible for him to believe in the potential good of any of them. His perception of their positive sides was clouded completely by his experience of the negative. The pretense in the story thus paints a picture of the light which tries hard to hide the darkness. Eventually, when the darkness cannot hide anymore, it exposes itself through efforts to initiate a more powerful light into the dark realm.


The story of Young Goodman Brown is a perfect representation of the place of dreams in reality. The story, through the use of juxtaposition and the theme of pretense, exemplifies the conceptual human life. It clearly shows the effects of repressing certain feelings, fears or anxieties and how they may affect an individual’s life to a great extent. Through the life of Goodman Brown, the author exemplifies the combination of the light and the dark in each individual’s life, and the possibility of hiding one character to the extent of being completely unnoticeable by others. From the psychoanalytic perspective, this is described through the concept of Oedipus complex, which results in the manifestation of such repressed fears and feelings through dreams.

Works Cited

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Young Goodman Brown. In Mosses from an old Manse. Eldritch Press, 1854. Retrieved from

D, J. Moores. Young Goodman Brown’s ‘evil purpose’:  Hawthorne and the Jungian Shadow. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, vol. 27, no. 3- 4. (2005). Retrieved from

Murfin, Ross C. Psychoanalytic criticism and Jane Eyre. (Undated). Pp. 502- 513. Retrieved from

Sample Religious Studies Essay Paper on The “Deadman Walking” and the Concept of Communion of Saints essay help writer

            The movie Deadman Walking features a man involved in a complicated murder, whose action is seeking vindication with the help of a nun, Sister Helen, thus, introducing the concept of Communion of Saints. The Communion of Saints is a catholic doctrine that refers to the unity of all believers, souls in the purgatory, and saints in heaven under Christ. In the movie “Deadman Walking”, Sister Helen Prejean volunteers to be Mathew Poncelet’s spiritual adviser after establishing a relationship with him. Poncelet is on a death row for killing adolescent lovers. Therefore, Sister Helen goes ahead to find Poncelet a pro bono lawyer who appeals for the reduction of Poncelet’s sentence to life imprisonment, however the appeal is unsuccessful.

Interestingly, Sister Helen does all this to Mathew in spite of the fact that he was arrogant, a racist, a sexist, and unremorseful for his deeds. The belief in the unity of all children of God under the Catholic Communion of Saints influences Sister Helen’s actions. She considers Mathew Poncelet as a child of God and not a murderer. She also convinces Poncelet to confess, and ask the victims’ parents for forgiveness, after learning that the court had rejected the plea to change the sentence to life imprisonment. Despite the Court turning down her appeal, she continues to act as Poncelet’s spiritual guide as he awaits execution. This is an indication that Sister Helen saw Poncelet as a child of God who deserves redemption and forgiveness regardless of the sins he had committed.

Sister Helen’s actions connect with the Catholic history in the U.S, especially concerning charity. The Catholic Church grew rapidly during the colonial era, and the church proceeded to establish charitable organizations such as orphanages, hospitals, colleges, and schools among others. Immigrants from Ireland, Germany, Eastern Europe, and Poland expanded the Catholic Church in America. By 19th Century, the Catholic Church had built impressive infrastructure within the Diocese managed by Bishops chosen by the pope. Before 1900, most of the Priests in the U.S were immigrants from Ireland and France. Women were not left behind, as many of them became nuns like in Sister Helen’s case. Most of Catholics in the U.S were working class before the Second World War. After the war, however, many people gained social mobility and moved into white-collar jobs and suburbs.

            Nevertheless, by 1960s, the number of people who were interested in becoming nuns and priest fell. The Catholic Church continued to flourish in the U.S courtesy of immigrants from Latin America and Mexico. The universities and colleges that had been established by the Catholic Church grew, and people started to question the curriculum that adhered to Catholic Theology. In the 1980s, Catholic Bishops participated in politics and aired their views on issues to do with sexuality and abortion. The death sentence is also a political issue that also attracted the interest of Catholic Bishops in the U.S. The Catholic Church is opposed to the death sentence although the practice is still common in some states in the U.S. This explains why Sister Helen appeals to reverse Poncelet’s case from death sentence to life imprisonment.

            The movie is a reflection of the Catholic doctrine of Communion of Saints that makes Catholics to consider fellow believers as children of God. The doctrine influences Catholics to engage in charitable acts and desist from judging others no matter what they have done. The doctrine also encourages reconciliation as portrayed by Sister Helen when she arranges a meeting between Poncelet and the parents to the teenagers he had killed.

Sample Culture Essay Paper on Survival as an Element of Canadian Culture descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help


            Multiculturalism is one of the most common identifiers of the Canadian nation.  Unlike other nations such as Europe, Canada has established effective cultural values and identities which encourage cohesion and unity among diverse cultural formations. Other nations have adopted negative perceptions of multiculturalism entailing cultural sabotage and polarization, which were not initially evident in the Canadian context (Banting and Kymlicka 46). However, the idea of multiculturalism is constantly being built on isolationist as well as stereotypical assumptions about each of the ethnic groups in the country. The evidence of the same is taken to imply that Canada is moving in the footsteps of Europe.  Due to the assumption of the direction of Canada’s movement relative to Europe, the country is under constant scrutiny to determine whether the same segregation, prejudice and polarization activities experienced in Europe have started being experienced in Canada. The outcome of such scrutiny is that most of the cultures of the country are constantly under the pressure to survive amidst a dynamic cultural background (Banting and Kymlicka 46). The concept of multiculturalism and the associated polarization brings about the need for segregation in the same measure as experienced in Europe. On the contrary, it has resulted in the realization of the inherent need for survival and can be cited as the driver of the survival theme in Canadian culture.

Survival in Canadian Culture

            Understanding the concept of survival in explaining the Canadian culture can be a difficult challenge. This is because the survival is considered one of the thematic guides in Canadian literatures in regards to cultural exploration. Individuals in the country identify themselves collectively with their different ethnic cultures while positioning themselves within the triangulations of culture and collective identities. According to Violini (5), the Canadian landscape itself, in its diversity, mirrors the diversity of the people in the country. The citizens are enclosed within the concepts of diverse mythological cultures. The assortment of cultures to be chosen from, the intertwined cultural differences and the massive immigrant populations make it difficult to establish a single thematic perception that can effectively describe all Canadians. With the variety of cultures demanding individual attention, Canadians resort to the identifying themselves with close knit cultural relations. Each cultural group works towards ensuring it is not assimilated by others. Survival thus becomes the most reasonable thematic descriptor of Canada, which gives the country the intended unity.

            Survival is seen as a theme not only in Canadian literature but also in the conduct of various cultural groups. In the theme of survival, the cultural truth is continuously seen to be prevalent in the contemporary Canadian culture. The theme of survival not only describes the inherent desire of each cultural group to be recognized but also acts as a bridge between the different cultural groups in the country. The aboriginals have different survival stories and techniques from the White Canadians as well as from other cultural and ethnic factions in the country. While each understands the differences between their cultures, they all struggle to stand against the concept of acculturation, particularly with respect to the impacts of the colonial era. Canada has established itself under the survival theme in terms of describing conditions experienced by different cultural groups in the country. Presently, the development of the modernized nation- state following colonization has led to the distinction of small, potential communities for assimilation and larger communities which can assimilate others.

The Aboriginal Canadians form the best example in the exploration of the survival theme in Canada. The community, initially recognized by the distinctive practices with regards to self defense and economic activity, has continued to be associated with distinctive clothing, language and physical features. Such external factors characterize their consideration by others, a factor which has to be rectified in most cases to achieve individual identity. While the collective people have a shared history of genocide, poverty, disenfranchisement and collective trauma among many past experiences, they still have individual identities separate from the collective perception (Frideres 321). The perception of the community as a small cultural groups results in the loss of individual identity and the assumption of potential assimilation by larger cultural entities. In such a case, the theme of survival emerges not only in the preservation of the collective identity but also in the preservation of individual identities. The community and the members thereof have to develop a distinctive identity separate from the description accorded to them by others. In most cases, maintaining an independent description proves to be challenging as the community members respond more to external characterizations.

At the same time, the Aboriginals have made massive efforts towards ensuring cultural survival not only through perseveration of their cultural practices in their indigenous settings but also exposing the culture to large urban settings. The community recognizes the need for interconnection among all things and all people, particularly through communal practices of spirituality and religion (Frideres 323). The community has to maintain variants of its cultural practices yet maintain a world view of the culture and the elements in it. Because of such need for a world view, the community is under constant strain, struggling with the pressure towards assimilation by larger communities versus the community forces and the cultural traditions of the aboriginal identity (Frideres 324).

In other communities, the theme of survival is viewed not only as a unifying element of Canadian literature but also of the diverse cultural identities in Canada. Each of the ethnic groups in the country had different struggles and different challenges (Alter 159). At the core of Canadian culture, the theme of survival exemplifies the efforts made different native and non-native communities in ensuring positive progress. For the early settlers, the theme of survival was majorly developed in the early years where the communities had to stand against a plethora of hostile natives and natural elements. On the other hand, the French Canada had to survival the unexpected increase of the English Canada to be able to ensure cultural sustainability is achieved. Their numbers notwithstanding, the English Canada also has to constantly remain strong against and populous and similarly strong neighbor, the United States (Alter 159). The implications of such interactions are that each of these groups is constantly striving to maintain its unadulterated cultural practices. To a large extent, this has not been possible, partially due to the acculturation that resulted from colonial powers and also due to the modernization effects in Canada and beyond.

The experiences of different Canadian communities and cultures provide a good example of how survival is part of culture. Not only do different communities strive to stand amidst other conflicting cultures, but they also share in their national efforts to sustain the Canadian culture. The implication is a general unification in the theme of survival.

Works Cited

 Alter, Grit. Inter and trans-cultural learning in the context of Canadian young adult fiction. LIT Verlag Munster, 2015. Retrieved from

Banting, Keith and Kymlicka, Will. Canadian multiculturalism: Global anxieties and local debates. British Journal of Canadian Studies, vol. 23, 1(2010): 43- 72. Retrieved from

Frideres, James. Aboriginal identity in the Canadian context. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, vol. XXVIII, 2 (2008): 313- 342. Retrieved from

Violini, Cara. Hundreds and thousands: Diversifying themes in Canadian literature through Emily Carr’s mythographies. Master’s Thesis – Athabasca University. 2011. Retrieved from

Sample Public Administration Research Paper on Public Information Officer’s Role in American Law Enforcement descriptive essay help

            For a long period, several police agencies in the United States have created public information officers (PIO) that mainly communicate with many audiences, predominantly the media. Despite the fact that most PIO define their functions as media-inclined and responsive, they apply management-focused practical approaches that are in line with recognized public relations models. Generally, the PIOs carry out several customary public relations roles, which have been significant in moving law enforcement from a closed to a more open system of communication in the society. commonly, law enforcement agencies receive negative coverage by the media which dents their image. In response to negative publicity, law enforcement agencies have put in place measures of repairing their image in the eyes of the public. Furthermore, other police departments have played a significant role in creating a more unswerving and operational system of communication with the public, explicitly through their public information units. The current paper discusses the importance of public information officers (PIO) and how instrumental they are in moving the law enforcement’s communication system from a closed to a more open system.

            Currently, Public information activities are perceived as integral in police activities, principally, because the contemporary society has become progressively technological and media inclined. For example, after several negative instances took place in the Los Angeles Police Department, the agency undertook a more preemptive strategy of addressing the needs of the media and creating constructive stories to reestablish public confidence in the police (Stateman). According to Kelly, the former president of the National Information Officers Association (NIOA) as well as the editor of the NIOA News stated, “The luxury of deliberation and reflection is rapidly disappearing, as the traditional news cycle erodes into a continuous blur. We find ourselves inundated with broad requests, even demands, for information from varied sources, all conditioned to expect immediate answers” (p.2). In a rejoinder to the need for more information, several intermediate-and large-sized metropolitan agencies and federal law enforcement agencies have created public information offices as extensions to their overall operations within specific locations. Avowed law enforcing officers, in addition to the growing population of civilian personnel with communication backgrounds, are taking up the functions of public information officer (PIO). The main role of the position is to inform the media and the general public concerning the agency’s actions, and happenings relating to the law enforcing agencies. Therefore, the growth in the public information position has created a huge demand for nationwide and statewide-proficient associations that offer PIOs with preparation and qualified development opportunities. The NIOA is an example of an entity whose members comprise the law enforcement and emergency medicine PIOs originating from the United States and Canada. NIOA members assemble at annual conferences in professional development seminars. Such seminars also provide an opportunity for members to interrelate with their colleagues from other agencies. Other certified associations, for instance, the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and the National Sheriff’s Association have also created exceptional public information task forces that are aimed at developing the policing segment.

            The Philadelphia Police Department (PPD), for instance, is one of the oldest and major law enforcement agencies in the United States. The department controls a population of almost 1.5 million with around 6,526 sworn officers and 834 civilian staff, totalling 7,360 personnel (Fachnern and Scarter 10).  The PPD is the main law enforcement agency with its functions across Philadelphia County. The department’s activities exemplify the increasing intricacy of the role of police in society. Nonetheless, the incorporation of effective communication approach has ensured that the agency’s undertakings evolve from reactive to positive in its fight against crime. The department has incorporated evolutionary strategies through public interactions, in its operation, hence developing an open communication.

            The PIOs are also significant among the law enforcement’s focus on community relations and the ensuing incorporation of a more formalized communication or public relations activities. The formation of the PIO was somewhat a reaction to the major social and political occurrences that took place in the United States. The events included the metropolitan uprisings and civil rights remonstrations. Since the public uproar concerning the police strategies applied in handling the hot-blooded situations during this period were severe, the practices were defied. The strategies also led to the formation of the federal level consultative advisories, which commended police reorganizations. Nonetheless, the formation of the PIO has enhanced a sturdier community relations programs as well as a more positive news media relation (International Association of Chiefs of Police and United States of America 7). The PIO has opened avenues to the formation of press offices besides public information units, which assist the law enforcing agencies in effectively addressing the media and acting openly with the public in communicating information.

            There have been several misconceptions about the role of PIO despite the fact that it is a significant arm of communication function. For instance, whereas most PIOs’ role is labeled as media-relations-focused, there are some aspects of the communication by the PIO that depart from the traditional one-way public information ideal. The PIO, apart from communication, ensures that law enforcing agencies voluntarily uphold high standards in all facets of law enforcement, for instance, crime control and prevention, service delivery, agency harmonization, and community relations (Standards for Law Enforcement Agencies 54).The PIO has created explicit values on public information that focus on the objective of advising the public and news media about the occurrences that impact the lives of citizens in the community with honesty and openness. Good working relations between the police and the public is exemplified through community policing (Brown 1). The public information function enhances a more open system of communication whereby the public information section defines the PIO function.

Several law enforcement agencies are currently employing PIO that are aimed at enhancing public information programs, which update the public and also community members about law enforcement activities. Despite the fact that the police reform efforts and approval decrees have enhanced the image of a professional police body, there is immense attention from the media on both at local and federal levels events encompassing dubious police strategies. Negative notions of the public towards the police have continued to be an impediment to the relationship between the two parties. For example, the use of force by the police and the magnitude to which the officers adhere to standard police procedures at a crime scene are part of the issues that promote public criticism of the police. These concerns, in addition to the impacts of waning resources on police department activities, increase the necessity of the police to uphold public support. Through informing and integrating the public through the PIOs, law enforcing agencies expect to help the public understand the that the incidents of failure to follow police procedure and other crimes committed by rogue police officers, should not be used to gauge the entire police body. Additionally, the police through IPOs intend to inform the public about steps taken to discipline such police officers.

The PIOs have also enhanced the creation of citizen confidence towards law enforcing agencies and, consequently, end the negative publicity. Certainly, citizen support is core to law enforcing agencies in projecting a confident image. According to Motschall, Melissa, and Liqun, the police department, more than any other government agency, requires the indulgence and support of the public. This level of support and understanding also enhances the functioning of the municipal and government entities. Furthermore, police leaders have talked about the significance of citizens’ support and police responsibility to the public during national meetings (US Dep’t of Justice 21). The importance of extensive media and citizen consideration among the police is important in ensuring that law enforcing agencies protect cities, departments, and other personnel from the destruction of citizen buoyancy and negative publicity.

The PIO enhancement of citizen support and a confident police image is also significant in addressing the problem of fading resources, or budgetary constrictions of law enforcing agencies attained through an open system of communication. The Federal General Revenue Sharing dues as well as the state and local funds have decreased. Consequently, the funding of several police departments that depend on tax have been drastically reduced. Therefore, law enforcing agencies are encouraged to look for alternate ways of funding to increase their activities, for instance, through private contributions, donations, and indenture. Law enforcement agencies, therefore, through open communication systems, need to present their cases to citizens. Nonetheless, this can only be effective through open public presentations undertaken by the PIOs. The PIOs can also create effective working associations with the media, thereby forming special events and organizing for press conferences that attract positive publicity from the police. The police professionals associate respectable publicity by the PIOs with a confident public image. A positive public image is significant in the reduction of citizens’ criticisms at the same time encouraging taxpayers’ courtesy in advocating for additional revenue measures intended to subsidy the law enforcement agencies.

The PIOs are significant because their roles of comprehensive communication address the necessity for more operative public relations among law enforcing agencies. Regardless of the perception of the efforts of public information or public affairs, the PIO communication functions have addressed the issues that relate to communication barriers. Moreover, the objective of public relations by the PIOs is perceived as a high precedence in relation to the law enforcing agency’s general activities, which heavily depend on public support. Law enforcement agencie’s public relations undertakings need to be preserved at all costs and be granted priority by the agency administration. The function of PIO in the agency’s public relations is aimed at manipulating the public’s admiration, sureness, and endorsement for the agency’s activities and efforts. Through the PIOs, the police are encouraged to exercise control on their image since the level of citizen openness, buoyancy, and budget decisions are apparently swayed by this form of image.

The PIOs roles have addressed the environmental factors, which necessitated the need for law enforcement’s public information programs and professional standards. The programs have become significant in shifting the agency from the perceived paramilitary positioning to a service work style, hence enhancing open communication. According to Culbertson (13), law enforcing agency currently engages more in community-service initiatives. The service strategy inspires the public to work in collaboration with the police in decreasing crime and accentuates on the constructive police-citizen relations as evident in the public expression of support of the service approach, mainly through programs such as community policing.

Traditionally, public relations practices included several deliberate communication actions aimed at establishing links between an organization and its publics (Saffer, Taylor and Yang 2). These actions included media relations, engagement, exploration, administration, special events, speaking, and producing communications, for instance, print and video (Cutlipetal 36). Similarly, PIO law enforcing undertakings are characteristically media-relations engrossed, comprising several traditional public relations actions, for instance, organization of special events and creation of newsletters. Moreover, many PIOs assume management roles in the law enforcing agencies, hence controlling press strategy and instructing the leaders on press matters (Guffey). Therefore, PIOs are significant personnel within the law enforcing agencies regarding public relations objectives. Therefore, they enhance an open communication between the public and the agencies.

The formation of PIO in several law enforcing agencies also serves the needs of both large and mid-sized police organizations of consolidating the information issued by the organization. Before the formation of the PIO, there were several appeals for information from law enforcing agencies, predominantly from media agencies, which were often snubbed or replied with “no comment.” Such conducts triggered several deceptive conceptions about the police, for instance, cover-ups. As a result, the public information role was being created as a rejoinder to the obstacles to police integrity and for agencies to be more approachable to their environment in enhancing an open communication system (Davies 1). The public information series, as approaches for adaptation, are significant means that both the police and the public manage with obstinate social problems.

Law enforcement agencies have established media relations, community relations, and public information functions through PIO, which are aimed at establishing a more open system of information exchange between the agencies and the public. This goal is attained through effective communication in addressing several issues (Mawby 126). During the process, the law enforcing agencies are able to manage their work and try to impact their spectators’ discernments.

Currently, the PIO position has formally become part of the law enforcing agencies. In fact, the current inclination is increasing PIO appointments among law enforcement agencies through full time employment. There are differences between distinct professional PIO associations (Surette 111). Most of the PIOs are engrossed in a wide range of responsibilities, for instance, answering media concerns, responding to public records appeals, and organizing news meetings and news conversations with other personnel. All these functions, within law enforcing agencies, are aimed at ensuring a smooth communication between the police and the public. The communication interaction created is significant in ensuring an open communication between the two parties, hence building trust and confidence. Therefore, the PIO function in enhancing open communication between law enforcing agencies and the public has played a significant role in the execution of the agencies’ role and the safety of the public.

Annotated Bibliography

Davis, Patrick, et al. “The PIO and Today’s Digital News Environment.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 79.7 (2010).

The source analyzes the nature of news media and how drastically business has transformed. It examines the innovations and inventions in the news coverage through technological devices, for instance, camera phones and the Internet usage in information and news reporting. These devices are significant in enhancing collaboration and public relations in police communications.

Brown, Lee P. Community policing: A practical guide for police officials. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 1989.

The source reports on the future of the American policing and its improvement concerning the sharing of information with the public. The authors focus on the police agencies’ strategies on community based and problem-solving policing oriented. According to the author, the integration of the community policing approaches by law enforcing agencies is a significant step towards how the American business would undertake its responsibilities.

International Association of Chiefs of Police, and United States of America. “Building Trust Between the Police and the Citizens They Serve: An Internal Affairs Promising Practices Guide for Local Law Enforcement.” (2009).

The source underpins the importance of creating and upholding community trust, which is a significant element in successful policing and law enforcement. The source reiterates the notion that building and maintaining this trust between the police and the public is an ongoing effort. Nonetheless, the source emphasizes that the ethical actions of numerous police officers, in most cases, are easily destroyed by unethical actions of few police officers. After such instances, communication through public relations becomes core in ensuring that the image of the law enforcing agency is not destroyed.

Fachner, George, and Steven Carter. “Collaborative reform initiative: An assessment of deadly force in the Philadelphia Police Department.” Unpublished report. Submitted by the CNA Corporation to the USDOJ Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (2015).

The source provides a technical report on the present and future states of lethal force approaches, drill, analysis, and undertakings of the Philadelphia Police Department. The assessment was undertaken by a team of researchers in a one-year period. According to the source, it was established that the main objective of reform in the use takes into account the best practices and community expectations of the police.

Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc., and United States of America. “Standards for Law Enforcement Agencies: The Standards Manual of the Law Enforcement Agency Accreditation Program.” (1983).

This Standards Manual source is the main journal of the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies. Initially, the standards were established by the four major law enforcement executive membership associations, which are International Association of Chiefs of Police, National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives, National Sheriffs Association, and the Police Executive Research Forum. The source discusses their roles, particularly in upholding effective communication in the policing.

Motschall, Melissa, and Liqun Cao. “An analysis of the public relations role of the police public information officer.” Police Quarterly 5.2 (2002): 152-180.

The source discusses different police agencies that have established public informationofficer (PIO) functions. According to the authors, the PIOs main function is to communicate with a variety of audiences, predominantly the media. According to the source, despite several roles associated with the PIOs, their main function is to liaison with the media reactive. The source also acknowledges the PIOs skills in management, which are in line with recognized public relations approaches. According to the source, PIOs undertake several functions, including the traditional public relations that are significant in shifting the law enforcement from a closed to a more open system of communication.

Mawby, Rob C. “Police corporate communications, crime reporting and the shaping of policing news.” Policing & Society 20.1 (2010): 124-139.

This article discusses police forces in England and Wales in recent years in their attempt to improve the ways in which they communicate. The need for improved communication is attributed to several reasons, for instance, pressure from technological media developments, the government, and public pressure to deliver encouraging policing services. According to the article, the same media expansions have also impacted news organizations and the analyses of the relations between the media and police communications.

Culbertson, Hugh M. “A key step in police-community relations: Identify the Divisive Issues.” Public Relations Quarterly 45.1 (2000): 13.

This article discusses the fact that law enforcement has become part of public relations in the recent development. According to the source, many people fear and have confidence in the law enforcing agencies and the police. Therefore, for this relationship to improve, there must be an effective police relational communication improvement that understands the fact complexities and divisive issues that exist.

Cutlip, S. M. “Centre, AH & Broom, GM (2000), Effective Public Relations.”

This source discusses effective Public Relations field. The book reviews several developments aimed at advancing public relations toward professional status. This edition is a continuation of the definition of public relations as a profession in schools and effective application by the practitioners. The source is a reference point to individuals practicing public relations globally.

Guffey, James E. “The police and the media: Proposals for managing conflict productively.” Am. J. Police 11 (1992): 33.

This source points out the fact that the police and the media are two entities that habitually interact. According to the author, the relationship between the police and the media can be considered to be symbiotic. According to the article, it is apparent that both the police and the media need each other, a relationship that has not been productive for a long term.

Surette, R. (2001). Public information officers: The civilianization of a criminal justice profession. Journal of Criminal Justice, 29(2), 107-117.

The article talks about Criminal Justice Public Information Officers (PIOs) who are exclusive in the criminal justice field. The PIOs act as concierges in the creation of crime and justice information. According to the source, the PIOs have also moved their roles from specifically criminal justice and communication degrees to incorporate a broader responsibility.

Saffer, A. J., M. Taylor, and A. Yang. “Political public relations in advocacy: Building online influence and social capital.” Public Relations Journal 7.4 (2013): 1-35.

This article discusses how political public relations happenings support activism initiatives and permit entities to communicate and partner with other organizations to bring about change. The authors scrutinize the organizational relationships in terms of political advocacy. The article provides that a connected social capital offers a hypothetical framework for expansion of the study of relationships. This is important with regards to relations between the police and the community, which is necessary to bring about change.

US Dep’t of Justice, “Principles of Good Policing: Avoiding Violence Between Police and Citizens.” (2003): 14.

This source discusses the functions of the staff of the Community Relations Service alongside the law enforcement executives. The article provides the guiding ideologies that need to direct the police functions in the community. According to the source, the fundamental supposition is that a police force and the community it serves need to reach an agreement on the standards that control the police force. For a long time, the Community Relations Service (CRS) in the United States Department of Justice has been significant in assisting the police departments and communities across the nation to maintain law and order in an intricate and varying multicultural society.

Works Cited

Brown, Lee P. Community policing: A practical guide for police officials. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 1989.

Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc., and United States of America. “Standards for Law Enforcement Agencies: The Standards Manual of the Law Enforcement Agency Accreditation Program.” (1983).

Culbertson, Hugh M. “A key step in police-community relations: Identify the Divisive Issues.” Public Relations Quarterly 45.1 (2000): 13.

Cutlip, S. M. “Centre, AH & Broom, GM (2000), Effective Public Relations.”

Davis, Patrick, et al. “The PIO and Today’s Digital News Environment.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 79.7 (2010).

Fachner, George, and Steven Carter. “Collaborative reform initiative: An assessment of deadly force in the Philadelphia Police Department.” Unpublished report. Submitted by the CNA Corporation to the USDOJ Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (2015).

Guffey, James E. “The police and the media: Proposals for managing conflict productively.” Am. J. Police 11 (1992): 33.

International Association of Chiefs of Police, and United States of America. “Building Trust Between the Police and the Citizens They Serve: An Internal Affairs Promising Practices Guide for Local Law Enforcement.” (2009).

Mawby, Rob C. “Police corporate communications, crime reporting and the shaping of policing news.” Policing & Society 20.1 (2010): 124-139.

Motschall, Melissa, and Liqun Cao. “An analysis of the public relations role of the police public information officer.” Police Quarterly 5.2 (2002): 152-180.

Saffer, A. J., M. Taylor, and A. Yang. “Political public relations in advocacy: Building online influence and social capital.” Public Relations Journal 7.4 (2013): 1-35.

Surette, R. (2001). Public information officers: The civilianization of a criminal justice profession. Journal of Criminal Justice, 29(2), 107-117.

US Dep’t of Justice, “Principles of Good Policing: Avoiding Violence Between Police and Citizens.” (2003): 14.

Sample Logistics Coursework Paper on Role of Packaging on Consumer Buying Behavior-Patan essay help us


Discussion Response

Question One

Packaging is the act of protecting or enclosing products in such materials as cardboard packaging, corrugated boxes, or polythene material to facilitate its storage, distribution, and sale (Lamb, Hair & McDaniel, 2011). Packaging plays various roles; protective, containment and, loading and transport roles.

Protective role

One of the major functions of packaging is to offer protection to the material packaged therein (Lamb et al., 2011). Protection can be against natural deterioration, physical protection, or for safety purposes. Natural deterioration occurs due to interaction with gases, microbial organisms (for example, moulds, bacteria, and yeast), rodents, desiccation, and water (Lindh, Olsson & Williams, 2015).  On the other hand, physical protection entails reducing shock damage owing to snagging, impact, vibration or friction, as well as improved shock protection. Products such as radioactive elements, liquid, gas and toxic material also require protective packaging to increase safety during transport owing to their hazardous nature. Consequently, packaging helps to minimise waste, for instance, during food distribution.


Containment involve use of packaging material with information about the material contained therein. The packaging containers or packaging material must carry the contents of the packaging after manufacture, during storage, and transport (Lindh et al., 2015).

Loading and Transport Role

            Convenient handling of goods demands that the transport packaging material be designed in a way that it can be lifted, held and moved safely and easily. In this case, packaging plays a key role in improving the efficiency of handling, storage and transport of goods (Lindh et al., 2015). The strength and shape of packaging material thus facilitate easier transport and loading.

I once had a bad experience with poor packaging. I ordered some glass items from an online retailer as a wedding gift for a friend. I paid for the items using my credit card and they were shipped but when I received the package, some of the glasses were already broken because the retailer had packaged them with the ‘This Side Up’ sign facing down. I alerted the retailer about this mistake after which they requested a send back and a consequent replacement. However, this would take time. The most painful thing about this experience is that I ended up not giving a friend the present I had anticipated on the said day all because of poor packaging. 

Question Two

Dumping is a term used in reference to the act of selling goods at a lower price in a foreign market than the price that the exporter would charge for the same goods in their home market. The WTO (World Trade Organization) Agreement condemns dumping in case it threatens or cause material injury to local industries where foreign goods have been exported. This act of selling products at a price below the fair market value triggers economic controversy among the various countries taking part in such a trade. Although globalisation is meant to open up national and international boundaries and permit movement of goods, some countries operate based on the “survival for the fittest” rule so that they end up putting their interests first at the expense of those of the other countries with whom they are in trade. Nonetheless, it becomes very hard to prove if dumping is taking place partly due to the differences in production costs between countries (Howell & Ballantine, 2008).  Also, countries engage in dumping activities as a means of increasing their market share and by extension, increase their prices. This is acceptable in free markets even if it means driving domestic producers out of business. Although many economists are of the view that dumping does not hinder domestic industrialization, others note that this practice actually affects the domestic market negatively, leading to reduced sales revenue and volume. Which in turn triggers such adverse economic effects as reduced consumer spending and unemployment.

A recent example of dumping involved Chinese aluminium manufacturers who were accused by their U.S counterparts of dumping their products in the U.S. market. This compelled the U.S. Aluminium Association to file a countervailing and anti-dumping petition for the Chinese importers over what they termed as unfair trading of Chinese imports on various types of aluminium foil, effectively inflicting “material injury” to the U.S domestic aluminium industry (Reuters, 2017).


Deliya, M.M., & Parmar, B.J. (2012). Role of Packaging on Consumer Buying Behavior-Patan

District. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 12(10), 48-68.

