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Ethical Issues in Packaging Practices

Current packaging is a cross-practical and multi-dimensional part of marketing that has become progressively vital in buyer need fulfillment, cost savings, and the decrease of package material utilization prompting considerable enhancements in corporate revenues. Packaging resolutions influence conveyance effectiveness, item regulation and security, purchaser safety and utilization help, and environmental concerns. Packaging assumes a key part in seven out of ten in-store buying choices, and is hence beneficial to continue serving as a crucial point of critique intended at expert marketers, and cultivate the advancement of an expansive range of moral concerns (Murphy, 2005).

Packaging is critical inupholding beneficial marketing trade connections. First and foremost, as new item introductions multiply, firms are using a huge number of dollars in examining, creating and production packaging. Our comprehension of expert morals in promotion has been progressed by the examination of different advertising settings incorporating morals in modern transactions and even the moral convictions of the customer.An expanding number of controlling measures emphasize criticalness of packaging morals in current business environment. The authorization of the FDA’s nourishing labeling and training act 1994 precisely controls the configuration of business packaging. The legitimate move made by the federal  exchange commission in FTC versus Kraft 1991 (that permitted that packaging illustrations- a photo of milk being put into a glass-helped mistake buyer convictions with respect to calcium substance of cheese),and  the approval of the ecological security agency’s  benchmarks  for the utilization of environmentalappeals 1992 (that, in addition to everything else, controls environmental assertions concerning the item’s packaging) make it clear that strategy makers and controllers are exceptionally intrigued by packaging  morals issues in the industry.

Packing is a prominent hub for the ecological “trend”. Nonetheless, its purpose as a marketing apparatus is of major vitality to the promoter. Packing canimprove thecustomer’s thought of item, brand and the organization. The package is a real component of the entire marketing approach, serving as an approach to correspond with the clients. Current patterns in packaging incorporate importance on suitability, for example, microwave use, and innovative enhancements, aseptic packing. Packaging is the absolute most paramount variable in buying choices made at the point of purchase. Reluctant to wait in stores on account of absence of time, shoppers are giving promoters just seconds to recount their story at the retail level. Susceptible to impulsechoices, the purchaser is likewise faced by a flood of distinctive brands.

Packagingaids an item stand out from the rivalry andcontest for retail shelf space. The essentialness of great, eye-catching, and powerful packaging to promote is obviously clear when we consider that instinct purchasing ads up to eighty percentof all retail buys, and ninety percent of all ladies and nourishment package label before buying. A developing section of customers is ready to pay a premium for bundles that aid save time and exertion (Ogechukwu, Ndubueze, & Uche, 2011). A generally unexploited chance exists for promoters who package items to fulfill buyer interests. Any organization which craves to react must take the time to comprehend the shopper on these issues.

Moral items flourish with moral packaging. The focus of a brand and mission are positioned on an inventory network of morals from source to buyer. This triple bottom line company methodology incorporates moral and reasonable transactional business activities and ecological habits. Moral packing spreads pastgreen packing. As per Shimp (2003), in packing, there are four perspectives that incorporate the moral issues:

a) Itemlabeling

Occasionallyadvertisers utilize label data to misdirect purchasers by giving untrue data or to overstate their items’ qualities. As illustrations, sustenance’s data like low fat, cholesterol free and one hundred percent pure juice.Further instance is Johnson’s & Johnsons Cuvee way before labeled its items for day to day utilization and one-month utilization. Actually, the organization offers the same items although labeled them contrarily.

b) Packaging visuals

There are numerous cases that advertisers use pictures for the packaging that does not symbolize the real item. For example, the packaging of a certain item looks pleasant and alluring, howeverwhen shoppers open the package, the genuine item is not as great as it shows up on the packaging visuals. Furthermore, some store brands or other little brands attempt to emulate the way enormous brands bundle their items. This prompts perplexity among buyers.

c) Packaging security

Customers these days are concerned withthe wrapping security issues particularly regarding kids’ items. Risky wrapping that utilizes high components of chemicals that are not appropriate for youthful kids and are not carefully designed ought to be evaded by advertisers.

d) Ecological issues

Ecological issues are concerned with misguiding label data. Certain advertisers have a tendency to label their items as ecologically benevolent item, green item, and so on. On the other hand, the items really do not have that sort of qualities. For instance, degradable refuse sack which decompose for long in the landfill.

The People’s worry is growing past an inert learned concern into a dynamic approach. Gallup Association in 1989 did a review in United States whichshowed that shoppers are profoundly worried about potential ecological harm brought on by purchaser items and packaging. Customers were requested to rank their concern aboutecological issues brought on by purchaser products and packaging. The vast majority of respondents expressed that they would be ready to purchase items from organizations attempting to secure the environment.

According to a  current nationwide  review did within companies in U.S, seventy two percent of respondents said ecological enhancements ought to be made paying little heed to the expense. A 1989 review did by  Bundling Magazine demonstrated that “esteem for cash” and “alter apparent qualities ” kept on being the most essential bundling qualities to the shopper. The study additionally gave proof that purchasers have evidently started considering bundling material recyclability when settling on buying choices. What is indistinct is the additional expense the customer is ready to convey so as to have recyclable ecologically benevolent packaging, and its essentialness contrasted with suitability and engaging quality. Reusing is a substantial issue and a considerable component of environmentalism. For instance, numerous plastic processors, supplies producers, and ecological organizations and activists accept that plastics reusing in the embracing a more mindful demeanor. The Plastics Business Society has dropped restriction to obligatory reusing measures and is pushing for a plastic code to be engraved on all plastic compartments to encourage reusing. While a few suppliers of bundles and bundling materials made a move towards a generally characterized reusing strategy, others have no advanced waste-administration approach.

The patterns in purchaser bundling are hard to recognize owing to the wide diversity of reasons that underlie them. But one distinct change away from glass bundling, which is overwhelming and can represent a security risk towards plastics which offer a diversity of pattern proficiencies. Through new innovation plastic is shifting into an extensive variety of items. As the discussion over how to regulate plastic wastes turns into a paramount political and authoritative issue, chances emerge for chemical organizations to benefit from it. But the absence of a standard test for biodegradability continues to be an issue. Producers of plastic bundling are progressively mindful of the significance of changing their negative impression. Guaranteeing that opinion pioneers hear a composed contention about plastics will oblige a well-co-ordinated, predictable and maintained crusade. From one viewpoint, producers must have a genuine duty to ecologically responsive plastic items. On the other, they must highlight theirvalues; for example, item quality, decreased waste and bundling security, to address the charges of ecologits. In numerous nations these things are occurring; for instance, in New Zealand producers are financing the creation of a Plastics Ecological Consultative Committee.

The negative impression of plastics is thus creating prospects for the paper business, which is considered by numerous to offer a more ecologically responsive item at the disposable end of the cycle.However one that endures critique at the manufacturing end. The two commercial ventures that command buyer argument on ecological issues are sustenance and makeup (Bone& Corey, 2000). For sustenance the primary issue for the general customer is the bundling, with a developing importance toward the source of the nourishment. In the beauty care products industry concern is focused more on the item itself. Concerns for example, the impact on the ozone layer and the impacts of the item on wellbeing assume a more noteworthy part than packaging. Currentsuperstore retailersperceive themselves as the “procurement go-between” for the purchaser. The volume of merchandise accessible to retail outlets, for example, stores implies that the vast chains can decree terms to the producers. This arises from promotional bundling as well as ecologicalperception. Wal-Store mart  have made a vital move to ecologically secure items, a move that could have significant consequences for customer item advertisers and contending retailers.

As per Morris Safer director of secure Publicizing, in the coming future, ecological positioning by advertisers will be an outright part of the shoppers’ regular choice making methodology. Retailers are discovering that as ecological mindfulness spreads they need to discover methods for changing over the pattern into a greener main concern. But they stay partitioned over whether it relies upon the amount shoppers are ready to pay for such bundling and to what extent it will take the advertiser to instruct the customers. Most organizations now understand that they probably won’t have a decision regarding the matter of making ecologically friendly bundling yet in the meantime would prefer not to use much cash since they do not know whether buyers would back a value hike. The bundling industry is presently at a point where there has been an acknowledgment of the potential size of ecological issues, joined together with an acknowledgement of the marketing force of bundling and its interest for more innovation. The bundling and marketing must development mindfully on all fronts so as to hold validity. Buyers and producers are beginning to acknowledge with abdication the need to utilize ecologically sound bundling. Then again, how rapidly it turns into an actuality will rely on upon the amount buyers are ready to pay for such bundling and to what extent it will take the advertiser to teach the customers.

The complex moral issues that emerge are tangled all through and interface the numerous features of bundling and environmentalism. The concerns are difficult, however could be broken down into issues that are less demanding to handle. To begin with are issues where the morals concern the association (the organization itself). These issues address the inquiries emerging among the team tobalance itsconcerns against the concerns of the others. At the point when the equalization is vexed, or when the premiums pull excessively hard against one another, the moral framework is harmed. A sample of this could be the requirement for shareholders to relinquish profit with a specific end goal to secure new innovations to eliminate toxins from printing ink solvents. These institutional morals concern the feedback of the element team of an organization to the consistent progressions of investment life. An additional issue incorporates morals of activity. These include the execution of a business and its conversion of the world it dwells into be fruitful, these morals suggest a common commitment by those included in the movement; the business and the purchaser. The environment should not be destroyedby the company.It must give a product or administration of utilization and worth, and it should not be unsafe, and must be values competitively (Corey& Bone, 2000). The purchaser must be ready to pay a reasonable industry value and not ill-use the item. The above course of action is over and over again aggravated either by business covetousness or by business reacting improperly to perceived extreme contender anxiety. The outcome of both is skepticism and delayed improbability. A currently launched team of domestic cleaners was underpinned by a substantial media use. The result was a high trial reception followed by public critique by the greens of the legitimacy of ecological claims in the promoting.

Moral and ecological packaging is an umbrella word whichenvelops various diverse sorts of packaging, incorporating reused, biodegradable and decreased/lightweight bundling. It additionally incorporates the issue of decreasing ecological effects of bundling regarding both manufacturing and waste. Moral packing is continually developing as organizations start to discover moral sustainabilityis to a greater degree a danger towards their corporate social obligation (CSR). Packing an item in a material which is biodegradable is a type of moral packing which has been built for numerous years, and is the most widely recognized manifestation of moral packing. Various shoppers have started to expect that packing is recyclable, and this has prompted packing producers creating more inventive sorts of moral packing. Packing that has been created out of reused materials is additionally a type of moral packing that has been well-known for numerous years (Smith& Murphy, 2012). One of the primary critique of utilizing reused materials as a part of packing is that the nature of the packing material is lower, something that packing makers have been attempting to correct as of late.

Biodegradable packing has likewise been recognized for various years, and is a moral packing idea which is getting more famous because of the deficiency of landfill locations around the globe. Not eachpacking substances arerecyclable. Sainsbury’s was the first UK retail store tochange to the huge scale utilization of recyclable packing in September ‘06. The UK supermarket said the move would cut three thousand five hundred and fifty tons of plastic utilized on something like five hundred ofits privatebrand items and diminish refuse gathered for landfill (Gray, V., & Guthrie, 1990). The retail store wantedto supplant the plastic packing utilized for those items with packing made out of maize, sugar-stick or starch. Delhaize, a Belgian-based grocery store, led the path by proclaiming in ‘06 that it was to utilize “Nature works” corn-based packing for made salads.

Lightweight or diminished packing is a moral packing development which various organizations have begun to utilization to make their packing more moral. Diminished packing has been implemented by expansive multinationals, for example, Heinz, which lessened the weight of its tins in ‘07. Degraded packing is presently prevalent with both retailers and producers as it could be utilized for different varieties of packingmaterials (Shimp, 2003). One of the impediments of decreased packing in theshort-term is the expense to actualize it. Notwithstanding, the economic profits, for example, decreased  expenses because of less material,  and less transportation might be a profit in the long haul.

Inconclusion, packing is an extremely vital a part of the item. Modern bundling that is utilized to securely move the items from the seller to the client or from the manufacturing line to the dispersion focus. It is generally bundling that is exterior to the item and normally cast-off before the it goes to the purchaser.



Bone, P.F., & Corey, R.J. (2000).Packaging Ethics: Perceptual Differences among Packaging Professionals, Brand Managers and Ethically-interested Consumers. Journal of Business Ethics, 224(3), pp.34-42.Retrieved from

Corey, R. J & Bone, F. P. (2000). Ethical Dilemmas in Packaging: Beliefs of Packaging Professionals. Journal of Macro marketing, 12(1), 45-54 doi10.1177/027614679201200105

Gray, V., & Guthrie, J. (1990). Ethical Issues of Environmentally Friendly Packaging. International Journal of Business.20 (8), 31-36. DOI: 10.1108/09600039010138965

Murphy, P. E (2005).Ethical Marketing. London: Prentice Hall.

Ogechukwu, A.D., Ndubueze, A.K., & Uche, A.V. (2011). Ethical Issues Involved in Integrated Marketing Communication. Business Management Dynamics.1 (4), 50-62.

Shimp, T. A. (2003).Advertising, Promotion & Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications. Sixth Edition. New York: Thomson South-Western

Smith, C. N., & Murphy, P. (2012).Marketing Ethics. New York: Sage Publications.


Sample Paper on Compensation benefits and strategies online essay help: online essay help

Compensation benefits and strategies

            One of the most important considerations for a business or a company is the motivating factor for the decision making process. The assertion implies that, all through the business’s lifetime, there are goals and missions that need to be in completion in order to achieve desired success. It is for this reason key strategic decisions come in handy for the limousine business that seeks to be profitable at the end of the day. The first step is to select a viable position or location for the business in order. The selection is a rigorous process since in most parts of the country; there are several existing and thriving businesses of a similar nature. According to Porter’s five-force theory on the perspective of a rising business, it is important to consider the external factors and forces such as market and competition.  Austin-Bergstrom International Airport provides a unique opportunity for the location of such a business. By the virtue of the ranking worldwide of the UK business and executive travels, it is understood that the best possible location for the business is at this point.

Compensation is one aspect of employee and management motivation that stands out as a unique link between the successful completions of goals and the average revenue accrued by the organization. The strategy to have in mind during this process entails the use of long-term performance compensation plan. The reason for this is the fact that this strategy and plan not only has the ability to effect long term benefits on the business, but also bears the methodology and theory which can be easily tenable. It also allows the business to begin with the available capital with the promise of advancements and progress in terms of asset increase and development as well as workforce efficiency.

For instance, the average hourly pay for a driver or chauffeur with a lot of experience in the work is approximately $10.85 in Texas and the national mean wage is about $12.12. This means that the average annual amount to be used for compensation purposes ranges between $22,570 to 25,200. The fact that the first year revenue expectation is roughly $50,000 means that there is need to employ twenty-five employees of good experience and conduct in order to minimize risk and maximize the prospects of the business.


Planning on an annual basis involves long-term performance compensation plan that will demand a managerial position. For the plan to work, it is important to form a framework that the performance of the worker, the management and the outcome of revenue are strongly tied and linked. The plan enables and compels the manager’s decision-making processes to bear in mind the importance of the success of the day-to-day running of the business and, consequently, the compensation at the end of the day. Annual appraisal of performance based on individual worker output and results of short-term analysis is an activity that contributes to merit-based compensation among the employees.

Constant communication on the state of the work as pertains to revenue collection, services and other types of costs plays an important role in the accounts and performance evaluation. Therefore, the best strategy for this is to engage in an annual analysis as a way of establishing if the link between performance, revenue and management effort is as strong as intended by the stakeholders. If it is, the following illustration should be an indicator of a graph of revenue in accordance to the average 5% annual growth.


Sample Paper on Marriage Practices of Indian and American Natives essay help site:edu

Marriage practices of Indian and American Natives Culture


Culture denotes the pattern of people’s actions and the symbolic formations that offer such conduct vital significance. Marriage practices are some instances of cultural norms and entail a legal unification of a mature female and male for life; a covenant, complete life transformation, dedication and even an intimate connection involving a woman and man. Marriage creates the backbone in a society, and its definitions seek to clarify the significance of marriage and its meaning to any given person as it is deemed a kind of transition in the life of a person. The kind, functions, and attributes of marriage differ with culture and can differ with time (International encyclopedia of marriage and family, 2003). Normally, there are a couple of marriage practices across cultures: religious marriage and civil marriage, but, characteristically, marriages utilize the two practices since religious marriages have to be licensed and recognized by the state and, equally, civil marriages not endorsed under religious regulations are, all the same, revered. Different traditional practices are conducted in dissimilar cultures to offer marriage the influence and the importance it holds in the two people who choose to go into marriage. Currently, marriage still bears its opinions and reactions across every facet since it is vital both traditionally and presently. This paper discusses comparison and contrast between marriage practices of Indian and American Natives culture in an attempt to elucidate differences and similarities across societies. Marriage practices between the Indian people and American Natives have different aspects but have a few similarities.


