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Sample Psychology Paper On Relationship Between Terms Persuasive Essay Help

Questions and Answers

Part 1: Relationship between Terms

a. Serial position effect and recall – Serial position effect describes a scenario in which a person recalls the first and last items in a series better than they recall other items in between. It can also be referred to as the primacy effect

b. Double blind research – bias – In the double blind research process, neither those who are collecting research data nor those who participate in the study are aware of the group receiving treatment. The process prevents research bias by eliminating the probability of preferential treatment through lack of information. The research data can therefore not be influenced by either the participants or the data collectors.

c. Myelin sheath – neural impulse – the myelin sheath is responsible for increased neural impulse speed. The increased speed comes about because the myelin sheath enables the neuron to send signals more quickly. Loss of the myelin sheath results in a reduced neural impulse speed.

d. Twin studies – nature/nurture debate  – Twin studies have fostered an understanding of how nature and nurture contribute to intelligence, and other traits such as disordered behavior. Nature, through genes in biological twins, result in similarities in some traits such as physical appearance, while nurture, can result in differences in the traits of biological twins bred in different environments.

e. Attachment – strange situation experiment – Attachment is described as the emotional tie created with another person or situation. The loss of a physical proximity with the object of attachment can result in distress as observed in the strange situation experiment where monkeys experienced distress when their blankets were taken from them.

f. Rods and cones – transduction – Rods and cones are the cells in the retina, which together with photosensitive ganglion cells, convert light into electrical signals, in a process called transduction. The rod cells are more sensitive to faint light while cones are sensitive to color and detail.

g. Stages of sleep – dreams – Sleep occurs on five distinct stages, classified as non-rapid eye movement (NREM) or REM. During the different stages of sleep, dreams are experienced. However, more than 80% of people only remember dreams when they are awakened during REM sleep. When awakened during NREM sleep stages, people rarely recall their dreams or even having dreamt.

h. Perceptual blindness – perceiving – Perceptual blindness is a phenomenon in which a person fails to see an object in plain sight due to reasons that are not related to visual defects or deficits but rather due to failure to perceive an unexpected stimulus even when the stimulus is in plain sight.

i. Extinction – spontaneous recovery – Spontaneous recovery refers to the reappearance of a conditioned response to a stimulus, after a period of lapse in response. Extinction normally follows easily after a period of spontaneous recovery. When the response disappears, spontaneous recovery provides evidence that it is not forgotten. However, extinction reflects a process of unlearning, following which spontaneous recovery cycles result in increasingly weaker responses, which would raise the need for further conditioning.

j. Cochlea – retina – As the retina responds to the light stimuli in the eye, the cochlea responds to sound stimuli in the ear. Both parts are responsible for transforming the attracted stimuli into the intended information through conversion into electrical signals.

k. Inattention blindness – sensory memory – inattention blindness describes failure to notice something that is directly in line of sight. It is an essential phenomenon to demonstrate the short life of sensory memory, and mostly occurs when one is focused on a specific task.

l. Learning – bobo doll experiment – The process through which children learn by observing adult behavior was demonstrated through Bandura’s bobo doll experiment. The experiment allowed researchers to demonstrate aggressive behavior on bobo dolls and to observe children’s reactions through how the children treat others. Te results showed that children mimic adult behavior.

2. Contributions of Psychologists to the Field

a. John Watson – Played an essential role in the development of behaviorism through his scientific theory of behaviorism.

b. BF Skinner – Was one of the leaders in behaviorism through his studies on operant conditioning, reinforcement schedules, and the use of the response rate as a dependent variable in psychological research.

c. Jean Piaget – Piaget developed the theory of cognitive development and is recognized for his role in early childhood development. He also did a lot of studies on epistemological views.

d. Ivan Pavlov  – He is recognized for his work on classical conditioning, in which he experimented using dogs.

e. Erik Erikson  – Formulated the theory of psychosocial development, in which distinct stages of development are provided.

f. Albert Bandura  – Bandura developed the theory of social learning, in which he agreed with the concepts of classical and operant conditioning.

g. Harry Harlow – Harry Harlow used monkeys to experiment and develop conventions on dependency needs, maternal separation, and social isolation. He proposed the importance of companionship and care giving to cognitive and social development.

h. Phineas Gage – Through a railroad accident, Phineas Gage became the most famous patient in the history of psychology, particularly through a behavioral study on his case, conducted before and after the accident.

i. Mary Ainsworth – Mary Ainsworth is known for the design of the strange situation classification assessment as well as the development of the theory of attachment.

j. Lawrence Kohlberg – From the early development theories of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg developed the moral development theory. He is thus known for the expansion of Jean Piaget’s theory.