Howell, T.R., & Ballantine, D. (2008). Dumping: Still a Problem in International Trade. Retrieved


Lamb, C.W., Hair, J.F., & McDaniel, C. (2011). Essentials of Marketing. Stamford, Mass.: Cengage

Learning. Retrieved from,+Hair+and




Lindh, H., Olsson, A., & Williams, H. (2015). Consumer Perceptions of Food Packaging:

Contributing to or Counteracting Environmentally Sustainable Development? Packaging

Technology and Science, 29(1), 3-23. Retrieved from

Reuters (2017). U.S. aluminum foil producers launch case accusing China of dumping. Retrieved


Sample Public Administration Essay Paper on Public Sector Management vs. Leadership cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Public Sector Management vs. Leadership

The role and importance of effective leadership, as well as its stark difference from management continue to elicit fresh suggestions on the need to have leaders rather than management in both the private and public sectors.  The differences between the two (leadership and management), and in view of what leaders achieve within a short time in their position in comparison with managers continues to push organizations to put leaders rather than managers in important decision-making positions. Putting leaders in such important decision-making positions has gone beyond just the private sector in the public sector, where more leaders find their way into management positions of different public agencies (Bohoris & Vorria, 2010). While it is possible to assume that managers exercise leadership, it is entirely wrong, given that not all managers have leadership skills, even as some people lead without necessarily having any management positions (Algahtani, 2014). Scholars in management and leadership studies agree that while there is an overlap between the two, the two are not synonymous given that the two entail unique activities and functions (Bass, 2010; Lunenburg, 2011; Yukl, 2010). The difference between leaders and managers goes beyond the approaches the two use in running agencies, into the changes each brings into the agency (especially leaders), skills and strategies each employs, as well as the behavior in the effective running of the agency.

On the difference between management and leadership, Bennis and Nanus (2007) argue that while managers administer, leaders innovate. Here, managers largely concentrate on caring for the structure and system that is in place; leaders on the other hand, seek to change the system to adapt to the changes taking place within the environment. Even more is that leaders tend to focus on the people within the agency rather than the structures and systems. Within the public sector, for instance, managers tend to look at the system and policies protecting them and ensuring that they work as intended. However, leaders within public agencies work to change the systems and policies so that the two are relevant to the changes occurring not only within the environment, but also outside the context of their working, aligning them with new systems and policies proven to have far-reaching positive impacts.

Further, Kotter (2001) gives a distinction between leaders and managers, stating the management function is largely an assigned task involving planning, budgeting, organizing, staffing, problem solving and control. On the other hand, leaders set direction, align people, motivate them and inspire them to do more. In essence, while manager seek to control every aspect of the people under his/her management, leaders are more concerned with inspiring and motivating their followers to do more, perhaps more than their job description.

Kotter (2001) further describes the distinction between leadership and management indicating that while the tow are distinct, they are yet complementary. In this complementary relationship, Kotter (2001) argues that while it is the responsibility of managers to cope with complexities within the working environment, leaders cope with change. For leaders, therefore, coping with change involves setting up a vision, communicating the vision to the followers and aligning the followers towards the achievement of the vision. In contrast, management involves taking up the vision and implementing it as well as the direction set by the leaders. Additionally, managers have hands on experience with the day-to-day running and management of an agency, placing them at a better position of implementing the vision, thus fulfilling the complementary relationship between leadership and management.

Perhaps even the most distinctive aspect between leadership and management is on the people the two have responsibility over. Thus, while managers have subjects, leaders have followers. The working relationship with managers is one that requires the execution of responsibility as stated by the manager. Leaders’ working relationship with their followers hinges on trust and the ability of the followers to not only stick to the established routines, but also go above and beyond the routine given the established trust between the two (Bennis & Nanus, 2007). Managers, therefore, work with established routines, accepting the status quo and work within the confines of the established rules and policies. Leaders, in contrast, challenge the status quo, seeking to find new and innovative ways of executing duties assigned to them, in addition to encouraging their subjects to be creative in the execution of their duties. Leaders are thus even more important within public sectors where the workforce is becoming increasingly diverse in light of the presence of millenials within the workforce who think differently (Musgrave, 2014).

Kotter (2001) argues that management and leadership are both essential elements within an organization. Additionally, Kotter (2001) emphasizes the need for an organization/ agency to nourish both leadership and management as a means of achieving the set vision. Nourishing the two is important, given that while most managers count the value added to the agency/organization by their subjects, leaders create value in their followers through the creation of circles of influence. Bennis (1989) summarizes the need for both leaders and managers (and particularly leaders) stating, “To survive in the twenty-first century, we are going to need a new generation of leaders—leaders, not managers. The distinction is an important one. Leaders conquer the context—the volatile, turbulent, ambiguous surroundings that sometimes seem to conspire against us and will surely suffocate us if we let them—while managers surrender to it” p. 7.

Bennis’ summary of leadership, the need for a “new generation” of leaders is applicable in both the private and public sectors. It is especially important for the public sector, which is traditionally slow in accepting changes, particular in contravention of established norms of executing functions. It is for this reason that leaders, not managers, in the public sector must be agents of change. Northhouse (2016) posits that leader within the public sector must the agents of change, using transformational leadership as an exceptional form in influencing followers to do more than is expected of them. Northouse (2016) additionally posits that while management came into being as a means of reducing chaos in organizations; make them run more effectively and efficiently, leadership (transformational) should attempt to influence people, organizations and even cultures in achieving a common goal. As agents of changes, therefore, leaders play an important role in precipitating change, even as the leader and followers bond in facilitating the change process (Northouse, 2016).

As agents of change, Denhardt and Denhardt (2007) argue that leaders within the public service must “steer” the agencies, and not “row.” The argument here is that as agents of change, public service leaders must go beyond putting themselves at the centers of carrying the public service burden, but where possible delegate the responsibility through contracting and other programs to others (Denhardt & Denhardt, 2007). Moreover, Denhardt and Denhardt (2007) argue that leaders within the public service must find ways of squeezing more service from the same or smaller revenue base through transformational leadership, which has the capacity to mover groups, organizations, as well as societies towards the pursuit of higher purposes with the limited resources available.

While it is important for the leader to be an agent of change, proper leadership requires specific changes of the leader. Public agencies have for a long been associated with backdoor dealings, corruption and other vices, which erode the public’s confidence in the agencies. Heifetz (1994) posits that the term “leadership” invokes the feeling of self-image and moral codes. First among the changes that require instigation by the leader, therefore, include not only the involvement of the followers and the public, but also raising the moral standards used in pursuit of the set goals. For instance, in an agency rid or known of backdoor dealings and corruption, a leader in such an agency must restore the public’s confidence in the agency by rooting out the elements of corruption, promoting transparency through the involvement of the public in such things as tendering.

In facilitating the changes, leaders must also play some managerial roles. The roles played by the management fall within three categories, spelling out ten distinctive roles that the leader must undertake for effective public sector management. According to Kumar (2015), Henry Mintzberg spelled out the ten roles in three categories namely interpersonal, informational and decisional roles. Mintzberg offered that the interpersonal roles provide a link bringing all managerial work together. Through the roles therefore, the primary roles of the manager is to create interpersonal relationship within the agency and between the agency and the public (Kumar, 2015).

As part of the interpersonal role, the manager also plays the figurehead role, where he/she is the agency’s representative both legally and socially outside the agency. Within the agency, the supervisor is the work group’s representative to the higher management and higher management to the workgroup (Kumar, 2015). Furthermore, as part of the interpersonal role, the manager plays the liaison role interacting with people and peers outside the organization. Moreover, management in the top levels uses the interactions in gaining favors and information, even as supervisors use the interaction in maintaining routine workflow (Kumar, 2015).

Mintzberg’s second role of the management is the information role, which involves the manager as the monitor, disseminator and spokesperson (Kumar, 2015). As the monitor, the manager plays the role of receiving and collecting all the information about the operations of the agency. The manager as the disseminator transmits information into the agency, even as her/she disseminates information from the organization into the public (spokesperson).  As a spokesperson, the manager is therefore the industry expert, speaking for the agency and its activities as related to the environment that it operates.

Mintzberg’s last role of the manager is the decision roles, which include the manager as an entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator. According to Mintzberg, the manager as an entrepreneur is responsible for initiating change and new projects, identifying new ideas, and delegating responsibility to others (Kumar, 2015). As a disturbance handler, it is the manager’s responsibility to deal with threats to the agency, taking corrective measures in times of disputes and crises, as well as resolving conflicts within the workforce. Additionally, as a resource allocator, the manager has the final say on recipients of resources. Here, the manager schedules, budgets for the set priorities and chooses the organization’s placement of efforts. Mintzberg’s managerial role for decisional roles is the manager’s role as a negotiator. For this role, the manager negotiates on behalf the agency, as well as makes decisions that capsulate the agency as a whole.

Aside from Mintzberg, Kotter also contributes to the role of managers within an agency. For Kotter (1990), managers must play the role of promotion of stability within the agency, as well as copying with complexity. The manager, therefore, has a role to play in ensuring the stability of the agency, as well as bringing order and consistency. Kotter (1990), further postulates that managers should create systems and structures, which ensure continuity within the agency, in addition to ensuring employees act normally in their daily activities and routines.

While the roles of the manager define what the manager should do, and at what time to achieve the set goals, successful attainment of the goals largely rely on the manager’s skills, attitudes and behavior towards the achievement of the goals. The managerial skills herein allow the manager to navigate the murky waters that come with management of an agency. Salamon (2000) argues that apart from managerial skills, managers need negotiation, goal setting, communication and financial management skills. Additionally, managers require mobilization skills, particularly for the activation of partnerships.

It is not enough to activate partnerships, there is need to sustain them, an action that requires specific skills. Salamon (2000) informs that managers require orchestration skills, which essentially sustain the networks created. Thus, like the music conductor, the manager should be able to bring both the public and private sectors into a working relationship, and have the skills to sustain the relationship in order to achieve the goals set at the establishment of the relationship.

Another part of the skill set required of managers is the modulation skill. According to Salamon (2000), the skill helps in the “sensitive modulation of rewards and penalties in order to elicit the
cooperative behavior required from the interdependent players in a complex tool network” (p. 1638). Modulation as a skill, therefore, enables the manager to keep all parties interested in the established network. The skill is especially important to sustain the interdependence between the public and private sectors.

To complete the new system of governance, there is need for establishing new managerial behaviors and attitudes. Leaders, Hifetz (1994) argues, must change their attitude and view leadership as not only telling people what to do or getting the job done, but also as an adaptation, helping people to actualize their values. Musgrave (2014) adds voice to this, stating that leaders must have a positive attitude towards the changing technologies, change their behavior from that of command and control to a collaborative behavior, especially in view of the diversity of the workforce. More importantly, leaders must adopt a flexible attitude and behavior especially when dealing with Millennials who are not only tech savvy, but also prefer working in an environment that encourages community social responsibility (Musgrave, 2014).


Algahtani, A. (2014). Are leadership and management different? A review. Journal of Management Policies and Practices, 2(3), 71-82.

Bass, B. (2010). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial
applications. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. In Lunenburg, F., C. (2011). Leadership versus management: A key distinction—at least in theory. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 14(1), 1-4.

Bennis, W., G. (1989). Managing the dream: Leadership in the 21st century. Journal of
Organizational Change Management, 2, 7.

Bennis, W., G., & Nanus, B. (2007). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New
York, NY: HarperCollins.

Bohoris, G., A. & Vorria, E., P. (2010). Leadership vs. management: Business excellence/performance management view. Piraeus: Lund University.

Denhardt, J., V. & Denhardt, R., B. (2007). The New Public Service: Serving, not Steering. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.

Hifetz, R., A. (1994). Leadership Without Easy Answers. London: The Belknap Press

Kotter, J., P. (1990). What leaders really do. Harvard Business Review, 3-11.

Kotter, J., P., (2001), “What leaders really do?” Harvard Business Review, 79(11), 85-

Kumar, P. (2015). An analytical study on Mintzberg’s framework: managerial roles. International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies, 2(3), 12-19.

Lunenburg, F., C. (2011). Leadership versus management: A key distinction—at least in theory. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 14(1), 1-4.

Musgrave, A., W. (2014). Management vs. leadership in the public sector. Public Manager, 43(3), 56-

Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and Practice (7th ED). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Salamon, L., M. (2000). The new governance and the tools of public action: An introduction. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 28(5), 1611-1674

Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall. In Lunenburg, F., C. (2011). Leadership versus management: A key distinction—at least in theory. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 14(1), 1-4.

Sample Business Studies Research Paper on NFL Lockout computer science essay help

NFL lockout

NFL lockout describes any strike that has occurred in the NFL throughout its history. There have been several lockouts in the NFL in the past (ESPN, 2012). Some of the well-known lockouts include the 1982 and 1987. The 1993 lockout led to the creation of the NFL System that uses a collective bargaining agreement to settle disputes (ESPN, 2012). In 2008, the owners of the NFL football teams failed to agree; they decided that their teams will play without a bargaining agreement (ESPN, 2012). Therefore, the players would play without a salary control. However, while the collective bargaining agreement was arranged to expire on March 3rd, 2011, the opposing sides decided to extend the deadline by a week. The courts lifted the 2011 lockout in April 2011, but a higher tribunal restored the lockout (Sportsmoney, 2011). However, the NFLPA lifted the lockout when the owners decided on a new agreement through a voting system.

The NFL lockout relates to the National Labor Relations Act because the goal of the lockout is to protect the rights of employees and employers (NLRB, 2017). There should be a collective bargaining procedure to ensure that neither the employer nor the employee discriminates another. According to the NLRB (2017), Congress enacted the national labor relations act to prevent private individuals from harming the welfare of workers and businesses. Also, the NLRA encourages collective bargaining and effective management practices. The NFL lockout occurs because different stakeholders cannot agree about how the NFL season will be conducted. Therefore, the different stakeholders need to conduct meeting to create a collective bargaining agreement. However, through the NLRA act, various stakeholders can develop a collective bargaining agreement that protects the rights of each stakeholder.


ESPN. (2012). NFL Lockout. Retrieved from

NLRB. (2017). National Labor Relations Act | NLRB. Retrieved 2 August 2017, from

Sportsmoney. (2011). Who won the 2011 NFL Lockout? Retrieved from

Sample Geology Essay Paper on Water Resources Specialist Associate common app essay help: common app essay help

Job Application


Physical address

Phone Number

E-mail address


The Recruitment Manager

Eastern Municipal District

Peris, California,


Dear Sir/ Madam,


I recently graduated from college and would wish to join your organization in the capacity of a water resources specialist associate, a position you recently advertised on Indeed. Following my graduation, I have the sufficient academic background to work in this capacity.

I also believe that I have sufficient technical skills to work in this capacity based on my past experiences during previous internships. With the skills I possess in water resources management and my academic standing, I believe I will be able to offer the organization great efficiency, and that my skills with expand the competency set of the organization.

I am also aware that the position requires one who is capable of communicating with others efficiently in both verbal and written forms. I have amazing communication skills based on my interactions with individuals in the work place and beyond. Furthermore, my knowledge of computer based communication practices is enhanced through my experience working with different applications including Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint. I am sure this will be beneficial to your company.

I have also conducted academic and professional research in the past with respect to water resources. During such practices, I was privileged to learn a lot about conventional water resources research methodologies and practice. I also came to understand much about research data collection practices and their application in data analysis. I therefore believe that I am the right person given that your advertisement indicates that the person placed in this role should be capable of performing semi-routine and routine research work in relation to water resources management. I will even add more expanse to the core competencies as I can also conduct in-depth data analyses.

My technical, analytical and academic qualifications notwithstanding, I am also a passionate individual in terms of task completion. I work based on a task and situation driven approach which enables me to be dynamic in my decisions. This makes my work more innovative and potentially problem solving. I believe these skills are a key requirement for a specialist working in water resources management, and I would like to offer such skills to the organization.

Other skills that I possess include team management and team working skills, coordination and project management skills. As an organization, I understand that you may consider these skills as a requisite for effective work in the water resources management and I believe I am in the right direction sending you my application for the same. With these skills, my availability in the organization will provide the company with an opportunity to grow beyond its present status.

With intense passion for my work, it has been possible for me to explore new information in the field and to apply the same in my roles within any organization. I am sure this ability and passion will be of importance to the organization.

I have attached copies of my academic testimonials and my resume. I believe these will provide more detailed information about the extent of my capabilities. I am also ready to undertake an interview and to go through the entire recruitment process as soon as you would be willing to engage me. I therefore look forward to a positive response from you.

Thank you in advance,

Yours Faithfully


Sample Economics Research Paper on Market Efficiency assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney


Market efficiency is used to refer to the extent to which stock prices and other securities are reflecting all the available information in the market. This concept was developed in 1970 by Eugene Fama, an economist. Fama also coined the theory of efficient market hypothesis, which states that it is not possible for an investor to outperform the market. This is because all the available information regarding the market is already built into all stock prices (Heakal par. 3). Many investors concur with this theory, as they are the ones that buy index funds that track the overall market performance. They are also promoters of the passive approach to portfolio management. Market efficiency can be described as the degree to which the market is furnished with information that assists in maximizing the opportunities for both the sellers and buyers of securities.  It also helps to ensure that the transactions in the maximized opportunities are effected without increasing the transaction costs.

Levels of Market Efficiency

When describing the actual efficiency of the market, academics and investors tend to have different viewpoints. The different viewpoints have resulted in three levels of efficiency: strong, semi-strong, and weak. The investors and academics that believe that the market is strong adhere to the views of Fama. They are also referred to as passive investors (Speidell 22). There are traders who believe that active trading of securities can result in abnormal profits for the investor. These are the ones that have adopted the weak version of market efficiency. The semi-strong believers of the efficient market hypothesis have no solid leaning; they can at times fall on the strong side or weak side of the hypothesis, depending on the prevailing circumstances.

            The weak believers of the efficient market hypothesis often deduce that stocks can become undervalued or priced below what they are actually worth. They invest in the stocks they feel are undervalued and dispose of them when the price goes up earning profits in the process. As a result, these types of investors are referred to as the value investors (Heakal par. 4). The logic used by persons that do not believe in an efficient market is that active traders exist in the securities market. Their assertion is that there is no point in becoming an active trader or hiring an active manager at a fee if there is no opportunity to reap abnormal profits from the market. This is because efficient market hypothesis assumes that efficient markets should have low transaction costs.

Consequences of Market Efficiency

            An interesting effect of market efficiency is that that the prices of the stocks in an efficient market become random as opposed to predictable. Information found in the market is not only from the financial news and reports, but also includes economic, social, and political information. This information, whether true or otherwise, is reflected in the price of stocks (Heakal par. 7). Efficient market hypothesis stresses that the information is only able to affect and determine the prices of stocks in the market only if it is made available to all the players in the market. As all the players in the market tend to have access to this information, it is thus hard for any of them to use it to gain advantage over the others. The prices of securities in the stock market are random and unpredictable, which makes it difficult to notice an investment pattern. This makes it impossible to succeed in having a planned approach to investment.

            This unpredictability of the stock prices is referred to as the “random walk” of prices, and it is described by the efficient market hypothesis as the cause of the failure to have an investment strategy that can beat the market consistently. Efficient market hypothesis discourages the investors from hiring portfolio managers and recommends that they invest in an index fund to avoid incurring transaction costs. Another consequence of market efficiency has been the increase in investors that have opted to invest in exchange traded funds that are passively managed (Jarrow and Martin 8). These ETFs that are managed passively constitute to about a third of the equity in the United States. These ETFs offer better tax efficiencies compared to the traditional mutual funds. The ETFs were originally designed as a better way for long-term hold and buy investors, but it has had the unintended consequence of being traded intensively as an investment vehicle. ETFs have had a negative effect on the informational efficiency of the stock market. The trading costs have gone up, and the stock prices have become more correlated than before (Speidell 23). As a result, the investors can no longer control risks through diversification, unlike in the past.

            Efficient market hypothesis has rendered both technical and fundamental analysis techniques in making of investment decisions useless. This because technical analysis is dependent on past experiences and results, and as per the hypothesis of market efficiency, past results cannot be used to gain an advantage over the market. In the case of fundamental analysis, the assertion of efficient market hypothesis is that the determination of the price of securities takes into account all of the information that is publicly available (Tavor 95). This makes it impossible to gain abnormal returns from the stock market using this information, rendering fundamental analysis useless as a result. Efficient market hypothesis has also impacted the portfolio management processes. The investment policy statement that is made at the beginning of a portfolio management process lists the objectives and constraints of the investor. If the investor is a believer of the market efficiency hypothesis, then the focus of the management of the portfolio is shifted from focusing on achievement of above average returns. Rather, it becomes focused on passive investment (Tavor 97). The portfolio manager, therefore, focuses on the risks having assumed that above average returns are not achievable. The portfolio manager is expected to outperform all the other traders in the market by making calculated risks. The efficient market hypothesis implies that this goal is not achievable, defeating the purpose of having a portfolio manager in the first place.

            A general assumption of the efficient market hypothesis is that there is no way that an investor can make above average returns in the securities market. Therefore, the market rate of return is the one expected for all investors under this notion. It is wise for the investor to endeavor in minimizing the costs that are incurred in the process of investing (Tavor 99). The achievement of a market rate of return requires that the investor diversify in various amounts of stocks. This is not possible for a small investor. The average investor is left with an index fund as the best option for investment. This index fund is a cost effective way of earning profits in the securities market.

A Case Against Market Efficiency

            In practice, the efficient market hypothesis faces a lot of opposition. For instance, some investors perform exemplarily in the market and have thus been given significant prominence, such as Warren Buffet. The investment strategy by Warren Buffet focuses on undervalued stocks which has earned him billions of dollars. This has set precedence for many of his followers in matters of investment. There are also some portfolio managers that are better performers than others in the management of investments. There are also investment houses that have a history of performing research analysis that has resulted in above average returns for their clients (Jarrow and Martin 15). This raises the question of how performance can be random when there are people who are performing exceedingly well in the market thus realizing outstanding profits. Other counterarguments against market efficiency include the fact that some consistent patterns are apparent in the financial markets. For instance there is a January effects named after the tendency of the first month of the year posting the highest profits, and the weekend effect of having higher earnings immediately before Friday.


In conclusion, market efficiency favors the concept of the random performance of the securities market, and in a way, discourages active investors with the notion that there is no way of outperforming others the market. However, another group of active investors reject the hypothesis of market efficiency. Instead, they risk their investment in stocks that they consider to be undervalued. Given that both arguments tend to make the expected gains, this is an affirmation of the irrational nature of investors.

Works Cited

Heakal, Reem. “What Is Market Efficiency?.” Investopedia, 2017.

Jarrow, Robert A., and Martin Larsson. “THE MEANING OF MARKET EFFICIENCY.” Mathematical Finance, vol 22, no. 1, 2012, pp. 1-30. Wiley-Blackwell.

Speidell, Larry. “Frontier Market Investing: Active Versus Passive.” The Journal Of Investing, vol 25, no. 4, 2016, pp. 20-26. Institutional Investor Journals.

Tavor, Tchai. “Target Price Rumor And Its Effect On Market Efficiency.” The Journal Of Investing, vol 22, no. 4, 2013, pp. 93-102. Institutional Investor Journals.

Sample Business Studies Essay Paper on Business Economics write my essay help

Business Economics

1. a) If real GDP was $13.1 trillion in 2013 and $13.3 in 2014, what is the growth rate? (b) How many years would it take for GDP (gross domestic product) to double (using your answer from part a)?

Grow rate= (present-past)/past




b) Using the rule of 72,   years to double=72/interest rate

=72/1.5=48 years.

2. Sources of human capital

    Human capital is the collective skills or intangible assets of individuals that can be used to create economic value for the individuals, employers, and the community. The main source of human capital is the investment in education. This explains why parents spend much in education (Ehrlich and Kim, 2015). What the money spends in school is the same as to the money spent by companies on capital to increase profits in future. Education is also given to increase profit in future.

       Health is also an important input for the future development of a country and an individual. Normally a person in good health can work much better than the unhealthy one. Hence money spent on health services to ensure the well-being of an individual in a community is very crucial to attaining growth. Medical help in the course of an illness such as the cost of preventive medicine or vaccinations, therapeutic drugs, social medicine-spreading knowledge about health and achieving health literacy, provision of safe water are some of the expenses connected to health (Ehrlich and Kim, 2015). This expenditure is directly responsible for increasing the number of healthy workforces and hence the important source of capital.

   On the job training is also a cost that a firm incurs to improve the knowledge and skills of an individual. This cost is incurred in the following forms such as off campus training, sending the employees out to take training related to the job or the workers being trained with the firm by a well trained and experienced operator. This increases the company’s productivity and efficiency which are the benefits that a business enjoys after spending on the training. This expenditure on the job training is a source of human capital formation as the company s gets much more skilled and efficient laborers who increase the productivity of the firm in the long run and hence maximizes its profits.

      People move from rural to urban areas in search of work or need to increase income. As people migrate, there is the expenditure that is incurred such as the cost of transport, increase cost of living in urban areas and psychic costs of living in a different social-cultural society. This qualifies the expenditure on migration a source of formation of human capital.

Sources of labor productivity

This is a measure of economic growth within a country. Its measures the amount of good and services produced by an hour of labor. Labor productivity is concerned with the volume of output obtained by each employee (Ehrlich and Kim, 2015). Labor productivity depends on investments and saving in physical capital, new technology, and human capital. Physical capital is an amount of money that people have in savings and investments (Eldridge and Price, 2016). New technologies are technical advancements such as robots, and human capital is the increase in education and specialization of the workforce. There are several factors which increase technical efficiency. Specialization or learning new techniques can enhance productivity. A laborer can raise productivity by receiving better and quality education and training. Improving capital equipment is the incredible determinant of productivity. It’s easier to dig a ditch using a hydraulic-powered tractor than with a small shovel (Eldridge and Price, 2016). However, no equipment can be improved without delaying present consumption as capital tools do not directly produce revenue or consumed immediately.

Law of diminishing return

This law states that if one input in the production of a commodity is increased while the other factors remained constant, a point will be reached in which it yield will lower incremental per unit. This law does not apply that adding more of factors will decrease the total production (negative return) although this is common (Eldridge and Price, 2016). An example is increasing people to a job or assembling a car on a factory floor. It reaches a point in which increasing workers cause’s predicaments such as employees interfering with each other’s activity or frequently finding themselves waiting for access to a part. In all of these processes, producing one more unit of output per unit of time will eventually cost increasingly more, due to inputs being used less and less useful. This law is a fundamental principle of economics which play a vital role in production theory

What happens when the government raises taxes and uses revenues to engage in spending?

Tax increases and spending cuts hurt the economy in the short run by reducing demand through decreasing disposable income and discouraging businesses from investing (Engdahl, 2011). Raise taxes, and citizens would have less money to spend. Cut spending, and less government money would be pumped into the economy. Professional forecasters estimate that a tax increase equal to 1 percent of the nation’s economic output usually reduces gross domestic product by about 2 percent after 16 months. A spending cut of that size, by contrast, reduces G.D.P. by about 1.6 percent or more. Government spending on things like education, scientific research, and infrastructure help increase future productivity. This type of the expenses usually produces high social returns however the private sector may not step up if the government pulls back.

It will results to productivity declines as the tax rate increases as many people will work less. It discourages entrepreneurship, work, and savings (Engdahl, 2011). They can encourage taxpayers to reorganize their tax affairs to receive more of their compensation in less heavily taxed forms. When the tax rate increases, many people will try to avoid as much as they can to evade paying taxes and spend less time on the more productive activity. Government revenue does not increase due to increase in tax rate. Increasing tax results to poor standard of living and create high unemployment rate and budget deficits. People will suffer as they will not be able to afford quality products and services.

The price of goods and services will increase thus reducing consumer spending. This will cause the demand of the products to reduce and make consumers opt for substitutes that are available for cheaper prices. Consumer spending will also reduce especially among the poor people which is proven through consumer sentiment (Engdahl, 2011). This will cause fluctuations in the economy because of the altitudes of the clients or the state of economy. Many firms will go bankrupt because they can’t operates after government takes its cut. Other businesses will flee to other countries to escape the high tax. This will make many people lost their jobs.


Ehrlich, I. and Kim, J. (2015). Immigration, Human Capital Formation, and Endogenous Economic Growth. Journal of Human Capital, 9(4), pp.518-563.

Eldridge, L. and Price, J. (2016). Measuring quarterly labor productivity by industry. Monthly Labor Review.

Engdahl, S. (2011). Taxation. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Sample Health Care Essay paper on Research Variables extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

Research Variables

Jafari, F., Ehsani, S., & Nadjarzadeh, A. (2017). Household food insecurity is associated with abdominal but not general obesity among Iranian children. BMC Public Health, 1-9.

            The above study examines the relationship between the degree of food insecurity and abdominal obesity in Iranian households. The study included 587 children between the ages of 8 to 10 years (Jafari, Ehsani, & Nadjarzadeh, 2017). The study collected anthropometric data from the children and this included waist circumference, weight, and height. Trained nutritionists did the measurements. Abdominal and general obesity was defined according to the standards set by the World Health Organization. The Cornell/Radimer questionnaire on food security was used to collect data from parents on aspects such as socioeconomic status, physical activity of the children, and parental obesity (Jafari, Ehsani, & Nadjarzadeh, 2017).

            The data analysis methods used in the study was logistic regression that computed the link between the degree of food insecurity in households and obesity by examining several variables. The results indicated that there is a strong association between food insecurity and abdominal obesity (Jafari, Ehsani, & Nadjarzadeh, 2017). The dependent variable in the study was abdominal obesity, while the independent variable is food insecurity at the household level. The variables examined in the study were both continuous and categorical. Continuous variables have number values between any two intervals, while categorical variables have no logical order. The continuous variables measured in the study included waist circumference, weight, height, and body mass index. Categorical variables examined in the study included gender, obesity in parents, poverty levels, data on the amount of time children spent in physical activities, and data on perinatal period.

            The researchers concluded that moderate levels of food insecurity at the household level might increase the chances of children developing abdominal obesity. However, more studies are needed to confirm the findings of this study. The findings of the study imply that social policy has an impact on food security, and policymakers should take note.

 Grant, J. F., Chittleborough, C. R., & Taylor, A. W. (2015). Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study. PLoS ONE, 1-15.

            Strong evidence suggests a strong relationship between parental weight and the weight status of their children. To investigate this phenomenon, the above study used cross-sectional self-reports to capture data through a longitudinal study on Australian adults. The data was used to establish the link between the body shape of parents in their midlife and the four factors that influence fat distribution and obesity (Grant, Chittleborough, & Taylor, 2015). The data collected in the study included waist height ratio, waist hip ratio, waist circumference, and body mass index. The findings indicated that children whose parents were 40 years-plus and either overweight or obese were more likely to be obese or overweight. The study also found that children whose mothers were obese or overweight were more likely to be obese or overweight themselves (Grant, Chittleborough, & Taylor, 2015).

            Children with obese fathers also showed similar trends, but at a lower level. Parental obesity affected daughters more than it did for the sons in terms of waist hip ratio, waist ratio, and body mass index (Grant, Chittleborough, & Taylor, 2015). The study examined both continuous and categorical variables. The continuous variables include body mass index, waist ratio, and waist hip ratio. The categorical variables analyzed include work status, highest educational attainment, and occupation. The independent variable is parental midlife body shape while the dependent variable is offspring obesity. The researchers concluded that children with obese parents are more likely to be obese as adults.