To excellently comprehend cultural diversity, comparison and contrast between cultures are normally employed to explain differences and similarities across cultures. The American Indians are native to North American, and there are many languages with the most common encompassing Iroquoian from Cherokee. Kinship ties were between blood and marriage, which had to be used to get better political, economic, and religious standing; in the Indian culture, kinship and arranged marriages prevail (Plains Indian, 2013). The greatest dissimilarity in the marriage practices of Indian and American Natives culture is that, for American Natives, people are allowed to marry as they desire, when they desire and to the person they choose. In the Indian culture, the families decide the mate for their children, which is referred to as an arranged marriage. Most of the time, the bride and groom do not get a chance to chat until after marriage. For the American Natives, the notions of “love marriages” override the culture, marrying for love and not a selection of a mate by the family. Although love marriages happen in the Indian culture, the majority of the families choose a spouse in advance for their children. Nonetheless, it is turning out to be more widespread to allow the couple befriend each other and approve the marriage ahead of time, particularly amid the middle and upper class.

In the Indian culture, marriage practices are not just cherished and supported, but they are highly evident and alluring. Whereas in the American Natives culture married women are mainly recognized by a ring (usually diamond) on the ring finger of the left hand, in the Indian culture, the status of married of women is literally indicated on the forehead. The majority of married women in the Indian culture wear a red line on their faces, known as Sindoor (vermillion), beginning from the section of their hair and reaching the middle of their forehead (Plains Indian, 2013). A number of women prefer just a little red powder at their hairline while others like making the mark very distinct. The Sindoor is dissimilar from the bindi, the dot or jewel put at the middle of the forehead but both can be put on together. The husband puts the Sindoor on the wife for the first instance in the course of the wedding occasion (religious marriage), and the wife can then wear it herself each time she deems fit. The Great Indian Wedding denotes an enormous section of the culture where the brides obtain mehndi, the pictures on their hands and legs drawn with an impermanent dye prepared from henna (Plains Indian, 2013). They put on sophisticated red saris and golden jewellery, and they act as the objects of every person’s concentration throughout a festivity that takes days. After the wedding, there are still some items that only married women put on. For example, in the Indian culture, red bangles are put on by new wives for one year after the wedding ceremony in the Punjabi custom.

On the contrary, in the American Natives culture, marriages are can neither be described as civil nor religious, but just a public acknowledgment of the reality of marriage with a formal procedure. In the majority of instances though, the wedding happens way after the couple has begun residing together. The original marriage practices varied from one clan or community to the other, though they employed similar ritual factors. In the Cherokee community, it is not allowed for a person to tie the knot with another from the same clan (Prairie tribes, 1996). In the ceremony, the bride’s mother and the eldest brother stick around her as they take on the responsibility of upholding the religious and spiritual requirements. The bridegroom offers venison symbolizing his desire and zeal to ensure that his family is well fed while the bride offers corn, which symbolizes her willingness to be a good wife. The spiritual instance of the marriage practice is blessed for one week after the start of the ceremony. Moreover, the groom and bride convene at the spiritual fire, and the persons, in addition to the place has to be consecrated. The symbol employed is a blue blanket after which the blankets switched for white blankets. The ceremony is brought to an end with the expression “the blankets are connected”, and the bride and groom drink from the wedding vase simultaneously. There is a conviction that if they do not spill anything, their marriage will have a good fortune and flourish.

In the American natives culture, the average marriage age for the brides is twenty-four years of age whereas for the grooms is twenty-six years (Prairie tribes, 1996). On the other hand, the average marriage age for the brides in the Indian culture is sixteen years of age while for the grooms is twenty-one years of age. In the American natives’ culture, marriage practices are deemed quiet and nice with the female wearing a white gown and the groom wearing a black tie. Furthermore, the American natives marriage practices can be conducted at any chosen venue, for instance, in churches, on someone’s yard, and outside at the beach just to mention a few. The customs are typified by a nuptial shower, bachelor festivity, and the wedding ceremony culminating in a reception. The foods are normally hamburgers, salads, and meat while the outfits for ordinary days are typically shirts and pants for both the bride and groom. The American natives’ culture has a courtship ceremony that permits clan women to endorse match in the aforementioned manner where deer and corn are present and once approved they are cooked. Most importantly, the authorization of a medicine man is vital. The banquet for men and women are organized separately where there is the learning of new and essential things in life. Quite the opposite, the marriage practices in the Indian culture are more multifaceted. The wedding ceremonies are normally conducted in temples, and several religious denominations prefer conducting them at the backyard of the bride. The wife-to-be puts on a heavy outfit red in colour and is referred to as a lengha while the husband-to-be puts on traditional attire known as a kaurta (Indian myth, 1996). Their customs are extremely lengthy and commence about one month prior to the wedding and extends to some days after the wedding. The weddings are vibrant and ear-splitting with numerous little traditions accompanying it. The foods have a great deal of spices and a range of dissimilar vegetables. Even on ordinary days, the outfits are suits for brides while the grooms have kaurta (Plains Indian, 2013).


Even though marriage practices in American natives and Indian cultures have much dissimilarity, they also have a few resemblances (International encyclopedia of marriage and family, 2003). In both American natives and Indian cultures, marriage practices mark the entry into a union that influences the individuals mentally, economically, and socially. The decisions made affect the union either positively or negatively, the responsibilities increase, and the judgments made matter a lot. The implication of marriage practices is the same in both cultures; they connect a couple together. Moreover, they not only connect the couple but the two families, and the two communities at large. In the wedding ceremonies, symbolic outfits are put on, and flowers are employed not only for decoration but also to symbolize fruitfulness and convey special connotations. Gifts are offered to the bride and bridegroom, in addition to the individuals assisting with the wedding preparations. The families of the bridegroom and bride are significant and in most instances, there would be no wedding devoid of the guidance and monetary assistance of the families. Marriage practices denote a period of celebration in the two cultures and are frequently accompanied by foods and music. In the two cultures, it is normal for a husband to go to work whilst the wife is left home with the children.


Marriage practices denote cases of cultural standards and involve a legal merger of a mature female and male for all their days alive. The utmost distinction in the marriage practices of Indian and American Natives culture is that, for American Natives, individuals are allowed to wed to the person they decide while in the Indian culture, the families choose the spouse for their children. While in the American Natives culture married females are particularly identified by a ring on the finger, in the Indian culture, the position of married of females is shown on the forehead. To sum it up, amid the differences there are a few similarities that encompass the fact that in both cultures, marriage practices mark the way in to a union that impacts on the individuals psychologically, financially, and socially.



Indian myth. (1996). Bloomsbury dictionary of myth. Retrieved from

International encyclopedia of marriage and family. (2003). International encyclopedia of marriage and family. Retrieved from and_family/0

Plains Indian. (2013). The Hutchinson unabridged encyclopedia with atlas and weather guide. Retrieved from

Prairie tribes. (1996). Encyclopedia of north American Indians, Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from

Sample Theater Review on Medea essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Theater Review: Medea

Medea is a sad story of a lady despised. Euripides, a Greek playwright, scripted it. He was respected and venerated by the Greeks in hundreds of years that followed his demise. Euripides demonstrated his enthusiasm towards psychology in his numerous comprehension portrayals of ladies. Euripides selection of females back characters, for example, the medical attendant and the chorus is basic to the amplification of Medea’s feelings. The precise actuality that the medical caretaker and chorale are female develops Medea’s pity, impassions her outrage, and makes the wrongdoing of slaughtering her own kids more intolerable.

Medea’s status of mentality when the play started depicts misery and self-centeredness. Medea is both female and nonnative; that is to say, regarding the audience preconception she is a symbol of the two free conceived teams in Athenian culture that had no rights whatsoever .Euripides could not have chosen amore oppressed part for Medea. Here is this lady who has remained by her man through tough times. She has walked out on her family and executed her sibling while helping Jason catch the Golden Fleece.

Medea’s story makes viewers or readers reflect components of the lives of current females. The failure of the marriage after disloyalty, the longing to rebuff the betraying husband, the fierceness which takes after the betrayal all relate with what modern women experience. Medea consequently loans herself effectively to reinterpretation. As a prototype character, it is conceivable to see the progressions in her story from period to period as reflecting the improvement in the society all in all. In that sense, the character Medea is the same lady transported crosswise over time.She is the lady who surrenders everything for her spouse just to find herself deceived and relinquished for an alternate, more youthful, lady.

As her audience, we sympathize with Medea when she shows herself as a victimized person, when she reveals to us her ache and agony over Jason’s disloyalty and the misfortune of her marriage. However, she showcases her sentiments and in doing so, she develops in us nervousness. We feel immediately the chill when stuck the blade in Jason soadeptly, and harm him so profoundly. This emerges from our wishes to increase revenge against the individuals who harm us, and disgust for what she does, as it assaults our sanities of ourselves as cultured and excessively ration alto commit such acts. It is decisively at this juncture where anger, torment and requital meet up, that Medea creates an issue for women’s liberation.

Medea is a disaster of a lady who feels that her spouse has deceived her with an alternate lady and the envy that devours her. She is the character who stimulates compassion and deference as a result of how her despairing circumstance is. I thought I was going to feel frustrated about Medea; however that immediately changed when I saw her genuine nature. I comprehend that her feelings were everywhere. To start with, she was furious, then chilly and scheming. The lower she sinks the more repulsive retribution she needs to avenge on Jason. She is consumed by rage over deceiving her dad and kin for him. She chooses to take requital out on Jason’s spouse and toxins her. She additionally does not desire Jason to take the youngsters from her. She chooses to execute them, however anguishes over this choice before murdering them. A few reviewers see this as a terrible endeavor at parenthood.

Responsibility of a man was to help his companions and destroy his opponents. Medea offered to help her companion Ruler Aigeus get childless in return for helping her escape. An additional conceivable subject of Medea may be that sometimes a reprimand of requital ought to validate the wrongdoing – regardless of how serious it is. Just an individual in such a circumstance may realize what step to make in this position. The play opens with Medea’s medical Attendant tactfully giving foundation data to the tale going to unfold. It is rapidly seen by the viewers that Jason, the spouse of Medea, for whom she repudiated her family and had murdered for, has abandoned her for the Ruler of Corinth (Creon’s) -a lovely princess. Medea is offended by this and is fixed on looking for reprisal on him.

Ruler Creon tells Medea that she will be banished from the island of Corinth since he fears for the security of his girl. She declinesto take off. She goes to a concurrence with Ruler Aegeus – Lord of Athens – where she will have the capacity to look for shelter in the city-state of Athens after her expulsion from Corinth. He stretches out his cordiality to her liberally. By now, Medea ends up formulating a scheme for retribution on Jason. Her arrangement is to execute Jason’s new spouse and his two youngsters she had borne for him and after that escape for Athens. The chorale tries to reassure Medea and talk to her not to do such terrible things to other individuals especially her kids. Medea overlooks their appeal and is trapped with the choice of whether to slaughter her kids or not. She adores them and would not like to however she knows she must execute them to revenge her spouse who had wronged her. She proceeds with the plan of slaughtering Jason’s new spouse. Medea’s kids present to her a tainted outfit, which additionally winds up murdering the Ruler of Corinth. After that she faces the hard decision of killing her kids who she adores truly.

This story takes after the usual Greek disaster outline and storyline and Euripides portrays his concept of a female well. The conception of an assertive female is still pertinent in today’s planet. Medea is nevertheless a prevalent story today due to this. The retribution theme appears not to be a good yet for Medea it worked appropriately

Sample Research Paper on Nestle foods free essay help

Nestle foods


            Nestle is a publically traded multinational corporation that mainly specializes in various food and beverage products. The company has over 29 brands that are sold in more than 447 factories that are located in 194 nations (Girard, 2005). The company has more than 333,000 employees and it generates an average of $ 1.1 billion annual sales. Based in Switzerland, Nestle manages its products through specific business locations that are situated in the various continents of the world. The different segments under which the food and beverage business is managed include Nestle baby food, Nestle Water and Nestle cereal and nutrition products among others. The company was founded in 1905 after the Anglo-Swiss Company merged with the Farine Cactee Nestle. The company strengthened its foundation during the entire First World War era, which enabled it to expand its specialization beyond the initially compressed infant milk formula goods. The company is ranked as the world’s leading food and beverage company as well as the best provider of the “out of home” food products (Nestle, 2010). This paper aims at establishing how various company attributes that include vision, mission, primary stakeholders, SWOT and business strategy have impacted the company’s level of success.

The Impact of the company’s vision, mission and primary stakeholders on Nestlé’s overall level of success

            Although Nestle has faced severe competition from rival companies that include Kraft food and Pepsi Co, it has increasingly emerged as the most successful global company with the highest revenues and profits. Among the major company attributes that have significantly contributed to a high level of success include its vision, which includes becoming the most successful food and beverage corporation that is capable of providing its clients with high quality products at the fairest prices while on the other hand promoting a high degree of viability and profitability for the company. This commitment has ensured a significant level of success for the company as it has ensured that innovativeness is integrated at the heart of every production activity (Girard, 2005). This ensures that food products are made tastier and healthier at limited cost to meet customer needs and demands while promoting the overall performance for the company at large. The vision attributes to a significant level of success by ensure that reliable and innovative skills are employed to develop high quality products that meet customer needs while on the other hand reducing the overall production expenses incurred by the company.

The company’s mission, which includes becoming the friendliest and caring company that is capable of providing its customers with safe, nutritious and healthy products, has equally contributed to its significant level of success. While the company is committed to offer its customers with high quality products that are central to health and wellness, it has continually adopted unmatched research and development to ensure that it can develop safe and nutritious products that can significantly improve customers’ quality of life. This has significantly increased customers’ loyalty to the company’s wide range of products thereby promoting a high degree of sales. Nestlé’s primary stakeholders have as well played an important role in contributing to its overall success (Nestle, 2012). The company’s suppliers and employees are committed to a series of basic corporate principles that guide the way in which these stakeholders operate. The suppliers are thus committed towards ensuring that the supplied raw materials are of high quality to protect safety of the end consumers. Employees are equally committed towards ensuring that quality and safe production procedures are followed to ensure that end products remain healthier and tastier to meet consumer demands. Conversely, the consumers have partnered with the company to ensure that it is well updated of their demands and expectations so as to ensure that the company’s products remain competitive in the market.

How the five forces of competition impact the company

            A significant analysis of the five forces of competition can help us to understand where Nestlé’s power that pertains to its business position lies. Threat of new entrants is a major force that might impact Nestle’s level of competition in the industry. As explained by Girard (2005), it is often easy for new entrants to invade the food and beverage industry especially because the capital requirements needed to start off businesses in this industry is relatively low. There is equally no specific legislation regulating the degree of entry into the industry, which means that as many companies as possible can enter the industry. This might expose Nestle to a high degree of competition as new entrants might invade the industry. Nestle is however operating at a global scale where it has already developed a global marketing strategy, which limits new entrants that mainly include local companies from competing with it (Nestle, 2013).

Threat of product substitute is another important force that might affect the company’s ability to compete in the food and beverage industry. There is sufficient evidence that threat of product substitute is intense in the food and beverage industry as most companies can develop substitute products to win a huge market share. Nestle however has a wide range of products that can always serve as substitute products (Nestle Professional, 2012). This means the company’s products may not be easily substituted as it always has an equivalent product to suit different customers’ preferences.

Suppliers’ bargaining power may not negatively impact Nestle, as it is always able to obtain its raw materials from a wide range of suppliers. This is especially because the company purchases the raw materials in non-processed form, which allows it to source agricultural materials direct from the farm. This limits the suppliers’ bargaining power as the company can always seek for alternative but cheap sources of the materials.

The company experiences a moderate degree of consumer bargaining power in that the dire need to generate a strong customer base demands that the company would sell its products at a relatively low cost. The company however offers high quality as well as highly differentiated products that are always on consumers’ minds. This limits their bargaining power, as they are always concerned about quality, safety and wellness and not about the prices (Nestle, 2010).