Part 3: Nature and Nurture Application

a. Critical periods – critical periods in human life refer to those periods in which children learn easily through observation. It is the period in which nature is exhibited through innate behaviors and experience or observation (nurturing) provides information necessary for development and for permanently altering performance.

b. Homosexuality  – Homosexuality forms a central subject in the nature versus nurture debate. The first theory of homosexuality is the nature theory which posits that specific genetic compositions make people gay, hence homosexuals are born. The nurture theory posits that people learn homosexuality.

c. Classical conditioning – classical conditioning supports the principle of learning as in nurturing. The theory of classical conditioning posits that it is important to learn from the environment, hence supports nurture over nature.

d. Innate processes vs behaviorism – innate processes provide an accurate reflection of the concept of nature, Innate processes are a result of natural predispositions while, behaviorism is learnt, or a result of the nurturing process.

e. Perceptual sets – the tendency of an individual to notice certain aspects of sensory data while letting the other data go. In the context of the nature versus nurture discourse, perceptual sets can be described as the brain’s natural construction to recognize certain stimuli. At the same time, this perceptual capability has to be used in life or lost (nurture).

f. Causes of amnesia – Studies conducted on the causes of amnesia show that there are certain genes that predispose individuals to amnesia (nature). At the same time, other studies have shown that the environment and lifestyle factors could also cause amnesia.

Sample Nursing Essay Paper on End-Stage Renal Disease and Patient Education “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

End-Stage Renal Disease and Patient Education

End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), primarily known as Kidney failure, is the final stage to the chronic kidney disease. During this stage, the kidney does not function normally. Its functionality is below 10 percent. Some common clinical manifestation and complication of kidney failure include Anemia, decreased sex drive, cardiovascular diseases, and renal osteodystrophy. Some systematic disorders cause ESRD. These conditions include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, and infections medications. A patient’s general knowledge of the illness influences how he/she manages the condition (Chin et al., 2018). Perceiving the illness with a sense of destiny or loss can likely lead to unhappiness and depression. Instead, the illness should be treated as something that occurs within a setting. Improving perception can be achieved via patient education.

It is important that the patients of ESRD understand its treatment, especially how the treatment affects them personally. The patient should be highlighted on the effect of non-compliance. Patient education greatly improves compliance with medication across a broad range of conditions and disease severities (Li et al., 2018

Patient education is a reasonable intervention for those with ESRD as it reduces anxiety. Research has highlighted the benefits of patient education beyond merely reducing anxiety, such as increasing quality of life, compliance, and patients’ satisfaction with care.

Health professionals are encouraged to assist the patients of ESRD in improving their overall adjustment. Health institution should implement these aspects to empower patients to live their best lives with the disease. 


Chin, M. P., Bakris, G. L., Block, G. A., Chertow, G. M., Goldsberry, A., Inker, L. A., … & Warnock, D. G. (2018). Bardoxolone methyl improves kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4 and types two diabetes: Post-hoc analyses from bardoxolone methyl evaluation in patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes study. American Journal of Nephrology, 47(1), 40-47.

Li, Q., Trivedi, A. N., Galarraga, O., Chernew, M. E., Weiner, D. E., & Mor, V. (2018). Medicare Advantage ratings and voluntary disenrollment among patients with end-stage renal disease. Health Affairs, 37(1), 70-77.

Sample History Article review: author perception of the impact of slavery on economy college essay help online free

In the article, “The economic basis of the slave trade”, Rice takes a look at slave trade practices and how they contributed to the economy. The various arguments furthered by Rice are not new slave trade-related discussions. As a matter of fact, the contributions that the slave trade made to towards the advancement of Europe and the Americas remains one of the controversial discussions relating to the practice. This piece evaluates the impact that the slave trade had on the economy from Rice’s perspective.

In her article, Rice identifies three factors that led to economic advancement of the Americas, that is, large tracts of unused land seized from native Americas, huge flow of investment from Europe, and most importantly, abundant cheap labor derived from slavery. Apparently narrowing down to the enormous role that slavery played in propping the economy, Rice notes that the expanding economies, largely relied on labor supply, in form of slavery, by the Portuguese and Spanish. Sectors such as sugar plantations and cotton production largely excelled due to slavery. In this regard, slaves not only contributed cheap labor to the economy, but also presented trade opportunities with the enslaved Africans viewed as commodities.

Indeed, I agree with Rice’s perspective that slave trade was the oil that drove the transatlantic trade at the time. Other than offering cheap labor that drove farming and other hard labor, businesses sold slaves to make profits and inject the profits generated into other sectors of the economy. Slavery can therefore be termed as having immensely impacted on the economy prosperity of Europe and Americas. As a matter of fact, it could be the sole explanation for the disparities in economy situation of the regions compared to Africa.

Works Cited

Rice, Alan. “The Economic Basis of the Slave Trade | Revealing Histories.” Revealing Histories: Remembering Slavery, 2019,

Sample Management Paper on QuikTrip Case Study Analysis buy essay help: buy essay help

Quick Trip’s operations strategy and explain how the organization seeks to gain a competitive advantage in terms of sustainability.