Dahm, M. J., Shows, A. R., & Samonte, A. V. (2010). Eating Behaviors, Obesity, and Litigation: Should Casual-Food Restaurant Operators Heed the Warnings to their Fast-Food Counterparts? Journal of Food Service Business Research, 217-236.

            Fast food restaurants like McDonald have been blamed for their contribution to the rising obesity levels. The public has started to show similar concerns about casual restaurants, and the study sought to establish whether casual food restaurants should worry about the possibility of litigation for the role they play in increasing the prevalence of obesity. The study included six hundred and five students with two to four years of college or university training (Dahm, Shows, & Samonte, 2010). The study compared the eating behavior and the criteria the students used in selecting menus, and the variation in the eating behavior among the students. The findings indicated that students consumed more calories in casual restaurants compared to fast-food restaurants (Dahm, Shows, & Samonte, 2010).

            The study found that the calories students consumed in casual restaurants amounted to approximately 47.5 to 61.8 percent of the daily-recommended calorie intake. The researchers recommended that casual restaurant owners and managers should implement measures to ensure that customers access a healthy menu to avoid potential lawsuits (Dahm, Shows, & Samonte, 2010). The independent variable is causal food restaurants while the dependent variable is eating behavior. The variables measured in the study were categorical and they included demographic information of the students, eating behavior in fast food restaurants, and eating behavior in casual restaurants.


Obesity is a growing epidemic that has attracted the attention of many researcher. Studies have unravel causes of the obesity epidemic. However, the most common explanation center around genetics, lifestyle and the food environment as captured in the articles. For instance, children with obese parents are more likely to be obese as adults. Moreover, people who live in an environment where they can access fast food and casual restaurants are likely to be obese compared to their counterparts who cannot access fast food. Hence, efforts to lower the prevalence rates of obesity should take into consideration all the variables that contribute to the development of the disease.


Dahm, M. J., Shows, A. R., & Samonte, A. V. (2010). Eating Behaviors, Obesity, and Litigation: Should Casual-Food Restaurant Operators Heed the Warnings to their Fast-Food Counterparts? Journal of Food Service Business Research, 217-236.

Grant, J. F., Chittleborough, C. R., & Taylor, A. W. (2015). Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study. PLoS ONE, 1-15.

Jafari, F., Ehsani, S., & Nadjarzadeh, A. (2017). Household food insecurity is associated with abdominal but not general obesity among Iranian children. BMC Public Health, 1-9.

Sample Religious Studies Coursework Paper on The American Origins of Pentecostalism mba essay help


The American Origins of Pentecostalism


Pentecostalism is a form of Christianity that appears to be personal, emotional, and populist in its teachings. It is more popular in Asia, Africa, and Latin America; its ideals include support for the emancipation of the poor people and women. Pentecostalism is the most influential religious denomination in America, with 100 different Pentecostal denominations with a projected following of one billion people in the U.S. by the year 2025. Its theological support stems from the book of Acts that indicates that Jesus’ followers experienced tongues of fire during the Pentecost feast and the aftermath was characterized by their ability to speak in different languages to the people. Apostle Peter interprets this as the culmination of a prophecy given to the Hebrews indicating that God would pour His spirit upon all flesh in the world. According to Acts Chapter 2, when people speak in other tongues, they become Christians. This evangelical revelation explains the events that transpired in Los Angeles in 1902.

The Methodist Church in America had been feeling disenfranchised with the direction of their lives, as most of its followers and leadership could not fit into the elite political society in America. The followers in the rural areas had to let their children go to seek employment in urban areas since they did not have high education and finances (Kosmin et al. 23). Their children came back with foreign ideas, and this created a sense of vulnerability in their cultural ways. They increasingly lost control of their Methodist Church culture, and could not create an easy relationship with government. Consequently, the Pentecostal movement was created. It also created the modern liberal tradition that eroded some of the radical beliefs in traditional Christian society.


Most U.S. Christian people associate the act of speaking in tongues to Pentecostalism. It does not reflect ideals that can be accessed from the vagaries of modernity or science, as it is largely subjective. Anthropologists and psychologists have tried to look at it as a way of having a personal interaction with God as a person. Speaking in tongues amongst the Pentecost believers is not an entirely new thing, as the people in ancient Greece also used to practice it. Pentecostals in the US thus practice it to theologize the acts of the Corinthians and Acts. An African-American son of slaves, William Seymour, originally formed the modern Pentecostal faith in the U.S. He had to sit in the hallway like other Blacks but was later called to Los Angeles to minister (Barkan et al. 39). He grew the number of followers up until he formed the Azusa Street revival that included people of all sexes, servitude conditions, colors, ages, and nationalities. These later became the inheritors of the Pentecostal movement and faith


Ethnicity, Immigration, and Religious Pluralism


The Jews are known to celebrate Rosh Hashanah during New Year in a ceremony known as the Day of Awe. The Jews get to perform deep soul searching for divine judgment of their omissions and deeds during the year. They also get to repent their sins in the ended year just before the Yom Kippur, Day of Atonement. The Jews observe the High Holy Days as a constant reminder of the fragility of human life in the world. Jewish faith supports social justice and spiritual engagement, creating an area of similarity with the Pentecostal faith (Gaustad, Edwin, & Leigh Schmidt 41). Jewish faith supports the repentance of sins through Teshuvah, whereby an individual can turn around their sins to get back into the right path of life. However, such reprieve for turning around sins cannot be achieved in circumstances whereby one commits sexual assault or public humiliation or commits murder.


The narrative in the Jewish faith is that Ishmael and Isaac were in constant fight – something that angered Abraham. Abraham was also split between supporting Hagar or Sarah- underscoring the family dysfunction that ended up creating the Muslim faith through the lineage of Ishmael (Barkan et al. 51). Besides, the obligations of Jews go beyond fellow Jews to include the followers of other religions. The book of Torah, a rabbinic text, allows married couples to do anything to each other. Similarly, the book of Deuteronomy, a biblical text, allows the same thing. However, the latter further indicates that people who rape a woman should be punished by marrying the woman. These aspects create increased confusion on how the law should interact with humanity.


Religion and Race – African American Religious Traditions


Most African Americans living in the U.S. are known to be the descendants of the slaves. They used to sing as a way to codify their messages to one another and as a sign of deep spirituality. The slaves drew a powerful connection that appears similar to best ideals and virtues held amongst the Christian believers. The spirit of Christianity appears to be merging with many aspects of African sensibility and music. The slaves were drawn from many different languages and nations in Africa, but they had a common sense of belief in a supreme deity- much in a similar way with the traditional belief of Europeans on the purity of saints. 

The African-American slaves could commune with the deities through songs of great fervor. They had to pray to the gods through their ancestors. When they got kidnapped and transported as slaves to foreign lands, their connection with the ancestors was cut, making them desolate in the foreign lands (Barkan et al. 75). At first, they found Christianity and the belief in Christianity as unimpressive, due to the brutality and hypocrisy that their white masters were living. They also disliked the brutality and suffering meted on Jesus the Son of the High God who was suffering like them. They also had a similar feeling towards Daniel and his predicament in the den of lions.

The slaves later adopted the Christianity story as a way to give them hope out of their predicaments. The African-Americans have thus demonstrated how best to survive when one is faced with a persistent crisis or any other human suffering. The songs sung by the slaves in the early years are still relatable to many African-Americans today. Many people still understand the sentiments of spirituals contained in the Welsh hymnbook, as they depict the universal quest for freedom. The slaves gave themselves to suffering and powerlessness in the context of their predicament, as contained in the sentiments in most of their spiritual songs.


Religion, Race, Gender, and Social Justice


For Scott Hanson, Flushing town presents the epidemiology of America’s future trends in religiosity. It is a community with an immense ethical and religious diversity realized from the early periods in 1645 when the town granted religious freedom in America. Some challenges in realizing such freedom include the effort by the intolerant governor to force people to join the Dutch Reformed Church. The Flushing Remonstrance was thus mooted in protest with the declaration that “the people were bound to do good to all men according to the law of God and man” – something that was still carried in the town’s charter (Kosmin et al. 34). Flushing has since allowed different religious entities to spring up after granting religious freedom. There are Muslims, Quakers, Chinese and Korean churches, Buddhist and Hindu temples, and Sikh gurdwaras built side by side with the Orthodox and Jewish churches. Most of these diverse believers belong to small and densely populated places where they can get to interact easily with one another.

Scott Hanson believes that Flushing represents a rich religious heritage full of great diversity such that Conservative, Reform, and Orthodox Jewish synagogues are built side by side with a commitment to religious tolerance coupled with inter-religious dialogue. The quest for religious freedom in America has been covered on many causes, including the constitutional First Amendment and earlier efforts like the Virginia statute that was fronted by Thomas Jefferson. However, according to Raymond Williams, religious diversity is increasingly acceptable amongst towns and municipalities because of the immigrant factor. He thinks that America has far greater religiosity amongst Western nations because the country’s peoples are mostly immigrants. When immigration temporarily ceased in America between 1920 and 1965 because of the Great Depression, World War II, and increased U.S. legal restrictions, the levels of secularization in American society increased.


Scott Hanson believes that the contemporary society seems to support pluralism, going by the case example of Flushing Town. Most of the locals are Christians who live in a diverse community with Jews and believers of other religions. However, this does not mean that there have been no signs of conflict at all. There have been some isolated cases of religious-instigated vandalism, zoning, parking, and attacks on new immigrants (Kosmin et al. 54). However, these actions of perceived religious conflict are far less in magnitude as compared to other areas in America. Flushing’s people to pursue religious disestablishment attribute this to factors such as the commitment, the constitutional restrictions, a vigilant attitude of the residents and a police precinct established in the vicinity. The religious faiths in Flushing town also lack strict claims to territory, making them less vulnerable to open religious conflict.

Raymond Williams think posits that new immigrant groups use religion as a way to create a new identity and gain acceptance in the new society that they join. The absence of religion would make it more difficult for new immigrants to develop group identities and integrate with the new society that they seek to settle in. This forces the new immigrants to insist on religious identity as a way to ease their contemporary mobility (Kosmin et al. 54). Raymond Williams also believes that Muslims have increased in the U.S. population, a situation that impacts on the relationship between Jews and Muslims and between African-American Christians and African-American Muslims.

Tony Carnes argues that Christianity will still dominate the other U.S. religions and that new coalitions will come up as a reaction to the dominant Christian world. Most U.S. immigrants are Christian believers, and this reality contributes to the development of urban Christianity modeled along the Catholic and Protestant denominations (Gaustad and Leigh 66). Immigrants get to experiment with new identities, creating the opportunity for growth of Christian congregations. Liberal religionists can also get the chance to thrive due to a widened acceptance of religious pluralism. On the contrary, the secularists would feel disoriented by the cohesion of majority religious believers who hail from different faiths.


Religion and Globalization 


Religious diversity in America received a new impetus after the passage of a law in 1965 that permitted immigrants from Africa, Asia, and Middle East to move to the US. The immigrants faced little resistance from the locals in establishing and practicing their religious faiths in addition to holding their beliefs in public. The immigrants introduced new religions in the American societies where they moved. The religions became increasingly diverse- as indicated in a book by Prof. Eck titled “A New Religious America.” Los Angeles now has extensive Buddhist following as compared to other parts of the world that are non-traditionally Chinese. Hindus from India, Trinidad, and Caribbean have also established a presence in Los Angeles. Similarly, Muslims from Africa, Indonesia, Middle, and Pakistan also have a strong religious presence in the town. This underscores the strong religious diversity of the US (PBS 1).


The nation should thus forge a path of creating enhanced democracy to nurture an environment that favors multi-religiosity. Religious freedom should be nurtured in different ways to improve the relationship between the people professing different faiths. Presently, Christians in the US appear to be too rigid in their beliefs such that they tend to push the symbol of a transcendent God too hard- against the beliefs of Buddhists who do not recognize it. For instance, Hindus have over three hundred deities- something that goes radically against the core beliefs of Christian believers (PBS 1).

Tony Carnes feels that Christianity will still dominate the other US religions, and that new coalitions will come up as a reaction to the dominant Christian world. Most US immigrants are Christian believers, and this reality contributes to the development of urban Christianity modeled along the Catholic and Protestant denominations. It is reconstructing the earlier perception of sinfulness in cities. Immigrants get to experiment with new identities, creating opportunity for growth of Christian congregations. Liberal religionists can also get an opportunity to thrive due to a widened acceptance of religious pluralism. On the contrary, the secularists would feel disoriented by the cohesion of majority religious believers who hail from different faiths. 


Religion, Science, and the Rise of Fundamentalism


There are many points of convergence between the ideals held by scientists in different disciplines and those held by religious thinkers. This is demonstrated in the intersection of science and Hinduism in the personal lives of a Hindu physicist, V.V. Raman. Science explains the principles and laws that define the universe and its many diverse functions. The only key concern is meaning in all the existence of universe. Science represents one of the triumphant spiritual and intellectual traditions for humans.

Hinduism, unlike other religions, takes an explicit step to explain the differences in experiences that may be construed as knowledge on religion from those that may be construed as analytical, intellectual, or secular knowledge. This eliminates the perception of conflict between religion and science. Science provides explanations of phenomena in analytical and logical frameworks, while religion involves deep involvement – creating a situation of experiential consonance rather than cognitive dissonance.


The complexity of the human spirit creates diversity in the kind of experiential possibilities that we may have as humans. What makes science successful is that it is addicted and inclined to rigid rationality. A scientist may have great conviction to pursue rationality, but if they read the book of Ecclesiastes, they would meet a verse like “to everything there is a season and a time to every purpose under heaven.” This challenges the rigid rationality that scientists pay fidelity. This reality is captured in Pascal’s statement that “the heart has its reasons which reason doesn’t understand.”

Hinduism is a religious culture that lacks any one specific founder. It only has teachers and sages who engage the followers in the holy Sankrit language. The impulse of universality creates a sense of compatibility or convergence between religions and science.

The religious experience captures the inherent mystery inhuman life. This mystery creates opportunity for one to meditation that constitutes the religious experience. Hinduism encourages the virtue of Dharma – which requires one to pursue truth, failure to which they would face karma (a proverbial answer to those who commit evil).



American Muslims sometimes face increased challenges in their interaction with others due to the largely common prejudice that they represent the face of the troublemakers such as terrorists or sleepers waiting for an opportunity to execute terrorist plans even for a latent period as long as ten years later. The provisions of the Quran do not expressly place women at a subordinate condition as patriarchs believe. The Muslims should also hold onto the idea of separation of roles between religious institutions and the state as required by the American Constitution (PBS 1). The US politicians need to stop creating invectives of superiority in religious factions in order to ease the persistent pressure facing American Muslims. The issue becomes more serious when policies are made to benefit certain religious factions while undermining others. Notably, the legal system in the US currently protects the American Muslims on an equal footing to the other religions in US.


Most Muslims who come into America with a negative perception of America over issues such as a harsh foreign policy need to soften their stance when in America for them to share in the opportunities and democratic space available. They need to develop confidence in their identity. Most foreigners also believe that Islam is oppressive to women. Prophet Muhammad drafted a document preferring a bill of rights that would form a charter between him and the people of Medina (both Jews and Muslims). The charter identified the Jews and Muslims as one people; but every person was his own and was free to hold his own beliefs irrespective of the status quo. The charter also required the people to show loyalty to one another. This charter drafted by Prophet Muhammad is a reflection of the present day federal system in the US that defends the state and its people.

Works Cited

Barkan, Elliott R., et al. “Race, Religion, and Nationality in American Society: A Model of Ethnicity: From Contact to Assimilation [with Comment, with Response].” Journal of American Ethnic History (1995): 38-101.

Gaustad, Edwin, and Leigh Schmidt. “The Religious History of America: The heart of the American Story from Colonial Times to Today, Revised Edition.” (2002).

Kosmin, Barry A., et al. “American nones: The profile of the no religion population, a report based on the American religious identification survey 2008.” (2009).

Sample Marketing Paper on Marketing Sports Women of Today (SWOT) Network essay help websites

Executive Summary

There is a good market for a sports network that is dedicated to coverage of females-only sports events. This is because women account for more than a third of all the viewers and followers of sports event. Also, it has been established that most the sports that are dominated by women such as women’s leagues and skating have a higher proportion of female following. This means that airing all-female sports programs will result in having a higher number of female viewers. Women are also better and loyal consumers compared to men, and the present trends suggest that their earning and spending power is increasing gradually. The fact that most of sports events are dominated by male athletes and media influenced by males makes women that would otherwise be interested in sports get discouraged. These are the issues and opportunities that Sports Women of Today (SWOT) Network intends to capitalize on. This network has targeted female in the age range of 16 to 55 years. A good portion of females in this demographic group are very active on social media. The network intends to market itself to them using this platform and women magazines as well. The appeal to sports will be intensified by encouraging the viewers to adopt fitness hobbies and also highlighting the success stories of women in sports to encourage others that the glass ceiling in other spheres of their lives can still be broken. The geographical market targeted by this network is the active women population in North America. Revenue for the networks is expected from adverts made for the sports merchandise and apparel and also from branded items sold by the network and the organizing of events and galas.

Marketing Sports Women of Today (SWOT) Network


Mission statement

SWOT Network is interested in celebrating the achievements of women in sports and other spheres of life. This network intends to engage positively with women through the social media and in the broadcasting of all-female sports events. This is expected to inspire the audience, who are majorly women, to desire to succeed in their life objectives.

Overview of The Business

Just like other sports networks, this network will be broadcasting sports, with the major difference being that all of the events broadcasted will be all-female sports. This is done in a bid to balance the publicity given to male athletes to the female ones.Attention that is given to the male athletes is the one that makes them excel and achieve more compared to the women in the same field (McCarthy, 2015). This network will give the women participating in sports the attention that they have been denied for a long time. The objective of having this network in place, therefore, is to improve the stature of women in sports and inspire others that might want to make participation in a particular sport their career.

More than third of the 14 million regular viewers of sports networks are comprised of women. These are the viewers of the regular sporting events which are dominated by male participants. It has been established that more women become interested in sports that include female participants (Van Riper, 2001). The earning power of women in the united states is increasing as time passes by and more opportunities are afforded to them in terms of education and careers. It is expected that by 2028, the average American woman will be earning more than the average American man (Walter, 2012). This means that business targeting women is bound to have a good market base in the future.

This network expects to gain revenue from the sale of adverts to the corporations that deal with sports merchandise and apparels. These are the companies that are stakeholders in the sports and fashion industry, and the exposure given by this network to the numerous viewers is valuable to them (Brown, 2007). The network will also sell to the interested viewers and sportswomen its branded merchandise and also organize sports events and galas that are intended to promote the participation of women in sports. These various revenue generating activities are expected to assist in the provision of an incentive to continue with the enterprise.

The current marketing strategy for the network is social media, as the targeted audience of between 15 years and 55 years are females that are active on social media and seeking content that will make them feel empowered. The network is also interested in reaching out to this audience via magazines in the fitness sections (Thapa, 2013). Women this age are conscious about their looks and weight. The promise of a network that might introduce them to a fitness hobby is welcome. This network’s main geographic market is in North America where it intends to compete with other established networks in the region. Success in this region will result in the expansion to other parts of the globe such as Europe, Asia and Australia. The focus on women is driven by the fact that almost half of the world’s population consists of females and the same representation should be observed in all spheres.


Brown, K. (2007). How many viewers does a cable network need? A survival analysis of cable networks. Applied Economics, 39(20), 2581-2587.

McCarthy, C. (2015). Encourage women to develop careers in athletics. College Athletics And The Law, 12(6), 7-7.

Thapa, R. (2013). Participation Of Women In Marketing: Economic Empowerment Of Farm Women. Journal Of Agriculture And Environment, 13(0).

Van Riper, T. (2011, September 30). The sports women watch. Forbes. Retrieved from

Walter, E. (2012, January 24). Top 30 stats you need to know when marketing to women. Retrieved from

Sample Marketing Report Paper on GoPro cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Marketing Report: GoPro

Introduction: Marketing Report for HERO4

1.1 Company background

GoPro is a tech firm that deals with a wide array of electronics that includes a camera, mobile apps, and video editing software (Gopro, 2017). Woodman established it 2004 with the aimof fulfilling the desire of producing affordable cameras with the capability to over exemplary service. As of 2016, the industry engaged at least 1483 employees with an asset base of over $1.10 billion.

1.2 Product Background

The brand associated with the company is the hero cameras that were first introduced in 2004, before the modification of the line of the products to HERO4 in 2014 (Hagebeuker& Marketing, 2007). The device can edit video in a record 10 seconds,and their production is responsible for the growth of the revenue of GoPro for the past few years.

Figure 1: Hero4

The product has a unique, stylish outlook that captures the attention of the consumers (Halper, Helbing, & Strothotte, 2001). It is small, which makes it portable, and exudes exemplary camera capabilities that include adjusting videos in 10 second. The resolution capability of the device is up to 4K at 30fps. The product has higher rating for performance, and consumers laud the pricing at averagely $500.The product is categorized as a camcorder that fits under the classification of video camera (Thoeni, Giacomini, Murtagh, & Kniest, 2014, Lessard & Kessler, 2010). The players in the industry producing similar devices include ION and sonny.

1.3 Market Issues

The challenges in marketing the brand are that few people acknowledge its unique features (Ruotsalainen, Bancroft, Lachapelle, G., Kuusniemi, & Chen, 2012). The mode of pricing the commodity as a cheaper product makes it hard to entice a vast majority of travellers, who solicit for high-end devices for photography activities.

Figure 2: HERO4 market shares

In a bid to overcome the difficulties, to facilitate effective penetration of the market, the manufacturers ought to communicate to potential consumers about the benefits of embracing HERO4 for video editing. The manufacturers also ought to segment the market, besides investing in high-end gadgets to fulfil the needs of all market niches. According to Lee, Kim, Lee, Kim, Kim, and Yi (2017), the firm faces stiff competition from ION and Sonny. The sales for 2015 indicate a revenue rise of 72%. The trend is an affirmation that flagship brand as hero4 is propelling the company to success.

2. Buyer Behaviour Analysis

2.1 Target Market

The target market for HERO4 is consumers aged 24-39 that comprise mostly of females earning more than 3k a month. The groups of females constitute about 209,600 of shoppers seeking to use the device for image documentation purposes (Woodman, 2012). A typical task includes capture of memorable scenery during travel. The younger generation comprises a significant section of the clientele.

DefinableSizeableAge Group: 24-39 (female)   Total number of women aged 24-39 : 451,000   209,600 of them earn S$3000 per/month more.  $560 X 209,600= $ 117,376,000  

Figure 3 Sample of the approach to segmenting and expectation in sales

Target market profile

2.2.1 Demographics

The exploitation of demographics in profiling the groups is critical in improving the position of the brand in the market. HERO4 manufactures can segment the group using age, with preferences of women between the ages of 24 to 29, accounting for 451,000 of the shoppers varying from the consideration of those earning above 3k of the same group. The consideration of the relationship status of the females should also feature since the 140,000 singles and 69,600 married couples can exploit the device differently. An exemption for the married can feature for those with kids who account for 55,000 potential shoppers.

The same should apply to the location of female shoppers with the preferences of those in downtown varying from the desires of the in the CBD. The education levels have with minimal consideration of the preferences of other groups. However, the consideration of the shopping places of the female clients and their personalities has to influence the segmenting process. The group demand details capability such as the improvement in video editing features that augment the outlook of shootings by the gender. The colours of the devices and the aesthetic appeal in offer presents the group the opportunity to enjoy the camera.

 The company has to consider the earning in pricing, while altering the features of the devices based on behaviours. People engaged in travel and outdoor activities can constitute a different segment from those working in occupations that involve minimal travel (Graves, et al., 2015). The attitude of the shoppers regarding brand loyalty is also a consideration in market segmentation. The campaigns can consider user status and the benefits sought from HERO4 devices.


The company has to consider the desires of those intending to use the camera for leisure-cum-work purposes. A significant section may demand to capture memorable events regardless of the setting (Prideaux & Coghlan, 2010). Some may intend to use the devices while on travels as in the case of media personalities. Women would especially be interested in buying this camera because of their attraction to the detail in the design. Additionally, they would be interested because of its small size, which makes it extremely portable


Luring more consumers to purchase the products requires capturing the needs of different markets, and such demands segmentation based on behaviour. The firm can choose to categorize shoppers as stylish or lovers of technological inventions (Nair, et al., 2015). The company can position HERO4 as a sophisticated device for the high-end markets, then use low price strategy in enticing the consumers. The consideration of female shoppers as critical section of the market is a critical elements as the group bases decision on perception. The younger females prefer trendy devices.

Degree of problem solving

The market has so various action cameras that prompt consumers to seek information objectively before making a decision. The approach is referred to as as extended problem solving since the purchase behaviour is pegged on the knowledge of innovations. It involves a higher risk in the evaluation process, unlike the case of the limited problem-solving approach whereby a consumer purchases a known commodity such as a T-shirt or a book. In making the decision about which camera to use, the average consumer will consider and evaluate the GoPro and other action cameras’ online and offline reviews as well as the recommendations before making a decision.

As noted, the extended problem-solving device or commodity describes the one that fulfils an additional demand of the consumers. In the case of the camera, it serves the basic function in addition to exuding video editing capabilities. The compatibilities with other technologies also give it an edge in providing extensional services. For that reason, the action camera carves a niche for itself as the ultimate innovation that facilitates capture of exciting images. It has lenses that ensure detailed capture of images and such augur well with the needs of female shoppers. The portability of the device and the different features courtesy of innovativeness such as the slot for fixing a carrying strap makes the device an extended problem-solving gadget. However, the marketers should capitalize on the ability through the provision of information about the camera to consumers through the relevant sources to facilitate objective decision-making.

The key influence in the decision to purchase the commodity is the improvement of experiences from the utilization of HERO4 camera. Their outlook of the devices is an affirmation that it serves in photography and video editing activities. The manufacturers aim at making the cameras affordable to the reach of many. Through commercialization activities, the company that produces HERO4 can lure consumers to develop the urge to experiment with the brand (Simonson &Nowlis, 2000).

The experiences attained after the decision are the solutions to the use of the device. The expectation is that many will capture satisfactory images with the camera. The fact that the cameras reduce problems associated with photography will influence the subsequent actions such as loyalty and decision to refer others to embrace the same brand. The attitude of the person in classifying the outlook of the device features as the internal factor in influencing the decision.

2.2.5 Need/problem recognition

The identification of the need to use a camera in the documentation of images is the problem identified in the production of the device. In line with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the concern relates to the quest for a device with performance that exceeds the capability of existing camcorders. The ascertainment of the goal requires the collection of information about the device. The consumers purchasing the device on numerous occasions have fulfilled their physiological needs and are only seeking to satisfy concerns, which are getting the best out of photography.

2.2.6. Information search

The consumers can learn about the camera through media campaigns and referrals from persons with experience of using the device. The marketers can link with shoppers through social media platforms and direct communication channels such as display stores. During the process, the consumers compare the capability of the device in relation to existing technologies. Information obtained from peers and referrals can influence the decision.

2.2.7. Evaluation of alternatives

The step that follows is the examination of the ideal option from the alternatives. The consumers compare based on knowledge shared and preference of specific features of the devices. The categorization of the device in term of performance and pricing influences most of the decision in the stage (Shearer, Gilbert, & Hero, 2013). The consumers can approach the decision objectively by analysing the expectation and financial resources available for the purchase. The reputation of the brand and the expected satisfaction from the purchase influences its selection.

2.2.8. Purchase decision

The purchase of HERO4 follows an intuitive consultation in which the consumer weighs the benefits of the action. HERO4 has features that make it exemplary in capturing digitals images. Its compatibility with other technologies and pricing makes it the preferable choice (Senecal & Nantel, 2004). The management can use loyalty cards or membership programs in creating a sense of belonging that entices shoppers to solicit more information about the brand when making purchases. The management can decide to run raffles for shoppers for the possibility of attaining additional products for use with the device such as camera bags.

2.2.9. Post purchase evaluation

The satisfaction of the consumer will emanate from the experiences when they utilize the components of the device (Woodman, 2011). The response from peers and simplicity of the features such as ease of operating them dictate satisfaction levels. The quality of pictures captured by the camera and video editing capabilities will inference satisfaction (Lin, 2016). Consumers will also consider sound capabilities of the recordings made by HERO4.

The divestment as the last stage is critical in decision-making on the mode of promoting future innovation (Woodman, 2011). The users of HERO4 can opt to issue the device as a gift to loved ones, thus precipitating shared experience with potential shoppers.

2.5 Three Key Influences

2.3. Internal 

2.3.1 Personality

The critical issue for consideration before the decision to purchase is the impression created in the minds of the consumers after comparing their expectation with the others in the society. Through social comparison, the shoppers can opt for HERO4 on presumption that they will attain similar benefits as those utilizing the same device. The desire of the shopper to blend with the rest of the consumer plays an integral role. They seek information with the desire to attain the best in the market. The sense of acceptance as a user able to choose the best device fulfils the need.

2.3.2. External Influence

2.3.3 Reference Group 

            The process of deciding on which device to use in capturing images depends on the exposure that one gains through interactions with the group. Before the decision, the female shopper can inquire from the members about the ideal device for use. The association of the brand with activities such as travel can also make the person solicit information from related sites depicting cameras for use by travellers. In a situation whereby the marketer uses celebrities associated with travel activities, the manufacturer can influence the demand for the device among those willing to travel.

The quest for acceptance and benefits attained from the device are some of the factors that might equally influence women desiring the gadget. The appeal that HERO4 promoters create is integral in encouraging referrals among the group. For example, when targeting female shoppers who love travelling the camera manufacturer has to explore the motivation behind travel and the need of camera. As noted, many desire a device that guarantees satisfaction in capture of detailed images.

2.4. Family

The nature of one’s family such as living with the husband also affects the decision. A person in a household comprised of children might require devices that enable capture of images in groups such as taking a shot with the child using cameras with automated capabilities. A person’s income also influences the choice of the camera. Couples may require devices fulfilling specific needs of the group, unlike married persons. For that reason, marketer must acknowledge the preferences of those single willing to use the Gpro made devices based on satisfaction attained from the use of the cameras (Yim, 2010).  

Key issue to information processing

The manufacturers can exploit the ability to invent new devices that augment satisfaction levels of consumers as a means of promoting sales. It is important creating the perception that the devices target all types of shoppers. Doing so can enable the manufacture to target user lacking interest in sporting activities. The strategy for reaching customer ought to capitalize on perception and exposure created through commercials that create acceptance outside the context of sporting.   

3. IMC strategy

The company can exploit marketing mix tools and communication strategies in reaching potential consumers.

3.1 External Context

The dynamics in the external environment in many ways has the potency of influencing the demand of the product in the market. It is on this basis that HERO4 must exploit PESTEL in planning. The elements for inclusion are the political decisions such as policy of the government towards the activities of manufacturing firms (Woodman, 2011). The decision to implement policies that encourage merchandising of the device will always influence sales. The economic environment also plays a role. In times of inflation or recession, the advertisers must acknowledge the possibility of change in the sale of HERO4 (Schultz, 2004).

4. Social Factors

The nature of interactions in the social setting is another issue for consideration in the promotion of the brand. When people appear receptive, HERO4 marketers ought to capitalize on the opportunity, because cultural perception affects the actions of consumers. Competition from reputable brands will dictate the performance of HERO4 devices in the market.