Nestle experiences a high degree of industry rivalry, which is characterized by stiff competition among different companies operating in the industry. As explained by Nestle (2013), the food and beverage industry has a unique level of attractiveness that encourages new comers to enter into the industry. Nestle however stands at an advantage in that it operates at a global scale thereby enjoying a huge share in the global market.

SWOT Analysis

Nestle has major strengths that might enhance its level of success. The company has a huge brand portfolio that can meet different customer demands and expectations. It employs unique research and development strategies that allow for the creation tasty and health products. The company derives raw materials directly from the farm, which reduces production cost thereby increasing its overall profitability. The company has major weaknesses that might impact its overall success. The company has for a long time experienced transportation and storage problems, and this might interfere with the product quality (Nestle Annual Report, 2013). The company has not been able to ensure consistency in the quality of its wide range of product brands. Nestle has witnessed various opportunities that might perpetuate its future success. There is a growing demand for healthier food products, which creates a huge opportunity for the company to succeed particularly because it is committed towards promoting consumers’ health and wellness. The company has a huge opportunity to establish new ventures, which might create a favorable platform upon which the company can succeed. The company has however been facing severe threats that might affect its ability to succeed. There is a high probability of food contamination that might result from the transportation and storage problems that the company has continued to face. The growing trends intended to promote healthy eating might see most Nestle customers drifting their loyalty from the company’s sugary brands. The rapidly growing raw food prices might see the company increasing the overall product prices, thereby threatening its ability to maintain a strong customer base (Girard, 2005).

A strategy that the company can use to capitalize its strengths and opportunities and minimize its weaknesses and threats

            In order to ensure that Nestle is capable of capitalizing on its strengths and opportunities while minimizing its weaknesses and threats, it should adopt a renovation and innovation strategy that can allow it to develop quality new products while ensuring quality of the existing ones. Despite the fact that Nestle has for a long time been able to develop healthy and tasty products that ensures a high degree of customer loyalty, it has not always been able to ensure consistency in product quality especially because it retains a huge portfolio of brands that may have been developed using old-fashioned technology (Nestle Professional, 2012). The strategy would however ensure that the company is able to constantly upgrade old products to match the new ones thereby increasing consistency in quality. The strategy would as well help to upgrade production and storage activities, which would help to maximize the product quality while minimizing the likelihood of product contamination. Renovation and innovation further reduces the possibility of product duplication by rival companies while on the other hand ensuring that the company products are able to meet the demands posed by the growing trends towards healthy eating.

The various levels and types of strategies that Nestle can use to maximize its profitability and competitiveness

            Nestle should adopt different levels and types of strategies to promote its overall profitability and competiveness. The company should adopt a product differentiation strategy, which is a marketing level strategy that can enable it to distinguish its products from a wide range of products offered by the rival companies. This could ensure that the company is capable of attracting a huge number of customers thereby promoting its overall competiveness and subsequent profitability in the industry. Market leadership, which is a business level strategy, is equally important in promoting Nestlé’s competitiveness and profitability (Nestle, 2013). Nestle should always seek to be a first entrant in any given market, which would ensure that it has developed a strong customer base before other companies copy the trend. This would create a suitable opportunity for the company to earn customers’ loyalty, which might limit the ability of other companies to do so. Low-cost, which is a marketing level strategy, can help Nestle to remain profitable and competitive. Selling quality products at a relatively low cost compared to the rival companies can help Nestle to attract a huge number of customers that might be seeking for high quality products at an affordable price (Nestle Annual Report, 2013). This would enable the company to sell a significant amount of products within a short duration of time hence generating huge profits within a short while. This would as well ensure that the company is able to remain competitive, as most people seeking for quality products at affordable costs would increase their loyalty to the company products.

A communication plan the company would use to make the strategy known to all stakeholders

            In order to make the proposed strategy known to all stakeholders, Nestle should adopt a communication plan that would ensure that the right information is passed on to the right people. The plan should begin by establishing the specific goals governing the intended communication. The key information that the company would be intending to convey to various stakeholders should be identified. The company should then determine the specific stakeholders that would need to receive the intended messages. Specific messages intended for each individual should also be identified. The company should then identify the specific strategy that would be used to convey information to each stakeholder (Nestle, 2010). The company should then identify individuals that would undertake the role of conveying messages to different stakeholders. A communication calendar that would be repeated after a given duration of time should then be developed. An evaluation strategy that would help to assess communication outcomes should then be developed.

Corporate governance mechanisms employed at Nestle

            Nestle employs unique corporate governance mechanisms that allows it to effectively control its managerial actions. Employing a board of directors is a key mechanism that Nestle has adopted to help govern the various management activities within the company (Girard, 2005). The board’s effectiveness in controlling the company’s managerial functions is exhibited in its ability to oversee the supervision of different company activities while offering the necessary leadership directions. Shareholder participation is another important mechanism employed at Nestle to help control various managerial functions. Various stakeholders related to the company are usually entered in a stakeholder register after which they are allowed to exercise voting rights pertaining to various managerial functions taking place within the company. This helps to effectively control these functions as different stakeholders can vote for or against such functions depending on their perceived suitability (Nestle Professional, 2012).

Effectiveness of leadership within Nestle

            Nestle has an effective leadership strategy that is inclined towards long-term commitment for organizational and people development. The company mainly relies on innovative ways through which employees can be effectively aligned to ensure that their aspirations and circumstances are effectively transformed. The company particularly relies on short-term projects, weekly assignment and global job rotation to ensure that quality skills that can help individuals to improve their experience to help address their personal circumstances are developed (Nestle, 2013). The company’s leadership strategy is however inclined towards improving experiences that can help address organizational and personal needs. The strategy should however extend its objectives towards promoting leadership skills that can help to develop common employees into effective organizational leaders. The strategy should equally seek to enhance employees’ career development to ensure that their career and not just personal needs are met.

Nestlé’s efforts to become a corporate citizen

            Nestle has shown a major commitment towards promoting the wellbeing of the wider society. The company is committed towards Created Shared Value by ensuring that the wider society is able to reap significant benefits from its various production activities (Nestle, 2012). Nestle has for example established a project that is commonly known as the Cocoa Plan. The plan is mainly aimed at ensuring that cocoa farmers are able to generate high profits from the rising market prices so as to increase their overall productivity. Nestle has equally established its membership in various Cocoa Plan initiatives that mainly address various social problems that include child labor and poor access to quality health (Nestle Annual Report, 2013). Such commitments have attributes to the overall success of the company at large since it has managed to develop a strong supplier base thereby ensuring that it can access quality raw materials at an affordable cost.


            Nestle has established various business strategies and approaches that significantly contribute to its overall success. The company’s vision, mission and primary stakeholders have contributed to its current level of success by ensuring that production activities are integrated with the positive intentions defined by these concepts. The company equally has major strengths and opportunities that tend to overshadow its weaknesses and threats thereby ensuring that it stands a suitable opportunity to succeed. The company equally has recommendable leadership strategies as well as corporate governance that ensure proper coordination of activities. Specific strategies can thus be incorporated to ensure that the company has attained a competitive edge while generating a huge amount of profits.





Girard, R. (2005). Nestle, Retrieved on 11 June 2014 from

Nestle. (2010). Vision, Action, Value Creation, Retrieved on 11th June, 2014 from

Nestle. (2012). The World of Nestle, Retrieved on 11th June, 2014 from

Nestle Professional. (2012). Good Food, Good Life, Retrieved on 11th June, 2014 from

Nestle. (2013). Corporate Governance Report 2013, Retrieved on 11th June, 2014 from

Nestle Annual Report. (2013). The Nestle Roadmap to Good Food, Good Life, Retrieved on 11th June, 2014 from


Sample Paper on Special Needs Education instant essay help

Special Needs Education

Children with special needs face challenges when they attend mainstream schools with the other normal children, and may require special attention or equipment to make their learning be at par with the rest of the students. The needs of students with disabilities vary. There are those with visible disabilities such as the physically or mentally challenged. Others have behavioral disorders such as autism that may make them have a harder time interacting with other students in the schools or in grasping the content taught. Earlier on, most countries in the world confined students with disabilities in special schools where they were provided with services that suited their needs. With the increased advocacy for equality in the education system, they have been getting integrated into the mainstream schools, though it is a challenge for them to fit in fully.

Most countries advocate for equal education opportunities for all minorities including the special needs students, apart from a few conservative ones. The learning of students with disabilities in the mainstream schools is aided by technology, though this has brought a myriad of challenges ranging from the unwillingness of the students to use the learning aids to the teachers’ lack of knowledge on how to assist in the utilization of the helpful technology. Human rights organizations have advocated for the special needs students to be included and integrated in the mainstream schools. This is one of the ways in which the equality of education opportunities can be ensured, but there are some disabilities that are extreme. The extreme disabilities such as mental retardation would not do well in a conventional school, requiring those children to be educated in special schools that have teachers specially trained to handle them and the appropriate facilities as well.

The Australian education system has made strides in trying to include and integrate students with disability in the mainstream schools. However, the special needs students allowed in the mainstream schools are those whose abilities are only moderately compromised. For those with severe disabilities, they are provided for with special schools. Religious organizations in Australia such as the Catholic Church have institutions that cater for students with special needs. The disabled students in mainstream schools are required to have their conditions known by the school authorities, so as to give them assistance whenever the need arises. There is a Disability Discrimination Act-Education Standards that outlaws any discrimination against the special needs students in the education system.

The legal system in Australia also recognizes the plight of the special needs students, and that is why there is a Disability Education Standards from Australia Government Attorney General’s Department. The Department of Education has also prepared Guidelines on the Disability Education Standards which are to be followed in the handling of the special needs students. Moreover, the Australian Human Rights Commission has a department that caters for the disabled students and fights for their inclusion and integration in the conventional education setting. The system in Australia seems to cater for the specific needs of the students before considering equal opportunities in education. This is evident from the existence of the special schools that segregate the disabled students from the rest of the students. The criteria used in determining whether the special needs student is to be admitted in a mainstream or special school shows that the government tries to act in the best interest of the student in question.



Sample Paper on Selecting Conflict Styles college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx

Selecting Conflict Styles

According to Folger, Poole, and Stutman (2012), the triumph of conflict styles and tactics relies on the actions of others. It is not just an issue of choosing a tactic on a person’s own preference. Another person’s reaction could strengthen or neutralize a style, and even make it backfire. The capability of a person to select or change tactics and styles is as well restricted by the activities of others. In a number of instances, things go out of control and the individuals are ensnared. It is just following a determined exertion that the direction of such a conflict can be altered. The conflict styles chosen in cases of ethical interchange should not be biased against a culture or gender to which the party to the conflict belongs. Moreover, there is also a need to focus on the different manners in which cultural and gender influences impact the ethical requirements and the assumptions that these hold for global management.

While selecting conflict styles, people have an inclination of turning to the “what” enquiry; that is, in what manner can cultures influence the content of what individuals deem suitable, ethical, or satisfactory conduct towards oneself and other people? What is the best way of treating people from an ethical perspective across cultures? There is a conviction that, truth is the initial victim when conflict soars. In most cases, managers complain that their equals across borders do not keep their dedications, desist from clearly elucidating the way they view the concerns, and, sometimes, merely fail to abide by the reality (Folger et al., 2012). In reality, seen from the knothole of just a single culture, conducts like that would be described as misleading. The enquiry is whether there is a need to take dissimilar cultural advances into deliberation with respect to the notion of truth prior to just affirming that a single party is acting unprofessionally.

In the majority of instances of conflict, people utter something that is taken to be an untrue outcome from the dissimilar cognitive sieves that culture takes into account. However, they are not essentially cases of moral conflict, but only miscomprehensions, and they are simply solved after a miscommunication is noticed and rectified. In some instances, nevertheless, one party to the conflict could be deliberately giving declarations that are not formally correct. Naturally, in case the dishonesty is realized, the deceived party is probable of accusing the party that has misled them of delusion (Folger et al., 2012). The concern is not in the incident of lying only due to liars belonging to a particular culture; in reality, falsifications of the reality are evident in all cultures and in some cultures, there is an agreement in varying levels of such conduct as unacceptable. What is of great concern is the case of deliberate misrepresentation where a cultural validation underlies what is affirmed; that is, in such instances, while one of the parties could feel upset; the other could deem this a natural manner of carrying out an exchange. In this regard, serious conflicts are expected to follow.

In a given case of 2010, a shocking conflict arose in HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation Afghanistan. In a time when the campaigns for provincial elections were in full gear, some project personnel, an engineer and two teachers, were travelling from Kabul to Khamard (their workplace). They were employing a couple of hired vehicles from Kahmard that they had hired in Kabul. Since International Non-Government Organization (INGO) vehicles bear orange number plates; they are effortlessly recognized from far thus their passengers are extremely susceptible to attacks from opposition groups carrying weapons. Thus, for security purposes, the INGO employs rented cars when moving exterior to the project regions. Because of personal explanations, these personnel chose to change the usual route devoid of prior security authorization and drove towards a contested region. No sooner had they entered the borders of the contested province than an armed group (The Taliban) attacked them. The Taliban coerced the three personnel to stop the vehicles and by threatening them with their weapons, they compelled the drivers to drive out of the main road to a far-off village.

That afternoon, the personnel called the HELVETAS offices in Kabul and informed them of their abduction, in addition to the individuality of the grouping that had abducted them. In a given period, it turned out to be clear that the abduction was anchored in a misunderstanding since the Taliban had believed that the two cars were a section of the election campaign team of a politician of the province that the personnel were supposed to pass through that morning. What misled the Taliban is the make of the two vehicles, which was normally employed by the campaigners, and the fact that the vehicles had three passengers only whereas public vehicles in Afghanistan were at all times jam-packed. Worst of all, the driver of one of the vehicles had placed a paper on the rear window to guard against the scorching sun. Regrettably, the paper on the window turned out to be the poster of a politician for which the Taliban were campaigning. Nevertheless, the driver had not chosen the campaign poster on purpose but had just felt that it was the only paper in the vehicle that was large enough to cover the entire window, notwithstanding the message on it was conveying.

The Taliban questioned the administration over the cell phone. The situation demanded selecting a cooperative rather than a competitive conflict style (Folger et al., 2012). In this regard, the administration had to offer all the necessary information concerning the organization and its operations, for instance, where the organization receives its funds from, whether there are any possible connections of the United States and NATO troops with the organization, and its activities to mention a few. After receiving the information they wanted, the Taliban contacted the surrounding communities where HELVETAS operates in an attempt to obtain their opinions regarding the organization and its activities. People in the contacted communities explained the organization’s working advance, affirming that it operates in steadfast transparency and highly participatory way, honors the cultural and spiritual ideals, backs the communities when need be, and is excellently allied to all its stakeholders in the region. Most of the people in the communities were not in a position to give comprehensive information concerning the projects though they were excellently informed regarding the organization, its operations, and its values. The people disclosed that the organization was assisting them to advance their livelihoods. After some days in captivity, the Taliban resolved that their interrogations had found the organization blameless thus set the three personnel free and unharmed. In conclusion, the selection of cooperative conflict style by HELVETAS was influenced by the other Taliban’s behavior in the interaction. If the organization had adopted a competitive style, the Taliban would have retaliated and perhaps cause harm.



Folger, J., Poole, M., & Stutman, R. (2012).Working through Conflict: Strategies for Relationships, Groups, and Organizations (7th ed.). London: Pearson.


Sample Paper on The Universality of Buddhism college essay help online

The Universality of Buddhism

Buddhism is the oldest of the major religions found in the world. The followers of this religion are mainly found in Asia. They make up the largest number of religious adherents due to the fact that Asia is the most populous continent. Their numbers make the religion universal in a way. Unlike other religions that had tried to keep their practices among a few people or a community, Buddhism was the first ever religion to have missionaries who would spread the wisdom and knowledge impacted by Buddha to people from distant lands. This was before even the other religions, such as Judaism and Christianity came into being. Judaism contrasts sharply with Buddhism in the fact that it is confined to an ethnic community that consider themselves to be the chosen race. Buddhism on the other hand, welcomes strangers into the faith willingly.