Quick Trip attaches great value on its employees. It is founded on the concept that when employees are happy, output is improved. In this regard, the company invest its employees personal and professional well-being. This approach has not gone unnoticed and unsurprisingly, the company has consistently featured in Fortune’s “100 best companies to work for” from as back as 2003 (Ton 4). Indeed, this has enabled it to attract the best talents. Other than creating a comfortable work environment, the company offers its employees competitive wages. Additionally, in feeling vacancies, priority is given to existing employees through internal promotions. This offers opportunity for career growth.

In return, the employees ensure QuikTrip’ customer get great experience. As a matter of fact, in order to serve customers better, QuikTrip subjects its employees through a rigorous training routine (Ton 3). It is also noteworthy that employees constantly receive benefits to ensure their efforts towards prosperity of QuikTrip. Additionally, QuikTrip has opened many stores as a way of getting near to its clients. Through this, customer loyalty is maintained and most importantly, sustainable growth is attained. It is also the company’s policy to ensure that at least 50% its store’s employees are locals. This approach ensures that the store’s practices are aligned with the local’s expectations, in addition to creating a point of relation with the locals (Ton 5).

It is noteworthy that the stores operations strategy takes multiple approaches, including offering quality products, exercising high levels of reliability, offering affordable pricing, increased accessibility, and great customer experience. One typical thing about QuikTrip is its store’s simplicity. Its store layout is the same across all its stores. This is meant to give customers easy and simple shopping experience and also encourage high staff productivity. Evidently, by ensuring products are standard across all its stores and the in-store layout is simple, employee productivity is maximized and so is consumer experience.

The store also focuses on its staffing needs to ensure shortages are not experienced. It achieves this by employing full-time and part-time staff as appropriate. When some staff are unavailable, rather than burden the ones available, the store engages part-time staff to cushion against overworking the existing staff or experiencing shortage of customer attendants (Ton, 2011).

How operation management activities affect the customer experience.

Customer experience largely depends on an organization’s operation management. In this regard, QuikTrip has not fallen short. The company subjects its employees to rigorous training programs to ensure they are adequately prepared to offer great experience to clients. Additionally, it is the company’s policy to ensure that at all times, there are adequate attendants to serve clients. This is ensured by engagement of part-time staff whenever necessary. Store layout and arrangement is also kept simple and easy to understand to avoid confusing clients. It is the store’s policy to ensure that customers receive quality service at affordable prices. Staff scheduling is also designed to ensure that customer attendants are always, fresh, happy and motivated to serve clients. Welfare of employees is given utmost importance. Staff are paid relief benefits to motivate them to be committed to their work and ensure clients are served within the shortest time possible (Ton 4). It is also important to note that the company operates for 24 hours a day, making it a convenient shopping store for its clients irrespective of time of the day.

Quick Trip’s value chain and evaluate its effectiveness to operations

QuikTrip has a value chain that largely takes into consideration customer and employee input.  The raw materials are source from reliable sources with proven ethical standards. The kitchens maintain high standard of hygiene. Additionally, it is the organization’s policy to ensure that its fresh foods are actually fresh, well-packaged and well labelled. Similarly, all products in the store are well-packaged and labelled. By ensuring products are well labeled, the organization ensures that clients can easily choose what they want. It is also noteworthy that the company ensures customers have stand-by employees to assist them if need be.  In essence, Quick trip has a value chain that is designed to ensure that the final product is highly visible, clearly labelled, high quality and most importantly, affordable.

Different types of performance measurements that can be used to measure Quick Trip service-delivery system design

QuikTrip has multiple performance metrics to evaluate its service delivery system. These include balanced score cards in which customer experience perspective is taken into consideration. As a matter of fact, this approach is customer-centric and largely focuses on how the client views the store’s service delivery system. Other than this, internal processes can be subjected to measurement to evaluate its effectiveness. Such may include the duration taken to find a customer what he/she needs, duration a customer spends before his order/payment is processed, the duration client’s spend in line during peak hours and availability of employees to assist clients, more especially during peak hours. Financial metrics are also important tools. Daily revenue collection can be a pointer to system effectiveness or deficiency when compared against customers visiting the store. In essence, service system metrics should focus on duration of service delivery, safety considerations, service time and quality, and working condition of employees. The system is evaluated with regard to its effectiveness in service the client without creating untenable working conditions for the employees.