4.1 Business Context 

HERO4 can leverage on the affordability of the product and the capability to function effectively with other technologies. When marketing, the management can use the existing networks to reach consumers in various parts of the market (Bohn &Teizer, 2009). The exploitation of the professionals representing the company is a plus for HERO4.

4.2 Customer Context

The objective in considering the context entails formulating ways for reaching the group effectively. In the case of HERO4, the company can exploit the dynamics to its advantage by relying on the IMC model. One such strategy entails experimenting with a flexible model in marketing, which considers pricing and behavioural issues such as travelling as a marketing segmentation component. This is critical in endearing the device to women (Schwarz, 2004). The company can customize the sporting devices to attract women, for instance through producing gadgets that are bright colored, small enough to fit in a hand bag, mirrors, and filters.

The subsequent approach for grasping the attention of female shoppers entails using platforms recognizable by the group in the communication of information to reach the audience. An example is a social media page. During the process, the approach to communication must also create emphasis about the product being feminine since the action is responsible for the perception that influences the demand for the merchandise (Ramsey, Bet al., 2002).

Consumer decision-makingKey learningIMC implicationsProblem identificationReferrals Motivations   Information collectionSales personsAdvertising Direct communication MediaEvaluation of optionsUnique features of the devicePrice Values attained Perception of outlookPurchase  PlacesRaffle city Vivo city Down town/orchard CBDAfter purchase evaluationEmotionsAfter sales services Advise to consumers

The lesson from the model is that consumers’ preferences vary; thus the need for caution in the segmentation of the market. However, before steering campaign activities, the emphasis on perception ought to prevail (Cazenave, Kecy, Risi&Haddock, 2014). In the case of female clientele, the HERO4 manufacturer must consider the lifestyle preferences of the group such as traveling thereby formulating devices that meet the specific needs. The platform for communication is also integral since reaching the group can prove daunting if the media exploited is inappropriate. During distribution, the emphasis on existence of different capabilities is also necessary. The goal is to ensure that the communication appeal and the device appear as attractive and capable of fulfilling needs of consumers for success in the markets.


Bohn, J. S., & Teizer, J. (2009). Benefits and barriers of construction project monitoring using high-resolution automated cameras. Journal of construction engineering and management, 136(6), 632-640.

Cazenave, F., Kecy, C., Risi, M., & Haddock, S. H. (2014, September). Seestar: A low-cost, modular and open-source camera system for subsea observations. Oceans-St. John’s, 2014 (pp. 1-7). IEEE.

Gopro. (2017). Gopro.Goproinc Retrieved from

Graves, S. N., Shenaq, D. S., Langerman, A. J., & Song, D. H. (2015). Video capture of plastic surgery procedures using the GoPro HERO 3+.Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open, 3(2)

Hagebeuker, D. I. B., & Marketing, P. (2007). A 3D time of flight camera for object detection. Semantic scholar.Retrieved from

Halper, N., Helbing, R., &Strothotte, T. (2001, September). A Camera Engine for Computer Games: Managing the TradeOff Between Constraint Satisfaction and Frame Coherence. Computer Graphics ForumVol. 20, No. 3, pp. 174-183

Lee, C. K., Kim, Y., Lee, N., Kim, B., Kim, D., & Yi, S. (2017). Feasibility Study of Utilization of Action Camera, GoPro Hero 4, Google Glass, and Panasonic HX-A100 in Spine Surgery.Spine, 42(4), 275-280.

Lessard, J., & Kessler, G. (2010). Android Forensics: Simplifying Cell Phone Examinations.

Lin, L. K. (2016). Surgical video recording with a modified GoPro Hero 4 camera.Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ), 10, 117.Retrieved July 18 from

Nair, A. G., Kamal, S., Dave, T. V., Mishra, K., Reddy, H. S., Della Rocca, D., …& Jain, V. (2015). Surgeon point-of-view recording: using a high-definition head-mounted video camera in the operating room. Indian journal of ophthalmology, 63(10), 771

Prideaux, B., & Coghlan, A. (2010). Digital cameras and photo taking behaviour on the Great Barrier Reef—marketing opportunities for Reef tour operators. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 16(3), 171-183

Ramsey, B. D., Alexander, C. D., Apple, J. A., Benson, C. M., Dietz, K. L., Elsner, R. F., … & Speegle, C. O. (2002). First images from HERO, a hard x-ray focusing telescope. The Astrophysical Journal, 568(1), 432

Ruotsalainen, L., Bancroft, J., Lachapelle, G., Kuusniemi, H., & Chen, R. (2012, October). Effect of camera characteristics on the accuracy of a visual gyroscope for indoor pedestrian navigation. In Ubiquitous Positioning, Indoor Navigation, and Location Based Service (UPINLBS), 2012 (pp. 1-8). IEEE.

Schultz, D. A. (Ed.). (2004). Lights, camera, campaign!: Media, politics, and political advertising (Vol. 11). Peter Lang.

Schwarz, N. (2004). Metacognitive experiences in consumer judgment and decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14(4), 332-348.

Senecal, S., & Nantel, J. (2004).The influence of online product recommendations on consumers’ online choices. Journal of retailing, 80(2), 159-169.

Shearer, P., Gilbert, A. C., & Hero, A. O. (2013, September). Correcting camera shake by incremental sparse approximation. In Image Processing (ICIP), 2013 20th IEEE International Conference on (pp. 572-576).IEEE.

Simonson, I., & Nowlis, S. M. (2000). The role of explanations and need for uniqueness in consumer decision making: Unconventional choices based on reasons. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(1), 49-68.

Thoeni, K., Giacomini, A., Murtagh, R., & Kniest, E. (2014).A comparison of multi-view 3D reconstruction of a rock wall using several cameras and a laser scanner. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 40(5), 573.

Woodman, N. D. (2011).U.S. Patent No. 8,014,656. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved from

Woodman, N. D. (2011).U.S. Patent No. D644,679. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved from

Woodman, N. D. (2011). U.S. Patent No. D646,313. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Retrieved July 18 from

Woodman, N. D. (2012). U.S. Patent No. D657,811. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Woodman, N. D. (2015). U.S. Patent No. D732,593. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved from

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Sample Literature Paper on Sylvia Plath’s Poem; Daddy homework essay help


The poem involves a speaker who has a monolog concerning her father who had died when she was ten years old, but he is still in her mind. In this poem, she explains that she was done with thinking about him. The poem demonstrates a love and hate relationship with both the father and the husband. The word Daddy is ironic in this poem since he is noted to be a bad person who is likened to a Vampire, Devil, and a Nazi. The poem has shown hatred that has developed among the feminists concerning the males.

The tone of the poem is brutal, rough, abusive, and childish. At the end of the poem, she calls her father a bastard, and she is done with him. The rude tone shows that she has done away with him and seems to enjoy that the father had died both physically and even in her heart. The speaker is also brutal in the tone in that she is very angry and cannot even communicate due to the bitterness she has in her heart (Roberts, 2014). She repeats the word ‘ich’ severally, which means ‘I.’ The word is repeated severally for more than four times, and it has the intonation of the gunfire that could have related the Nazi with war. The childish tone is demonstrated in her use of the word ‘Daddy’ very many times. The word is related to how innocent children call their fathers. However, in this poem, the child seems to be very angry concerning the father and having a negative attitude towards him. The speaker shows no respect and formality concerning the father.

The speaker in the poem wants the reader to have a feeling of oppression in the family relationships. She demonstrates the harsh and disturbing issues that she was going through in their family. She had been going through a lot of pressure caused by her father. In the poem, she relates herself to a foot that has lived in a shoe for a very long time; that is more than thirty years. The demonstration shows that she never had freedom to do whatever she wished. She has been working so hard to ensure that she is liberating herself from the oppression.

The speaker in the poem demonstrates a negative attitude towards men. The men in the poem are the father of the speaker and the husband. As a daughter, she has to feel a victim concerning the death of the father. She believed that the father was a God and thus, she seems that something wrong was happening between her and the father. She describes the father in an abusive way (Holbrook, 2014). For example, the use of dark imagery of the Nazi and the demonstration of his character using vampirism. She also calls the father a devil and she gets rid of her physical appearance. Additionally, she has also tried to make his escape from her emotions.

In conclusion, it is clear that most of the females can have hatred towards men who are close to them. The hatred can be caused by the childhood experience with men. For example, the speaker was very constricted by the father before he died and she had been longing for his death. Additionally, feminism has also been transferred to the husband of the speaker. She hated the father, and she wishes to forget him. However, it is not wise to hate a particular group of people just because of a single experience.


Holbrook, D. (2014). Sylvia Plath: poetry and existence. A&C Black.

Roberts, N. (2014). Narrative and Voice in Postwar Poetry. Routledge.

Sample Psychology Case Study on Methods of Data Collection in Qualitative Research: Interviews and Focus Groups college essay help service: college essay help service


The paper focuses on how the current school systems delivery models of counselling are moving from an individual to a program, policy and planning focus. It will analyze the data collection methods to be used in collecting information about the indispline cases in the school. Additionally, the composition of the team to initiate change in the school will be discussed. The resources needed to solve the short-term and long-term needs will be identified and appropriate policies evaluated. Finally, the paper will discuss how the programs will be implemented and the likely challenges during implementation.


Delivery models of counseling are moving from individuals to a policy, program, and planning processes. The policies aim at providing guidance on how to achieve the set objectives of the model. They help in linking the organization’s vision with the operations that it intends to carry out. Additionally, the policies assist the decision makers when formulating strategies, which help in the handling of the issues as they arise. Formulation of policies can only be realized by providing the policy implementers with limits, and the choices that are available to guide them in the decision-making and overcome the existing problems. Programs initiated are supposed to stipulate how the arising problem would be solved, and the different stakeholders that are to be involved in the policy formulation and implementation. Furthermore, help identify the responsibilities that each stakeholder should shoulder, and how they should go about their duties easily and quickly. Written policies help organizations when challenged in court by the outsiders. Written programs are essential in organizations because they reveal the amount of money available for projects, stakeholders expected to be involved, and the procedure to be followed by the policy formulation and implementation. Additionally, the policy formulators take into account challenges that may be encountered during policy development or in the rest of process.

Data Collection

The school can opt to collect data on its own or seek assistance from an external consultant. Data collection will ensure that it has enough information to make a well-versed decision on how to proceed. Data should be collected using appropriate data collection techniques that ensure that unnecessary information is not collected. Additionally, data gathered should be protected to ensure reliability and credibility. Six steps will be followed by the team during data collection, and they would include; issue identification, issue selection, planning an approach and methods, data collection, analyzing and interpreting the data, and acting on the results (Gill et al., 2008 p.292).  It is vital to conduct an internal and external assessment to understand what is happening inside and outside the school. The school might offer directions on what issues should be explored in addition to how data should be collected. This step may involve exploring the cultures of the schools, their history, how decisions are made, mandates, goals, and core values, systems of discipline, and the recruitment process of the peer counselors. In addition, the perception of the school by the communities will be considered. Additionally, selection of the issues from the list of priorities after the internal and external assessment will be undertaken. Goals should be set after the selection of the problem. The goal depends on a guess of what is happening in the schools that can be tested using data collection tools. This section can also entail brainstorming questions that are answerable.

When planning approaches and methods to be used, the team will make decisions about people to be surveyed, the sources of data, the procedure of data collection, and duration of data collection among others. Consultation with the experts will be relevant at this stage in which case, the size, resources, complexity, and purpose of the problem selected will be considered. Focused group discussions will be held with the students in the peer counseling club, students who have ever been suspended from school, and the student leaders. Additionally, teachers in the peer counseling department, the head of school, and parents of suspended students will be involved in the discussion to help get more information about the cause of indiscipline cases. They will also be interviewed independently. Additionally, the opinion of the other boards of directors, parents union, and management committees should be put into consideration during the entire exercise (Gill et al., 291).  Data collected should be interpreted and analyzed. In this case, the school will determine whether it can analyze and interpret data or seek the assistance of an expert. Findings will help the school decide whether to act on the data or collect more of the same data.


Data collected showed that there are many cases of indiscipline in the school that ranges from abuse of drugs, violent strikes, increased incidents of bullying, and damage of the school’s facilities by students among others. Data collected revealed that despite the efforts taken by the peer counseling teachers, student leaders, parents, and the community leaders to counsel students, these acts still exist. Additionally, the research indicated that students conduct these acts because of lack of involvement in decision making by the school. Furthermore, they perform these acts because of the institutional challenges they face in the school, for instance, lack of water, poor hygiene, and lack of certain equipment and structures. School’s structure also contributes to the high in discipline cases, since they have to follow certain channels before reaching the senior administrators of the school. Core values, vision, and mission of the school do not play a vital role in shaping the discipline of the students. It is thus important to formulate policies, which will help reduce the increasing indiscipline cases in the school. The school has to establish policies and structures, which ensure that the students have a conducive environment for learning.

Collaborative Team

A meeting will be held by the student leaders, teachers in the counseling department, school head, community leaders, a consultant, and five parents of the suspended students. They will brain storm and develop plans to resolve the indiscipline issue in the school. This committee will also come up with appropriate policies to address the issue. The student leaders will present the grievances of the students and what the students would want done to minimize the indiscipline cases. The parents will be allowed to air their opinion on the possible causes of the indiscipline cases in the school and the possible programs they think should be initiated to reduce these cases. Additionally, the community leaders and the school head will inform the government about the intended programs and what assistance they would want. Furthermore, they will seek the support of external donors to help in the establishment of certain structures in the schools and purchase the required facilities. The consultant will advise the teachers, parents, and the community leaders on the possible challenges that may arise when implementing the program and the estimated cost to be incurred during implementation of the particular programs. Furthermore, the consultant will give them advice on the legal procedure that should be followed before implementation of the given policies. Each member of the committee will be given a certain period to seek the opinion of the members they represent concerning the issue. After the consultation, they will hold a meeting and present feedback on the issue, including proposed programs.


The issues of ineffective governance, particularly by school head and teachers have been described as primary causes of the indiscipline cases in the school. One of the main reasons for the ineffectiveness of governance is the lack of coordination and trust among the teachers in the counseling department and the students (Halász and Michel, 2011 p.302).  In addition, lack of cooperation between the counseling department and the student welfare department has also played a key role in the increasing indiscipline cases. It is thus important to establish committees, which will monitor the coordination of the school administrators and the students. Officials of the departments, which do not coordinate, will be demoted.

Participatory decision-making needs to be adopted. All the stakeholders including the students should be involved in making decisions. The opinion of each stakeholder should be considered before policy formulation and implementation (Halász and Michel, 2011 p.300). The students, being the primary stakeholders, will be allowed to present the issues that they would want to be addressed by the government or the school. Student representatives would be elected to represent the students at the meetings and present grievances on behalf of the students.  Additionally, the school should seek financial support from the government and donors. Finances obtained will help solve the institutional challenges, which are prevalent in the school. These problems include lack of water, essential facilities such as brooms, stationeries, sanitation, and enough teachers among others. More teachers will be employed, tanks and stationeries will be purchased, and the sanitation in the school improved. The school’s motto, vision, and core values should be evaluated and focus more on the conduct by the students. They should portray the positive values that each student is expected to adopt. Through adoption of the positive values, the students acquire discipline and can express and present their grievances in the right way.


The action plan will help the counseling department teachers, peer-counseling students, and the parents turn their visions into reality, and increase the efficiency and accountability of the school. The action plan will entail the actions and changes that will occur, who will carry out the changes, resources needed to steer the changes. In addition, it will show how communication will be done in all the phases of implementing the changes (Quintero Corzo and Ramírez, 2011 p. 61).  Student leaders, head of school, teachers in the counseling department, parents of the suspended students, government, donors, and the community leaders will be involved in finding the solution for indiscipline cases in the school. Influential people in the society like the priests may also participate in the action plan. The planning group will include the teachers in counseling department, student leaders, community leaders, and priests who will be required to design the action plan. The group will discuss the strategies to reduce indiscipline in the school. Additionally, the target groups in this program will be the students, teachers, and head of school. The proposed solutions to each problem that cause students to indulge in indiscipline cases will be discussed.

The plan is to be carried out by the set committee. The coalition will work towards finding the funds to buy the required stationeries and facilities in the school. The committee will try to have the school motto evaluated within four weeks, and seek the financial support of the government and donors within eight weeks. Full implementation of the policies will be achieved within ten months. The committee will approach the donors and the government to request funding to purchase certain facilities. Additionally, expert labor will be required in the formulation of the new school motto. The other school board of directors should be availed with information about this planned change.

Plan Implementation

The students, teachers, head of school, and the other board of trustees will be notified of the policies to be implemented. The policies need to be clear and easy to interpret if they are to be applied effectively. Directions on how the policies are to be applied in the school should be elaborated. After the school stakeholders are notified of the intended plan, it will be implemented. Financial support from the government will be needed for the program to be implemented. The funds will be used after that to purchase stationeries and other facilities that are a requirement in the school.

Plan Evaluation

Formative evaluation will help in analyzing how the policies are implemented with the aim of enhancing discipline among students. Summative evaluation will be conducted after the policies have been fully implemented to look at whether the programs met their objectives and why or why not (Tian and Shen, 2011 p.15).  Evaluation is necessary to determine whether the policies are controversial or not. Evaluation will reveal whether the number of indiscipline cases has reduced in the school and how the students have benefited from the policies. Students are also asked whether they like the programs implemented and how they can be improved.


It is evident that the process of plan formulation and implementation requires the support of different stakeholders. Policy formulation requires proposed action about how the particular issue will be handled. Resources to be used in the planned action should be considered and discussions held by the change makers. Appropriate techniques and methods should be used to ensure that only relevant information is collected. All stakeholders are informed about the set policies before they are implemented. After the implementation, the system implemented should be evaluated to determine whether it has solved the problems that occurred during policy implementation period. Policy analysis helps the decision makers in making the best choices and ensuring the outcome among alternatives.


Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E. and Chadwick, B., 2008. Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. British dental journal, 204(6), pp.291-295.

Halász, G. and Michel, A., 2011. Key Competences in Europe: interpretation, policy formulation and implementation. European Journal of Education, 46(3), pp.289-306.

Quintero Corzo, J. and Ramírez Contreras, O., 2011. Understanding and facing discipline-related challenges in the English as a foreign language classroom at public schools. Profile Issues in TeachersProfessional Development, 13(2), pp.59-72.

Tian, L. and Shen, T., 2011. Evaluation of plan implementation in the transitional China: A case of Guangzhou city master plan. Cities, 28(1), pp.11-27.

Sample Public Administration Capstone Project Paper on Hazardous Materials Responses buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

Hazardous Materials Responses


Hazardous materials are as a result of accidents and most of the times cause injuries to the victim who comes into contact with them. Firefighters are mostly trained on how to control hazardous materials and how to best handle them to minimize injury and risks. Hazardous materials include poisons, flammable liquids, corrosive substances, infectious materials, flammable gases, and explosives. Hazardous material response demands awareness on the response methods so that risk is reduced and safety of the society achieved. In addition, the environment is also considered in the response methods to ensure environment conservation (Cutter, 1996). All people who own premises which contain hazardous materials are always required to plan and manage themselves well to be prepared enough in case of an incident which is hazardous. Fire code 1.7.5 requires that for authority can be delegated to only the qualified administrators who will have the power to enforce this code (National Fire Protection Association, 2015).

Standard operating guidelines require all owners of premises keeping hazardous materials to have inventories for all dangerous products available and create awareness to any new person who visits the premises (Westhuizen, 2011). In addition, they are required to document all potential occurrences due to the storage of these hazardous materials. In the case of spillage, a warning should be immediately disseminated for people to evacuate the building and be safe from all risks possible. This response needed to be taken with seriousness and executed immediately there is a hazardous event taking place. The hazardous event should not be ignored at any time as it may cause more disaster to all people around the affected premises.

Hazardous material responses are in various forms based on the guidelines one is following or how they react based on the knowledge they have. Emergency responders usually show a different reaction when an incident occurs (Peterson, 2000). There are those who follow what standard operating guidelines requires them to while others simply react out of their knowledge or experience. When an emergency occurs, a big decision needs to be made by the responder so that they may be safe and secure from any injuries that may come forth. In this case, standard procedures help one to find it easier to maneuver in case of any accident and come out safe. Standard operating guidelines cover Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the usage of Structural Firefighting Protective Clothing (SFPC).

Firefighters need to have the knowledge of hazardous material response because they are prone to accidents as they rescue people from fire scenes. Verified hazardous material response requires more labor and resources for one to cope with all incidents that may come their way. This affects most people who are not able to understand the guidelines applied while responding to incidents. They end up being affected both physically and mentally. This has been witnessed in many areas around the world.

Specialized teams such as firefighters find themselves prone to risks when expert response delays. For instance, when a fire strikes a building, firefighters are immediately contacted to come into rescue immediately. Upon receiving this type of call, they gather all their mitigation tools as fast as possible and head to the scene where they offer rescue services to the building and the victims of fire (Marinucci, 2016). All this requires an immediate response because if any delay is experienced, firefighters are likely to find the building already burnt and more victims injured and others dead. The scene continues to be riskier, and as they struggle to save victims of injury, they also get injured, and this is a risk exposed to them.


The importance of standard guideline procedures for hazardous materials is to provide strategies to hazardous material response team through which they can use in case of an emergency. These strategies are usually pre-planned, and when a hazard occurs, they are well trained, and each one of them specialized for specific tasks which are directed towards mitigation of the risks a hazardous material can bring forth. For instance, when a truck full of flammable liquid overturns, hazardous material response team come forth when well-dressed to protect them and start applying all strategies taught to them to delegate safety of off-loading operations of the truck.

This procedure is carried out with seriousness, and at the end of the day, the response team is able to save nearby people and property from damage as well as conserve the environment by preventing its pollution by the flammable liquid which is hazardous (Fiksel, &Fiksel1996). These procedures also explain all guidelines hazardous material response team need to follow in case of emergencies which require special events deployment. They are also trained to observe an emergency scene and design all possible strategies to bring everything under control and save more time while saving people and property.

In addition, the purpose of standard operation guidelines requires building construction to follow specific fire codes such as 1.3.6 Buildings which requires that new buildings should be constructed to adhere to the specification of this code. Another code is* and which govern all activities directed to the maintenance of buildings after they have been built following the provisions of the previous codes(National Fire Protection Association, 2015). Maintenance will involve renovations, repairs, reconstruction, and alterations.


This plan applies to all firefighters as well as any Mutual Aid Fire Service Agents. All officers and members of all fire departments are also expected to have well training on the standard operating procedures. All the information concerning standard guidelines for hazardous material response is relevant to them, and it is required that they acquire accurate training of how to deal with hazardous materials which cause incidents.

Steps required for initial hazardous material responses

Standard operating guidelines may offer quantitative information which might be difficult for small departments to understand well or capture the most important strategies for rescue. To solve this, there are steps required for initial hazardous material responses. These steps can be first adopted to secure and mitigate risks associated with an accident. One of the steps is isolation which involves restrictions of the affected area. It can be achieved through coordination from the authority together with public works (Spell, 2014).

The second step is to control access to the affected area. This is done through command and communication. It involves a description of the disaster scene and all hazardous materials around it. This information helps determine the products easily and know how to handle them better. In this case, application of fire code 1.7.12 Plans and Specifications is highly needed as it requires that all standards are followed to the latter and compliance to the requirements of the code achieved(National Fire Protection Association, 2015).

The next important aspect is to share this information with the authorities in charge to activate all available and required resources. This will cater for their arrival to execute rescue and offer relief services such as the provision of food, clean water and immediate medical attention to any victims of injury. All operation channels are notified and action taken immediately. This entire process allows for initial response authority to take charge which is part of the standard operation guideline. While near the scene, another response involves staying on the lookout to find out how the scene looks like and how events are turning out. For instance, one should look to see how many more people seem to be in danger so that they may communicate this information back to the authority who will hasten things. If it is a fire hazard, one should act as the eyes and ears of the accident scene for more help to be delivered.

Mitigation, in this case, will require more resources and support to bring about a significant change. As a responder, a firefighter is required to have received proper training which qualifies him/her to be part of the hazardous material response team. In this way, one is able to enter the fire scene and save more lives of people while they evade possible injuries and property. Protection is also part of the requirements and a firefighter needs to be well dressed in clothes whose material is fire resistant, and this can prevent them from falling victims of fire injuries. 

The next step involves an exception to the rule. Standard operation guidelines require one to put on a hazardous material related gear as well as carry along all the training one has received. With these two, one is more safe and protected to continue being in the scene environments and save more people. The gear provides one with personal protection and this reduces the number of injured victims as the members of the rescue team cannot be injured while on the scene. One also requires more materials such as latex gloves, duct tape, bunker boots plus SCBA. All these add on to the protection of the firefighter. These materials also help one to attend to the victims of fire after they have been evacuated from the place of fire.

In addition, the rescue team needs to direct civilians towards their emergency space set-up to help create a place of patient isolation for them to receive relief services. This includes the provision of clothing, food, clean water and emergency services as well. Medical attention also needs to be immediately delivered to secure the extent in which victims are injured and attend to their wounds as quickly as possible (Kirk et al., 1994). Communication also needs to be done for easier coordination of the civilians and the injured.

Levels of Hazardous Materials Response

Hazardous material response levels are divided into three teams based on their level of equipment and resources, expertise, and training.

The first category is the Type Three Hazardous Material Response Team. This team is trained to handle all categories of chemicals in industries with hazardous materials. For example, they have expertise in handling chemical hazards in solid, liquid, powder, and aerosol forms. However, their training and expertise limit them from handling vapor or gas incidents which involve CBRNE (Shawn, 2011).The second classification is the Type Two Hazardous Material Response Team. This team incorporates all requirements of the above category and is able to handle vapor or gas incidents (Cruz&Krausmann, 2009). Their only limitation lies within incidents which involve CBRNE.Lastly is the Type One Hazardous Material Response Team. This incorporates all requirements for Type Two and Type Three. In addition, they are trained to handle all incidents which involve chemicals with CBRNE agents. They are mostly found in cities where they are placed strategically to solve any CBRNE related terrorist strikes(Shawn, 2011).

Levels of hazardous materials responders

Standard operation guidelines state that there are four levels of responders for all CBRNE, chemical, radiological and biological related incidents. These levels include awareness, operations, technician and specialist levels.

Awareness level is meant for the first people who in the case of an emergency could access the scene easily. Standard operation guidelines state that responders should be aware of the presence of hazardous materials on the scene and be able to prevent themselves from being injured. In this level, authority needs to be called immediately to offer trained services and secure the scene of an emergency. One can acquire the awareness certificate from online as they study and take exams concerning the same. With this certificate, one can easily respond to hazardous materials.Operations level involves responders who respond to the release of any hazardous materials to protect people, environment, and the surrounding property as well. First responders are advised to stay at a distance away from the scene and control the continued release of the hazardous material to reduce risks. These responders are more trained than awareness responders, and therefore they are expected to offer more defensive services to the scene of emergency because they can be handier with the situation.

These responders can easily evacuate people from the scene and create hazard zones that are cold, warm and hot. They act as the guidance to people who do not have hazardous material training, and this makes work easier. They have skills like retention, diking, damming, vapor dispersion, absorption, and suppression of vapor. They also demonstrate decontamination procedures at the scene of an emergency. They also have the ability to weigh the possible threat against the possibility of saving a victim from dying and apply the one which has more weight. They are expected to mitigate risks as much as possible without getting into the hot zones of the scene. To acquire an operations level certificate, one is required to attend an eight-hour physical training which cannot by any means be delivered online. Examples of operations level responders are environmental and conservation personnel, firefighters and public and private sector personnel.

The third category is the technician level. This level involves responders who are highly specialized in controlling any release of a hazardous material. They use protective clothing which is chemical specialized to resist its effects. Their training depends on the intensity of the hazardous material, and this shows that some of them may be more trained and skilled than the rest. To attain a technician level certificate, one is required to attend a 40-hour training which is physically delivered. These technicians are well trained on basic chemistry which allows them to interact better with the chemical related hazardous materials. Other science related training are in biology and nuclear physics (Nel et al. 2006). It is also a requirement for all technicians to have succeeded in their college level with a good grasp of chemistry and its advancements.The last category is that of the specialist level. It is considered the highest level of training of hazardous material respondents. They are well vast with knowledge of chemistry, biology and any other science related subject. While at an emergency scene, specialist responders can assist technician responders to control the scene and its possible risk outcomes. They are good at giving instructions which are important to the other responders who are within the incident scene. They work hand in hand with Emergency Response Team and the Department of Environmental Protection (Perry &Lindell, 2003). Hence, they are mostly termed as the most experienced and knowledgeable regarding technological and science related information. This is an advantage that helps them relate well to all hazardous materials as well as CBRNE. To become a specialist, one is expected to attend 24-hour training and own a bachelor’s degree. If one has a master’s degree, the better they are fit for the job.


In conclusion, standard operation guidelines require a hazardous material response to have a well set of response strategies which need to be applied in the best and quickest way possible. If these strategies are followed to the latter, initial first responder experiences with hazardous materials is easily achieved, and safety made successfully. Fire codes are also important as they listed out in the standard operation guidelines for responders to follow. For example, 1.10 Fire Code Board of Appeals states that a board of appeal will be established to solve and rule over all issues regarding fire code enforcement(National Fire Protection Association, 2015). Hence, all responders need to learn and acquire the best training of how to deal with fire hazards and chemically hazardous materials.

 Proper risk mitigation will be achieved if there is coordination between all professionals available, for example, technicians and specialists need to work together for best results. Also, it is crucial that all professional are well trained and have adequate knowledge of how to respond to hazardous materials without being injured. Provision of rescue services is also inclusive and immediate medical attention to all victims of injury. The environment should also be conserved and the pollution extent of these hazardous materials reduced to the possible minimum level. Lastly, initial responders need to learn all steps of responding to an emergency in case it happens.


Cruz, A. M., &Krausmann, E. (2009). “Hazardous-materials releases from offshore oil and gas facilities and emergency response following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 22(1). 59-65

Cutter, S.L (1996).“Vulnerability to environmental hazards.”Progress in Human Geography, 20(4), 529-539

Fiksel, J., &Fiksel, J.R. (1996). “Design for Environment: Creating eco-efficient products and processes.” McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing.

Kirk, M. A., Cisek, J., & Rose, S. R. (1994).“Emergency Department Response to Hazardous Materials Incidents.”Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, 12(2), 461-482

Marinucci, R. (2016). “The Challenges of Hazmat Responses.”Fire Apparatus and Emergency Equipment.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).(2015) “Fire Code 2015 Edition.”An International Codes and Standards Organization. Batterymarch Park.

Nel, A., Xia, T., Madler, L., & Li, N. (2006).“Toxic potential of materials at the nano level.Science, 311(5761), 622-627

Perry, R. W., &Lindell, M. K. (2003). “Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for the emergency planning process.” Disasters 27 (4), 336-350

Peterson, D. F. (2000). “Hazardous-Materials Response: Know Your Limitations.” Fire Engineering.

Shawn. (2011). “The Different Levels of Hazardous Materials Response.”My Fire Fighter Nation. Retrieved from

Spell, J. (2014). “9 Steps to Safer Initial Hazmat Response.”Fire Rescue.

Westhuizen, H. (2011). “S.O.P: Hazmat/CBR-Response and Deployment Guidelines.” Fire and Rescue Service.