One of the passages that motivated the monks to become missionaries of Buddhism was given by Samyutta Nikaaya when the number of faithful was still scanty:

“Go ye, O monks, wander around for the good of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, good and happiness of humans and devas. Let not any two go in the same way. Proclaim, monks, the Dhamma which is beautiful in the beginning, good in the middle and good at the end. Be exemplars of the pure life perfected and purified in every respect. There are beings with little dust in their eyes who will surely perish without the Dhamma, but who can join those other Dhamma-farers. I myself, monks, will go to Uruvelaa to preach the Dhamma. (SN i, 104-5).”[1]

This religion was even spread to Western Europe in ancient times, but it is never really caught on. It was only successful in Greece, though the effects were short-lived. It might  have played a part in the civilization of Greece.The difference between Buddhism and the other missionary religions, such as Christianity was that it was spread in peaceful means where the new persons were converted using logic, argument, and example. The other religions, such as Christianity and Islam were spread using violence, deceit, and propaganda.[2] Buddhism is not confined to any ethnic group as the other religions. Their origin is not as concrete as that of the other religions. The other two major religions are known to have come from the Middle East, and Christianity is mainly associated with Europeans while Islam is for Arabs. It is easy to profile persons using these two religions. On the other hand, Buddhism has been adopted by persons all over the world, and the number of faithful is increasing in the western nations. It preaches peace and tolerance. This is taken favorably by most modern persons. There is a trend in the developed nations where individuals are dropping restrictive religions in favor of Buddhism.

The teachings of Buddhism have been translated into numerous languages in order to cater for the different persons that are interested in it. This has been done without any restrictions. The other major religions have for a long time stuck to the original language in which the teachings were conveyed, portraying fear of sharing their wisdom with others. Christianity had been stuck to the usage of Latin language until less than a century ago when it was dropped and persons were allowed to practice it in their language and context. Islam religion teachings are still conveyed in Arabic, which may alienate persons that do not understand Arabic. The fear has been that translation might lead to distortion of the message. Buddhism has been translated to many languages for centuries, and its principles have remained firm. This shows that it is a universal faith.



Buddhanet. net. ‘Buddhanet Magazine Article: Ethnic Buddhism and Other Obstacles to the Dhamma in The West’. Last modified 2012. Accessed June 12, 2014.


[1], ‘Buddhanet Magazine Article: Ethnic Buddhism And Other Obstacles To The Dhamma In The West’, last modified 2012, accessed June 12, 2014,


Sample Paper on The Economics of Spectrum Management melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

The Economics of Spectrum Management


Radio frequency spectrum just as other resources are restricted and insufficient in the supply of wireless telecommunications services. The search of enhanced application of these spectrum assets has become a critical concern. Traditionally, the distribution of spectrum resources has been rigorously controlled due to externalities in spectrum application, for instance, electromagnetic interference. Historically, the practice of spectrum allocation has been centralized, fixed, and wholesale form of spectrum allocation, such as the spectrum auction, in which administrations allocate exclusive rights to broadcast signals over certain spectrum, and this practice is perceived ineffective as it results in under-deployment of spectrum resources. The under-exploitation of spectrum has induced the engineering, economic, and regulatory agencies in looking for improved spectrum organization strategies and practices (Zhao & Sadler 2007).

Other major spectrum management models have complemented the current model used by the Federal Communications Commission (Levin 2013). These main frameworks encompass the dynamic spectrum market model, the frequency radio model, and the spectrum commons framework. The active spectrum market model necessitates the management conveying property rights to permit holders who can resell the unutilized spectrum whilst the cognitive radio framework enables certified-exempt utilization by secondary users of the frequency possessed by a certified primary user. The spectrum commons framework utilizes open sharing among peer users with an equivalent right of admission, as the grounds for running a spectral region. Nevertheless, it is important to mention that these models concentrate either on the full usage of the spectrum or the profit maximization of organizations or primary users as opposed to the resourceful (or collectively optimal) utilization of spectrum assets from an economic viewpoint.

Research Objectives

To typify spectrum as an economic asset and utilize this understanding to appraise spectrum management models, and their economic validation in theory and practice
To distinguish plausible alternatives to the three most argued policy choices (command and control, property rights and commons)

Research Questions

Utilizing this system, this study will address the following research questions:

What are the performance benefits for a command and control in a wireless system compared to property rights and commons model in terms of spectral effectiveness and (immediate and long-standing) fairness?
What technical challenges are related to the implementation of property rights and commons models?
How much increase in utilization efficiency is caused by network re-associations for property rights and commons models compared to a command and control model?


Efficient spectrum management- refers to the choice of a system governing the allocation of spectrum frequency bands to specific uses, the assignment of usage rights to different spectrum users (broadcasters, communications operators, and public agencies, clearance of bands for new applications and users’ relocation; and policy reactions to technological and business expansions (Zhao & Sadler 2007).
Autonomous Wireless System- refers to an autonomous wireless network that is regulated by a solitary management influence, for instance, a cellphone operator.
Heterogeneous wireless network- refers to a wireless arrangement that normally involves more than one autonomous wireless network. From the user device viewpoint, this paper will apply the term cognitive and cognitive device interchangeably. Each cognitive device can connect to, and support data broadcast in excess of one RAT.
Cognitive device – this paper will define cognitive device as a radio frequency transceiver projected to sense automatically whether a certain part of the radio spectrum is being utilized, and to enter into the momentarily unutilized spectrum very quickly, without interfering with the broadcast of other authorized users.

Research Limitations/Implications

The study will not seek to tackle comprehensive technical issues, or concerns that are explicit to certain frequency bands. The prominence of this study will be based on the economic understanding of effectiveness and scarcity as opposed to scientific or operational understandings. Even though the relative advantages of the major approach to spectrum management and its setbacks have been the focus of wide-ranging appraisals, which are temporarily demonstrated and developed in this study, their prospective choices remain little identified. The study is generally associated with an organizational membership, occupational features (high tech resolutions versus economists – market resolutions), or even philosophical beliefs (private property lobby versus open source ideology). Currently, no printed material exists that broadly connects new strands in the spectrum management study and policies. Even though this would be helpful to determine the recurrent ambiguities introduced by the spectrum standard, the spectrum management theory and deliberations regarding policy design are not presently informed by a universal framework.


A Review of Literature

The application of the frequency spectrum has become a major tactical asset for the economies of wealthy nations. Radio spectrum is applied for a wide choice of business and consumer communication, research and development, and information technology functions, for instance, private and public telecommunication operations (for instance, cell phone networks, wireless internet communication, air travel, transport, military networks, and public safety), distribution, radiology studies, astronomy and a range of other uses comprising innumerable low-power wireless applications. Well-grounded and socially professional management of electromagnetic spectrum utilization is a major contribution in the performance of these markets.

Elastic regulatory administrations and technologies that make spectrum utilization more reachable to startups and other small pioneering operators present important potential to minimize lead times from improvement to market for communication products (Chapin & Lehr 2007), and provide a competitive advantage to local producers in novel product markets. By contrast, existing control and command models in most nations depend on managerial certifying systems that assign blocks of spectrum to certain applications and organizations (often large organizations) as the want arises. Initially, control and command through certifying offered attractive properties in relation to interference, regulation, global synchronization of the frequency distribution, new products normalization, and global roaming. Nevertheless, as the need for spectrum rights developed enormously eventually, the difficulty of spectrum shortage became the main weakness of the present approach. Since it does not appraise spectrum assets anchored in standard supply and demand economic standards, this model presents the wrong incentives to spectrum retailers and results in the radio frequency bands remaining inoperative at any moment, leading to the shortage, overcrowding, and restrained economic operation in communication markets.

Policy disagreements are presently deadlocked on the issue of variety management. The essential liberalization involving regulative command as well as control stipulations presents a way to obtain policy intersection, but increased divergencies about which with the three choices (or that combination) effectively serves the general public interest, and each choice’s design or policy elaborations have got made these alternatives more challenging to select. Policy arguments are presently deadlocked on the issue of variety management. The essential liberalization involving regulative command as well as control stipulations presents a way to obtain policy intersection, but heightened variations regarding which with the three choices  effectively serves the general public interest, and each choice’s design or policy elaborations have got made these alternatives more challenging to select.It is easy to understand much concerning resourceful and desirable forms of spectrum management by exploring a larger dispersion of liberalization managements than the distinct alternatives presently on the administrator’s table (Bykowsky, Olson & Sharkey 2010). This literature review takes stock of a growing agency and educational-based literature on the issue of spectrum management in the last two decades. Standard economic models, hybrid models, respective advantages, and shortcomings are reviewed, and current trends underscored. In the recent past, four types of spectrum management have been presented up to now: command and control, comprehensive property rights, open access and common pools. However, the literature does not present other ideologies, but there are numerous secondary models worth citing.

In the original period of spectrum management, known as command and control, an administrator strictly assigns non-overlapping frequency bands to certain applications and allots application rights to licensees. Potential users register with the regulator to acquire a permit covering an explicit purpose, with no assurance of success. In the United States, for example, if there is over one contestant the regulator arranges public examinations, which conclude occasionally quite opaquely, the winning applicant. Generally, permit rights are given by impromptu means (for instance, on first-come-first served basis) and for small fees (typically just compensating administrative expenses). Receiving the permit offers no property rights to the licensee, but grants enforceable rights about the respect of fixed application relating to use, frequency band, broadcast power and locality, therefore, precluding dynamic applications and adjustments in the face of the technical adjustment (Niyato & Hossain 2008).

Command and control model usually does not allow license trading, which presents no inducements to licensees to capitalize on the value of their spectrum assets, resulting in spectrum hoarding, inoperative bandwidths, and legacy of rules, red tape, current opportunities and restraints to adjust to new market situations. There is near-undivided conformity that single dependence on command and control model does not lead to efficient results. Regimes, where regulators establish blocks of spectrum that are then randomly assigned to applications that do not automatically maximize social welfare, lack the elasticity to react to new spectrum-applying product advancements and their related technology (Niyato & Hossain 2008). Moreover, the difference between spectrum distribution (explicit amounts for certain applications) and task (explicit users in definite numbers) is synthetic and ineffective as it builds a wedge between the knowledge and its relevance (Liang et al. 2011). Separation between big, but often contented enjoy access and little, but inventive underprivileged operators created a market dissatisfaction typified by extending lead times from improvement in the market and the control of large incumbents with little vitality. With the heightened need for wireless products in previous years, the effects are overcrowding and huge welfare expenses in relation to public revenue lost, deferred efficiency developments and neglected chances in global markets, which ultimately resulted in demands for more resourceful ways to assign and administer spectrum (Hwang & Yoon 2009).

Limited reforms started in the mid 1990s and continue limited to a minority group of mainly Anglo-Saxon nations. Auctioning of spectrum assets rights was initiated in New Zealand since 1988 (Chang & Chen 2010), then from 1995 in the United States and Australia (Gruber 2005). In 1996, Australia, shortly accompanied by the United Kingdom and the United States, as well started managerial spectrum pricing (regulatory pricing established on market data) and regulated spectrum, intellectual rights, which were enforced in 1998, creating a way for tertiary markets dealing (Chang & Chen 2010). Spectrum dealing has happened in low amounts in Australia and New Zealand, actually due to spectrum payments in these nations are mostly operated by limited operators attempting to build long-term networks (Gruber 2005). Even though intermediary spectrum dealing is much more accepted in the United States, it is as well, much less elastic, with the majority of the permits for commercially feasible spectrum enabling unchanging application only (Gruber 2005). For business users, the frequency spectrum is a rigid aspect of creation, with special, significantly reusable, and restricted replaceability aspects. Nevertheless, the prospective for mutuality among users is enormous (Le, Feng, Bourse & Zhang 2009) and for this rationale, it is not considerably accessible at any particular occasion, if it was the issue of pricing and social evaluation would create several challenges.

Although the number of radio bands was formerly considered big enough (contrasted with demand for their application) to send away any consideration of economic assessment, this is presently not the case. Competing applications for accessible radio frequencies make spectrum a limited product that currently lends itself obviously to fiscal examination. Fundamental microeconomics assumption ranks all publicly and commercially obtainable assets in a given community along two standards: exclusivity, which describes property rights and access; and rivalry, which studies synchronized application and exhaustion (Jabbari, Pickholtz & Norton 2010). Obviously, given the diverse economic aspects of the spectrum as an economic contribution, the growth of private spectrum markets is potentially uncovered to all these sources of market malfunction. There is modest in spectrum rights and authorization dealing, nor for that matter in any characteristic of the command and control framework, that ascertains against leading positions in downstream spectrum markets. Actually, Niyato and Hossain (2008) remarked that the market authority in spectrum markets is an inherent effect of the form of technologies that need spectrum as key, the personality of their particular product market, and the elaborations of spectrum shortage. For example, surveys of spectrum permit auctions and their results imply an uncertainty between antagonism for spectrum and rivalry in spectrum markets (Chang & Chen 2010).

Levin (2013) as well warns that because of transaction expenditures, markets will be far less proficient where the number of interacting parties is enormous. Therefore, even though market power is typically unappealing from an economic viewpoint, it may contain some advantages in this situation and may be inevitable. Spectrum hoarding and wrong pricing remains among the major problems of excessive market authority. As with most incorrectly competitive markets, the answer, if one is necessary, exists in adjusting spectrum ceilings and formulating rules, for instance, antitrust regulations, restricting the accrual of spectrum by one or few proprietors, when this is thought to have attained a threshold intimidating public interest. Certainly, some policy effort, for instance, Levin (2013) perceived this as the main role for managers in a spectrum-trading model. Moreover, the market model is almost certainly less helpful to monopolies and oligopolies compared to the pure directive model because it is clearer and comparatively less susceptible to rentseeking efforts. Moreover, it is not apparent that changing to a commons framework resolves this setback. In the commons model, there are certainly no obstacles to admission for small contestants, but there are as well, no regulations barring the entry of big institutions with economies of scale (Wright et al. 2004). Therefore, there are no grounds to believe a priori that small machinists can more productively contend with larger rivals in non-market based governments.

Signal interferences are brought about by broadcasts in a particular band. The main disparagement of the commons model discloses unsurprisingly from the comparison of the spectrum with other inadequate ordinary resources. The incidents called overcrowding and interference are other externality concerns that originate in a game-theoretic predicament recognized as the Prisoner’s Dilemma. It relates to overutilization of an inadequate common resource as advantages accumulate to private parties, and expenditures are borne by all contributors (Wright et al. 2004). Given that the spectrum resource belongs to nobody in particular, everybody has a right of utilizing it, and because the utilization of the resource is competition and commercial, shortage guarantees exhaustion. In the framework of the spectrum, exhaustion is providentially not a concern, but ever-rising spectrum demand has created overcrowding and the commons framework does not actually give assurances against interferences, particularly from novel unproven mechanisms. The universal reaction that comprises of imposing custom regulations concerning transmitter activities, power and release borders may or may not work in circumstances where inducements are uncertain and innumerable users desire to broadcast concurrently (Kim & Shin 2010). More rigid and more influential, enforceable regulations may clear the inducement trouble but would efficiently shift the commons’ management much nearer to the property rights and command and control models.

Research Gap

The spectrum management literature has up until now only been partly reexamined, with much concentration on three accessible forms of spectrum management, but very modest on potential different approaches, which are significant to decide policy uncertainties.


The multidisciplinary facet of spectrum management study (economic, authorized, engineering, and philosophical) has polarized the policy argument in relation to markets versus resources, social assets versus property, autonomy versus regulation. The key input of this research is to thread these approaches mutually and lay some establishments for a universal theory of spectrum administration.



The research will take stock of several inputs made accessible through peer-reviewed academic study, organization (or agency- sponsored) reports, think-tank and industry-funded policy documents, online resources and workshop papers. This research will enable the comparison of the major spectrum management administrations applied in practice with those presently tested or established at a conceptual stage. Spectrum management reforms have been the subject of a debate over the particular advantages of two modes of spectrum management liberalization: intellectual rights and resources. Uncertainties regarding what comprises a socially competent spectrum management system emanate from the polarization of the argument and the conceptual mechanisms taken from the literature. Empirical study will assist unchain the deadlock, but is presently hard to conduct given restricted policy testing. If deregulation continues to be discussed theoretically, policy formulation will benefit from a larger selection of spectrum management alternatives as opposed to the binary strategy alternatives presently studied.

Research Motivations and Direction

It is usually decided that current ‘control and command’ models (concentrated spectrum management by a regulator) in most nations assign spectrum in a suboptimal way, with commonly extra prominence on the supply side (technical, or production efficiency) and insufficient on demand deliberations (the social assessment of the services provided). The two choice systems presently regarded for transformation are spectrum markets with private property rights (an explanation, which tackles spectrum demand and evaluation deliberations) and a ‘commons’ model (which as well tackles demand crisis, but depends mostly on the supply side for its accomplishment). The economic propositions of spectrum misallocation (incorrect pricing, shortage, overcrowding) were identified early (Hossain, Niyato & Han 2009) but its expression only became apparent with latest changes from wireline to wireless systems in telecommunications markets. This fundamental shift in the spectrum user market significantly heightened demand for certain bands, varying, in different nations, the methods applied to allocate user rights (such as changing from fixed permit leases to market pricing systems, for instance, auctions) and introducing technological matters to unacknowledged prominence in deregulating arguments.