Different types of technologies applied to Quick Trip service operations

Technology is core to operations of any m0dern organization. In this regard, QuikTrip has also investment in multiple technological solutions. Firstly, the store chain operates a digital app available for smartphones. The app, QT Mobile App, allows customer access to the store’s products and operations at their convenience. Features such as updated prices, store location, special offers, and kitchen menus are easily accessible from the app. The app is easily downloadable. Additionally, the store enjoys massive presence in various social media platforms. Such include Twitter (Quick Trip (@QuickTrip), Facebook (Quick Trip), and Instagram (Quick Trip (@QuickTrip) (Ton, 2011). Through this social media pages, customer can not only view special announcements and offers but also actively interact with the store management and seek solutions to problems related to the store that they may have. The company also has an active website through which it maintains information relating to its operations and the industry at large in essence, the company has largely invested in adopting recent technological trends as a way of keeping in touch with clients while also keeping pace with the rapidly changing, technologically-advanced word.

Works Cited

Ton, Zeynep, “QuikTrip”, Harvard Business School, June 23 2011,

Sample Education Essay Paper on NAEYC Standard 6 Descriptors get essay help

NAEYC Standard 6 Descriptors


The NAEYC standard 6 provides support to teaching staff to promote professionalism, knowledge, and educational qualifications which are required to foster children’s learning and their development, as well as the support of diverse needs and interests in families. Teachers need to understand the children they work with and their family backgrounds in order to provide the necessary support for their academic growth. For this to happen, educational institutions offering early childhood education need to have teachers who are specifically prepared, and have the requisite knowledge and skills in early childhood education and child development. Such teachers are more likely to offer stronger positive interactions to the students, to enhance the richness of language experiences and to develop quality learning environments for the children they work with. Standard 6 from the NAEYC standards provides specific descriptors that ought to be looked out for in order to ensure that teachers possess the necessary educational and professional training to work with children in early development.

Standard 6 Descriptors and how they are conveyed

Standard 6 descriptors mainly cover the expectations that teachers should deliver within an early childhood classroom. According to NAEYC (2019) the first descriptor is that teachers need to identify with and involve themselves with the early childhood field. This descriptor implies that early childhood teachers ought to consider themselves as part of that field and thus be completely immersed in the goings-on in the field. Accordingly, the teachers would not only be trained in early childhood education, but would also demonstrate individual and innate interest in working with the children. Secondly, the teachers should be knowledgeable about the ethical standards and other professional guidelines of early childhood education. Understanding the ethical standards and professional guidelines can help the teachers to align their behaviors with the professional expectations. The ethical standards provide a guideline on what to do and what not to do. The third descriptor is that teachers should engage in continuous and collaborative learning through the use of technology with the children, peers as well as using technology as a professional resource.

Another descriptor relates to the use of knowledgeable, reflective and critical perspectives in early childhood education (NAEYC, 2019). Early childhood education can be challenging in that teachers are required to not only be knowledgeable, but also to apply reflectivity and critical thinking in making decisions that would affect others. Early childhood educators often act as the decision makers in their early childhood classes, and they should have sufficient capacity to apply wisdom and critical thinking. The application of critical thinking could also promote the achievement of the fifth stage, which is to engage in informed advocacy for the young children as well as the early childhood profession. Advocacy can only bear fruit if conducted in a knowledgeable manner and from a background of information, without which the teachers may find it difficult to communicate to students and to other professionals.

Classroom Activities

There are specific activities that can be used within the classroom setting to realize each of the descriptors to early childhood education. Identifying and involving oneself with the field can be achieved through constant interactions with the students at the receiving end, engagement in the actual activities that students are practicing, and accessing further trainings on early childhood education can also help to develop greater skills in the teacher to work with children. Knowing about and upholding ethical standards on the other hand could be achieved through reading to refresh the mind about the ethical standards, practicing favorable classroom management practices such as in handling negative behavior, and promoting professionalism in coordinating and communication with the students. The third descriptor can be achieved through in-service training of teachers to further develop their skills in dealing with children; use of emerging technologies to disseminate educational materials; and fostering classroom discussions about recommended practices on child care. Activities that require creativity, information sharing and motivation can help the teachers towards achieving the fourth descriptor.  The use of practices such as positive reinforcement is also recommended as part of the factors that can help teachers to focus on the integration of knowledge, critical thinking and early childhood education in the existing business relationship. The last focus can be achieved through development of programs to enable children recognize their progress in early childhood learning. Additionally, teachers may also initiate inter-disciplinary panels that foster talent growth among young children within the early childhood education setting.


Early childhood education requires the consideration of multiple sources of knowledge and understanding. Through the NAEYC standards, early childhood educators can build sufficient skills and capability to foster child development. Standard 6 offers a description of different aspects that need to be pursued by early childhood education providers, to enable them not only share knowledge with the young children, but also to continuously grow them into better performing early childhood educators. Reviewing the five subsets (descriptors), it is clear that certain activities can boost performance in different aspects of early childhood growth and development.


NAEYC (2019). The 10 NAEYC program standards. National Association for the Education of Young Children. Retrieved from

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