Sample Nursing Essay Paper on A Case Study on A Potential Conflict Regarding Brad Smith’s Dilemma online essay help

Smith’s Dilemma

            As a professional director of a Memorial Hospital laboratory, Smith finds himself in a challenging dilemma regarding his decision to begin his postgraduate studies. Smith manages a proficient staff of 67 employees in a large, complex, and highly occupied laboratory that requires his continuous commitment. The entire management role requires Smith to execute both evening and weekend tasks despite his commitment and excellence at the job. His decision of pursuing a master’s degree is emphasized with the fact that he has to use it as evidence for entry into higher levels of management within the field of medicine and healthcare.

            However, the timing of these studies will overlap with the weekend as well as evening tasks at the Memorial Hospital. As such, this decision may have negative impacts on the effective management of the healthcare services provided by the laboratory under Smith’s leadership. Nevertheless, Smith has initiated a family with his wife and is in dire need of their well-paying jobs to cater for their daily needs. The greatest dilemma exists whereby the incumbent manager has to meet his family needs, attend classes, and at the same time ensure smooth running of the laboratory activities.        This paper explores Smith’s challenges in three different ways. First, the paper looks at the reasons that compel Smith to attend the graduate school alongside the needs that the degree attained would help him to fulfill. Secondly, the paper discusses other alternatives that can be used to satisfy Smith’s needs before providing a discussion on whether Memorial Hospital have any responsibility for him in this context and how they would help him out.  

An Overview of the Reasons as to why Smith Wants To Attend Graduate School and the Needs that the Graduate School would help him to fulfill

            According to Hancock and Isaac (2015), different people choose to further their education for different reasons. In this case, Smith is seeking to pursue a master’s degree as a stepping-stone to a higher level of management position in the field of healthcare. Pursuing a master’s degree will help the incumbent laboratory manager to further his knowledge in not only the field of medicine but also other related disciplines such as psychiatry. Master’s degrees are always associated with enhancement of knowledge, expertise skills and professional experience required in pursuing a number of tasks that one might encounter in his or her line of work.

            Hancock and Isaac (2015) add that one’s decision to pursue higher studies is always accompanied with the need of salary increment and the urge to appropriately fit in the modern technologically changing society.  For instance, Smith will acquire more skills that will augment the current ones and improve service delivery not only at the current workplace but also in new environments where he may seek for employment in higher capacities. This decision can also help Smith to fulfill other needs such as taking care of his family(Jacobs, 2013).  Human wants are always unlimited and Smith may have a desire to improve the living standards of his family despite the better pay they receive at their current workstations. 

            In this perspective, Smith would look after increasing his current salary to acquire more sophisticated services such as means of transport that may further improve his living conditions alongside that of his family members. Nonetheless, acquiring a master’s degree is a direct fulfillment of one’s educational needs, which would further encourage him to acquire of a Degree in Doctor of Philosophy (Phd). As such, masters would act as a binding element that helps in catering Smith’s emotional needs as far as the desire of living a better life is concerned.

Alternative Ways of Satisfying Smith’s Needs

            According to Hancock and Isaac (2015), it is always important to understand ones fundamental needs before exploring whether there are any alternative ways to help him or her. In this case, Smith’s fundamental need is to pursue a master’s degree and see it help him to seek for higher management positions in different organizations. Seemingly, Smith is not embraced with the better pay that the two receive from their current employers. Therefore, it is important to start by inviting him and talking to him to understand all that he needs. In this scenario, it is evident that Smith’s employer can use a number of techniques to curb his evasion.

            The first alternative should involve a salary increment, which will enable the incumbent manager to reconsider his decision of going back to school. Secondly, Smith can also think of other techniques such as on the job training to improve further his skills as opposed to his decision to pursue masters during part time (Jacobs, 2013). This decision is highly costly and can result in negative consequences to the Memorial Hospital laboratory. First, the hospital may fail to get a qualified, experienced, and self-driven manager who can effectively manage the entire laboratory as Smith during times when he would leave for class. Secondly, Smiths decision may result in unplanned absenteeism of the organizational employees alongside his absence, which may jeopardize the laboratory operations. 

            Jacobs (2013) adds that tthese combined negative events can have far reaching effects on the performance and service delivery of the laboratory which may even result in ultimate closure. As the threats of closure continue, Smith may receive several warning letters that may not only result in the loss of his job but also affect his family life. Job loss would transform into lack of payment and further result in poor living standards. As such, Smith should think wisely and apply for study vacations at the interval of his employment period to enable him attend his classes and even seat for examination. Provision of paid study leaves and vacations are a common practice in many organizations operating in the current world and can act as a good choice to cater for the fulfillment of Smiths educational needs.

Memorial Hospital’s Responsibility to Smith in this Scenario and how to help him out

            Owing to the stipulation and guidelines provided in the employee-employer relationship, all employers have a moral responsibility to take good care of their employees. The Occupational Health and Safety Act is a fundamental example of such laws that have been globally developed to ensure the comfort of all employees and their employers (Creighton & Rozen, 2014).In this case, Memorial Hospital has a moral responsibility to care of Smith as their employee in a number of ways. First, the Hospital should start by listening to their incumbent laboratory manager and seeking for factual ways of helping him out to cater for his overwhelming needs.

            Secondly, the hospital can start to provide on the job training to ensure that they improve the skills, knowledge and expertise professional stances of committed employees such as Smith. On the job training is one of the most current form of training that most of the organizations are using to improve the experience of their workers. Smith’s desire to pursue a master’s degree is emphasized with the need that he wants to use this degree as a stepping-stone to higher management positions. Realizing this goal in one of their most committed employees, the Memorial Hospital should respond accordingly by improving Smith’s pay.

            According to Rothwell (2014), a salary increment in a worker’s pay-slip can have far-reaching positive effects. The reward offered in a particular workstation is always a determinant factor in the mobility of labor. As such, Smith can consider postponing his decision to further his studies in line with the hospital’s decision to not only improve his pay but also offer him on the job training that improves his skills and knowledge (Creighton, & Rozen, 2014). Increasing the manager’s salary can also help him to cater for other needs such as improving the standards of living of his family members and augment his studies.

            Thirdly, the Memorial Hospital can honor Smith’s decision and back him up to ensure that he goes to school and accomplishes his master’s degree requirements. Here, the Hospital can appoint other substitute managers, train them, and equip them with the necessary knowledge required to take care of the laboratories when Smith is not around. Training other substitute managers will allow the organization to run smoothly without the negative effects that may accrue as a result of Smith leaving for his educational plans (Cunningham, 2016). However, the hospital should ensure that they support Smith’s education with different techniques to maintain him as their employee (Robertson, 2016).

            In this case, Memorial Hospital can pay full or part of the incumbent manager’s school fees as a maintenance strategy and provide him with auxiliary services such as means of transport from school to work. This decision can also help in saving the time that the worker may waste on the road using public means to get from school to work and back to his home (Cunningham, 2016). Nevertheless, the Hospital should ensure that they provide Smith with adequate support through providing him with paid vacations and study leaves. These vacations alongside continuous study leaves will enable their incumbent laboratory manager to have a smooth run of events and ensure that he attends his classes without disturbances and sits for his exams without any form of interruption from work.

            Another responsibility that the hospital may have in ensuring that Smith’s needs are well catered for may include continuous encouragement and motivation of the employee (Rothwell, 2014).Here, the hospital should carry out activities such as benchmarking alongside other company managers to understand how they usually balance their educational needs alongside their jobs. Additionally, the hospital should also improve Smith’s working conditions by holding several seminars and a variety of meetings to discuss the welfare of their workers (Robertson, 2016). It is through this seminars that workers needs such educational goals can be properly addressed.


            It is the fundamental goal of both employees and their employers to maintain a mutual relationship while at their workplace. A number of acts and laws have been proposed both at national and international levels to adequately cater for the needs of each employee and employer at their workplace. This paper has explored Smith’s dilemma in details. Despite the responsibility of the Memorial Hospital on Smith’s needs, the incumbent laboratory manager has well elaborated steps that he must undertake to safeguard his job and fulfill his career goals. As such, it is important for the Hospital to consider Smiths needs and ensure that they support him in each step that he undertakes.


Creighton, W. B., & Rozen, P. C. (2014). Occupational health and safety law in Victoria. Sydney: Federation Press.

Cunningham, J. B. (2016). Strategic Human Resource Management in the Public Arena. Palgrave Macmillan.

Hancock, K., & Isaac, J. E. (2015). Labour market deregulation: Rewriting the rules ; essays in honour of Keith Hancock. Annandale NSW: Federation Press.

Jacobs, R. L. (2013). Structured on-the-job training: Unleashing employee expertise in the workplace. San Francisco, Calif: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Robertson, D. I. L. Y. S. (2016). Ontario Occupational Health And Safety Act: Quick Reference. Aurora: Thomson Reuters Canada.

Rothwell, W. J. (2014). Improving On-the-Job Training: How to Establish and Operate a Comprehensive OJT Program. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Sample Economics Term Paper on The Role of Education and Health in Economic Growth: A Regressional Analysis cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help


Education and health sectors are considered key economic indicators in any economy. The characteristics of the education sector and those of the health sector determine the overall outlook of the economy. This implies that whenever there are changes in the education and/ or the health sectors, there are corresponding changes in the national economy to reflect these indicators. Countries considered to be under- developed and/ or relatively poor have poorly performing health and education sectors. On the other hand, economically performing countries have strongly performing health and education sectors. The characteristics of health and education sectors and their impacts on the economy are reviewed using regression analysis of data from the U.S across three years. The objective of the study is to determine the empirical relation between education, health and the economy.

            The education sector results in increased productivity and specialization of skills. This implies that as more people are educated, they possess greater capacity to contribute to economic growth hence countries with more educated people have higher GDPs than those with fewer educated people (Benos and Zotou 3). Similarly, where most of the citizens are healthy, the productivity is increased significantly, hence resulting in higher GDPs. The impacts of the education and health sectors are thus compared through analysis of data across years as well as across two countries. In terms of years, the study looks at data from 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012. The cross- country evaluations have been conducted on the U.S and India. This gives the opportunity to compare not only the education and health sectors with respective economic performance of a particular country across the years but how the performances trended across the countries.

Data Description

            The data sets used for the study comprised of historical economic data for the U.S and India. The data was obtained from various past literatures reporting on the economies of the two countries across the years. For instance, Acharya and others (1- 130) provided a lot of data on India’s economy. Similarly, most of the data for the U.S was obtained from Jacobsen and Mather (2-10). The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development also provided substantial information on the country expenditures in health and education sectors as percentages of the GDP. The tables below show some of the data to be analyzed.

National Expenditures on Education as a Percentage of the GDPYearIndiaUnited StatesSTD. DEV20004.264.850.41719320033.555.551.41421420063.095.391.62634620093.995.260.89802620123.875.20.940452Mean3.7525.251.059246

Table 1: National expenditures on education as a percentage of GDP (Source:

Country expenditures on Health as a Percentage of the GDPYearIndiaUnited StatesSTD. DEV20004.2612.55.8265620034.2914.57.2195620064.2414.77.39633720094.3816.38.42871320124.3916.48.492352Mean4.31214.887.472704

Table 2: National Expenditures on Health as a Percentage of GDP (Source:

National GDP Per CapitaYearIndiaUnited StatesStd. Dev2000452.436449.925454.082003557.939677.927662.022006816.746437.132258.4920091090.447001.632464.1220121447.55143335345.09Mean National GDP872.9844199.930636.76

Table 3: GDP Per Capita in India and the United States (Source:

The scatter plot for the above GDP table is as shown below

            From the data above, it is clear that the performance of India in terms of GDP per capita and the average expenditures on the education and health sectors are way below those of the U.S in the years considered. The data to be used for regression analysis was extracted as country specific data. The objective was to determine the function that relates the national GDP to the health and education expenditures in the two countries. As such, the independent variables in the two country relations were set to be the education and health expenditures while the dependent variables were the GDP per capita records. From the data tables, regression analysis was conducted to determine the statistical importance of the different variables in the data sets. The tables below show the analyzed data by country.

YearEducation ExpenditureHealth ExpenditureGDP20004.264.26452.420033.554.29557.920063.094.24816.720093.994.381090.420123.874.391447.5

Table 4: India Education and Health Expenditures versus the GDP per capita

Similarly, the data for the U.S is also shown in the table below.

YearEducation ExpenditureHealth ExpenditureGDP20004.8512.536449.920035.5514.539677.920065.3914.746437.120095.2616.347001.620125.216.451433

Table 5: Education and Health Expenditures in comparison to the US GDP

Regression Analysis

For the regression analysis, the data set was first organized according to specific country statistics. Tables comprising of the data for India and that for the United States were created respectively to represent the data for easy analysis. The first stage of regression analysis involved gaining access to the analysis tool pack under the data menu. From the analysis tool pack the regression tool was selected. This provided the opportunity to input data ranges for the X and Y categories as well as to select the most appropriate output ranges. For output, a new data sheet was selected.

The input ranges for the Y axis comprised of only the columns containing the country GDPs per capita while the input ranges for the X axis had the columns for health and education expenditures. This is because of the consideration of health and education as the independent variables while the GDP was considered to be the dependent variable. In each case, the data exploration began by reviewing the data for acceptance into the regression model. The different indicators given by the analysis tool pack provided insight into the relevance of the selected data set for the model. For instance, there was no statistical relationship between health expenditures of the two countries based on logical reasoning. Based on the findings from the different models examined, it was established that the relationship between the GDP and the economic indicators also depended on the country economy under consideration.

Empirical Results

The empirical results for the two countries based on regression analysis present limited relationships between the education sector expenditures and the GDP per capita growth in the countries. For instance, the table below depicts the statistical results from the analysis of India’s data.

 CoefficientsStandard Errort StatP-valueIntercept0#N/A#N/A#N/AEducation Expenditure-110.0205937527.0661141-0.2087415430.84802Health Expenditure299.1793257461.19239470.6487082810.562758

In the table above, the coefficients provide the relationship between particular indicators and the GDP. For instance, the education expenditure coefficient represents the magnitude of change in the GDP per unit change in the education expenditure as a percentage of the GDP. From the results above, both education and health expenditures are indications of GDP growth. The p- value indicates the statistical significance of each of these variables. Each p-value above the average 0.05 depicts lack of statistical significance. As such, the results for India are an indication that both education and health expenditures have limited statistical significance on the GDP of the country. This is probably because in developing countries such as India, the GDP affects the allocations for education and health as well as the other sectors. As such, it is more probable for the GDP to be statistically significant to the health and education expenditures that the two indicators to impact the GDP of the country. From the regression analysis, the error limits are also observable to be wide. This can be explained by the low probability depicted by the dependent variable. According to the regression results, the regression statistics are as shown in the table below. The R square value represents the percentage of the dependent variables that have been accounted for by the observed independent variable values. The low values of R square thus indicate that only a limited percentage of the dependent variable is accounted for by the independent variables. From these statistics, it can be deduced that the impacts of the health and education expenditures on the GDP of India are limited. This just supports the findings based on the p- values for the analysis.

Regression StatisticsMultiple R0.929090661R Square0.863209456Adjusted R Square0.484279275Standard Error451.3177954Observations5

The results from the regression analysis therefore represent the GDP per capita in India to be a function of the Health and education expenditures through the relationship below. In the equation, G is the GDP of the country; H is the health expenditure while E is the education expenditure.

G = 110.02E + 299.18H          =          0 —— Equation 1

The economic growth of India is linked to the growth in various economic indicators including the health and education sectors. The period leading into 2000 was characterized by growth in these sectors, particularly in terms of public funding for the same. The industry growth was however hampered by the limited availability of public funding for both sectors through the years. As such, most of the growth in the education and health sectors came about as a result of the growth in the private sector supported health and education initiatives. After 2000, the slow growth in the education and health sectors can be linked to the same challenges of poor economic conditions in the country. Moreover, Acharya and others (34) opine that the gendered education in India also contributes immensely to the slow growth in the sector. This is based on the argument that illiteracy among women results in high rates of school drop- out among their children. The allocations of public funds and poverty levels also constrain access to education across the nation. It is thus arguable that the education sector in India is controlled by the low national GDP per capita and not the other way round.

In the health sector, Acharya and others (32) explain the changes that occurred in terms of infant mortality, fertility and life expectancy rates in the country in the period leading into 2000. The observed changes arising from increased access to vaccinations are also linked to the support from the private sector. Contrary to the developed countries where access to quality healthcare enhances national productivity, the case presented in India is that in which the low national productivity limits public access to quality healthcare.

The U.S gives a perfect example of a developing country where the health expenditure impacts positively on the national GDP. The regression results for the U.S are depicted in the table below.

 CoefficientsStandard Errort StatP-valueIntercept0#N/A#N/A#N/AEducation Expenditure-2092.952865.41-0.730420.518006Health Expenditure3707.6051007.3643.6805030.034745

As in the regression analysis for India, the p-values in the analysis for the U.S indicate limited statistical significance on the education expenditures. On the other hand, the health expenditures have significant statistical values in terms of their influence on the GDP of the country. The relationship is also depicted by the regression statistics and the R square values as depicted in the table below.

Regression StatisticsMultiple R0.998756R Square0.997513Adjusted R Square0.663351Standard Error2866.571Observations5

In comparison to the R square values for India, the U.S values are higher, portraying higher percentages of accounting between the independent and the dependent variables.   From the U.S results obtained, the economy of the country can be said to be performing effectively, subject to the human resources in the country. Productivity in the U.S depends somewhat on the health allocations of the country. Higher health allocations depict greater access to quality healthcare and subsequently greater productivity across the nation. While this appears to be the case based on the regression results, Jacobsen and Mather (3) report that the unemployment rate in the U.S from 2000 to 2009 was increasing steadily. The explanation of this could be linked to the unprecedented population growth rates through these periods. The improved healthcare results in an improvement of the individual health status of each of the citizens. Child mortality reduces significantly and life expectancy increases. The combination of such health effects and immigration results in higher population growth and lower employment opportunity growth rates.

On the other hand, the education sector and the public funding for the same in the U.S have increased immensely. Lack of discrimination in the sector and enhanced education quality, both result in higher productivity among the citizens hence the observed increase in the GDP. With greater literacy levels and high levels of specialization, the U.S builds a work force that is capable of taking care of the less productive and the unemployed members of the society through social service, unlike in India where the poor and the uneducated cannot be supported by public funding. The U.S GDP, represented as a function of the health expenditures and the education expenditures can be depicted through the formula:

G = 3707.61H – 2092.25E —- 0 (Equation 2)

The negative coefficient on the education expenditure indicates that the education sector is considered as a cost rather than an investment in the U.S economy. This could be due to two factors. The first probability is that the provision of universal free primary education has been pursued by the U.S as a millennium development goal hence the monies are indicated as negatives rather than positives. On the other hand, it could also mean that the contemporary literacy levels in the country are so high so that any further investment in the education sector brings about no additional GDP benefits for the country. In this way, the education expenditures reduce rather than increasing the national productivity. This may be the most probable case as the level of specialization in the U.S has grown significantly while opportunities for specialized roles are limited in the country.

Summary and Discussion

The regression analysis conducted on the U.S and India data for the years 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012 reveal important information about the economic status and growth of the two countries. The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between the education and health expenditures for the two countries with respect to the national GDPs. Regression analysis of the data pertaining to India reveals that both the health and the education expenditures of the country have no significant statistical implications for the national GDP. This is contrary to the results for the U.S which indicates that the statistical significance of the health sector expenditure on the GDP is high. Based on the economic growth reports for the two countries, it has been established that access to quality education and healthcare in India is limited by the lack of public funds to support the same. On the other hand, the support provided to the two sectors by the U.S is significant. The GDP of the U.S thus depends to a large extent on the health of the people. The health sector expenditures are thus an important reflection of the country’s productivity in terms of GDP per capita.

            Regression analysis provides an essential measure of the relationships that exist between a given independent variable and a dependent variable. However, the main limitation of the method is that it provides the statistical information without the logical explanations for the same. For instance, while the objectives of the study have been achieved, the results cannot be applied universally not only because they are country specific but also because they do not take into consideration many other factors that are indications of the economic status of a country. Factors such as high life expectancy rates, agriculture and industrial sector growth as well as the exchange rates are not considered in the study. The results obtained cannot therefore be concluded to be reliable since there is the probability that interactions between several factors bring about different sets of interaction information. Apart from this, the changes viewed are from historical data. This implies that the data may not depict the specific interactions between the different variables at any particular time.

            The limitations of the study notwithstanding, it has been instrumental in achieving the study objectives and also acts as an indication of how different countries allocate funds for different purposes depending on the national GDP. The low GDP countries such as India have to allocate public spending under constraints. As such, the benefits reaped from the allocations to different sectors are limited. On the other hand, countries such as the U.S with sufficient national revenues can allocate funds for continued economic growth of the country. They therefore reap greater benefits from the allocations and continue growing economically.

Works Cited

Acharya, Shankar, Ahluwalia, Isher, Krishna, K.L and Patnaik, Ila. India, economic growth 1950- 2000. Global Research Project on Growth, 2003. Retrieved from

Benos, Nikos and Zotou, Stefania. Education and economic growth: A meta-regressional analysis. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, (2013). Retrieved from

Jacobsen, Linda A. and Mather, Mark. U.S economic and social trends since 2000. Population Bulletin 65, 1(2010). Retrieved from

Knoema. GDP by country – statistics from the World Bank, 1960- 2015. Retrieved from

OECD. Health expenditure and financing. Retrieved from

The World Bank. Health expenditure, total (% of GDP). Retrieved from

Sample Social Work and Human Services Essay Paper on Social Welfare Policy argumentative essay help online

Creation of Employment

Social Welfare Policy

Social welfare policies refer to the guidelines and principles that affect the living conditions of people. They are aimed at improving the quality of people’s lives and solving the social problems that are prevalent in the society. Examples of social problems are; poverty, poor health, unemployment and education among others. Poverty has been an urgent problem for the world. The primary cause of poverty is the low income earning by the poor Poverty is defined in terms the amount of revenue that people receive, problems of physical health, living conditions, and living locations (Blank, 2017).  Thus, the best way to reduce poverty is through the increase of the income of the poor through creation of new jobs. The poor should be considered as the producers and emphasis should be put on buying from them. Developing countries seek for foreign aid to trigger economic development by creation of more industries, which create more jobs.


Employment has grown disproportionately over the years. Traditional low paying services industries have grown and employed more employees who are paid above median wages. The labor market has grown to offer more opportunities and policies to workers to deal with job transitions. The economies are creating more jobs as an indicator of the rapid economic transformations that reduce poverty levels. Statistics by Bureau of Labor have shown that employment levels have grown by 7.8% since 1993. Additionally, the unemployment levels had reduced from 7% to 5.6% since 1993. Employment is expanding at a consistent pace and the poverty levels reducing at the same pace.

Alternative Policies

Other policies such as progressive taxes and increment of the benefits for the poor should be considered to eradicate poverty. For example, through the increase of income tax from 40% to 50% will take more tax from the high-income earners. The amount of income saved through progressive taxation can be used in other ways like purchasing of food, paying school fees among others (Prasad, 2017). Additionally, the increment of the welfare benefits to those who earn low income will help eradicate poverty. This ensures that money is given to those who need it most through either pension credit or family tax credit. Most governments use universal benefits because it makes people feel they benefit from the tax that they pay. However, selective provision of benefits ensures that those who do not require them do not waste resources.

Political Ramifications

There have been political debates over progressive taxation. Most of the political leaders argue that it leads to income inequality in a country. This is because the tax is used to fund government sending’s such as social safety nets and transfer payments. They argue that income inequality may lead to class conflict and adverse effects on long-term economic growth. On the other hand, they claim that increment of benefits for the poor creates a disincentive to earn a higher income (EUR-Lex. 2017). This is because if you get a high salary job, you will pay higher tax and lose some of your benefits. A vicious cycle develops because of this, and the country ends up being underdeveloped. Furthermore, they argue that the policy will lead to wastage of resources by those who do not need them.


In conclusion, creation of employment, progressive taxation, and increment of benefits for the poor reduces of poverty levels. However, these policies face political ramifications from the leaders. They discourage progressive taxation because they create a disincentive to search for well-paying jobs. Additionally, the increment of the benefits for the poor lead to wastage of resources by those who do not need them.


 Blank, R. (2017). Welfare and the Economy. Brookings. Retrieved 28 July 2017, from

Employment and social policy – EUR-Lex. (2017). Retrieved 28 July 2017, from,SUM_2_CODED1704&locale=en

 Prasad, N. (2017). Policies for redistribution: The use of taxes and social transfers. Retrieved 28 July 2017, from—dgreports/—inst/…/wcms_193159.pdf

Should the Death Penalty be Reinstated? Sociology Sample Paper research essay help

Should the Death Penalty be Reinstated?

The death penalty is a sentence imposed on individuals who commit gross criminal acts such as robbery with violence, murder, and war crimes. It is a Justice Department practice whereby a criminal is put to death after being sentenced. The practice of putting to death sentenced criminals is referred to as an execution. Offenses in this category are known as capital crimes. Proponents argue that the death penalty deters crime or at least reduces the incidents of it happening. The question of whether the death penalty should be reinstated or not is a controversial topic, and it attracts a lot of public attention. Both sides of the divide have pros and cons. For instance, proponents of the death penalty posit that it should be reinstated to curb incidents of gross crimes. Its reinstatement would instill fear in people, and this would reduce the likelihood of serious crimes being committed. On the other side, opponents of the execution argue that killing offenders contravenes their right to life. Additionally, execution is a contravention of the law that safeguards individuals’ right to life. Despite the circumstances that lead to effecting of the death penalty, this paper argues against the vice.

Cons of Death Penalty

Foremost, death penalty leads to the executions of innocent people, who might have been exonerated in time because of the discovery of new evidence and technological advancements in forensics. For example, records in the British Courts show that Soldier Andrew Evans was executed for the murder of Judith Roberts (a 14-year-old) (Elton, 2011). Later on, it was discovered that the soldier was innocent of the crime for which he died. Despite the fact that he was found to be innocent, it was too late to correct the mistake done to him, because it is impossible for human beings to resurrect a person. Had Andrew Evans been sentenced to life imprisonment, he would have been exonerated and freed.

The death penalty should not be reinstated because there is no proof that it is an effective tool of deterring gross crime. Usually, people who commit acts of crime do not plan on being caught; therefore, it is unlikely for them to worry about an occurrence they would not have to encounter. For instance, a look at Canada’s statistics reveals that the country’s crime rate consistently dropped by 44%, after the country outlawed the death penalty for individuals convicted of capital crimes (Hayworth, 2015). If the death penalty had any impact in deterring capital crimes, the logical events following its repeal would have been an upsurge in the rates of capital crimes.

Lastly, the death penalty should not be reinstated because it goes against the preservation of life. This argument is especially common among health practitioners and religious people, who believe that life should not be taken by human beings. The medical profession’s main goal is the preservation of life; therefore, it makes sense that they do not support the death penalty. Religion teaches that human beings are not the givers of life, and therefore, they do not have the right to take it. Moreover, the role of the criminal justice is to correct behavior, rather than committing an erroneous act to correct another erroneous act. When a guilty person is put to death, it is impossible to correct their behavior, which makes the death sentence more of a means of revenge than correcting behavior. The death penalty, therefore, undermines the goal of criminal justice of correcting behavior.

Pros of the Death Penalty

On the other hand, the death penalty should be reinstated because it prevents people from reoffending, especially when it comes to crimes whose penalty is death (Bohm, 2017). Individuals endeavor to live for the longest time possible; therefore, they would rethink committing acts that would threaten their quest for a long life. In the long run, it will reduce crime rates by a significant percentage. Additionally, when a person is sentenced to death, the information goes public, instilling fear in everyone who accesses the information. Hence, they will discourage themselves from indulging in any form of crime whatsoever.

Proponents of the argument for the reinstatement of the capital punishment posit that capital offenders deserve to be executed to protect innocent lives. Proponents argue that if the offenders are not killed, then they will keep committing murder, rape, and assault. Additionally, lack of such executions only makes criminals more comfortable to commit these crimes (Banner, 2017). Supporters of the death penalty also posit that execution saves governments money that can be directed to worthy causes. Hence, they prefer that a criminal is eliminated through death to reduce the number of inmates serving life imprisonment sentences, which would save the government maintenance costs and reduce overcrowding. For instance, executing capital offenders means that the government would spend less on providing them with basic needs.


The death penalty should not be reinstated for various reasons. Foremost, the death penalty should not be brought back to the table because it contravenes the right to life and the law that guarantees it. Additionally, there is no guarantee that all convictions for capital crimes are correct. At times, investigators make mistakes in the process of investigating crimes, and sometimes people are framed and end up paying for crimes they did commit. For instance, in history, there have been various cases in which technological advancements in the field of forensic science such as fingerprint identification and DNA evidence influenced the overturning of cases that originally seemed airtight. Since after death a wrongful conviction cannot be overturned, capital offenders should serve life sentences to grant the innocent ones a chance at exoneration. Moreover, there is not enough evidence proving that the death penalty deters crime. Using capital punishment to scare individuals into not committing crimes only works for a short time. In the long run, scare tactics become ineffective.


The death penalty has been a thorny issue for quite some time now. Proponents of capital punishment believe that is an unfortunate necessity, to deter capital crime and protect innocent lives. Those who oppose the death penalty believe that while capital crimes are severe, sentencing offenders to life imprisonment is the best option, rather than killing them. If the justice system resorts to the tactics of the offenders it claims to attempt to set straight, then it is no better than the offenders. The law should not be used to commit an atrocity, even if the aim is to correct an injustice. If the justice system, which is meant to correct behavior, acts in a manner that seems to justify revenge, then there is nothing that would stop the public from behaving in the same manner. For instance, the public may be inclined to take the law into their hands and kill people whom they think deserve to die. Lastly, even if the death sentence was justified, the justice system is not fool proof, and therefore, cannot guarantee that an innocent person would not be put to death.


Amnesty International. “Death Penalty.” Amnesty International. Retrieved from

Banner, S. (2017). “The Death Penalty: An American History.” Harvard University Press.

Bohm, R. M. (2017). “American Death Penalty Attitudes: A Critical Examination of Recent Evidence.” Criminal Justice and Behavior, 14(3), 380-396.

Elton, D. (2011). “Five Good Reasons Why the Death Penalty should not be reinstated.” Left Foot Forward. Retrieved from

Hayworth, M. (2015). “5 Reasons Some People Think The World Needs The Death Penalty.” Amnesty. Retrieved from

Hoven, A. D. (2014). “Top 10 Pros and Cons.” Pro Con Organization. Retrieved from

Sample Political Science Research Paper on Combating Terrorism in the Gulf Region (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait) popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help


The modern world faces more intensive and diverse terrorist threats, thus influencing higher rates of global incidents of violent crimes and fear.[1] Violent extremism has grown into a global problem that all cultures and nations have to address to protect their citizens and improve world peace. The problem is also more complicated owing to the effects of globalization in the modern society. This is since advancements in technology and higher quality and intensity in interactions across cultures across the world have provided terrorist groups with more efficient tools and ways of recruiting and influencing members of vulnerable communities with their philosophies and concepts. This paper presents a discussion on some of the approaches that the international community could utilize to combat terrorism in the Gulf region, particularly in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

The focus of this discussion on the region is essential considering that the Gulf is the principal source of religious extremists and groups whose activities have undermined world peace in recent years. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and the Gulf region, generally, are highly susceptible to the problems of radicalization and extremist ideologies that breed terrorist groups.[2] In the recent past, groups such as Al Qaeda and ISIS have developed in the region, leading to terrorist activities with devastating effects around the world. Events such as the 9/11 attack on the U.S. and those on other cities such as London, Paris, and Belgium have resulted in enormous losses of life, property, and public security. Despite the difficulty of defining the activities or organizations that constitute “terrorism” at the international level, it is clear that the region and the international community need to address the problem to make the world safer and prevent losses of property and life.[3] In the following paragraphs, the author argues that the most effective and sustainable approach for Gulf countries to combat terrorism is to cooperate with the international community to address social, economic, political, cultural, and other conditions that are conducive to violent extremism and build or support government capacities that can reinforce the rule of law and promote socio-economic development.