Appraising whether technological improvement can make new mechanisms to spectrum administration practicable is a controversial issue (Xie, Armbruster & Ye 2010), but there is a sense among organizations and intellectuals that suggestion and testing are required before far-reaching reorganizations of the old concentrated system are enforced (Wang, Krunz & Cui 2008). Particularly, there are substantial indications that competent spectrum management should not be organized with certain fixed strategies, and proposed similarities to the management of other natural resources usually present in the literature. Wireless networks are associated with is very diverse economics. Nevertheless, wireless operators charging excessive varying rates simply sabotage the rules. A main assumption motivating this research is that system support between wireless operators would help end users and consecutively present new economic chances for operators (Chang & Chen 2010). All through the research, there will be no demonstration on an increase in revenue for network operators, which frequently compel any resource sharing contracts. Instead, the research will evaluate the advantages of co-operation by presenting an increment in accomplishing performance in relation to network effectiveness measures of spectral effectiveness, immediate and long-standing equality, and general power utilization.


Improved demand and ineffective supply have lately made spectrum susceptible to this critique (through overcrowding as opposed to exhaustion) and several policy suggestions currently deliberated among communications controllers recommend improvement of spectrum management practice by allowing for different ideas of the spectrum as an economic resource. Particularly, there are proposals to resolve the shortage and interference challenges inherent to the general good environment of the spectrum by applying it as a private resource (the property rights strategy), a public resource (the open access strategy), or multi-faceted variations of an easement managements. The main issue for the policy-formulators is to establish under which grouping the spectrum best serves the community and what policies accomplish the required result. This study will analyze these proposals, which comprise of either specifying spectrum property rights in principal markets and expand the spectrum dealing in secondary markets, or handling the spectrum in less or non-restricted ways. These uncertainties introduce a high level of intricacy into policy deliberations over spectrum liberalization. Every policy suggestions talked about in the study entails shortcomings of diverse nature. The literature is exceedingly fractioned in its spectrum management suggestions. Uncertainties bring about the polarization of the main study contributions, from the conceptual model in which the greater part of the analysis has been performed. This paper characterized spectrum as an economic asset and will utilize this understanding to appraise spectrum management models and their economic validation in theory and practice. The spectrum models identified in this paper are intended to complement or to substitute the present command and control model.


Reference List

Bykowsky, M, Olson, M & Sharkey, W 2010, ‘Efficiency gains from using a market approach to spectrum management’, Information Economics and Policy, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 73-90.

Chang, B, & Chen, C 2010, ‘Auction-based spectrum management of cognitive radio networks’, Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1923-1935.

Chapin, M, & Lehr, H 2007, ‘Cognitive radios for dynamic spectrum access-the path to market success for dynamic spectrum access technology’, Communications Magazine, IEEE, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 96-103.

Gruber, H 2005, The economics of mobile telecommunications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hossain, E, Niyato, D & Han, Z 2009, Dynamic spectrum access and management in cognitive radio networks, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hwang, J, & Yoon, H 2009, ‘A mixed spectrum management framework for the future wireless service based on techno-economic analysis: The Korean spectrum policy study’, Telecommunications Policy, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 407-421.

Jabbari, B, Pickholtz, L & Norton, M 2010, ‘Dynamic spectrum access and management [Dynamic Spectrum Management]’, Wireless Communications, IEEE, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 6-15.

Kim, H, & Shin, K 2010, ‘Understanding Wi-Fi 2.0: from the economical perspective of wireless service providers [Dynamic Spectrum Management]’, Wireless Communications, IEEE, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 41-46.

Le, V, Feng, Z, Bourse, D  & Zhang, P 2009, ‘A cell based dynamic spectrum management scheme with interference mitigation for cognitive networks,’ Wireless personal communications, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 275-293.

Levin, H 2013, The invisible resource: use and regulation of the radio spectrum, Routledge, London.

Liang, C, Chen, C, Li, Y & Mahonen, P 2011, ‘Cognitive radio networking and communications: An overview’, Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 3386-3407.

Niyato, D, & Hossain, E 2008, ‘Spectrum trading in cognitive radio networks: A market-equilibrium-based approach’, Wireless Communications, IEEE, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 71-80.

Wang, F, Krunz, M & Cui, S 2008, ‘Price-based spectrum management in cognitive radio networks’, Selected Topics in Signal Processing, IEEE Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 74-87.

Wright, J, Reich, B, Westoby, M, Ackerly, D, Baruch, Z, Bongers, F & Villar, R 2004, ‘The worldwide leaf economics spectrum’, Nature, vol. 428, no. 6985, pp. 821-827.

Xie, Y, Armbruster, B & Ye, Y 2010, ‘Dynamic spectrum management with the competitive market model’, Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 2442-2446.

Zhao, Q, & Sadler, M 2007, ‘A survey of dynamic spectrum access’, Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 79-89.

Sample Paper on The Language of Health Informatics college application essay help: college application essay help

The Language of Health Informatics

            Today’s environment consists of information systems that are integrated to bring about efficiency and collaboration within the work environment. Enterprises, educational institutions, use these systems in a wider scale, developing online platforms in order to enhance communication, business processes and workflow. All this is dependent on information systems. An information system is a set of related components used to collect, manipulate, store and disseminate data and information while at the same time give mechanism for feedback purposes in order to meet an objective (Stair and Reynolds, 2012). This kind of system is used in one way or the other to fulfill some objectives in an organization with healthcare organizations widely using it in healthcare informatics in order to analyze and perform computations in a set of data. One such kind of software which is used is the Med Sync application software. This is a software application that is based on two designs which can integrate with standalone computers and be integrated to the online environment.

This software uses an intelligent mechanism aided by an engine which helps to synchronize information concerning outpatients, by facilitating medical prescriptions at intervals based on some metrics attached to given patients profile. This software helps by giving updates to patients as well as contacting patients whose prescriptions are given on monthly basis. It also gives real-time information concerning patient’s schedules and informs them regarding important appointments with their doctors. While the application helps in scheduling prescriptions, patients can also check their medical history and query the types of drugs they used to cure past ailments, and also captures all dates as regards the visits made to the hospital. However, the application relies heavily on a database that is integrated with the application interfaces,

which facilitates patient interaction. The database is designed using MySQL, a Microsoft proprietary database platform mainly used in online systems. This database is used to store patient information and gives doctors and patients the capability to query and view their information. It is also used to ensure that each user accessing particular information is authenticated by ensuring that all integrity constraints are implemented. This is accomplished through assigning each user a unique password and username stored within the database.

The database uses a model which supports a table structure that consists of five rows and ten columns which is used to capture and store respective information concerning the patients. In the table structure, there are fields for name, contact information, sex, medical history, patient unique number, complication suffering from, location and doctors contact information. These fields are used to store information concerning the patient prescription history while at the same time automates the prescription process.

The table also has primary and foreign keys. The primary key is used to uniquely identify an entity instance (Rob and Coronel, 2002). The primary key is implemented on the patient unique number in order to identify a unique patient. On the other hand, an index is also used to speed the search in order to retrieve specific information. The index is implemented on the name and prescription. Despite the efficiency brought about by this software, standardization is critical, as it maintains the quality of information which can be acceptable in any clinical environment. This is because lack of use of appropriate standards can result to poor health information exchanges which may prevent comprehensive clinical research due to inaccuracy in information.



Rob, P., & Coronel, C. (2002). Database systems: Design, implementation, and management. Boston, MA: Course Technology.

Stair, R. M., & Reynolds, G. W. (2012). Fundamentals of information systems. Boston: Course Technology/Cengage Learning.

Sample Paper on The In-Vitro Fertilization Program cheap mba definition essay help

The In-Vitro Fertilization Program


In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) program involves a procedure in which eggs from a female’s ovary are removed. They then undergo fertilization process where they are mixed with the male sperms in a laboratory process, and the fertilized embryos are taken back to the female’s uterus. The IVF program is one of the Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) programs that is normally applied to enable the infertile couples conceive (Brinsden & Bourn Hall Clinic, 1999). IVF is one of the techniques that is normally applied for the purpose of increasing the chances of an unproductive couple to conceive. Its use normally depends on the grounds for infertility. IVF is normally an alternative in case there is a blockage in the fallopian tube, endometriosis in the female or in cases where the male has low sperm count or even if the male has poor quality sperms. IVF normally does not function for women who do not ovulate or men who are not capable of producing even the slightest healthy sperms (Wolf & University of Wisconsin, 1988). The testing processes and medications for sterility may take longer periods, may be very costly and at times the process may be unsatisfactory. Each IVF attempt normally takes at least a complete menstrual succession, which may cost between $ 5,000- $ 10,000, which sometimes is not covered by the health insurance. The nervousness of dealing with sterility issues can be challenging to the spouses and their relationship. The additional stress and expenditure on several clinic visits, tests, treatment procedures and surgical processes can become devastating. It is therefore very important for couples to receive counseling and support when undergoing the process (Elder & Dale, 2003).

Brief description of the IVF program

The IVF program is generally a process where the fusion of eggs and sperms occurs outside the female’s body. A lady may be offered fertility medication before the actual process so that she may have enough eggs maturing in the ovaries at the same instance. The eggs are then detached from the female’s ovaries by the use of a long thin needle. The eggs are then mixed with sperms in a laboratory and then monitored for a number of days until there is evidence that fertilization has taken place (Sher, Davis & Stoess, 1995). This is when the eggs are taken back to the female’s uterus. In a research that was carried out in Mayo clinic in 2004, it was discovered that iced up sperm was just as useful as the fresh sperms for the IVF procedure. Customarily, infertility has been a part of health system whereby physicians initially had very limited means of helping their patients. The perception of this field changed radically after the declaration of the birth of the first baby to be conceived through this method in 1978. IVF has been utilized productively since the year 1978, when the first kid that was produced using this procedure in England. During the past twenty years, more than a thousand of spouses have utilized this technique of ART and have been successful. Globally, more than seventy million spouses are afflicted with infertility (Charlesworth, 2004). Ever since the initial triumphant IVF process, the IVF expertise and other similar technologies have become very common globally. During the past years, the utilization of ART services has advanced at a rate of about 5-10% per annum (Brezina & Zhao, 2011).

In the year 1996, about 60,000 IVF cycles were carried out in the U.S. with about 17,000 medical expectancies and about 14,000 successful births. At present, IVF accounts for about 1% of all the successful births in the U.S. By 2009, about 3.4 million newborns were given birth to globally after the ART procedure (Zhao et al, 2011; Brezina, P. R., & Zhao, 2012). Currently, ART procedure is increasing at an annual rate of 5-10% in some of the developed countries (Stern, 2013). The ART such as the IVF is currently a typical therapy for infertility, with about 4.5 million children conceived by ART having been given birth to globally over the past three decades (Andersen et al, 2008). At present level of IVF activity in Australia, about 3.5% of children, or almost on kid in every Australian classroom, is given birth to as a result of the IVF procedure. Arguably, the biggest challenge facing IVF globally is the high rate of twin and triplet births that necessitates the transfer of multiple embryos (Carter, 2013). Multiple births are usually associated with significantly increased risks for the mother and the baby as well as pregnancy and delivery complications, preterm births, long periods of disability or even death. Australia has been marked as the world leader in decreasing the cases of ART multiple births through applying a voluntary shift to Single Embryo Transfer (SET) (Chambers, Illingworth& Sullivan, 2011). IVF has become very common in the Australian medical care scheme as a process for lessening of infertility. There are several IVF medical centers in all the states in Australia. Initially this kind of treatment was only available in the private sector; however, currently a global fee under the medical benefit program now covers the IVF services (Hammarberg, 2010). Regardless of the acceptability of the process, very little research has focused on establishing the effectiveness of the treatment administered, especially as related to alternative processes for the treatment of infertility.

Assuming the process is effective, in addition there may be issues concerning quantifying the costs and benefits of the program. Thus, some of the researches carried out in Australia that have considered financial perspective have tended on documenting the result of the medication in forms of the birth of the newborn. Unluckily, however, the birth of a newborn baby takes place in only a few cases, and the most likely result of the process is the failure to have a baby. For the purpose of presenting an accurate illustration of the results of the treatment, concentration should be given on the emotional and health effects that are experienced by spouses who take part in the program as well as the newborns.  A framework for assessment is necessary, for which IVF may be compared with other available procedures for the treatment of infertility, and also compared with other medical processes that are offered within the medical system that compete for resources that are spent on the IVF (Chambers, 2011).

The Criteria Used for Access

The IVF clinics are credited by the Reproductive Technology Accreditation Committee. This is a self-governing association that is in charge of ensuring particular minimum standards are met by all the IVF clinics that are within Australia. The association was founded in the year 1987 and since that time their guidelines have been modified in the years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2009. This code of practice guides the treatment of patients with monitored ovulation stimulation, synthetic insemination, the IVF and other similar techniques and all processes that involves the gametes or embryos that are donated. The 2004 guideline offered information on the cost per every single successful birth applying IVF by age and cycle, with the rate of successful births predicted using the 1995-1999 data (NCCWCH, 2012). The guideline necessitated that IVF be provided to women who are between the age of 23 and 39, where the average success for every IVF transfer was greater than ten percent. For this update, there exist various approaches that have been adopted in the health economic analysis which includes;

The availability of an expectant management comparator – recognizing that even as for some females IVF is the only option of getting pregnant, for the majority there is the probability of a spontaneous conception.
An approximation of the total successful births over a female’s reproductive life to reflect that expectant management is not time restricted and that is a possibility of spontaneous conception to occur after the failure of the IVF treatment.
The application of multi-factorial models in approximating the success of IVF and expectant management other than only the age incorporating numerous other predictors such as the period of infertility, cause of infertility, type of infertility, sperm assessment, ovarian response and the number of embryo transferred.
The utilization of the Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) in measuring benefits reflecting NICEs favored approach to cost effectiveness.

A review of the literature that exists was carried out for the health economic issue, which identified about 15 health economic studies that examined the cost effectiveness of the IVF. Despite the fact that some of the Health economic models were established from Random Clinical Trials (RCTs) several of them used either unit data or published literature from various sources. Many of the studies observed the value of a single cycle of IVF in isolation instead of a sequential IVF strategy. It is only the studies carried out in the last decade that addressed the issues of fresh versus the iced up embryos as well as the single verses the double embryo transfer strategies. A few of the researches evaluated the impact of female’s age. Only two researches looked at the impact of the reason and period of infertility on the cost effectiveness. It is only one study that integrated the cost effectiveness of IVF in relation to the expected conception rate without treatment. There is no study that looked into obstetric history and prior IVF results in their modeling. Even though all the studies incorporated multiple pregnancies as part of the cost modeling, it’s only half of them that incorporated the extra costs of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) and the cost savings of cancelled cycles (NCCWCH, 2012).

The level of subsidy MBS in Australia

The citizens of Australia continue to have access to very good fertility treatments. Most of the fertility treatment costs in Australia are covered by Medicare, and if an individual has private health insurance, the costs may be reduced further. The Medicare Benefits schedule (MBS) offers a repayment for the out of pocket charges for the services out- of the hospitals, which includes the consultant attendances. The Extended Medicare Safety Net (EMSN) offers an extra reimbursement for costs that are above a yearly threshold. The EMSN offers a limited reimbursement for IVF related services provided once a yearly threshold is attained. Individuals’ Medicare safety net privilege starts at the beginning of every calendar year, and one an individual reaches the threshold; Medicare usually offers a refund of the proportion of an individual’s upfront payment for several medical services where one was never admitted to a hospital (Brinsden, 1999). Apart from the IVF, a number of the ART treatments in Australia receive some level of Medicare refund such as IUI (Intra-uterine insemination), Transfer of frozen embryo, and ICSI. Ovulation induction is normally refunded when it involves an insemination process. These refunds are usually available to all individuals who have the Medicare card. There is usually no limit to the amount that an individual can claim (Brinsden, 1999).