Policies, Strategies, and Measures to Combat Terrorism in the Gulf, focusing on Kuwait, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia

The European Commission observes that the main variety of violent threats originating from the Gulf region is ideological in nature, rather than state-related or insurgent violence.[4] This is an important starting point in efforts to combat terrorism in the region because it allows the international community to mobilize and allocate its resources in a specific direction. The Commission notes that violent extremist ideologies have gained an enormous level of traction in the Gulf and the broader Arab region. In the view of the Commission, the principal factor that has promoted the vulnerability of this region to extremist ideologies that breed terrorism relates to chronic humanitarian needs that cause or exacerbate migration from homes, economic decline, poverty, growing social inequality, fragility of governments, and insecurity. In such environments, it has been easy for violent extremist ideologies to become popular as growing numbers of disenfranchised citizens find the ideologies appealing.[5] These ideologies have also gained significant support among disenfranchised ethnic or social groups in other societies outside the region, including European societies. The European Commission notes that while violent extremism has grown into a global problem that is observable across cultures with different characteristics, the extremism in the gulf region is unique in terms of its high prevalence and implications for global security.[6]

Radicalization works through exploitation of the economic, political, and social challenges and injustices that a particular group in a society faces.[7] By pointing to such injustices and challenges and exploiting or targeting the real or perceived grievances of the members of these groups, radical extremist groups such as ISIS can influence the appeal of their philosophies and recruit followers. Often, the extremist groups promote the belief that the grievances of “marginalized” or “oppressed” social groups in the society are the result of a corrupt system of ideology or politics, implying that the government or society pursues deliberate policies that target or victimize the social groups. Based on this outlook, the extremist groups seek to incite the members of these “oppressed” groups to fight against the “oppressors” to secure their rights.[8] To become persuasive, the groups utilize arguments based on facts in the lives or experiences of the target groups, employing an incomplete and selective approach in portraying the facts to distort the reality and influence the target groups or individuals.

This assessment is vital for the Gulf countries in the effort to combat terrorism and terrorist ideologies in their communities through sustainable solutions. In this regard, the countries need to mobilize their tools and resources to address the underlying causes of the vulnerability of their communities to extremist ideologies that breed terrorism. The European Commission’s position is that the most effective and sustainable approach in dealing with the problem of terrorism is to focus on social, economic, political, cultural, and other conditions that are conducive to violent extremism and build or support government capacities that can reinforce the rule of law and promote socio-economic development.[9] This viewpoint features the assumption that the lack of socio-economic opportunities, social injustice, and the consistent fragility of states in the Gulf region are the principal underlying factors that promote the vulnerability of communities in the region to radical extremist ideologies that breed terrorism. Some of the policies and activities that meet this criterion are long-term preventive engagements in trade, short-term political stabilization, development and infrastructure-oriented services or funding, targeted recovery and humanitarian relief measures, and use of the media to educate the public on the threats of radical extremist ideologies.[10]

In 2005, the EU adopted a Counter-Terrorism Strategy aimed at reducing terrorism globally and promoting respect for human rights. One of the four pillars of the strategy focused on preventing the population from turning to terrorism through tackling the factors that lead to recruitment into the extremist groups and radicalization.[11] This pillar recognized the need for proactive policies aimed at addressing the enabling environment for violent extremism. Under this pillar, the EU identified various areas of priority for action at the national and international level to address the vulnerability of particular communities to radicalization. These areas included the promotion of equal opportunities among different sections and groups (social groups, ethnic groups, racial groups, etc.) of the population, community-level efforts, capacity-building efforts, and counter-narrative effort.[12] Based on recommendations of the Commission, cooperation among relevant stakeholders at all levels of the society (internationally, nationally, regionally, and locally) is vital to support vulnerable countries (especially in the Gulf region) and communities to counter the recruitment of individuals into extremist groups and build the resilience of vulnerable communities to radicalization.[13]

The European Commission recognizes the relationship between development and security. This concept holds that security cannot prevail without development and vice versa. Political, social, and economic circumstances that undermine development at the international, national, regional, and local levels are important influences of the vulnerability of communities to radicalization. Fragile states, socio-political or socio-economic grievances, and weak governance offer uninhibited spaces for the operations of violent extremist groups and fertile grounds for the recruitment of local communities into extremist groups.[14] Armed conflicts are also important influences of the vulnerability of communities to radicalization because they offer compelling images and narratives for radical extremist groups to utilize in influencing the beliefs and perceptions of local communities in particular ways.[15] This means that effective and competent government and the preservation of political, economic, and social stability are essential in efforts to combat terrorism in the UAE, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. By preserving political, economic, and social stability and efficient government, these countries can undermine the appeal of radical extremist philosophies, and hence prevent the growth and prevalence of terrorist groups. The international community should commit investments in assisting Gulf countries whose communities are vulnerable to extremist ideologies to assist in development projects at the local community level.[16] Such commitment would alleviate the political, economic, and social conditions that influence the vulnerability of local communities to the philosophical influences of radical groups, thus rendering these groups less powerful.

Nevertheless, in a globalized world where advanced and fast-changing technologies have revolutionized the processes of transport and communications by rendering international borders irrelevant in contact across cultures and national communities, the governments of Kuwait, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia cannot achieve the objective of preventing the radicalization of their citizens alone. The international community has to cooperate and enforce strong international frameworks to coordinate efforts aimed at addressing the networks and mechanisms of international terrorism. Part of this cooperation involves respect for human rights and international law to prevent countries with partisan interests, including Western countries, from supporting regimes, factions, or countries in the Gulf that have undemocratic values.[17] In the past, Western governments have offered military, economic, and political support to factions or regimes that have evolved into terrorist groups. In outlining its position on terrorism and the actions that are necessary to combat the vice at an international level, the Norwegian government identifies the need for an integrated and long-term approach featuring a balance between combative and preventive measures.[18] A stronger international framework is vital to ensure that all countries in the world, including the neighbors of the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait that are vulnerable to the activities of violent extremist groups such as ISIS, endorse and adhere to international efforts and mechanisms against terrorism.

Since the United Nations is the most broad-based international organization with a strong mandate from members across the world, the organization ought to have a strengthened role to coordinate and integrate the international community’s efforts in the long term. The development of a more comprehensive UN convention against terrorism, based on a strong definition of the vice, would facilitate the development of a clear strategy for the united participation of all countries in efforts against terrorism.[19] Actions such as arms embargos, travel restrictions, freezing of assets, and sanctions against countries that fail to observe the regulations would be effective in limiting the resources of terrorist organizations in the Gulf to reach, radicalize, and recruit individuals from vulnerable communities, including in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE.[20]

These proposals to address the vulnerability of particular communities in the Gulf to the ideologies of extremist groups ought to complement the efforts of Gulf countries and the international community to promote increased dialogue and understanding across different communities, social groups, and religions. Ethnicity, race, religion, language group, social group, and other cultural factors constitute the principal factors that underlie the identities of individuals and groups in the society.[21] This means that perceptions of differences among members of the society based on these factors are likely to be references of mobilization based on identity in the philosophies of radical extremist groups. Intercultural and interreligious dialogue, interactions, and understanding represent vital ways of promoting tolerance among ethnic, racial, religious, social, language, and other groups in the society.[22] This focus is especially vital in Gulf countries where radical ideologies are prevalent. In recent years, several events have demonstrated the need for inter-cultural and inter-religious dialogue to combat the appeal of radical extremist philosophies and their promotion of terrorism. Following the publishing of cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad in France in 2015, there was widespread hostility towards the publication in the Arab or Islamic world. The strong discontent among Muslims was evident in the subsequent attack on the publication’s offices in the country, which led to the deaths of several executives.[23] The cause of the conflict was essentially the lack of understanding and tolerance between the Western and Islamic cultures based on differences in their cultural and religious values.

Governments and societies in Gulf countries can alleviate such misunderstandings and conflicts based on religious or cultural values through promotion of dialogues, interactions, and understanding among members. These opportunities would allow the members of each side to understand the differences between their cultures. They would allow the members of different cultures, religions, social groups, social classes, ethnicities, races, language groups etc. to understand the values of one another, and hence promote tolerance of each other’s attitudes, norms, rituals, beliefs, and cultures.[24] In the Gulf countries whose communities are vulnerable to the philosophies of extremist groups, dialogues and interactions between members of different cultures would promote understanding and tolerance, and hence promote harmony and minimize the appeal of extremist ideologies based on cultural identity.

Education in schools and in public, including mass media campaigns, represents an important and practical approach for Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Kuwait, and other countries in the Gulf to promote dialogues, interactions, and understanding among members of different cultures in their societies. School education and the mass media are some of the most powerful mediums in this effort because of their potential to reach all areas of the society, including the rural areas.[25] The school system is effective and highly practical in the effort to promote dialogue and understanding of other cultures because most of the population receives formal education in the institutions. Targeted public education and mass media initiatives could enable the governments in Gulf countries to reach vulnerable communities and sensitize them about the risks of extremist propaganda from the radical groups, and hence counter their philosophies effectively. The mass media is powerful in mobilizing the opinions and perceptions of the public and fortifying the society’s resistance against the ideologies of extremist groups.[26] Governments in the region could exploit this power to transmit warnings and counter-information about the extremist groups and their activities. This strategy should involve use of the medium as a forum to promote in-depth and quality discussions of the agendas of extremist groups and the social, economic, and political implications of their activities.[27] This approach would be effective in countering the propaganda and efforts of radical groups to reach and influence members of vulnerable communities in the Gulf countries.


The Gulf is a particularly vulnerable region to the extremist philosophies of radical groups that breed global terrorism. In an increasingly globalized world with evolving technologies that have allowed communications and social contact across international borders and cultures, Kuwait, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and other countries in the Gulf cannot address the threats of extremist philosophies and terrorism on their own. Efforts to combat the threat need to involve international cooperation to be effective. As the discussion above demonstrates, the most effective and sustainable approach for Gulf countries to combat terrorism is to cooperate with the international community to address social, economic, political, cultural, and other conditions that are conducive to violent extremism and build or support government capacities that can reinforce the rule of law and promote socio-economic development. To combat terrorism in the Gulf and achieve a sustainable solution, the countries need to cooperate effectively with the international community to counter terrorism and violent extremism and promote social, political, and economic solutions to minimize the appeal of extremist ideologies among their vulnerable communities. Education of the public through the mass media and in institutions (schools, public forums, etc.) is also vital to sensitize citizens about the risks of extremist philosophies and counter the philosophies.

Works Cited

Mokrosch, Reinhold. “How tolerant do Religions need to be to serve Peace? Considerations of Tolerance and Satire after the attacks in Paris and Copenhagen in January and February 2015”. In IFSH, Yearbook 2015, 2016, pp. 297-307.

Peresin, Anita. “Mass Media and Terrorism”. Media Research Journal vol. 13, no. 1, 2007, pp. 5-22. 

The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016.

The Norwegian Government. Foreign Policy Strategy for combating International Terrorism. Norwegian Government Foreign Policy Document, 2006.

[1] The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016, p.1-2

[2] The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016, p.2-3

[3] Ibid, p. 2

[4] Ibid, p. 2

[5] The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016, p.3

[6] Ibid, p. 3

[7] Ibid, p. 3

[8] Ibid, p. 3

[9] The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016, p. 3

[10] Ibid, p. 3

[11] The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016. P. 11

[12] Ibid, p. 11

[13] Ibid, p. 11

[14] Ibid, p. 11

[15] The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016, p.11

[16] Ibid, p. 11

[17] Ibid, p.11

[18] The Norwegian Government. Foreign Policy Strategy for combating International Terrorism. Norwegian Government Foreign Policy Document, 2006, p.9

[19] Ibid, p.10

[20] Ibid, p.10

[21] The Norwegian Government. Foreign Policy Strategy for combating International Terrorism. Norwegian Government Foreign Policy Document, 2006, p. 14

[22] Ibid, p. 14

[23] Mokrosch, Reinhold. “How tolerant do Religions need to be to serve Peace? Considerations of Tolerance and Satire after the attacks in Paris and Copenhagen in January and February 2015”. In IFSH, Yearbook 2015, 2016, p. 300-301

[24] The Norwegian Government. Foreign Policy Strategy for combating International Terrorism. Norwegian Government Foreign Policy Document, 2006, p.14

[25] Peresin, Anita. “Mass Media and Terrorism”. Media Research Journal vol. 13, no. 1, 2007, p. 13-14

[26] Ibid, p. 13

[27] Peresin, Anita. “Mass Media and Terrorism”. Media Research Journal vol. 13, no. 1, 2007, p. 13-14

Sample Logistics Critical Thinking Paper on Advanced Information Systems essay help online

Advanced Information Systems

Advanced information systems will automate some routine project activities by making an analysis of data and information faster than before. These advanced information systems allow a manager to handle all time issues, including when the workers should start and finish their routine project activities (Bozarth & Handfield, 2014). In response to this, it is an effective idea which will help a company always to instill strict supervision of its time management and save more time to be directed to other activities which are also of importance to the enterprise. Therefore, advanced information systems are fit for all projects as well as usual routine projects.

In response to “How could automation change the role of project professionals” the answer provided is straightforward as it gives the reader a recap of how automation helps project managers. In my opinion, automation brings in efficiency at work since there is proper allocation of roles as well as utilization of time. This means that no employee will have extra time for wastage since the project manager is strictly supervising how the work is done. Automation also helps project professionals ease their work by analyzing data faster than before. This again helps them to make immediate decisions based on the analysis; hence, enabling the project to take place sooner than it would have before without automation.

In response to “Could this evolution help eliminate the perspective that project management professionals are not sensitive to time consumers?” the author argues that time constraints are significant for a project to attain completion at the estimated time. Therefore, I agree with this idea because with automation, project management professionals are now time sensitive, and everything the workers do is directed to the success of the project. Therefore, automation helps things move faster and managers can now make decisions faster to enable a project to be completed within its stipulated time.


Bozarth, C. C., & Handfield, R. B. (2014). “Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 4th Edition.”  Bookshelf Online. Retrieved from:

Sample Engineering Research Paper on Investment Casting writing an essay help: writing an essay help

The investment casting process is a sophisticated process of producing metal castings that dates back to 4000 B.C. Investment casting is one of the oldest metal casting techniques and also one of the most advanced. The method was used around the world in Africa, Egypt, China and in Mexico 4000 B.C. when it was used by artisans and sculptors to create statues, jewelry and idols (Krar & Bill, 2003). The modern industry ignored investment casting until it was back by dental professionals to create teeth crowns. The term investment casting comes from the use of slurry or investment to form an extremely smooth surface with a tolerance for high dimension. During WWII, the technology was brought to the forefront when quickly producing precision parts became necessary. The process provided a shortcut for manufacturers for producing complex parts that were challenging to create using alternative methods.


Today, investment casting is used to produce automotive, aircraft, power and hand tool components, and other recreational products including the head of a golf club (Garg, 2005). Civilian and military jets rely on investment casting for the manufacture of engines and other parts. For automotives, investment casting is used to produce gears, splines, valve and fitting, and levers.

Pattern materials

Proper handling of pattern wax during the pre-pattern production can eliminate a number of wax pattern defects. All materials used in the production of a casting are part of a system and thus must work together to ensure production of quality casting. The final casting is as good as the wax pattern produced (Beeley et al., 2008). Pattern wax is composed of products such as organic fillers, synthetic and natural resins, natural waxes and petroleum waxes. Microcystalline and paraffin waxes are produced from the distillation of crude oil. Paraffin is the commonly used petroleum wax because it is cheaper than other raw materials. Additionally, paraffin wax controls and enhances the rheological properties. In turn, the enhanced rheological properties affect the injection temperature. The fluidity of the pattern wax mix is also affected by the enhanced rheological properties.

            Resins are extracted from natural sources such as crude oil, coal tar and pine trees.  Resins can also be produced synthetically. They are used to add body during the formulation and as a result they affect tackiness, hardness, rigidity and shrinkage of the wax blend (Beeley, et al., 2008). On the other hand, candelilla and carnauba waxes are the natural waxes used. They are derived from shrubs and leaves in Mexico and Brazil. Natural waxes affect the set up properties, surface finish and hardness of the pattern wax blend. Sometimes, synthetic additives are used in the natural wax formulation. Synthetic products are more stable and reliable compared to natural raw materials. Fillers are also important to the development of the pattern wax. The fillers are selected according to these criteria: low ash content, organic, fine particle distribution and relative high melting point. Hydro-fill, Bisphenol A, Polystyrene and Isopthalic are the commonly used organic fillers (Beeley et al., 2008).

Soluble Wax

Soluble waxes are comprised of three main raw materials which include: Effervescing carbonate, filler and binder. The binder also known as PEG is available in various molecular weights and is used in different combinations to achieve the preferred melt point, hardness and viscosity characteristics. PEG consists of a fine powder substance that is commonly used to improve shrinking characteristics. The filler also helps improve the structural strength of the wax blend. To improve the elastic properties and strength of the wax, fibrous materials are used. The sodium bicarbonate is used as an effervescing agent to help break down the soluble wax during the discharge process. Sodium bicarbonate also adds to the bulk of the wax. Both the sodium bicarbonate and the fillers are inorganic materials thus foundries must adhere to recommended handling practices of proper heating.

Material suitable for investment casting

Both non-ferrous and ferrous materials can be investment cast. Metals considered for investment casting can be melted in a vacuum furnace or a regular furnace. Materials that are difficult to produce using a machine are also recommended for investment casting. Castability rating, shrinkage, fluidity and resistance to hot tearing are the main properties considered before selecting a metal for investment casting.  In regard to ferrous metals, ductile iron and steel alloys are the most commonly poured. On the other hand, non-ferrous metals include copper based metals, magnesium and iron with aluminum being the most popular non-ferrous metal.

Aluminum alloys are expected to have a density of 2.7g/cm3 with the exception of A07130, A07120 which have a density of 2.8g/cm3.  A05350 is also an exception with a density of 2.6g/cm3. All alloys of aluminum are hardenable with the exception of A05140 and A05350. A02010 has copper as the main alloying element. Therefore, it is a strong alloy with a relative weldability and excellent machinability. A33550 is a premium quality aluminum with cooper and silicon as it’s alloying elements. The alloy offers good castability, machinability and weldability. On the other hand, A 356 has poor brazability and good weld-ability. Its main alloying elements are silicon, magnesium and/or cooper.

Carbon steel alloys have poor resistance to corrosion and fairly good machinability. All alloys of carbon steel have a density of 7.8 g/cm3 and are therefore hardenable. Although 1010 and 1020 are hardenable, they have a density of 7.9 g/cm3.  1040 offers a poor resistance to corrosion, good weldability and medium strength. On the other hand, 1050 offers good machinability and medium strength. Both 1040 and 1050 have fairly good fluidity, resistance to hot tearing and shrinkage. As pertains castability, both 1040 and 1050 rate as good.

Up to 8700c, Cobalt 6 is oxidation resistant with a good castability that is coupled with resistance to corrosion. On the other hand, Cobalt 12 has a high resistance to corrosion and boast excellent wear properties. Both Cobalt 21 and Cobalt 31 have excellent shrinkage and fluidity, good resistance to hot corrosion and very good castability rating. The alloy of Monel provides good resistance to corrosion at both high and low temperatures. Monel 4020 has excellent fluidity. Good resistance to tearing and shrinkage with very good castability. Iconel 600 is resistant to corrosion but in the presence of Sulphur. Iconel also offers good machinability.

Copper-based alloys have a density of 8.3g/cm3 thus are not hardenable. The exception to the density rule is Navy G and Phosphor Bronze with a density of 8.8g/cm3 and 8.7g/cm3 respectively. Ductile irons have good machinability and poor resistance to corrosion. Tool steel alloys have a density of 7.8g/cm3 and are all hardenable. Among the tool steel alloys, A-2 has a good resistance to wear, resistance to corrosion under high temperature, good machinability, weldability and castability. On the other hand, H-13 has good resistance to corrosion, fair resistance to tear and poor toughness. H-13 is machine-able, cast-able and weld-able.

Processing techniques

            Only two forms of investment casting are commonly known and they are ceramic shell and solid mold. The two types of investment casting differ based on the way the mold is formed. For the solid mold process, the mold pattern is placed in a container and the mold material poured around the pattern. During the ceramic shell mold, the shell is dipped into mobile slurry. Eventually the pattern is taken out of the slurry and span around to ensure uniform coating. The coating is then allowed to dry and the dipping process is repeated to achieve the desires thickness. The mold is then exposed to heat to drain the pattern wax leaving a hollow cavity.

            Investment casting begins with preparation of wax patterns for the casting. One or more patterns can be attached to the sprue depending on the complexity and size of the cast. The ceramic pour cup is attached at the end of the sprue bar (Krar & Bill, 2003). This arrangement of wax patterns is known as a tree because the casting patterns on the sprue are similar to the branches of a tree. The wax pattern is then dipped into slurry comprising of binders, silica and water until then desired thickness is achieved. Once the required hardness has been acquired, the refractory coat is left in dry in air so as to harden.

            The next step is key to investment casting. After hardening of the ceramic mold, it is turned upside down with the funnel side facing down. The hardened mold is then heated to a temperature of 900C to 1750C (National Conference, 2003). This causes the wax that is inside to melt leaving a cavity for the investment casting. The ceramic mold unlike the wax dose not melt under severe heat. The mold is then heated further with the temperatures raised to between 5500C-1100C. Further heating of the mold makes it stronger while removing leftover wax. Metal casting is poured while the mold is hot. This allows the molten metal to flow without difficulty within the mold cavity. Pouring the molten metal into a hot mold gives better dimensional precision since both the mold and the cast will shrink at the same time. Finally, the ceramic mold is broken after the molten metal solidifies inside the ceramic mold. The end product of the investment casting process is the cast.


            Investment casting is one of the oldest and most sophisticated metal casting processes. The process is suitable for mass production and for the production of complex metallic parts that would be impossible to manufacture using normal processes. Investment casting was initially used by ancient artisans and sculptors. It was later rediscovered by dentist professions. Today, the process is used to produce components for air crafts, hand and power tools, automotive and recreational products. A good cast depends on the quality of the casting process right from the formulation of the pattern wax to the casting itself. All processes during casting are part of a system thus they must work together to ensure that a quality cast is produced. On the other hand, not all metals can be cast and those that can be cast have specific properties that make them suitable. These properties include: fluidity, castability, shrinkage and resistance to casting.


Beeley, P. R., Smart, R. F., & Institute of Materials (Great Britain). (2008). Investment casting.           Leeds, UK: Maney Publishing.

Garg, S. K. (2005). Comprehensive workshop technology: Manufacturing processes.

Krar, S. F., & Gill, A. R. (2003). Exploring advanced manufacturing technologies. New York,   NY: Industrial Press.

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National Conference on Investment Casting, Mondal, B., & Central Mechanical Engineering    Research Institute. (2004). Proceedings of the National Conference on Investment      Casting: NCIC 2003. New Delhi: Allied Publishers.

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Sample Nursing Essay Paper on Cover letter compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

Cover Letter

Rose Mayor

65749 Valley Street

Los Angeles, 67439

Mobile: 974-352-238

E-mail Address: [email protected]

Lewis Martin

Prolix Medical Center

Twin Estate, 5829

New York, NY7829273

July 19, 2017

Dear Mr. Lewis

I am writing this letter to apply for a Family Nurse Practitioner position, specifically in the field of primary care and urgent care setting. In addition to this, I will attach my documents through which your organization can consider. I am confident about my nursing skills that I have gathered over the past five years. I can take care of patients well, and I will be honored to be part of your team in Prolix Medical Center. I also can communicate well with them by offering company to them so that they do not feel lonely. This keeps their hope for recovery alive.

From my attached resume, the following are a summary of my qualifications and skills.

I have gained a five-year experience from my working at children and family caring units in Los Angeles.I also have competent computer skills that can help me manage patient’s data well.Lastly, I have great memory skills that I can use to diagnose a patient’s symptoms based on their history.I currently graduated from Barry University and certified through the ANCC (American nursing credential center).

The above skills and more will enable me to fit in your organization correctly. Also, I am calm and social, and this allows me to interact with the patients well. I am aware of the current medical terminologies that I can relate to my field of work. This will ensure that my patients are comfortably attended to and can feel better soon.

Lastly, I have attached my resume in which you can review. It includes my other qualifications as well as my educational background. I am looking forward to hearing from you based on this application.

Yours Sincerely,

Rose Mayor

Sample Logistics Essay Paper on Half a Century of Supply Chain Management at Wal-Mart essay help 123


Wal-mart is facing significant threat to maximize sales and profits because of the stiff competition from similar stores, such as Dollar General and Amazon (Mark 1). Because of stiff competition from other stores, Wal-mart has experienced nine consecutive declining sales in all fiscal quarters. The competitors have copied Wal-mart’s distribution channel strategy to increase regional presence and sales. Some of the distribution channel strategies that competitors have copied include using cross-docking systems to reduce storage duration, the positioning of distribution stores near distribution centers and the adoption of an electronic system of communication with suppliers to manage ordering and shipping services of goods.

Sustainability of distribution strategy

Wal-mart’s current distribution strategy is sustainable because of the high reduction of operational cost. The current distribution policy implemented by Wal-mart is to deal directly with a manufacturer, controlling distributing systems and monitoring sales of products.  The current strategy has enabled the company to maintain a sustained cost reduction in transportation, improve routing tools and improvising visibility (Mark 6). 

Effect of EDLP

Wal-mart implemented an EDLP policy between 1970 and 1980 to ensure that products were undiscounted on a regular basis. The EDLP (every day low price) enabled Wal-mart to refrain from advertising products through different media platforms (Mark 6). The company used the saved money to reduce costs. () agrees that an “every day low price” strategy allows a company to cut advertising costs because it is improbable to advertize each sale product.  The relationship between the business and its suppliers strengthened because of the increased volume of goods that Wal-mart requested from the suppliers. Also, the price roll back campaigns helped improve the relationship between buyers and suppliers, further enhancing the connection between the company and its suppliers.   

Demand supervision

Wal-mart monitors demand by conducting analytical work used to forecast demand. Also, the company works with suppliers to control demand for products. The company’s store level operations are efficient because the distribution centers have real time information regarding the level of stock in the stores. Therefore, in the case of a shortage of a particular product in the warehouse, wal-mart can automatically contact suppliers. Furthermore, the company can manually input orders or override impending deliveries (Mark 7). The system applies both for distribution of products from suppliers to the distribution centers to the distribution of the same products to local stores.

Advantage of RFID

The company adopted the RFID (radio frequency identification) policy in 2003 to facilitate tracking and assortment of inbound products (Mark 8). With the RFID system, the company ensures that products move swiftly through all distribution centers. Compared to other competitors, the RFID system enabled the company to increase stock visibility. Furthermore, the RFID system enabled the company to track the promotion of goods. According to Ray (394), an RFID system enables a company to keep track of inventories in warehouses. Also, the RFID is advantageous because it can help a company keep track of vehicles. In the case  of Wal-mart, the use of the RFID tags enables the company to differentiate products in the sales floor and storeroom.

In consideration of the data provided in the case, it is possible for other companies to implement a similar strategy. Competitors managed to gain a competitive advantage over Wal-mart by copying its distribution system to distribute goods to a large area while reducing the costs of operations. Similarly, by understanding Wal-mart’s new distribution strategy, it is likely that they can copy the new system. However, it will take time for the companies to implement a similar system because they might incur additional costs to change the distribution strategy. Also, the competitors are using Wal-mart’s prior distribution strategy, which has enabled them to expand and open new stores across the country.  

Works cited

Mark, Ken. Half A Century Of Supply Chain Management At Wal-Mart. Richard Ivey School Of Business Foundation, 2013.

Ray, Rajesh. Supply Chain Management for Retailing. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010. Print.

Stiving, Mark. Impact Pricing: Your Blueprint for Driving Profits. Irvine, Calif.: Entrepreneur Press, 2011. Print

Sample Communication Research Paper on Interpersonal Communication Terms personal essay help: personal essay help


People communicate on daily basis to pass information. Communication is the process in which people deliver a message to another person through pictures, words, gestures among others. This process of communication is only complete if the person targeted to get the information understands it entirely. Communication process involves several stages like encoding where the source of the message puts the message in an understandable form. The encoded message is then transmitted through a channel or a medium to the receiver (Lane, 2016).  After the receiver receives the information, he then decodes the message to get its meaning. After decoding the message, the receiver sends a feedback to the point of origin of the message. The original receiver goes back to the same process as the original sender and the same factors influence the communication. The receiver of the message may use the same medium or channel when giving the feedback. The message received by the original sender is not the same as that sent by the original receiver. It is also important to understand that the process of communication may not always be successful. Several factors may prevent the message from reaching the receiver or have the anticipated effect. Barriers, which may affect the transmission of communication, may include, listening barriers like, interrupting a speaker, rushing the speaker, being distracted by someone or something, which is not part of the communication among others. Other barriers occur when speaking, like, unclear messages, failure to seek for clarification while communicating. Additionally, environmental barriers like the use of negative words, use of words with the same meaning, an emotional block may affect the communication process. Communication can be one to one communication, one to many communication, many to one communication.

In addition, communication can be of diverse types; written communication, non-verbal communication, or verbal communication (Lane, 2016). Verbal communication includes; face to face conversation, through telephone, presentation, public speech, interview, and meetings. On the hand, non-verbal communication involves the use of models, pictures, diagrams, charts, maps, sketches, and cutouts. Documents such as minutes, reports, letters, circulars, notices, memos are used in transmitting written messages. Conflict may also occur in the communication process when individuals have opposing viewpoints, have incompatible goals or when there is a scarcity of resources. Interpersonal conflict is expressed either verbally or non-verbally ranging such unnoticeable cold shoulder to evident disapproval. Interpersonal disagreement is different from intrapersonal; violence that involves abuse of certain individuals. Conflict is inevitable in close relationships and in most cases takes a negative emotional toll. In some instances when the conflict is handled well, it can result in positive rewards. This paper will focus on the film, “Love-struck the Musical.” This film was produced in the year 2013, focusing on the issues of love and how people communicate when solving the relationship conflicts that occur. This paper aims at explaining how interpersonal communication concepts have been applied in the film. The paper will illustrate how the actors in this exchange information either verbally or non-verbally. Concepts of interpersonal communication will help in explaining the complexity of relationships and the various stages that relationships go through. In addition, the concepts will help explain why people behave the way they behave and the reasons why they succeed or fail in those relationships. The paper aims at explaining how the following terms have been demonstrated in the film; strategies, self-disclosure, stages, reverse pattern, relational dialectics theory.


The film involves characters such as Mirabella Hutton and her mother Harper. It is based on love where Mirabella Hutton is in love with a French person and wants to go and live with him in Italy. It is against her mother Harper, who argues that Mirabella should remain in her homeland and continue practicing dancing. They confront each other since Mirabella refuses to go and dance in a show, which had been organized by her mother. Her mother had invited famous musicians to come and see her daughter present on that day. Harper falls when also practicing for a dance and breaks her leg. She found a drug called Aramid O’Malley’s as she was searching for drugs relieve her pain. She decided to take it. Immediately she took it, she became young and her wrinkles faded away. She could be able to dance as she did when she was young. She decides to follow Mirabella to Italy. Harper attends a party organized by Mirabella’s boyfriend and she intentionally kisses him to hurt Mirabella and make them break up. Mirabella’s boyfriend was weak and could not tell Mirabella that he loved her. After Mirabella realized that her boyfriend had kissed another girl, she decided to stop the marriage preparations that they had. They eventually get married as the film ends.


The strategy concept shows the various active, passive, and interactive strategies that people use when learning about others and how best to approach them. The passive strategy involves first observing an individual before deciding whether to approach them or not. One observes how an individual communicates with other people, how they respond to various issues, what they like to strangers, and how they are able to handle interpersonal conflict. On the other hand, the active strategy involves asking other people for information about an individual before approaching them. One may enquire from their either close friends or family members about how they carry out communication (Shockley, 2014). One also gets an idea on the best way to approach the person without making them angry. Furthermore, the interactive strategy involves approaching an individual directly and starting a conversation with them. This strategy does not require one to conduct a pilot study about the individual before approaching them. Different strategies have been used in the film “Love-struck Musical.” Harper did not have any information about where Mirabella’s boyfriend lived and did not even know what job he did. Before Harper left for Italy, she sought information about Mirabella’s boyfriend from her friend Amanda. This strategy is called active strategy. Amanda explained to Harper where Mirabella’s boyfriend lived, what he liked, and how he treated Mirabella. Additionally, Amanda explained to Harper that the best way to approach Mirabella’s boyfriend was by first saying hello to him with without shaking his hand. She was also advised not to approach him if he was drunk since he became high tempered when drank. It is evident that strategies should be used to understand other people well to develop a close relationship with them.


Self-disclosure involves an individual revealing their confidential, private, and confidential information to other people. Through this, one is able to build trust with other people. The concept brings people closer together and one is able to understand the other person better. It increases intimacy and makes people feel comfortable to disclose information that other people might see as negative (McLeod, Scheufele & Moy, 1999). Mirabella’s boyfriend was weak and could not tell Mirabella that he loved her. He could only express what he felt through music. In one of the songs he sang to Mirabella, he explained that his mother had died when he was six years and his grandmother raised that. He explained to Mirabella that his grandmother also died when he was at the age of fifteen and that he had to raise himself since there was nobody else to take care of him. He had worked as a houseboy where he was tortured. Despite the torture, he was able to save some amount of money, which he used to produce his first song. He also explained that someone had even planned to kill him if he did not give the song’s lyrics to him. Through this self-disclosure, Mirabella was able to understand her boyfriend and a feeling of trust build between them.  Mirabella’s boyfriend was also able to explain to Mirabella that he had also attempted to steal food from his neighbor during his young age since he was starving.


The stage concept explains how the relationships evolve. The concept explains that relationships start with a first encounter, a relationship advances to the point where people are able to exchange a variety of information on different topics. The stages help people know if they have common grounds to enable them to establish a good relationship (Bochner & Krueger, 1979). If the people have common grounds, the two people irrespective of whether they are lovers, friends or business acquaintances develop a lasting bond. Mirabella first met her boyfriend in a dance training session. They were shy at each other and only talked less. One day after the training session, they were left together as their colleagues left. They talked a lot about each other and their experiences. They talked about their aspirations and lifelong dreams. They shared their contacts and left for their homes. They chatted all night. Unfortunately, Mirabella’s boyfriend got a sponsorship in Italy for musical training. He left the next week but they could always keep in touch. Mirabella’s boyfriend flew severally to visit Mirabella. This advanced to the stage that they got married to each other. It is evident that their intimate relationship took a while and stages before they got married.

Relational Dialectics Theory

Relational dialectics theory helps in exploring the tensions that arise in a relationship. It studies the connection and separateness between the people. In the case of self-disclosure, every individual is expected to keep the information confidential (O’sullivan, et al., 1994). If they share the information with other parties, conflict arises and the individuals may even part ways. In the film, Mirabella becomes angry when she realized that her boyfriend had kissed another woman. She felt that her boyfriend had betrayed her and that he only played with her feelings. Mirabella even composed a song claiming that her boyfriend is a liar and that she hoped that she was only dreaming. She closed herself in her room and did not want to talk to anyone about her boyfriend. She vowed never to talk to him and that he had shattered all her dreams. Her boyfriend apologized and claimed that he kissed another woman by mistake, but she did not want to listen to anything about it. They split ways and did not communicate to each other for few days. The relationship between Mirabella and Harper also deteriorated and Harper could not even look at Mirabella’s eyes. This theory aims at studying such tensions in relationships regardless of whether they are business, family or lover relationships. 

Reverse Pattern

Reverse pattern concept explains that once relationships have broken down, they follow a reverse pattern similar to the way they were initiated. Those in the relationship mainly focus on the differences rather than the similarities (Verderber, Beebe &Verberber, 2004). They begin to reduce the number of times that they communicated about the impersonal topics. The members in the relationship avoid each other and the relationship becomes unrewarding to both parties. Members exhibit mutual annoyance when they meet and could even catch the attention of other people because of this. After Mirabella realized her boyfriend kissed another woman, she developed a negative attitude towards him. She did not want to meet him and every time her boyfriend called or texted her, she could talk rudely or even not pick the calls. It is interesting to see how all this happened because they had even planned for a wedding and set the wedding date. This concept explains that the members in the relationship exhibit a proportional level of hatred to the love they shared. Despite Harper apologizing to Mirabella because of kissing her boyfriend, she did not want to listen to anything positive about him. Mirabella’s friends advised her to forgive her boyfriend since he did not kiss intentionally.


Bochner, A. P., & Krueger, D. L. (1979). Interpersonal communication theory and research: An overview of inscrutable epistemologies and muddled concepts. Communication Yearbook, 3, 197-211.

Hecht, M. L. (1978). The conceptualization and measurement of interpersonal communication satisfaction. Human Communication Research, 4(3), 253-264.

Lane, S. D. (2016). Interpersonal communication: Competence and contexts. Routledge.

McLeod, J. M., Scheufele, D. A., & Moy, P. (1999). Community, communication, and participation: The role of mass media and interpersonal discussion in local political participation. Political Communication, 16(3), 315-336.

O’sullivan, T., Hartley, J., Saunders, D., Montgomery, M., & Fiske, J. (1994). Key concepts in communication and cultural studies (p. 267). London: Routledge.

Proctor, R. F., & Adler, R. B. (1991). Teaching interpersonal communication with feature films. Communication Education, 40(4), 393-400.

Shockley-Zalabak, P. (2014). Fundamentals of organizational communication. Pearson.

Verderber, K., Beebe, S. A., &Verberber, K. (2004). Inter act: Interpersonal Communication, concepts, skills and. Oxford.

Sample Engineering Research Paper on The Blood Gas Analyzer rice supplement essay help


The blood gas analyzer is a device that is used to measure pH, blood gas, electrolytes, and some metabolic processes in the blood. Blood analyzers can record the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, pH, and the levels of various ions such as bicarbonates, chloride, potassium, and sodium. Besides, the device can also measure metabolites such as lactate, glucose, magnesium, and calcium (World Health Organization 1). Blood analyzers can also identify errors in metabolites, electrolytes levels, the amount of oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange, and acid-base balance. The device can be in the form of a bench-top or a hand-held device. It has an LCD screen, a keypad for entering information, and a slot through which samples are inserted. Some blood gas analyzers come with additional features such as touch-pens, alarms, USB ports, memory functions, and storage compartments (World Health Organization 1).


Blood gas analyzers are fitted with electrodes that measure the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, and the pH. Analyzers that determine blood chemistry are fitted with a pad that contains the reagent needed for a specific test. Analyzers that measure electrolytes in the blood use the ion-selective electrode method that measures the activities of the ions in the solution (World Health Organization 1). The first step in using a blood analyzer is placing the blood samples in test tubes and placing them on the analyzer. The operator can then determine the type of test to be performed from the keypad or a computer connected to the device. The analyzers then channel the blood into a measuring chamber that has specific electrodes that capture the variables being measured (World Health Organization 1). For instance, electrodes sensitive to pH work by comparing the electric potential registered at their tip with a set potential, and the difference is the measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions H+. Electrodes sensitive to carbon dioxide are fitted with a semipermeable membrane made of silicon or Teflon that covers their tip (Sood, Paul, and Puri 57). At the point where the electrode and the membrane meet, a reaction takes place whereby water molecules combine with carbon dioxide molecules, releasing hydrogen ions that are equal in pressure to the carbon dioxide molecules. The voltmeter normally measures H+, but it is calibrated with the pCO2 symbol.

            In electrodes that measure oxygen, the gas passes through a membrane made of polypropylene and reacts with a buffer made of phosphate molecules. Water molecules react with oxygen molecules in the phosphate buffer, and this produces an electric current that is proportional to the oxygen molecules (Sood, Paul, and Puri 57). Blood gas analyzers then measure the current and convey the results in form of the initial oxygen pressure. After the measurements are recorded, the blood that remains in the equipment is removed as waste, and the measuring apparatus is cleaned in readiness for the next test. The units of measure used in blood gas analyzers include kilo Pascals (kPa) and millimeters of mercury (mmHg) (Sood, Paul and Puri 58).

            The blood gas analyzer is an important equipment in monitoring the acid-base balance in patients, the efficiency of gas exchange, and the status of their respiratory system. Some of the patients that are monitored using gas analyzers include patients that have just left surgery, patients on oxygen therapy, patients in intensive care, and patents with diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular malfunctions, and kidney disorders (Sood, Paul, and Puri 58).


The human body functions within a narrow optimum alkaline environment with normal pH falling between 7.35-7.45, and maintaining an optimum physiological function requires the maintenance of a normal pH. The two key processes that maintain pH in the body are metabolic and respiratory functions. Blood pH is considered low if it is below 7.35, and this means that the blood is acidic (Uyanki, Sertoglu and Kayadibi 104). If the pH is above 7.45, the blood is considered alkalotic. Respiration interferes with blood pH by releasing CO2 that is a by-product of metabolism into the blood stream. The CO2 is transported to the lungs where it is eliminated through breathing (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 136). However, the excessive carbon dioxide is absorbed in water to form carbonic acid. Blood pH will change depending on the amount of carbonic acid in the blood, and consequently, the rate and depth of breathing also change. Carbon dioxide is considered a respiratory acid because as the blood pH declines as CO2 is eliminated, and if the blood pH goes up CO2 is retained (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 136). The renal system is another metabolic function that affects blood pH. The kidneys discharge hydrogen ions and retake bicarbonates. Bicarbonates are a product of metabolism and are considered as alkaline. As the blood pH declines, it becomes acidic, and the body responds by retaining bicarbonates. On the contrary, if the blood pH goes up, the blood becomes alkaline, and the body responds by eliminating bicarbonates through urine (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 136). 

            The blood gas analyzers used in modern hospitals are a product of several years of gradual improvement. The basic technology used in blood analyzers is the same, but their size has reduced significantly. Nevertheless, the reduction in the size of analyzers has presented a challenge, which is to fit sensors in the reduced analyzer sizes and design (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 137). The pioneering blood gas analyzers used pH electrode that was developed at the start of the 19th century. Scientists had discovered that when a fine glass membrane is placed in between two solutions with different pH, a small difference in terms of electrical potential developed. Scientists faced a challenge in measuring the difference in electrical potential, but with the development of electrical devices, instruments that could measure pH were made (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 137).

            The second generation of blood gas analyzers was developed fifty years after the pioneering one. Second generation blood analyzers used pCO2 sensors that were covered with plastic membranes. The membrane covered a mercury/mercury chloride reference electrode, but later, a bicarbonate ion was added to the electrolyte solution (Dev, Hillmer, and Ferri 7). This enabled an association of the partial carbon dioxide pressure outside the membrane with pH through a basic mathematical equation that is referred to as the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The partial oxygen pressure sensor was developed and integrated into the analyzer to form an integrated instrument. The partial oxygen pressure sensor was an electrode covered by a membrane (Dev, Hillmer, and Ferri 7).

            Despite the improvement in the design and accuracy of blood gas analyzers over the years, scientist still face challenges in designing the device to-date. One of the challenges faced in designing the instrument is comprehensive understanding of the electrochemistry and physical chemistry used in the sensors (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 138). A second challenge is the selection of the best materials that provide the best sensor functions. Lastly, a physical method of evaluating the property of materials such as chemical impurities and surface texture used to make gas analyzers is still missing. Solving these challenges is more important today because of the trend to create smaller devices. Scientists hope that smaller gas analyzers will lead to an improved analysis (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 138).

            Most gas analyzers utilize several sensors that are placed in a complex flow of cells. The time it takes for the gases and liquids to flow through the cells is lengthy, and this sometimes leads to an incomprehensible measurement cycle. On the contrary, the recording of the sensor signals needed to produce the result takes place during a very small window, for example, a fraction of a second (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 138). The device uses the remaining time in the reading cycle to identify a suitable starting point for the next reading. This means that the time that is allocated for the sensors to respond is very small, and the solution is having faster sensors. Ideally, the sensor should be very fast to enable them to attain an equilibrium within the time the signal is acquired. In reality, it is difficult to create faster sensors, and even faster sensors sometimes change dismally when acquiring signals (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 139).

            Dealing with the above challenge means that medical practitioners will have to determine the end points of the reactions, that is, predict what the responses/reactions would have been if they were allowed to proceed to completion. The prediction should be made based on mathematical formula suitable for the sensor used; however, in some cases, empirical predictions can be made (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 138). Improving the efficacy and speed of blood gas analyzers can also be achieved through selecting the most suitable material for the membrane that measures partial carbon dioxide. In the previous years, the material used to make partial carbon dioxide membrane was polypropylene, Teflon or polyethylene. Blood gas analyzers that had membranes comprising materials as mentioned earlier took tens of seconds before responding. This means that the first generation blood gas analyzers were very slow (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 138).

            Technological advances have permitted the development of hand-held gas analyzers. Portable analyzers utilize analytical cartridges that can be disposed of, and they are fitted with optical sensors in some instances. This means that a nurse or physician without technological certification can use hand-held devices. Some hand-held blood gas analyzers are considered less accurate because they are not calibrated, and this increases the cost of analysis (Sood, Paul, and Puri 58).


Blood gas analyzers are vital tools that enable medical practitioners to examine the acid-base balance in patients in order to evaluate how respiratory oxygen is used. The device measures partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, and pH using electrodes. The electrode used to measure partial carbon dioxide pressure and pH are potentiometric; that is, the voltage is proportional to CO2 and hydrogen ions produced (Dev, Hillmer, and Ferri 8). Examining patients using blood analyzers has some advantages for medical practitioners. These advantages include helping in making a diagnosis; structuring the treatment plan; assisting managing ventilators; and enhancing acid-base management (Dev, Hillmer, and Ferri 8).

The accuracy of the readings obtained from blood gas analyzers is determined by the how the blood sample was collected, prepared, and analyzed. Experts have noted that clinically significant errors can occur in any of the steps above and interfere with the accuracy of the results (Dev, Hillmer, and Ferri 9). Some of the most common errors include bubbles in the specimen, blood samples not obtained from arteries, and inadequate or too much anticoagulant in the specimen. Errors that are likely to occur before a sample is obtained from a patient include wrong/missing patient identification, the use of incorrect anticoagulant, failure to stabilize the condition of the patient before taking samples, and poor cleaning of the apparatus before taking a sample (Dev, Hillmer, and Ferri 9).

            Medical practitioners can also make errors when handling specimen. Some of the errors they make include mixing venous and arterial blood and failing to mix blood specimen with heparin properly. Errors can also occur during the storage process, and some of the errors that can occur include the destruction of the red blood cells and poor storage (Sood, Paul, and Puri 59). If medical practitioners adhere to the proper procedure when using blood gas analyzers, then they are more likely to end up with accurate results. However, medical practitioners are cautioned that they should always take the relevant clinical history of a patient before administering a blood analyzer test (Sood, Paul, and Puri 59). For example, patients suffering from renal failure, hypotension, and diabetes are more likely to have acidic blood. On the other hand, patients suffering from nausea or patients that use diuretics are more likely to have alkaline blood. Medical practitioners using blood gas analyzers are advised to observe standard precaution when dealing with body fluids (Sood, Paul, and Puri 60).

            The blood gas analyzer gives a record of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which assists medical practitioners in determining whether the kidneys and lungs are functioning effectively. Blood gas analyzers determine the management approach that can be used in dealing with patients with acute diseases (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 139). Some of the symptoms medical practitioners look for in a patient before performing a blood gas analyzer test include nausea, confusion, breathing problems, and shortness of breath. In most cases, blood analyzer test is prescribed to patients suspected of suffering from neck or head trauma with breathing problems; patients with metabolic diseases, lung problems, and kidney disease (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 139).

            Just like other medical tests and treatments, blood gas analyzers may have some side effects. However, blood analyzer tests are generally considered to be low risk because of the small amount of blood used. Some of the possible side effects of undergoing a blood gas analyzer test include dizziness, infections, bleeding, and blood accumulating under the skin (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 139). In the future, gas analyzers are likely to improve patient outcomes and assist medical practitioners in providing a speedy treatment. In addition, experts have predicted that in the future, blood analyzers will be used in diagnosing a range of medical conditions. The testing methods that will be included in the gas analyzer in the future are also likely to enhance the manner in which the tests are conducted and the outcomes (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 140).

            Advancement in technology will also ensure that little training is needed for practitioners to use blood gas analyzers. Nevertheless, the current analyzers are less cumbersome, and they need less maintenance and troubleshooting. Moreover, changing electrodes in the device has become easier, unlike in the earlier versions (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 140). Modern blood gas analyzers also have inbuilt quality assurance systems unlike in the earlier version that required a practitioner to perform quality control checks after every eight hours manually. For instance, modern blood gas analyzers have the ability to detect clots and remove them from the system automatically. In addition, current analyzers are highly automated, especially when it comes to sampling (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 140).

            Modern hand-held analyzers also have several benefits that include the ease-of-use and faster delivery of results and this makes hand-held devices convenient. Consequently, most medical practitioners prefer hand-held devices. Hand-held analyzers have the benefit of transmitting results automatically and in a secure manner, and this lowers the chances of transcription errors. Cost is another reason why hospitals are opting for hand-held devices. For instance, tabletop blood gas analyzers can cost between $30,000 and $100,000, but hand-held devices can cost about $7,000 (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 141).

            Experts have predicted that in the future, blood gas analyzers are more likely to be integrated with other procedure, for example, pulse oximetry therapy. Integration has some advantages; for instance, gas analyzers examine the specimen at one moment in time, while oximetry therapy has the ability to provide continuous monitoring. Some manufacturers have already developed wireless blood gas analyzer systems (Singh, Khatana, and Gupta 141). The wireless connection enables faster transfer of information, and this means that information is available whenever needed by medical practitioners. Another feature that is likely to be included in future models of gas analyzers is the broad test menu. Researchers are interested in testing several variables when performing a blood gas analysis. The variables that are likely to be included in the future are the levels of lactate, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine (Dev, Hillmer, and Ferri 9).

            Future blood gas analyzers are also likely to have a compact design, and this will prove crucial is saving space in hospitals. Laboratory practitioners are looking for blood gas analyzers that are easy to use in terms of usage instruction and data entry. Practitioners also prefer analyzers with a small sample capacity because obtaining enough blood from patients can be challenging, especially when dealing with infants (Dev, Hillmer, and Ferri 9). Most medical practitioners want microliter-size gas analyzers as opposed to the current milliliter-sized analyzers. Hospital administrators are interested in comparing results from several analyzers in different places. However, this is made impossible by lack of standard workflow procedures and methods of ensuring quality. As a result, hospital administrators are advocating for increased standardization of gas analyzers (Dev, Hillmer, and Ferri 9). Other special features that some manufacturers are planning to integrate into their devices include biometric identification. The current devices uses passwords for security and this can be easily manipulated. The biometric features that will be used for identification in the future models include thumb, retina, and voice (Dev, Hillmer, and Ferri 9). In summary, the technological improvement of blood gas analyzers will provide crucial information on metabolic diseases and respiratory problems in the future.

Works Cited

Dev, Shelly P., Melinda D. Hillmer and Mauricio Ferri. “Arterial Puncture for Blood Gas Analysis.” The New England Journal of Medicine (2011): 7-9. Print.

Singh, Virendra, Shruti Khatana and Pranav Gupta. “Blood gas analysis for bedside diagnosis.” Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 4. 2(2013): 136–141 . Print.

Sood, Pramod, Gunchan Paul and Sandeep Puri. “Interpretation of arterial blood gas.” Indian J Crit Care Med. 14. 2 (2010): 57–64 . Print.

Uyanki, Metin, Erdim Sertoglu and Huseyin Kayadibi. “Comparison of blood gas, electrolyte and metabolite results measured with two different blood gas analyzers and a core laboratory analyzer .” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. 75 (2015): 97-105. Print.

World Health Organization. “Blood Gas/pH/Chemistry Point of Care Analyzer.” 2011. Print.

Sample Management Essay Paper on Walmart Business Strategy and Recommendations university essay help

Walmart Business Strategy and Recommendations

            One has to understand the specific characteristics that make a work place to be considered effective in terms of organizational strength and performance. The retail industry in particular, is faced by many challenges, and the ability to understand the challenges and dynamics of the industry can make the difference between a successful retail business and one that is not successful. For instance, Walmart has been a market leader in the retail business for years, yet Heskett (2017) opines that the company has been unable to stop the wheel of retail business in the industry. This implies that there has to be a limitation in the business strategy that has been used by Walmart through the years. The company uses a discounted retail business model, which experiences certain challenges in the market and makes business performance more difficult to sustain. The fact that Walmart has upheld business performance this far is an indication of certain internal strengths and opportunities that can only be understood well through analysis of the retail business industry, the internal as well as the external business environments in the company.

The Retail Business Industry

            The retail industry has grown significantly in the recent years both in the U.S and beyond. In the contemporary times, many changes are also occurring in the industry, requiring companies to be more vigilant of the market characteristics and industry trends for success to be achieved. Walmart currently uses the discount business model which has several characteristics in the contemporary market. According to Brea-Solis et al (2012), the retail business can only improve its profitability through increasing the average revenue per unit product. This can be achieved by selling at higher prices; reducing expenditures on products; reducing the use of other auxiliary business inputs. The total revenue can also be increased through an increase of sales. The discount business model which is currently under use relies on the volume of sales achieved to enhance the total revenue. To a large extent, the revenue that can be gained per unit product is limited by the costs of those products in the market. This implies that Walmart only gains much less revenue per unit product in comparison to what their competitors gain.

            For the discounted retailers, Brea- Solis et al (2012) describe the key levers used in the industry to boost the revenue. One of them is to through increased pressure over vendors. Increasing pressure on the vendors could result in lower cost of products hence resulting in higher revenue per unit product in spite of the discounted selling prices. Changes in human resources practices and investment in technology can also be used by discounted retailers as avenues for increasing profitability. Through technology use, businesses in the retail industry reduce human resource related expenditures hence increasing the profits. More discounted businesses are also selecting particular products for sale in their stores and using cost conscious customer service practices to boost the income generated from each of the products. Cost conscious customer service operations function to reduce overhead costs incurred in service to each customer.

As more companies get into the retail market, greater dynamicity is being observed. For instance, Amazon, in recent times, has entered the retail market with a lot of innovation in the practices. Changes in marketing practices and provision of product distribution services are key opportunities that most retail businesses are pursuing to obtain greater profits. Technology use has been the most applicable lever in the contemporary times as more businesses pursue online operations. Deloitte (2017) reported that the consumer economy in the retail industry is continuously tightening. The implication of this tightening economy is that more businesses are experiencing slowed growth rates. The emergence of business strategies that use technology to access more consumers across the world makes it even more difficult for businesses in the retail industry to enhance their productivity. Inflation and the wage growth across countries have made retail business operations even more challenging across the globe. With the rise in inflation, increased marketing and ambitious online growth, many businesses in the retail sector faced significant challenges in terms of physical growth. Deloitte (2017) reports that more than 8600 retail businesses have been closed in 2017 alone.

Roles in retail stores have also been changing over the past few years due to the emergence of online commerce. Moreover, automation has been used to enhance digital migration in many of the retail companies increasing the response to customer needs in specific areas of retail business. Agility is enhanced significantly through various practices. Walmart, like many other businesses in the industry has to put in place strategies for expanding both physically and in the online operations. Companies that have specific and real differentiators have a greater standing in improving market shares. Better customer engagement is also used by industry leaders to keep businesses in operations. Innovation practices in the retail industry include: reduction of overheads and store costs, automation of retail processes, augmentation of the work place, and development of differentiated as well as immersive customer experiences (Deloitte, 2017a).

The online of the retail industry notwithstanding, the pressures on the retail sector are still many. Heskett (2017) asserts that most of the businesses in the discounted retail business focus on low price increase strategies where price reductions are only applied periodically to boost the market shares. Once the shares have been boosted, the businesses can be operated through short term price increments. This however faces significant challenge in that consumer behaviors are also dynamic and sustaining consumers after such price changes can be difficult. Moreover, new competitors are constantly arising resulting in need for sustainable price regulations; the rising costs of products also make it difficult to sustain low cost operations over prolonged periods of time. Currency depreciations, rising fuel prices, increased costs of pensions and pressures in the market are also some of the challenges that the retail sector undergoes, and which companies have to understand how to manage for effectiveness in the retail business operations (Deloitte, 2017a). Most of the companies in the retail sector are using the culture oriented practices by adapting their advertising habits to consumer motives and customer habits (de Mooij & Hofstede, 2010).

Walmart Internal Business Environment: SWOT Analysis

According to Matzler et al (2013), the retail business is handled through various components including unique positioning, consistency in product provision, and a service logic. Effective marketing has also been an essential pillar in the retail business both at Walmart and in other companies. The combination of these components results in the realization of a working profit for the growth of the sector and sustainability of individual businesses. In all these, utilizing the specific business strengths and minimizing the weaknesses can be of great help where the intention is to develop sustainably. Walmart has some visible strengths with which it can work to sustain its performance in the retail sector. At the same time, some weaknesses exist which can be detrimental to the growth of the company’s business. Smithson (2017) describes some of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that are extant in Walmart’s business model.

According to Smithson (2017), Walmart’s strengths include the global nature of the business, the global supply chain at the company, high efficiency in the supply chain and effective management. The strengths associated with Walmart Company are linked to the business size strategy, where the company gains most advantages due to its size relative to the competitors. Being a global organization, Walmart can use this as strength to access a wide market. Being a global organization increases the company market shares in the U.S and beyond as more people are likely to identify the company than others. Furthermore, the global supply chain associated with the company is also a significant strength. It gives the company sufficient resilience in business through enhanced opportunities for access to cheaper sources of products. As such, the company can run its discount business model successfully without reducing profit margins by accessing the products from low cost manufacturers in different countries and selling them in areas where there is need for the same. It can use the same strategy applied in bilateral marketing where nations producing more of a specific product can trade in the same product with other countries where the product is in demand. The supply chain being efficient, it implies that strategies put in place for business performance have to result in great profitability, especially through the use of technology.

On the other hand, the weaknesses associated with Walmart include the thin profit margins allowed by the discounted retail business model and an imitable business model. These weaknesses are brought about by the cost leadership strategy that Walmart thrives on. This strategy limits organizational capacity to withstand business strengths. In spite of these weaknesses, the company can still take advantage of the many opportunities it has to expand its profitability (Smithson, 2017). One of the opportunities is that of expanding into developing countries where the disposable income among citizens is limited and discounted retail businesses are likely to do well. Furthermore, Walmart can also improve its HR practices to be more customer-oriented. There has been criticism on the HR practices at Walmart and the company can take this as signals towards greater potential upon adoption of fair trade practices in HR management. With improved HR practices, it is expected that the company will also be able to enhance its quality standards in terms of service delivery (Smithson, 2017). In terms of threats, the company will have to put in place strategies that will make it visible against the aggressive competition. The healthy lifestyle trend among consumers also poses a slight challenge to Walmart’s business as the company will have to adopt practices that align with customer needs. This may require fast and significant change in product sourcing, packaging and handling practices. Online selling also poses a threat to the business of Walmart. As more companies are adopting an online business model, Walmart faces a threat to its business model as more people shift towards the flexible and easily accessible online business locations. The company will have to enhance its online presence in order for it to remain relevant in the market (Smithson, 2017).

Walmart External Business Environment: PESTLE Analysis

As much as the internal environment is an important factor for consideration in business operations, the external environment is also a key determinant of business practices, especially in the retail industry. Rowland (2017) describes certain characteristics of the external environment of Walmart’s business. The first characteristic is the political environment of the company. Walmart operates in different countries and predicting the political environment cannot be generalizable. According to Rowland (2017), most of the countries in which Walmart operates are characterized with high political stability and the support for globalization. These factors can be considered as opportunities for the company to pursue greater profitability. On the other hand, some of the countries have also been subjecting Walmart to high political pressures especially with regards to the need for higher wages for all employees. This is a threat to business profitability (Rowland, 2017).

 The economic factors that characterize the external business environment include the economic stability of most of the countries in which Walmart operates. The developing countries, in which Walmart may expand, are also experiencing continuous economic growth. The company also has great opportunities for growth in the U.S where unemployment is decreasing, an indication of a more robust economy. Socio- culturally, the healthy lifestyle trend, urban migration and cultural diversity are the key factors that influence Walmart’s operations across the world. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions can be a good starting point for the company to conduct its marketing practices to ensure that the advertisements and service delivery practices work well with the cultural diversity in the company (Hofstede, 2011). Cultural advertising will be a crucial step towards sustainable profitability. Walmart’s technological environment is characterized by increased automation, increased use of mobile devices, and the application of big data and business analytics. Such technologies are increasingly being used by new as well as existing retail businesses across the world. Walmart has to adapt to the times to ensure it remains relevant in the technological advanced consumer world.

Other factors in the legal business environment are the legal and environmental factors. According to Rowland (2017), the legal factors that could affect Walmart’s operations include food safety requirements, employment management regulations and tax law reforms. These regulations are different across countries and Walmart has to align the operations of each of its branches to the laws of the countries in which those branches operate. The environmental factors on the other hand include sustainable business trends and adoption of environmentally friendly products trend. More individuals, companies and governments are opting for and supporting sustainable business models, also referred to as green business models (Rowland, 2017). Walmart can pursue green business trends through traceability practices from the sources of their products to the end of the supply chain. The company can also push for reverse logistics to address customer issues and to enhance the environmental aspect of operations. Practices such as recycling can be considered to make the company more viable in the green world.