The Extended Medicare Safety Net (EMSN) privilege of Australia does not include the surgical treatment associated services like the egg gathering and embryo transfer and it does not offer refund for items that do not have the Medicare item number like fertility conservation carried out for social reasons. Like several other medicinal services, the charges of having IVF differ depending on the medical specialist and the individual centers. There is no single specified cost for all the fertility clinics in Australia. Each hospital has its own set cost structure for the services offered. However, Medicare has set clear principles regarding the amounts which the patients can claim back and the percentage of charges for which Medicare provides a financial refund. If an individual is considering to have the IVF treatments, it is usually wise for one to organize the health insurance cover first in order to make sure that it covers fertility assistance together with other medical services. Pathology, radiology and ancillary insurance is also significant so that one may not encounter huge unanticipated bill for services that one can not claim at the end of the medication. Additionally, it is significant to make sure that childbirth is covered in ones health cover. In any case, the key reason of embarking on IVF is for one to be able to have her own child at the end of it all. It is also necessary for an individual to make sure that he/she is registered with the Medicare Australia and fits the criteria for eligibly holding a Medicare card (Chambers & Sullivan, 2006).

There is an inadequate amount of subsidy that is available for Government-subsidized healthcare (Medicare), which requires careful distribution in order to result in maximum benefit for the society. An area of inefficiency in Australia includes the untested Medicare subsidy to carry out IVF fertilization process and this requires reformation. Medicare funding of IVF is a very delicate issue. Infertility is not a disease; so can be argued that its medication should receive public financial support. Because of the emotional anguish caused by sterility, sterility treatment is also considered to be in the public’s concern. Medicare financial support for IVF should continue, but be limited to specific patient groups to maximize the benefits to the people of Australia. In the year 2010, there were about 57000 IVF cycles that were carried out in Australia, which resulted to 10500 successful births. Presently, Medicare subsidizes $ 4420 for the 1st and $ 4930 for every subsequent cycle (Bartels, 1987). Different from other developed states like UK and New Zealand, one can claim the funding for an unlimited number of cycles, and it is usually not constrained by age or the health status of a woman. The sum that Medicare spends on IVF is usually considerable and the number of females accessing IVF is incessantly increasing. In order for Medicare funded IVF to be resourceful, it needs to be limited to a maximum of two to three cycles per female and be restricted to individuals who are mostly likely to benefit from it.

These includes the women who are not capable of responding to other less demanding fertility medication, and are under 40 years of age (Herbert, Lucke & Dobson, 2012).

The ICER and cost utility evaluation

Cost Utility evaluation is a kind of financial evaluation that investigates both the charges and health consequences of optional intrusion strategies. It compares the cost of an intervention such as the IVF to its effectiveness as measured in natural health results. The cost utility analysis is normally presented in terms of a cost effectiveness ration which conveys the cost per health result. Lately, there ahs been numerous cost utility comparisons across IVF and other available infertility solutions (Robinson, 1993). The earlier IVF supervisory models have not been sensible as pragmatic models should account for cancelled cycles, reduction in pregnancy rates of subsequent cycles, transfer of frozen embryos and dropout. Pashayan et al (2006), sought to a cost utility modeling which he compared the cost effectiveness of initial IVF offer to IVF in partners after the failure of the IUI attempts. IUI and IVF fertilization have been regarded as the first line of treatment for spouses suffering from unknown male sub fertility.  The total cost was interpreted as the summation of IUI nad IVF medical services with an incremental cost utility ratio that was represented as [((cost of “IUI + IVF” arrangements) – (cost of IVF))/(difference in number of live births produced)] (Melton, 2013). Six cycles of IUI incorporated with one cycle of IVF amounted to a total of £495, 9003. ICER for the first round of IVF versus IUI and succeeding IVF was found to range from £18,000 to £14,200 per successful birth, and increased with every secondary IVF cycle. To put the costs in a more societal point of view, 6 cycles of IUI followed by a single IVF cycle amplified the total fertility spending of about 100 modeled couples by a minimum of £174,200 (Chambers, 2009). In the end it was discovered that it is more cost effective for spouses with male or unknown sub fertility to solely undertake IVF instead of pursuing IUI. The opportunity cost of IUI was discovered to induce unnecessary economic as well as psychological wastefulness ( Melton, 2013).. Even though cost effectiveness of the first IVF versus the first IUI followed by IVF in spouses with unknown subfertility, the cost effectiveness of 7 IVF approaches: outcomes of Markov decision analytic model, are new in their field, legislators should bear in mind that such models are restricted by their inability to be extrapolated to the mainstream (Fiffelers, 2009).

The novelties surrounding IVF

The IVF process has so far been very successful and has continued to improve due to the selection criteria. Proper choice of ova and sperm as well as the embryo evaluation at a phase prior to the implantation is a significant way to a successful IVF. Genetic analysis is an important stage in this selection. The IVF is the key solution to male sterility, thus presently it can be stated that sterility is now considered as a problem of the past. One of the greatest novelties of the IVF procedure is that made it possible to separate the embryo from the body of its mother, and through this a new distinct entity, which is the early human embryo was created. The conceptualization of the embryo has a huge effect on the way in which technology that involves embryos are regulated. The second effect of IVF technology is about the disintegration of parenthood. For instance, the genetic parenthood was able to be broken down into gestational parenthood (Hommels, Mesman & Bijker, 2014). Additionally, IVF has resulted in an increase in the number of parties involving themselves in child creation. This has created new responsibilities of the numerous parties taking part in the creation process, sustenance, raising or disposal of the new life. Thirdly, IVF technology is among the technologies that have contributed to the emergence of a novel practice within the health system; an exercise that is considered productive rather than curative. The exercise has helped individuals fulfill their desires rather than cure the alleviate symptoms. This novel emerging exercise has created new roles and responsibilities for practitioners and patients and it requires the establishment of new guiding principles and moral routines (Hommels, Mesman & Bijker, 2014).


The IVF is one among the Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) that is usually applied to enable the sterile spouses conceive. IVF is among the most cost effective sterility treatment; it has resulted to thousands of successful births since the first baby to be conceived using the IVF method in 1978. But there is no assurance that every cycle of the IVF will always result in successful birth, even though the healthiest embryos are used.  Averagely IVF have success rate of about 33% per the embryo transferred for the females who are under 35 years of age.  The rate of success cycle is normally higher when more than one embryo is removed.  During the past years, the utilization of the ART procedures has advanced at an annual rate of 5-10%. Presently the level of IVF activity in Australia accounts for about 3.5% of the children, or almost one kid in every Australian classroom, was given birth to as a result of the IVF procedure.  Debatably, the key problem facing IVF globally is the high rate of double and triplet births that usually necessitates the movement of numerous embryos.  In Australia, most of the fertility medication charges are covered by Medicare. This makes their fertility treatment very cost efficient. The Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) offers a repayment for the out of the hospital services which includes expert attendances.


This subject is very significant in informing patients, the service providers and the community as a whole about the potential long term safety of ART. IVF and other ART entail sperm and egg infusion in the laboratory, with hypothetical impacts on the growth of the succeeding embryo. Though, while the initial successful birth following IVF was over 31 years ago, there is relatively very little long term research that has been carried out concerning the subject. It is vital to offer the individuals who are considering the IVF treatment, up to date information about the long term health consequences which may include the multiple pregnancies of the procedure.



Andersen, A. N., Goossens, V., Ferraretti, A. P., Bhattacharya, S., Felberbaum, R., De Mouzon, J., & Nygren, K. G. (2008). Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2004: results generated from European registers by ESHRE. Human Reproduction, 23(4), 756-771.

Bartels, D. (1987). Government expenditure on IVF programs: an exploratory study. Prometheus, 5(2), 304-324.

Brezina, P. R., & Zhao, Y. (2012). The ethical, legal, and social issues impacted by modern assisted reproductive technologies. Obstetrics and gynecology international, 2012.

Brinsden, P. R. (Ed.). (1999). A Textbook of in Vitro Fertilization and Assisted Reproduction: The Bourn Hall Guide to Clinical and Laboratory Practice. CRC Press.

Brinsden, P. R., & Bourn Hall Clinic. (1999). A textbook of in vitro fertilization and assisted reproduction: The Bourn Hall guide to clinical and laboratory practice. New York: Parthenon Pub. Group.

Carter, D., Watt, A. M., Braunack-Mayer, A., Elshaug, A. G., Moss, J. R., Hiller, J. E., & The ASTUTE Health study group. (2013). Should There Be a Female Age Limit on Public Funding for Assisted Reproductive Technology? Differing Conceptions of Justice in Resource Allocation. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 10(1), 79-91.

Chambers, G. M., Ho, M. T., & Sullivan, E. A. (2006). Assisted reproductive technology treatment costs of a live birth: an age-stratified cost-outcome study of treatment in Australia. Medical journal of Australia, 184(4), 155.

Chambers, G. M., Illingworth, P. J., & Sullivan, E. A. (2011).Assisted reproductive technology: public funding and the voluntary shift to single embryo transfer in Australia. Med JAust, 195(10), 594-598.

Chambers, G. M., Sullivan, E. A., Ishihara, O., Chapman, M. G., & Adamson, G. D. (2009). The economic impact of assisted reproductive technology: a review of selected developed countries. Fertil Steril, 91(6), 2281-94.

Charlesworth, L. (2004). The couple’s guide to in vitro fertilization: Everything you need to know to maximize your chances of success. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Lifelong Books.

Elder, K., & Dale, B. (2003). In Vitro Fertilization, Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fiddelers, A. A., Dirksen, C. D., Dumoulin, J. C., van Montfoort, A. P., Land, J. A., Janssen, J. M., … & Severens, J. L. (2009). Cost-effectiveness of seven IVF strategies: results of a Markov decision-analytic model. Human reproduction,24(7), 1648-1655.

Hammarberg, K. (2010). IVF and Beyond For Dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Herbert, D., Lucke, J., & Dobson, A. (2012). Agreement between self-reported use of in vitro fertilization or ovulation induction, and medical insurance claims in Australian women aged 28–36 years. Human reproduction, 27(9), 2823-2828.

Hommels, A., Mesman, J., & Bijker, W. E. (2014). Vulnerability in technological cultures: New directions in research and governance.

Sample Paper on Music Enhances Our Intelligence college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx

Music Enhances Our Intelligence

The largely acclaimed Mozart effect has become a source of many controversial claims over the effect of music on human intelligence.  The claim came after a report by a team of three professionals (Frances Rauscher, Gordon Shaw, and Katherine Ky) stated that the performance of college students on spatial subtests improved after listening to Mozart’s first movement for 10 minutes (Hetland 105). The proponents of the claim have indicated that there is evidence-based proof that indeed music has an effect on an individual’s intelligence, but with more bias towards growing children. Most of these proponents have moved, however, from Frances, Gordon, and Katherine’s claim that music enhances our intelligence, to music training/lessons as having the effect of increased intelligence. Oppositely, detractors of the claim have contested, through evidence-based proof, that music in its passive listening has no effect on the intelligence levels of individuals. A number of scholarly articles have addressed the argument on music training’s effect on intelligence. Among these scholarly articles, include Schellenberg’s “Music Lessons Enhance IQ”, which supports the claim of music lessons as an intelligence enhancer. Katrin Hille et al. support this through a research article titled “Association between music education, intelligence, and spelling ability in elementary school.” Susan Hallam, in an article titled “The power of music: Its impact on the intellectual, social, and personal development of children and young people” also offers insight on the part that music plays in the enhancement of intelligence. A research report by Sylvain Moreno et al. titled “Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function” reports on the effect of music training for 20 days on children’s verbal intelligence. The most important question therefore is, “does music enhance our intelligence?” The argument herein is that, while the Mozart effect is hard to recreate and therefore difficult to ascertain its effect on intelligence, music training does enhance human intelligence.

The Mozart effect claim stands as one of the most outstanding claims to relate music to improved human intelligence. As fronted by Frances, Gordon, and Katherine, the claim caused a stir given its magnitude. Part of the objection to the claim emanated from the fact that it objected previously established views of transfer and modularity. The view on transfer is founded on the premises of one learning supporting other varieties of tasks. This view on however contends that such a feat is “difficult  to  achieve,  especially when  the  transfer  is  “distant”  (i.e.,  between  two very different kinds  of performances), as in  the  case  of  music  and spatial  processing” (Hetland 105). For modularity: the mind comprises distinct units trained towards specific information variety, and therefore music and spatial information would have different processing. The strongest objection for the Mozart effect is however the claim “that the Mozart effect is difficult to replicate” (Schellenberg 1). Research to replicate the claims was futile since the desired effect as claimed by the three was not achieved. Given such shortcomings of the claim, it is therefore safe to say that music in its very least does not enhance intelligence. Besides, the research was conducted over a small sample, was nonreplicable and made unsubstantiated claims, which did not stand tests on their credibility. Thus since the credibility of any experiment and results of the said experiment auger on the authority of its author and the ability to successfully replicate the experiment, such unsubstantiated and nonreplicable claim do indeed confirm the fact that music does not enhance intelligence.

Given such a shortcoming in the Mozart effect claim, researchers have opted for replicable arguments that involve music-lesson training. Thus, while it may be possible that the “Mozart induces more positive moods and relatively optimal levels of arousal, which lead to higher levels of performance on tests of spatial abilities” (Schellenberg 1), many have doubted whether it was really the music that was accountable for the sudden surge in the temporary intelligence. The music, in this case, only acts as an arousal agent, which then motivates the individual into performing much better in the spatial test. In essence, the music has no effect on human intelligence. In any case, no evidence is there to suggest, “Passive listening to music can improve the long-term intelligence” (Hille et al 1). What is noteworthy is that passive listening of music is not much different from staying in a room in silence, apart from the mood elevation; it has no intellectual effect on the individual, and consequently does not enhance intelligence. Therefore, while most of the studies done have included both passive listening to music and music lesson training, most have concluded that passive listening to music does not enhance human intelligence. On the contrary, active engagement with musical instruments has been found to actively increase intelligence in humans.

Contention is however on whether only music can cause a rise in intelligence. This line of argument contends, “Preference is linked to arousal, and arousal is linked to enhanced cognitive performance” (Hetland 107). This argument follows research done, in which after listening to Mozart and a horror story by Stephen King, both participants performed equally in spatial tests. In contrast, participants who preferred Mozart and King both performed highly after listening to Mozart and King respectively. The claim here therefore is that it is not only music, which can increase intelligence. This argument specifically contradicts the claim that “musical abilities and training sharpen the brain” (Hallam 271). For Hetland, therefore, temporal increase in intelligence is dependent on the prevailing conditions. Therefore, any favorable condition, such as arousal and motivation can cause a surge in an individual’s intelligence. Music in this case, does not qualify as a favorable condition, and therefore not a trigger to enhanced intelligence.

Such contentions (arousal and intelligence) do not however take into consideration research that shows a positive correlation between time and manipulation of music instruments. For this line of argument, the engagement with musical instruments is the main reason for the increased intelligence. According to Hallam, “Extensive active engagement with music can induce cortical reorganization. This may produce functional changes in how the brain processes information” (270). It follows through that with the reorganization of the brain, as well as changes in the way the brain processes information, it is possible to get new insights to issues and events, more quickly than the dormant brain. This in the very least is increased intelligence. An argument against such a claim however states that such associations between music and intelligence are flimsy since it is possible that the association could “stem from a common component, such as general intelligence” (Schellenberg 1). The argument here therefore is that music lessons and the length of time a learner manipulates music instruments has no effect on intelligence. Rather, children with high IQs are mostly enrolled in music lessons, and conclusively, the reason for their high performance in other areas. The contention here is that music training has no relation with human intelligence, thus is does not enhance it.

The manipulation of music instruments for a long time does not however only have effects on the verbal IQ of individuals who opt for taking music lessons. One of the major groundbreaking stirs brought by the contention of the Mozart effect was the displacement of the theory of transfer. This was in addition to the theory of modularity. As earlier indicated, the theory of transfer contends, “it is notoriously difficult to achieve” (Hetland 105) transfer of one kind of learning to the performance of other unrelated tasks. This theory contends that, by learning how to play a guitar, it does not follow through that the individual will be better in arithmetic. The idea here is to refute the claim that training in music has significant influence on other processes. Studies by Moreno et al have however proven otherwise. Indeed, according to Moreno et al., training in music has significant influence on the performance of other tasks. The most visible transfer of music skills has been evidenced in speech processing. The association between music and speech “has been reported at both sub-cortical and cortical brain levels” (Moreno et al. 1425). The sub-cortical and cortical involve auditory processing and implicit processing respectively. The association furthermore transcends to “the functional level, having been reported for both lower-level (i.e., pitch discrimination) and higher-level (i.e., semantic processing; syntax) aspects of cognition” (Moreno et a. 1425). By learning how to play music instruments following the intricate patterns of music formation and key discrimination, it is possible to also discriminate pitch in normal speech and discern the individual’s mood. This is in addition to the discernment of meaning within different contexts and language structures, all learnt through the discrimination of pitch and other elements of music formation. The idea here therefore is that by learning certain elements of music processing, it is possible for such individuals with music training to use such skills in conventional speech and interactions.

The role of music training does not however stop at language processing; it transcends to language acquisition. According to Hille et al., “musical aptitude was found to correlate with second language acquisition” (2). By enhancing individual auditory skills and sometimes in foreign languages, music training aids the subsequent acquisition of the language. The auditory skills are therefore not only used in music and the first language, they find their use in the acquisition of a second language. This translates to the intelligent transfer of one skill to another, only possible through enhanced intelligence. Yet second language acquisition is one among the many intelligence domains enhanced by music training. It is factual that “musical aptitude is associated with literacy, reading and writing, general intelligence…and mathematics achievement” (Schellenberg 2). Thus far, the role of music training in enhancement of intelligence also transcends related task association such as music and speech to include distant relations, such as mathematics. The enhancement of arithmetic skills occurs from the fact that learners require in depth knowledge of keys, half, full, quarter, and so forth. Care is particularly important for achievement of harmony and therefore the need for careful calculation on which keys to use to achieve musical harmony. This is a direct correlation to intelligence, which is transferred to arithmetic, and essentially enhanced intelligence through music training.

Little correlation exists between passive music listening and changes in intelligence. As evidenced, however, there is high correlation between music training and intelligence. Different aspects of cognitive and motor skills are enhanced with music training. While the contention was that transfer of skills learnt in music lessons are impossible to other related and unrelated tasks, as it was suggested by the Mozart effect, it has been evidenced through research that indeed it is possible to transfer skills learnt in music to other processes, such as reading and writing, different speech processes, spelling and mathematics. Much of these transfers are however easier in instances when the tasks at hand are closely related. Nevertheless, the transfer is possible. While more research on the relationship between music training and intelligence is still underway, preliminary research have found positive correlation between music training and intelligence. It is therefore safe to state that music training, contrary to rejection by others, indeed enhances intelligence.


Works Cited

Hallam, Susan. “The power of music: Its impact on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people.” International Journal of Music Education 28.3 (2010):269-289. Print

Hetland, Lois. “Listening to Music Enhances Spatial-Temporal Reasoning: Evidence for the “Mozart Effect.”” Journal of Aesthetic Education 34.3/4 (2011):105-148

Hille, Katrin et al. “Associations between music education, intelligence, and spelling ability in elementary school.” Advances in Cognitive Psychology 7 (2011):1-6

Moreno, Sylvain et al. “Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function.” Psychological Science 22.11 (2011):1425-1433

Schellenberge, E. Glenn. “Music Lessons Enhance IQ.” Psychological Science (2009):1-5

Sample Paper on Quality, Safety, and Costs on Nursing Care grad school essay help

Quality, Safety, and Costs

            There exist significant relationships among quality, safety, and costs in the delivery of health care. Firstly, the quality in nursing care concerns undertaking proper assessments and intervention measures with the intention of optimizing patient outcomes while simultaneously preventing adverse events. Quality is influenced by certain contextual and intervening conditions that are related to the broader environment, the organization of the health care facility, and the personal factors of the health care professionals and patients (Finkler, Kovner, & Jones, 2007, p. 5). In the environmental context, quality may entail the extent to which the nurses engage patients, their colleagues, and other hospital guests in effective communication to facilitate the delivery of care that enhances patient safety. Quality may also entail assessing the patient’s risks for falls in the hospital setting upon admission, implementing evidence-based protocols for fall-prevention, and the eventual sustenance of such preventative protocols. These quality approaches would not only improve patient safety by preventing injuries due to falls, but also reduce or eliminate the costs associated with treating possible fractures. Furthermore, the delivery of quality care by knowledgeable and experienced nurses would ensure safety practices that reduce or eliminate errors and other foreseeable complications, thereby improving the safety of patients while sparing the nurses and the hospital any legal and financial costs for compensating damages due to negligence on their part.

The importance of nursing care in addressing this issue can be demonstrated using evidence-based approaches that link the health care outcomes, both positive and adverse ones, to the broader environmental and organizational factors, and the personal factors of the heath care professionals, patients, and other hospital guests. The best outcome variables for establishing the linkage include mortality, morbidity, health care costs, nurse satisfaction and burnout, patient satisfaction, organizational performance, and finally, the patient safety indicators, such as hazards and errors, and the adverse and near misses events (Rubenfeld & Scheffer, 2010, p. 104-105).



Finkler, S. A., Kovner, C. T., & Jones, C. B. (2007). Financial management for nurse managers and executives. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier.

Rubenfeld, M. G., & Scheffer, B. K. (2010). Critical thinking tactics for nurses: Achieving the IOM competencies. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

Law Coursework Paper on Immigration Law write essay help


Section A: 2013 immigration bill and article 8

Immigration laws refer to rules and regulations set aside by a country to govern the entry and exit of non-citizens into its territory. All countries of the world have immigration laws. The United Kingdom has immigration laws that have been in place since 1800. For a long time, the UK has had very stringent laws that govern the entry and stay of individuals who are not legitimate UK citizens (Timothy, H., 2005, 719). These laws were discriminatory and had many rules that people had to pass in order to gain citizenship into the country. This section looks at immigration laws in the United Kingdom in relation to article 8 of the ECHR and the 2013 immigration bill. Some law observers have argued that the UK government has generously granted relief to immigrants by using article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). This paper, therefore, seeks to find out the provisions in article 8 as well as how the immigration bill of 2013 seeks to end such generosities to immigrants.

An overview of UK immigration laws

Research shows that immigration law and policy in the United Kingdom has gone through a powerful and innovative transformation in the past decade (Timothy, H.,  2005, 724). The changes in immigration laws came about based on globalization, national and international adherence to human rights, the European Union and anti-terrorism acts, and evolutions in politics. Entry into the UK was hallmarked by discrimination based on racism, ethnicity, and religion among other things. Access into the nation was mainly restricted to those who enjoyed protection from the UK, those individuals who pledged allegiance to the country and entry from British colonies (Webber, F. & McDonald, I., 2010, 200). However, the past years have seen an influx in the number of foreigners entering and staying in the UK either legally or illegally.

Immigration officers noted that in the early 1990s, statistics confirmed that for every 25 people in the UK, one of them was a foreigner. However, the number has increased significantly and currently for every 12 people in the UK, one of them is a foreigner with British citizenship (Andrew, G., 2005, 725). This influx of foreign-born inhabitants in the UK has to lead to growth in diversity. The most recent census data has revealed that about 1 in 10 residents of the UK comes from an ethnic community. In urban centers, especially London, ethnic communities account for over 40% of the population.

The number of foreign-born citizens in the United Kingdom has also increased due to increased law that governs the acquisition of citizenship into the region (De Hart, B., & Ricky Van Oers, R., 2006). Many laws and acts came into place that protects people living in the UK. The border agency acts have also slackened their rules to enable more people to get into the country. Getting citizenship and staying in the UK has become easier because of adherence to national and international human rights acts. Economic operations between the UK and other countries have also made it easy for people to come into the region. Other factors such as study, marriage, and family have also contributed significantly to the number of foreigners in the country (Spencer, I.,1997, 127). Another factor that has to lead to an increased number of foreigners in the United Kingdom is the economic relationships that exist between European Union official members. Such a relationship brought about the relationship between Britain and commonwealth countries through trade and colonization.

Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)

Article 8 of the ECHR contains clauses that aim at awarding reliefs to immigrants. These are based on marriage, asylum, education, family and ability to appeal wrongful deportation. This section states that every person has the right to respect for his or her personal and family life the individual has rights to his or her home and correspondence of any nature (UKParliament, 2014). This means that under the law, no authorized and non-authorized person can infringe on the privacy, family life, activities and communication of a person.

This article continues to state that no public authority shall interfere with the rights provided under this section except in conditions that are in accordance with the law, under circumstances that are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country. Public authorities may only interfere with such freedom in situations when the law must act in the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, of the rights and freedoms of others (Legislation govt. UK, 2014). in order for law providers to deny human rights action towards individuals, such a person or people must be found to be capable of causing insecurities, crime, disorder or infringing on other peoples’ rights.

The law therefore makes it easy for people to gain entry and stay in the United Kingdom easily as long as they are able to abide by the rules and strictly adhere with the provisions of article. All individuals have the rights to appeal to any claims of them being in the country illegally using article 8. For example the case between Berrehab vs. The Netherlands (1988) 11 EHRR 322 the court maintained that it is illegal to deport a parent prior to a marriage which gave right of abode ended, since the child-parent relationship is entitled to respect. Secondly, the rights to family can also not be denied to a person (ECHR, 2010, 10). Courts should not make decisions that have the effects of separating families.

However, much promise for would-be immigrants concerning protection against separation from families does not hold much in many past cases, as detailed in most Strasbourg jurisprudence under article 8. For example, the case between Abdulaziz, Cabales and Balkandali vs. United Kingdom(1985) 7 EHRR 471. Results showed that no requirements were effected during the case that indicated that the State should have  accepted non-national spouses for settlement. A closer look at article 8 reports that the clause has both positives and negative effects, especially towards the government (ECHR, 2010, 11). For example, the state is under a negative obligation not to hold up the privacy rights, but in addition, Strasbourg case laws extended article 8 to impose a positive duty to take measures to prevent private parties from interfering with these rights:

Immigration bill 2013

Legislators in the United Kingdom argued that the government has been overly generous in granting relief to immigrants based on article 8 of the European convention of human rights. The concern prompted the senate, House of Lords and House of Commons to come up with an immigration bill that intends to reduce freedoms granted in article 8 (GOV. UK 2013). They believe that some individuals have the ability to miss use and overstate their rights based on article 8. They came up with the 2013 immigration bill that aims at reducing the number of illegal immigrants into the United Kingdom.

The immigration bill also intends to recommend changes that should lead to reforming the eradication and appeals system. The law should bring to an end, the exploitation of Article 8 and avoid illegitimate immigrants from receiving and misusing public services or the activities in the labor market (GOV. UK 2013). The members of parliament, house commons and House of Lords have unanimously agreed that the government have for a long time article 8 to grand work and stay to illegal immigrants.

They have noticed that these illegal immigrants have also relied on this same article to keep staying in the country illegally based on privacy and protection of family members. As such, immigration bill 2013 should permanently halt migrants who abuse public services that they are not permitted (GOV. UK 2013). The bill will reduce the attractive factors such as those mentioned in article 8, which attract illegal immigrants to the UK. It will also make it easier for immigration law enforcers to remove illegal people who should not be in the United Kingdom.

With respect to removal of people staying illegally in the UK, the immigration minister stated that they would continue to welcome well deserving immigrants from around the world, who have the pure intention of helping UK better its economy and society while respecting the set rules (GOV. UK 2013). According to him, UK citizens anticipate and have the rights to an immigration system that is fair to British citizens and reasonable to legitimate immigrants, but tough on those who abuse the system and breaks the law. Therefore, the legislators are for the opinion that the law must aim at protecting and be fully on the side of the individuals who respect, while eradicating those who break it.

The 2013 rules on immigration states that despite the drastic drop in immigration since 2010, there is still much to be done to help curb issues that arise in the country because of immigration (GOV. UK 2013). The immigration bill should help in removing system abuse where it was widespread, while at the same time upholding the UK’s position as a beneficial place to live, study and work for the brightest and best from around the globe. It will also make it possible for the immigration officers to easily identify and quickly remove illegal immigrants into the United Kingdom. They want to reduce the number of appeals based on article 8 that is currently standing at 7,000 appeals per year (GOV. UK 2013).

The bill will make it possible for these professionals to ensure that no illegal immigrant has easy access to services dictated by privacy and family life. To be able to achieve these intentions, the 2013 immigration bill will enable the law enforcers to quickly identify illegal immigrants and take them back to their countries of origin. This will be possible when the bill extends powers to collect and analyze fingerprints, evaluate the status and trustworthiness of migrants seeking to marry or enter into a civil partnership, and search all passports of everybody living and entering the country (GOV. UK 2013).


Potential impact of immigration bill 2013 on the rights of immigrants

In an attempt to eradicate illegal immigrants into the UK, the immigration bill of 2013 will have impacts such as denial of privacy to legal immigrants. This is because the bill seeks to grant extended powers to search all immigrants whether legal or not. The law will also make it impossible for people to acquire legal stay in the UK based on factors such as family, length of stay and academic achievement in the country(Migrants’ Rights Network 2013, 78). This notwithstanding the fact that there are many UK citizens enjoying free stay and better work packages in former UK colonies.

The bill will also make it impossible to some legal immigrants to appeal their removal from the UK based on factors such as delay from the court system or home country (Migrants’ Rights Network, 2013, 78). It will also force people who have the rights to stay in the UK to go back to their countries and reapply for new entries into the UK even though they have significantly contributed to the growth and development of the UK’s economy and society. Despite the fact that some immigrant are illegally in the UK, these immigrants have been working in the UK thereby boosting its economy.

The bill will make it hard if not impossible for immigrants to claim statutory benefits such as maternity payments even if a person qualifies for them (Clayton, G., 2012). The hill seeks to grant excess powers to lawmakers, which will ensure deportation upon arrival even without allowing an individual the rights to state their reason of being in the UK. The bill will as well result in increases in racial discrimination of migrants of various communities, especially when banks, hospitals, property owners among others are given the powers to check migrants in the country. It will also create a hostile environment for legal migrants who are rightfully in the country (Migrants’ Rights Network 2013).

Section B

Rights to stay in the United Kingdom

All immigrants into the United Kingdom have the right to stay as long as they are legal immigrants. There are different ways that an individual can use to acquire lawful migration into the country (legitimate civil marriage, legitimate family in UK, study, work, asylum and length of stay apply for citizenship). The immigration bill of 2013 is set to come up with draconian laws that prevent and eliminate illegal immigrants in the country, by extending excessive powers to immigration officers to help them root out illegal migrants. They claim that they want legal migrant who are able to obey the laws and help contribute to the growth and development of the country’s economy and society. They also aim to eradicate crime and other activities that might affect British citizens negatively.

An individual wishing to migrate to the United Kingdom can get legal migrants status to the country in many ways. It is therefore important for such people whether already in the UK or outside to be acquainted with such laws and other provisions so that they can make the right decisions (Clayton, G., 2012, 123). This section of the paper is a discussion of the various immigration options available to Jack that could lead to his settlement in the United Kingdom. Jack has been in the country since 2011 and has completed a degree in astrophysics with and obtained a distinction nine months ago in the United Kingdom. He has not found a job in his field, instead he is  working at the frozen foods section at a big supermarket, whilst hoping to raise money to undertake postgraduate studies in the UK. He is unable to return to South Sudan owing to the current conflicts that are in the country. Since arriving in the UK in 2011, he has lived with his 17-year-old boyfriend, John, who is a UK citizen but they are unable to openly declare their relationship owing to conservative family members.

Education visa as a means of stay

The ongoing explanation shows that jack has been in the United Kingdom for more than five years while studying. It shows he is still legally in the country. To continue his stay, jack can apply for an extension of student visa. This is because in as much he has finished his undergraduate degree, he still wish to continue studying a master degree that will be able him to get a well paying job in the UK ( UK, 2002). The law provides and ability for an individual to reapply for a tier4 student visa for continuation study in the UK. The first step that jack should take is to ensure that his previous student visa is valid.

He can then go to the embassy or immigration offices to apply for a tier 4 student visa that will enable him increase his stay in the country. While applying for this visa, he needs to show that he has the ability to sustain himself financially by staying that he works at a frozen food section of a big super market. This will show the officers that jack is not just enjoying the resources but is also working hard to help the country improve its economy and society. They will also be able to see Jack as a non-parasitic legal migrant.

The law also provides continuing students with the ability to acquire a work permit. Therefore, Jack should apply for a work permit upon realizing that the one he has is expired (Kay, H., 2006,71). A work permit will be able immigration officers to note that Jack is a well deserving bright mind who is capable of supporting himself without requiring extra help from the government. He must prove that he is capable of paying his school fee and other expenses by disclosing the contents of his bank account. This should not be a problem since he has been working for a given period and should have been smart enough to save for such needs and requirement.