Recommendations for Walmart

The success of Walmart’s business model depends on the company’s capacity to utilize all its available resources optimally. According to Malhotra (1998), businesses can be defined based on components such as entities, objects and activities. The entities in any business can be interpersonal or inter-functional. On the other hand, the objects are physical or informational while the activities are operational or managerial. To improve the business sustainability, changes have to be pursued in each of these components to ensure that all components are working are in tandem with each other. According to Malhotra (1998), the principles for success, especially in the retail business industry include: to organize operation around the available corners, to combine information processing work with the actual work, to capture all information at their respective sources and to treat all the geographically dispersed resources based on their relevance to each process.

In order for Walmart to adapt its processes to the principles recommended by Malhotra and subsequently to increase the company productivity, various recommendations have to be implemented by the company. The first is that the company must have well developed business objectives and visions and to align them to the external business environment. For instance, technological changes that are happening in the retail industry should steer Walmart towards new objectives and new goals in terms of how the company conducts its business operations. The company should also understand all the business processes and to identify those that need redesign. To align with the changing systems and with the principles of effectiveness, Walmart should understand the particular processes that need change. Processes can be managerial, such as human resources practices, or operational such as marketing practices. Advertising strategies also need to be understood and aligned with cultural values to ensure that they are effective towards achieving organizational goals.

Advertisement as a process is increasingly being enhanced through communication and culturally aligned brand advertisement. De Mooij and Hofstede (2010) discussed the role of advertisement in brand positioning. According to De Mooij and Hofstede, the brand positioning in any company depends on the social processes in place, identity of personalities involved, cultural values of the society and the consumer characteristics. Mental processes such as information processing and categorization must also be considered for the company to be able to address the advertising challenge more effectively (de Mooij & Hofstede, 2010). This implies that Walmart also has to understand the existing processes, not only for advertising but for other processes as well. The objective of this would be to understand the processes, identify the areas in need of change and understand the role and capabilities of information technology in that these changes occur. It is only after understanding and redesigning all the processes that the company can enhance its profitability once the new designs are implemented.


Walmart has been a market leader in the retail business industry. However, this can only remain so if the company understands its industry, the external and internal business environments and utilizes the available resources for effectiveness in its processes. The industry is dynamic, with most changes in recent times occurring in terms of technological advancements. This can be a threat to the company, as more competitors are engaging in online businesses hence incurring fewer costs and gaining more in terms of profitability. Walmart has various strengths and opportunities including global presence and supply chain; and the opportunity to expand into developing countries. The ability of the company to use these strengths and to practice culturally aligned advertisement strategies can result in increased profitability and business sustainability.


Brea-Solis, H., Casadesus –Masanell, R. and Grifell – Tatje, E. (2012). Business model evaluation: Quantifying Walmart’s sources of advantage. Harvard Business School, Working Paper 13 -039. Retrieved from

Deloitte LLP (2017). Insights: Retail trends 2017. Deloitte LLP. Retrieved from

Deloitte LLP (2017a). Insights: The retail profitability challenge. Deloitte LLP. Retrieved from

De Mooij, M. and Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1): 85- 110. Retrieved from

Heskett, J. (2017, May 31). Can Amazon do what Walmart couldn’t, stop the ‘wheel of retailing?’ Harvard Business School – Working Knowledge. Retrieved from

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). Retrieved from

Malhotra, Y. (1998). Business process redesign: An overview. IEEE Engineering Management Review, 26(3). Retrieved from

Matzler, K., Bailom, F., von de Eichen, F. and Kohler, T. (2013). Business model innovation: Coffee triumphs for Nespresso. Journal of Business Strategy, 34(2): 30-37. Retrieved from

Rowland, C. (2017, January 13). Walmart PESTEL/ PESTLE analysis and recommendations. Panmore Institute. Retrieved from

Smithson, N. (2017, January 16). Walmart SWOT analysis and recommendations. Panmore Institute. Retrieved from

Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Public Health Management Discussion essay help online: essay help online

Public health management discussion

Question One

Community health assessment processes have two types of data (primary and secondary research data). It is important to use valid secondary resources (peer reviewed) to make estimates. Peer reviewed secondary sources are the best secondary research sources because they have been assessed and authenticated by reputable authors, researchers, and scholars. Secondary resources include books and government publications. Some of the websites from which a scholar can access secondary resources include CINAHL (a nursing journal database), JSTOR (a secondary research database with publications from different fields), and Google Scholar (a peer reviewed journal database).

Question Two

The three health indicators of interest in the state of California are substance abuse, chronic disease, and life expectancy. The key informant of health status indicators is the director of the California department of health care services. In regards to the substance abuse indicator, I would ask the director about the state of rehabilitation centers and their proficiency in reducing drug abuse. Also, I would inquire from the informant the efforts that the state is taking to prevent easy access to illegal substances. If I were conducting a focus group to discuss the prevalence of diabetes as a health status indicator, I would ask about the quality of treatment among modern hospitals and the level of governmental support towards fighting diabetes.

Question Three

According to Fallon and Zgodzinsky (2012), health status indicators are important because they allow the health care sector to plan, advocate for, and formulate strategies using the available resources to improve health care. Health status indicators are quantifiable data concerning different health aspects (Burke & Friedman, 2011). Therefore, the government can measure the outcome of various plans and advocacy actions when improving health care using the health status indicators as basis for decision-making.


Burke, R. E., & Friedman, L. H. (2011). Essentials of management and leadership in public health. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Fallon, L. F., & Zgodzinski, E. J. (2012). Essentials of public health management. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Wellness in Health and Being Happy computer science essay help

Wellness in Health and Being Happy

Wellness is not just being free from diseases as it involves one’s physical, and social well-being. When discussing wellness, it is impossible to ignore the three elements that are crucial to a person’s wellness. Wellness helps me to relate peacefully. It enables me to be at peace with my life, and thus, I can go through everyday activities well. Socially, wellness fosters good relationships, physically, for me to achieve wellness I need to take good care of my body by having healthy eating habits, exercising, and having a positive attitude. Mentally, I am required to be in a good state of mind, which can be achieved by meditating. The three helps me in engaging with other people and, to work efficiently. An individual who experiences wellness has an easy time dealing with life and other people.

It is true to say that you cannot be happy unless you make a choice to strive for happiness on a daily basis because happiness is something we learn. It is unfortunate that some people base their happiness on material possession like money, which according to (“Wellbeing,” 2017) money can bring happiness but only to a point. However, they also state that it is not about the money in one’s bank account, but one’s personal relationships that bring happiness. One has to strive and create healthy relationships with other people for them to experience happiness. It is paramount always to show acts of kindness to others as stated by (“The How of Happiness – by Sonja Lyubomirsky | Derek Sivers,” 2017). He explains that showings kindness tends to bring happiness. One cannot be truly happy unless they make it a choice and work towards it by doing things that create happiness.


 The Role of Exercise and Physical Activity in Weight Loss and Maintenance – ScienceDirect. (2017). Retrieved 5 September 2017, from  

Wellbeing, (2017). Retrieved 6 September 2017, from              

Sample Nutrition Essay Paper on Benefits of Personal Exercise personal essay help: personal essay help

 To come up with an exercise-training zone, one uses the age, which is eighteen years old in this case, subtracts it from 220. The difference is 202. When one multiplies 202 by 0.6, the product, which is 121.2, is the lower exercise range. However, a person can multiply 202 by 0.8 whose product (161.6) represents the higher training range.  Using the field obtained above it can be deduced that the training zone of an eighteen-year-old is between 121 and 162 beats per minute.

During my personal exercise, I choose to use the lower training range, I realized that this particular exercise requires more aerobic activities. Some examples of aerobic activities include walking, running, rope skipping, and swimming. The aerobic activities are recommended for my lower range mainly because they are vigorous and cause the heart to beat faster than usual.  The specific amount and type of Aerobic activities that benefit people vary. According to (“Guidelines Index – 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines – Health.Gov”) research, a person should be able to do aerobic activities for one hundred and fifty minutes a week to reduce the risk of ailing from chronic diseases. Exercising is essential especially to one’s health.

For me to reach my fitness goal when undertaking personal exercise, and especially aerobics, I have to go through the different types of training found in the aerobics activities category. The three broad types of training in aerobics involve intensity, which is how hard I work out, frequency, meaning how often I do aerobic activities, and duration, which is how long I undertake training.[a1] 

Personal exercise is essential as it helps keep one’s body fit, helps in maintain weight or weight loss and it also aids in keeping one healthy. One does not only exercise when ill or need to lose weight. Personal exercise should be a regular activity that an individual does every other day.[a2]  It is also of importance to ensure that one uses all the types of training in order to achieve the results desired. Giving up especially when doing personal exercises is very easy but when I use my goals I know what is expected of me and they motivate me.

Work Cited[a3] 

“Guidelines Index – 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines – Health.Gov.” Health.Gov, 2017,

 [a1]This part should be written in first person i.e use I, me, my etc. the question requires you to identify the heart rate zone you would use, the type of activities you’d use it in and type of fitness used. It is ok to use first person in this case, so use it.

 [a2]A standard paragraph IS at least 5 sentences long. Ensure this paragraph has 5 or more sentences.

 [a3]This title should be centered.

Sample Education Term Paper: Reflections from TESOL Practicum college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

 Term Paper: Reflections from TESOL Practicum


Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) practicum experience is an important part of training for all TESOL students. This experience offers an opportunity for all students to develop self-awareness on some of teaching practices in a natural environment. In this practicum, I took part in observing English class undertaking ELL class in a high school. I spent up-to 80 hours while working with students in this class in order to learn and apply some of the theories I had learnt earlier. There was time to incorporate a number of teaching and non-teaching activities that helped in my self-awareness in terms of the theories in place and appropriate classroom practices. This report contains some of the theories that I have developed during the practicum, showing ways of applying them in order to be effective as an ESL teacher. On the same note, I discuss some of the points that all ESL teacher students must know in order to be effective, as advised by the practicum experience. I also share some of the difficulties I faced while teaching ESL. Indeed, the practicum has changed me in many ways. This paper shows some of the changes I have experienced from the practicum. Lastly, this paper enumerates some of the lesson from this TESOL program, especially towards being an effective ELL teacher.

Theories of Learning and Teaching

Studies have exposed me to a number of theories various methods of approaching teaching English to speakers of other languages. However, I had never developed the ability to identify myself with a specific one. Numerous study materials present many ways of approaching training ELL students. After a careful reflection, through a process of self-awareness, I realize that the first theory that I identify with is the Natural Approach Theory, as advanced by Stephen Krashen. This theory puts more emphasis on developing interpersonal relationship between the instructor and the student (Nath, 2010). Such a relationship helps in creating an environment where both parties communicate in a manner that helps building confidence in the learning process. According to Xia (2014), the teacher is responsible for coming with appropriate comprehensible that student can grasp easily. During my practicum, I realized that I had to remodel my communication to the level where the students could easily comprehend. By doing this, it was easy to create ease of comprehension because of the input. It becomes difficult for the student when the teacher does not develop a language that is in line with ELL level.

Learning is made difficult in an environment with much anxiety and unease. Natural Approach theory encourages “low affective filter in order to enhance the learning process” (Xia, 2014). I am a person who likes making everyone around feel at ease in order to make communication easy. For this reason, I tend to create an atmosphere where every student is free make expression irrespective of his or her levels of English comprehension. Such an environment enhances chances of the students to grasp and comprehend the English language and the ability to communicate with each other.

Natural Approach theory is effective because it approaches learning from an understanding of the common experiences in an environment. In order to make this real, I employ other teaching methods like group work that help students express themselves as they make contributions towards an issue or topic. On the same note, other activities like role-plays, skits, and games make this theory very practical in teaching ELL students. The controlled environment creates an avenue where the students easily practice the use of language in a given setting, something that prepares them to use English in a natural setting. Therefore, Natural Approach theory is a way of teaching students of other languages in a setting that exposes them to much reading and practice, an interaction that can be used in other classes or in the natural life settings (Nath, 2010).

Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development is another theory that I can identify with, besides the theory of Natural Approach. This theory seeks to connect the student’s “actual cognitive capacity verses the level of potential development” (Xia, 2014) During my ELL teaching, I like making informal and formal assessment of my students in order to find out their cognitive capacity and their developmental potential level when it comes to learning and comprehending English language. I do this by making informal interaction with the students in the natural setting as well as planning some formal question-answer method that give me a sense of their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Such awareness helps in developing learning materials that does not fall way below ZPD or way above it (Shehadeh, & Coombe, 2010). Such an approach makes me prefer the theory as one of the ways of developing teaching materials for the ESL teaching. In order to make the theory more fruitful, I ensured that students who were more advanced in English would seat with those with less comprehension in order to develop peer support during classes.

What an ESL Teacher Must Know

Speakers from other languages come from diverse backgrounds, requiring an in-depth understanding on the part of the instructor. An ESL teacher must first develop the ability to deal with multicultural backgrounds. In most cases, the teacher should have background information on the various cultures of the students in order to be sensitive on various aspects of the same. Such information is important in helping the ESL teacher know how to manage a class of multicultural students. For this reason, it would be a requirement for all ESL teachers to undertake multicultural education training to develop skills on management. Many teachers are likely to fail in their practice due to lack of class management skills, especially when it comes to multicultural settings. Major problems may arise from the fact that what is sensitive in one culture may never be so in another culture. Therefore, a class with students from various cultures may have tension that may cause barriers to the learning process, especially if the teacher does, ignores them.

The teacher must learn and understand the various learning theories, including principles related to the learning process, cognitive and child development. Such knowledge helps in developing management skills as well as effective teaching methods. All ESL teachers must realize that achieving success in practice will depend on the ability to convert the learnt theories and principles into real classroom practice. Therefore, knowledge is not enough but applying the same into daily practice. In addition, classroom management may entail helping the students develop certain characters that are essential to the general development and communication in the country. I realized that majority of ELL students have never had formal education, meaning that they lack basic concepts and order to coexisting in a class setup. The teacher is responsible of developing all necessary characters in the learner. Some of these characters may include respect to each other and class order.

 Background information of individual students helps in developing learning materials that consider various factors in place. For instance, I realized that some of the students under the program had earlier lived as refugees in various camps. This came to my attention after identifying certain students who appeared reserved, never wanting to interact with the other colleagues. In an attempt to find out what the problem may have been, I came to realized that their behaviors were product of their earlier lifestyles. Some of these students had never attended formal, if so, very little. They had little courage to participate like the rest because of the difference when it comes to the learning concepts. The teacher has the responsibility of identifying such cases and working out a way of helping out.

Supervision of the learning process by the teacher is essential. Otherwise, there may be certain little problems when it comes to grouping of students to perform tasks. Group work should be able to enhance multicultural existence. Pairing a girl and a boy from the Muslim background may lead to certain challenges on gender discrimination. For instance, a Muslim boy may hold the notion that a Muslim woman is not capable of performing certain tasks or experiments. Therefore, the ESL teacher is responsible for explaining to all students that women are capable of doing experiments that men can do. There should be equal opportunity to all students when it comes to the learning activities.

Difficulties in Teaching ESL

Working with the older ELL students provides a challenge to the teachers. During my TESOL practicum, I realized the difficulty balancing the need to teach the older students the basic concepts language that should help them effective in English-speaking society and graduation requirements. In the normal setting, most of these older students are forced to undertake high level content rather than taking time to learn the basics. According to the state laws on education, a student can only graduate with high school diploma after achieving 24 credits. For this reason, all foreigners who come to the US when older have to accelerate their learning process in order to achieve the necessary credits before they turn 21 years old. It becomes more tasking if the students never enrolled for high school education in their native countries. Credit transfers are possible for those who studied in their countries. It is important to note that mastery of English is important in order to understand and comprehend other subjects. Therefore, it becomes strenuous for the teacher to balance between have comprehensive learning and the enhancing learning in order to graduate, without taking time to learn basic English-speaking skills.

The number of non-English speaking immigrants to the United States continues to increase each year. Consequently, the number of students joining ELL program in the institution continues to grow. During the observation, 120 students had enrolled for the English class, all working towards graduating. On the other hand, only three ELL teachers and two paraprofessionals had been employed to teach these students. It was obvious that these teachers were overwhelmed by the workload. However, it was good to note the close working relationship among the teachers in order to achieve their work schedule goals. Due to the high number of students and scheduling challenges, many of the students at the beginning level of learning English are forced into mainstream classes that lack ELL focus. Mainstream English classes lack the focus that is required for the ELL students.

It is important to appreciate the hard work by the TESOL in the institution; however, they are overwhelmed by the workload. Therefore, budgetary constraints make it difficult for the employment of more teachers. Many ELL students fail to graduate of fewer teachers employed to offer personal and focused attention on the learning process. In order to provide a remedy, maybe the ELL teachers and paraprofessionals should work towards developing tutoring classes for those students who require more focused attention. Such a program should be on a voluntary basis in order to improve success rates for the willing students.

Developing as a Teacher

One can never be a master teacher the first time he or she teaches; teaching skills are developed with time. This statement became a reality when I enrolled for the TESOL practicum. Other the training in class to be an ELL teacher, I had not entered into a natural class setting in order to teach and observe a class. The first time I entered into a class, I found myself struggling with some of the tenses. My inability to pass the required to the students was evident. I am happy because of the ELL teachers I interacted with during the practicum. Their mastery of their subject was obvious, having developed the ability to connect with their students and pass the correct information. It was admirable to see the students create various communication components after the introduction by the teachers.

In my second class, I realized that I developed some order and flow when it came to passing of information to my students. I never mixed the tenses and the students had a better understanding of my topic matter. On the same note, I realized that holding on to one theory might not work in all cases. Certain students respond well to some theories and principles than others. Therefore, the practicum gave me the opportunity to experiment with various theories and principles in order to become more effective in class. I had the opportunity to change specific methods that never worked in order to model teaching methods that suited the occasions. I also realized that the ELL teachers at the institution never used the same methods all the times they went to classes. In one of the chats with one of them, I came to realize that a teacher develops the ability to read the students and adopt the method that works at the instant.

According to Molina, Cañado, &  Agulló (n.d), all teaching methods have something to offer in the learning process. A motivated teacher has the ability to use various methods in order to pass information. On the same note, motivated students will work hard in order to learn new concepts. A good teacher should develop skills that help in motivating students to learn new concepts. I also realize that students respond well to those teachers who are patient and empathetic with them. Therefore, teaching skills can evolve with time, depending on the experience. I struggled as I started the ELL practicum; however, I opened myself to other teaching techniques and principles that have helped me improve my skills. I hope to continue learning and applying various theories to be more effective.

Knowledge Gained from TESOL Program

This TESOL practicum is one of the best things in this course. I find out that all the TESOL courses are essential when it comes to the actual practice. Some of these courses are intercultural communication, methods of teaching foreign languages, Applied Linguistics for ESOL Teachers and English as a Second Language in Content Areas.

Intercultural Communication: I realized that communication is an important component of teaching ELLs. The importance of the course comes from the fact that TESOL entails dealing with students from different backgrounds, something that requires care (Shehadeh, & Coombe, 2010). This course helped me understand how to understand different approaches and perspectives when it comes to communication by different cultural groups.

Methods of teaching foreign languages: this course had various theories that helped in developing content for teaching. It entailed a section that required of us to develop a teaching material in a foreign language in order to present to the class. Therefore, during the practicum, I was able to think of some of the techniques that could be applied in each context. Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS) was a method we had been taught in this course that I used during my practicum in order to teach English and help the students develop their mastery of the language.

English as a Second Language in Content Areas: I love teaching languages; therefore, this course helped me understand the power of language in the learning process. Teaching native English speakers content subjects can never be the same as teaching non-English students (Molina, Cañado, &  Agulló, n.d). Therefore, English as a second language in content areas has helped me understand how to be effective in teaching other content areas to the students who learn English as their second language. During the practicum, I have been able to understand that I have the responsibility of training other content area teacher become effective while teaching their subjects to the students who learn English as second language. Content teachers have to understand the basic language to use in passing information while training or teaching. This course has been essential in training on how to develop teaching methods for the content teachers. One of the methods includes Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol Model.

Applied Linguistics for ESOL Teachers: this course is based on the development of semantics, syntax, and pronunciation of English language. After my training, I got the chance to put into practice, during the practicum, how to develop English pronunciation by use of phonetics. Mr. Audrey gave a chance in one of his sessions in order to teach a class on the same. I had to rely on the course content in order to successful, and I am happy I did my best. While at the practicum, I found out some of the errors that occur when it comes to the teaching students who learn English as second language. I was able to think of various ways of avoiding pronunciation errors while communicating.

TESOL program has exposed me to the real teaching environment, something that has built my knowledge and experience. I believe that growth is a process that I will cherish, especially in my line of career. I realize that different learners prefer different methods; therefore, I will have to continue studying in order to equip myself with necessary skills in order to be effective while teaching ELLs.


Molina, G., Cañado, M. L., &  Agulló, G. L. (n.d). Current approaches and teaching methods.

Bilingual programmes. Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of Jaén.

Nath, B. (2010). Major Language Theorists influencing Learning of Mathematics. Department of

Education University of Calicut.

Shehadeh, A. & Coombe, C. (2010). Introduction: From Theory to Practice in Task-Based

Learning, Journal of Applied Linguistics.

Xia, Y. (2014). Language Theories and Language Teaching—from Traditional Grammar to

Functionalism. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5 (3), pp. 559-565.

Sample Business Case Studies Paper on Method of Entry – The Foley Company college essay help near me

Assume you are Joanne Poe, prepare a list of all the options available to Foley and give the advantages and disadvantages of each.For starters, Foley Company may need to invest on its own by purchasing the necessary infrastructure required for the operations. Example of such infrastructures includes machinery, devices and labor acquired directly from Brazil’s workforce.

Advantage: The Company will have a direct oversight over its operations. The company will thus be able to lessen wastage of resources thereby reducing the entire cost of production while increasing its profits (Hacioglu et al., 2016).

Disadvantage: Since the company will be directly investing in a new region, it may be exposed to harsh government laws and legislations. This may include high taxation rates as well as strict government measures.

To retain with the current option of exporting products to Brazil.

Advantage: The Company would not have to incur a lot of money in constructing and developing the company’s branch in Brazil (Hacioglu et al., 2016). In addition, the company would have avoided any risks that are normally associated with starting a business organization in a foreign country as the citizens may prefer to purchase their own products as opposed to purchasing foreign products. The business would also not get exposed to harsh laws and business regulations as stipulated by the foreign government (Kannen, 2006).

Disadvantage: The Company would not be at a better position to compete against a company that is founded and established within Brazil. The company may therefore undergo huge loses.

To hire Brazilian company to produce the Foley’s products after which they are taken to the market.

Advantage: The Company would be able to easily gain market share as it will be able to indirectly compete with the local companies (Webber, 2012). The company would also not incur high capital costs.

Disadvantage: The Brazil Company that has been hired to produce Foley’s goods may end up producing sub standard goods that do no match the quality standards of Foley Company.

Which of the options would you recommend, and why?

I would prefer the option of hiring a Brazilian local company to produce the company’s product (Click & Duening, 2005). This would enable me to avoid a high capital cost that is usually required for the process of starting a new foreign company within Brazil. The company would also be free from foreign harsh government laws and regulations.

Assuming that the president’s calculations are correct and Foley now exports to Brazil will offer a satisfactory return on investment, what special information about Brazil will you want to gather?

I’d like to know the approximate cost of production, the best geographical location for the business to attract the target customers and the availability of skilled and unskilled labor with the approximate cost of labor (Adekola & Sergi, 2007). I would also want to be well-versed with the government laws and regulations as implied to a foreign company.


Kannen, T. 92007).  Direct investments in foreign countries. Muchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Webber, R. (2012). Introduction to Franchising. Palgrave Macmillan.

Adekola, A., & Sergi, B.S. 2007. Global Business management: A cross-cultural perspective. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Click, R.L., & Duening, T.N. (2005). Business process outsourcing: The competitive advantage. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.

Hacioglu, U., Dincer, H., & Alayoglu, N (2016). Global Business Strategies in Crisis: Strategic Thinking and Development.

Sample Music Annotated Bibliography: Bi Kidude and Tanzanian Culture research essay help: research essay help

DeJaeghere, Joan. Educating entrepreneurial citizens: neoliberalism and youth livelihoods in Tanzania. Taylor & Francis, 2017.

The book describes various aspects of the Tanzanian culture and their respective applications to education and to lifestyle norms. It can be an essential starting point for the comparison of Tanzania’s culture at different temporal positions.

Duke, Selwyn. Influential beats: the cultural impact of music. The New American, 9 January 2014.

Duke describes the relationship between music and culture, asserting that as music changes across generations, so does culture. At the same time, music affects culture in more ways than culture affects music. To support this assertion, the author argues that music can enhance catharsis, can be therapeutic, and can perform different functions in social contexts. As the research makes an attempt to explain how the Tanzanian culture has changed over the years Vis a Vis the changes in Bi Kidude’s music, the article is an essential and relevant resource for guidance in this area.

Ebeli, Eva A. Indigenous musical culture in Ghana: A contemporary perspective. The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies 3, 7(2015): 463- 468.

The article discusses the cultural changes that have occurred in Ghana based on musical progression. By mentioning that similar changes have been observed throughout Africa, Ebeli describes three perspectives to considering the role played by music in cultural development.

Lunsqui, Alexandre.Music and Globalization: Diversity, Banalization and Culturalization. Filigrane. Musique, esthétique, sciences, société. [En ligne], Musique et globalisation, Numéros de la revue. 2012.

The article discusses the changes that occur in cultural practices and their outcomes in musical and other artistic practices. The authors opine that as cultures change due to globalization, music is also likely to change in terms of preference as people follow the globalized and changed cultures. A piece that is acceptable today may not be acceptable in future. As such, the paper is relevant as it gives a baseline for consideration of changes that have been reported based on the perceptions of the citizens’ preference for Bi Kidude’s songs.

Musical Club and Bi Kidude. You Tube Videos. Retrieved from

The series consists of 167 videos from Bi Kidude and can be instrumental in understanding how the music has evolved throughout the years. It can thus help us in developing an understanding of how the Tanzanian culture and Bi Kidude’s music have interacted through the years.

Shapero, Dean. The impacts of technology on music star’s cultural influence. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications 6, 1(2015):20-27.

Like in Lunsqui’s article, the article by Shapero discusses how technology has resulted in the change of how people perceive music in the cultural context. The author purports that media platforms have changed music consumption, especially among the youths, with greater emphasis being on the social connections created between artistes and their fans. This article also enhances the understanding that is to be developed of the relationship between an artiste’s creativity and the consumption of their music.

Works Cited

DeJaeghere, Joan. Educating entrepreneurial citizens: neoliberalism and youth livelihoods in Tanzania. Taylor & Francis, 2017.

Duke, Selwyn. Influential beats: the cultural impact of music. The New American, 9 January 2014.

Ebeli, Eva A. Indigenous musical culture in Ghana: A contemporary perspective. The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies 3, 7(2015): 463- 468.

Lunsqui, Alexandre.Music and Globalization: Diversity, Banalization and Culturalization. Filigrane. Musique, esthétique, sciences, société. [En ligne], Musique et globalisation, Numéros de la revue. 2012.

Musical Club and Bi Kidude. You Tube Videos. Retrieved from

Shapero, Dean. The impacts of technology on music star’s cultural influence. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications 6, 1(2015):20-27.

Peer reviewed articles


Online magazine

YouTube video

Sample Communication Essay Paper on Intercultural Analysis of “Lost in Translation” argumentative essay help online

Intercultural Analysis of “Lost in Translation”

Culture has the potential to affect the ways in which people behave or relates with one another. It is because culture is a set of interpretations that is shared among people with similar beliefs, norms, social practices, and values which causes them to behave in a certain way. When an individual who does not share the same set of interpretations, beliefs and norms finds themselves among such people, there is a possibility of them experiencing culture shock. There are always feelings of confusion and misunderstanding. The individual may take time to adjust to the new life style before which, they have to look for ways to communicate such as through non-verbal communication to create an understanding with the people around them. “Lost in translation” is an example of a film that clearly depicts intercultural relations through the characters Bob Harris and Charlotte as they relate with each other and the people of Tokyo.

Summary of the film

“Lost in translation” is an American drama and comedy film that Sofia Coppola directed and wrote in the year 2003. The main characters Harris and Charlotte meets in a Tokyo hotel and through their encounters, the audience gets to learn more about intercultural lifestyle. Harris is an American who specializes in films and has come to Tokyo mainly to advertise a film for the Suntory whisky (Lost in Translation (2003) – IMDb, n.d.). On the other hand, Charlotte is a young woman who has recently graduated though her marriage life is not working properly as expected. After encountering each other in the hotel, the Harris and Charlotte develop a friendship. It is evident that Charlotte is used to the Japanese lifestyle and culture while Harris is struggling to understand their lifestyle and mode of communication leading to confusion. However, as he spends more time with Charlotte, he adjusts to Japanese lifestyle and culture making his stay in the country more comfortable.

Analysis of intercultural communication

Throughout the film, it is evident that there is more than one culture involved. Harris is from America and barely understands the ways of Japanese people in Tokyo. In this regard, the producer of the film decided to use the concept of non-verbal communication to show how Harris managed to manage through his daily life and relationships in Tokyo before finally adjusting to the new culture. Non-verbal communication has been used in the film mainly to create meaning in the life of the main character Harris who is an American since he cannot speak Japanese language. While arriving in Tokyo, it is evident through his facial expression which is more of a non-verbal communication strategy that Harris is overwhelmed with everything. It is because everything from the lit-up signage and the buildings are all written in Japanese language making it hard for him to read or comprehend what they mean (Lost in Translation (2003) – IMDb, n.d.). He is not even impressed by a billboard of his where he is promoting a whisky product showing that he is not happy being in a foreign country where he does not understand anything. All these ordeals make him miss home especially his wife and children regardless of the fact that their relationship has been shaky.

On his arrival at the hotel, the negative impacts of intercultural relationships is seen as he cannot fully comprehend what the Japanese people are telling him which forces him to try to understand their messages through non-verbal communication. In this case, the aspect of interpersonal perception which was discussed in the textbooks reveals itself in the film. The interpersonal perception in this case involves the process of interpreting and also observing the ways in which people behaves and perceives things. It is the only way in which Harris was able to make sense of the world around him without which, his mission to Tokyo could have not turn out successful as expected.

However, things turned out better for Harris when he met Charlotte who is also an American. They find a strong connection based on the fact that they share the same culture thus easily understand each other. Though the two are in an environment where they seem vulnerable because of cultural difference that can lead to stereotype, it is evident that Charlotte has a strong connection with the Japanese people that is why she has few friends she can relate with properly. However, just like Harris, she too does not understand Japanese language. While in hospital, the audiences are able to point out how she struggles to understand the doctor’s explanation regarding what was wrong with her toe. It is evident that the Japanese people are stereotyping on the American since they cannot understand their language. The two Japanese ladies at the hospital whom the audience see laughing at Charlotte and Harris because they cannot understand the doctor’s prescriptions are perfect examples of stereotype related to intercultural relations.

In the end, though Harris and Charlotte underwent through culture shock in Tokyo which led to the feelings of confusion, anger and loss as a result to difference in language and social rules between the American and Japanese culture, the two managed to adjust to life after finding each other. After learning more about Japanese culture, Harris came to appreciate their lifestyle and this is seen when he calls his wife informing her that he is considering living a healthier lifestyle something which he acquired from the Japanese cuisine. He also managed to have fun while speaking with the Japanese people rather than considering himself as an outsider.


Lost in Translation (2003) – IMDb. (n.d.). The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Retrieved May 13, 2012, from

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