Seeking asylum as a right of stay in the UK

According to the European convention on human rights, every person has a right to be protected for as long as they are in the UK. Article 8 of the human rights also grant asylum to persons who deserve it (GOV. UK. 2013). Jack is not able to go back to his country due to political turmoil and unrest. As such, he is eligible for protection under asylum provisions in the nationality, immigration and asylum acts of 1999 and 2002. Now that he is in the United Kingdom, such application should not be an issue, since the law requires an individual to apply for asylum upon arriving in the UK ( UK, 2002).

He should first find out if applying for asylum would make him go to the refugee camps thereby denying him his rights to live a free life, work and study. If applying for an asylum will subject him to such conditions, then he should not consider applying for an asylum (Clayton, G., 2012, 123). Jack will have to find out his eligibility levels for claiming asylum in the UK. If he is eligible, then he should go through lawful process such as screening during which he should provide valid information to the immigration officers. This is because if the officers find any false information during his screening, he might be liable for prosecution of asylum denial.

The law also states that all asylum seekers have the rights to be handled fairly and lawfully irrespective of their race, gender, age, religion, sexual orientation or any disability (Kay, H., 2006,78). Asylum seekers should not be denied the rights to practice their own religion. They are expected to show obedience to individuals of diverse faiths, have their application regarded justly and correctly. They are required by the law to have access to help and accommodation if they meet the requirements for such support. According to the law, asylum seekers also need to be granted access to free health care from the National Health Service (NHS).

Section 94 of the nationality, immigration and asylum act (1999) defines a destitute asylum seekers as a person who is at least 18 years, is already in the UK, needs support and accommodation, has applied for asylum and his or her asylum has not been processed. Jack should therefore try to apply for asylum based on the provisions as per the law and examine if he is legible for legal stay in the country based on asylum (De Hart, B., & Ricky Van Oers, R., 2006).

Length of stay

Another means that Jack may use to help him stay legally in the United Kingdom is to apply for residence based on length of stay (De Hart, B., & Ricky Van Oers, R., 2006). He can claim that he has been in the country for five years and still wish to stay legally for another five years while working and studying. He should indicate that it has significantly contributed to the society and economy of the country by working there. He must also prove that he has ever violated any rule and does not pose a threat to the citizens in any way.

He can also use the human rights act of 1998 to justify further, why he deserves to be given a chance to legally live and work in the UK (Kavanga, 2008). He may also argue that by the time he will be finishing his master’s degree, he shall have completed the required ten-year stay in the United Kingdom and can apply for permanent stay in the country based on these grounds. Apart from study visa, Jack may also apply for a legal work permit that will allow him to stay in the country on employment grounds. He can show that he has been working for a given period in the UK and is eligible to stay and continue working under his current job.

Legitimate family in the United Kingdom

Article 8 of the European convention of human rights states that everybody has the right to private and family. This law states that everybody has the right to family and should be granted the right to stay with a legitimate family in the UK (Christopher, 1985, 114). The human rights act also states that an individual should be given the right to be legally in the country based on family relationships. As such, Jack should find out if he has legitimate family members who have lived in the United Kingdom.

He should be able to prove that these are his real family members. After this, he can apply for a stay visa that connects him with his family. The visa should also make it possible for Jack to be recognized as legal migrants in the United Kingdom (Human Rights Acts, 1999). Based on the fact that he is currently working and is able to support himself financially, Jacks’s family, if any will not have to prove that they are capable of providing for him financially. However, they must be able to prove that they can accommodate him and protecting if need be.


Naturalization is another method that Jack can use to acquire legal stay in the United Kingdom (De Hart, B., & Ricky Van Oers, R., 2006). Under the provision of naturalization, the law requires an applicant to demonstrate the ability of spoken English and at least some level of knowledge of societal life in the UK. These provisions should not be a problem for Jack since he has lived and studied in the country for more than five years. He, therefore, has proper if the not good command of spoken and written English and also knows the type of life that people live there ( UK, 2002). For example, he has been staying with his boyfriend since 2011, an indication that he knows that the law allows people to cohabit with their boyfriends, girlfriends, friends or fiancés.

Application of citizenship

The last method that Jack may use to get by applying to be a citizen of the country. In this way, he may be able to express his needs to become a legal citizen of the United Kingdom (Alexander, T. & Klusmeyer, D., 2001). After living in the country for quite some time and by showing his intention to continue his education in the country, the immigration officers should apply the necessary laws to grant him legal stay in the United Kingdom. He could have considered using civil marriage as another method of acquiring legal migrants but this is impossible since he is not legally married to his boyfriend.

He cannot be able to prove beyond any doubt that their relationship will end up in a legal marriage (Human Rights Acts, 1999). The law only allows people to claim legibility of immigration based on civil marriage in cases where the couple is able to show that their marriage is legitimate, legal and recognized by the law. This is one fact that Jack cannot prove and therefore may not consider using it.

Of all the methods available for Jack, the best way for him to use in order to settle in the United Kingdom is to first apply for a tier 4 student visa and obtain a work permit (Human Rights Acts, 2002). As the years pass by while he continues to finish his master’s degree, he shall have obtained the maximum ten years of stay in the country. He can then easily apply to be a citizen through registration or through naturalization.


Immigration laws have been tightened in the UK in order to help flash out illegal immigrants. It has become hard for people to easily obtain chances of staying, living and working in the UK. On the contrary, people who want to work, study and stay in the UK with good intentions can still have ways of obtaining visa and permits that legalizes their stays. It is important for an individual to familiarize themselves with such laws and provisions in order to be right with the law and to avoid deportation or persecution.




Alexander, T. & Klusmeyer, D., 2001. Citizenship today: global perspectives and practices, p90. London: Brookings Institution Press

Andrew, G., 2005. “Getting the best of both worlds? Britain, the EU and migration policy.” International Affairs (81.4) p 723-740. Viewed on 4/5/2014

Christopher, V., 1985. Aliens and the Judicial Review of Immigration Law: Public Law, pp 93-114, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Clayton, G., 2012. Textbook on Immigration and Asylum Law. 5th Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press

De Hart, B., & Ricky Van Oers, R., 2006. “7 European trends in nationality law.” (Available on web)

ECHR., 2010. Eoropean Convention on Human rights. Viewed on 4/5/2015

GOV. UK, 2013. Immigration bill: an overview. Viewed on 4/5/2015

GOV. UK, 2013. Immigration bill. Viewed on 4/5/2015

GOV. UK, 2014. Claim asylum in the UK. Viewed on 4/5/2014

Human Rights Acts, 1999. Nationality, immigration and asylum.

Human Rights Acts, 20002. Nationality, immigration and asylum.

Kavanga, A., 2009. ‘Judging the Judges under the Human Rights Act: Deference, Disillusionment and the ‘War on Terror’’, p287. Public Law

Kay, H., 2006. Nationality in public international law and European law. Acquisition and Loss of Nationality. Policies and Trends (15) pp 35-104, London: Brookings Institution Press UK, 2002. Nationality, immigration and asylum act 2002. Viewed 4/5/2014

Migrants’ Rights Network, 2013. Immigration bill: creating a hostile environment for migrants in the UK. Viewed on 4/5/2015

Spencer, I., 1997. British Immigration Policy Since 1939: Making Of Multiracial Britain. London: Routledge 127- 151.

Timothy, H., 2005. “Explaining trends in UK immigration.” Journal of Population Economics (18.4) 719-740. Viewed on 4/5/2014

UK Parliament, 2014. Bills and legislation. Viewed on 4/5/2014

UK Parliament, 2014, Human rights act 1998. Viewed on 4/5/2015

Webber, F. & McDonald, I., 2010. Immigration Law and Practice (8th ed.), p 200. London: Butterworth’s


Business Studies Essay Paper on Innovation and Change in Business best essay help: best essay help

Innovation and Change in Business


Many current Chief Executive Officers of different organizations hold to the fact that developing new ideas and innovations are their priorities. This means that innovation remains an important factor in the success of any business enterprise. Innovation entails establishing of new products or services in business operations. For many years, organizations have depended on the need to spend resources on the innovative ideas that are likely to help establish their market shares. According to an article by The Economist (2007), innovation and change within business settings became relevant after the end of the Second World War. Major economies like the United States saw the need to develop new products that would solve people’s problems. Research and Development (R & D) has been the main approach adopted by many business enterprises as well as governments in an attempt to come up with products in the market. It is no secret that Research and Development is seen as the main factor into adapting to the needs of the market. For this reason, many businesses allocate millions of pounds and Euros in order to come up with products that meet new requirements and market needs (Klette and Kortum, 2004).

Organizations that adopt Research and Development are known to be innovative in nature. These organizations allocate much of their resources into research with a view of coming up with new products that meet certain market needs. To many people, these organizations are known to be innovative. There is the belief that the more an organization spends on R & D, the more innovations it is likely to come to have. However, it is important to critically look at this claim because it tries to show that organizations with no Research and Development plans can never come up with new products that meet unarticulated needs within the market (Odagiri, 1985). As much as many organizations have used R & D to come up with innovative products and services, others have also achieved great success without having to rely on R & D. for this reason; this paper does a critical analysis of the claim with a view to presenting the correct standpoint of the issue.

A critical look at the different aspects of R & D helps in finding out whether data support the claim that the adoption and expenditure on R & D makes an organization innovative. A look at the R & D figures from different organizations is important in finding the correct impact on innovation (Cohen and Klepper, 1996). On the same note, many organizations do not have R & D budget and making an analysis helps in finding out whether this affects innovation within such organizations. This study critically examines different cases in order to find out whether R & D is the key to having an innovative organization and whether more expenditure equals to more innovation.

Is R & D the Key to having an Innovative Organization? 

Research and development (R & D) entail specific activities within an organization that is modeled to achieve progress through the establishment of new products and services. These activities do differ from one company to another; however, the functions of R & D can be classified together. The first function that research and development seek to achieve is the development of new products into the market. Another function may entail the need to discover new knowledge about a certain scientific method that can be used to come up with new products or processes (OECD, 2009). Within the OECD, the UK, or even the EU, expenditure by different organizations shows that R & D budgetary allocation continues to be valued as a stepping stone towards coming up with products and services that satisfy consumers. To get the correct picture, it is important to make statistical analysis on the R & D expenditure within the European Union and other economic blocks under OECD (Chakrabarti, 1990).

According to the United Nations (2012), research and development is helpful since it leads to the acquisition of necessary knowledge within the society. Information that arises from research and development can be used by organisations to establish products that enhance competitive advantage within the market. In the current times, the best way towards establishing products and services that meet specific needs in the society requires that a system be put in place to gather the knowledge available. A system that enables for sharing knowledge is important towards allocating resources that eventually bear fruits in terms of the profits. Any production process requires that the producer is able to identify the needs of consumers; otherwise, innovation may fail to serve its purpose. All these explain the need for research and development as the main method towards becoming innovative.

Different organisations may adopt various approaches towards innovation as dictated by the strategic plans. This means that R & D is valued as an important drive towards innovation.  Most of organisations either use R & D in order to make incremental innovation while others prefer radical innovation. In incremental innovation, changes are made on the existing product or service in order to make improvements and capture the attention of the consumers while radical innovation entails adopting sweeping changes on the existing products and services.

According to Leifer (2000), most organizations adopt incremental innovation because of the advantages it provides over the radical innovation. He notes that so long as a give product or service is in the market, it develops human capacity and expertise, making it easy to come up with improvements that meets identified needs of the consumers. This means that incremental innovation reduces the risk that may arise from major changes. Organisations also tend to spend less when they adopt incremental innovation since expenditure towards research and development only works towards making improvements depending on market need. Radical innovation means that more investment must be done in order to come up with very new products or services in the market.

Google Company provides a good case that proves that research and development is an important tool towards innovation. Some time back, the company developed Gmail in order to help in sending emails. For long, Gmail was a simple interphase that did not have many features. Most importantly, the company kept Gmail simple by avoiding flash ads that affect users but efficiently delivering mails. With time, the company has continued to make improvements on Gmail by making it better and faster to use. These improvements continue to the present as seen in the services that the company comes up with. Google has adopted incremental innovation in most of its products, something that has led to the introduction of products like google maps and chrome browser. Their strategy has always been to stay relevant to consumers at all times, continual improvement of their products and services to them more competitive in the market. Another important strategy has been cost reduction, meaning that consumers should access services with less cost of bandwidth.

Google case does not mean that radical innovation does not work. Virgin firm remains a firm that continues to undertake radical innovation towards diversification. They spend most of their resources in order to come up with products and services that are different from each other. So far, this company has more than two hundred different business under operating under a single umbrella. These lines of business cover areas like planes, music, and gaming, mobile among others something that makes it different from Google Company that only makes improvement of its internet services. It comes that their corporate strategy entails adopting research and development in order to achieve diversification of products and services in the market. This is an advantage since collapsing of the company would mean that different businesses would continue to operate without much interference (The Economist, 2012, January 14).

However, it is important to note that Virgin Company adopts hybrid of innovation strategies through their continued improvement on their products and services after they are launched to the market. They seriously use research and development in order to produce new products and service that stand out from others and later continue making improvements on the same. According to Kim and Mauborgne (2005,) a purely radical innovation entails adopting ‘blue ocean strategy’ in order to create new products. This means that such organisations do not use their resources towards fighting competition in the market but work towards circumventing it through by innovating new products and services, effectively creating a new market.

Mobile phones remain important in the lives of human life. In the beginning, mobile phones were simple with limited applications for consumers. However, mobile manufacturers have continued to come up with innovations, leading to addition of many features in order to target specific clients in the market. Presently, smart phones have added usefulness in these gadgets since they can perform functions like personal computers. Further incremental innovation has also made working with phones convenient since users can easily access the internet without having to visit cyber cafés. It stands out that innovation helps in increasing demand for the products, and at the same time helps to reduce production cost.

Other than the adoption of research and development as a way towards innovation, many other methods can be used to arrive to the same end. Not all expenditure on R & D leads to the innovative products that meet specific goals in the market. Despite the heavy investments on research and development, some organizations fail to come with adequate innovations that solve problems in the market. This means that research and development is important; however, there is need to look at other factors that may affect innovation. According to The Economist (2012, January 14), Fujifilm never made major investments on research and development; however, they were keen to study the changes that quickly approached by each passing time. Because of this, they were able to prepare adequately by making necessary changes into the future. Research and development should be directed towards meeting future needs within the society. An organization that fails to capture such future needs during research and development may come up with products and services that fail to attract attention of the consumers.

It is important to have in mind that innovation does not just require R & D but needs to entail an understanding of the market needs. Any innovation that does not capture a deeper understanding of the market trends, needs of customers and market competition, there can never be the proper direction. Leadership is another leading factor that determines innovative culture within an organization. In most cases, an organization culture that promotes diversity, with much support and reward those activities that promote diversity (Griliches, 2000). In such organizations, failure is seen as an opportunity to bring improvement on the innovation. This requires a committed executive team of leaders that fully support innovation (Geroski, Machin and Van Reenen, 1993).

More Expenditure equals more Innovation

Innovation has been associated with how much is allocated towards the same in an organization. This can also be seen in the amount that is spent towards research and development within the UK or EU. In most cases, organizations that thrive in different industries have attributed their successes to the much expenditure on R & D. The European Union (EU) has always endeavored to allocate more resources towards R & D with a view of coming up with better products and services. Science and technology is an area that account for much of the money allocated towards research and development. One of the objectives has been to increase the level of investment in order to increase competitiveness on the global market. In order to achieve this, the trading block had an objective of committing 3% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in order to boost R & D (Eurostat, 2012). However, the block still struggles to reach this target. According to the Eurostat (2012), European Union expenditure was almost EUR 250,000 million in 2010. This result showed an increase of 3.4% while compared to the previous year, and almost 50% increase when compared to 2000, a decade earlier. The ratio of R & D expenditure in relation to GDP is an important indicator towards showing the progress towards Europe 2020 strategy. According to Figure 1, R & D expenditure increased steadily to 1.88% before experiencing a decline in 2005 and another increase to 2.0% in 2009. In 2010, the expenditure fell slightly below 2.0%, something that was attributed to the slow recovery from the financial system crisis at the time.

Figure 1: R & D expenditure in relation to GDP

Source: Eurostat, OECD (2012)

It is widely accepted that the more an organization allocates towards research and development, the more innovation it is likely to come up with. However, whether more expenditure leads to more innovation is debatable. The information above indicates that the R & D expenditure by many business enterprises remain steadily high in many countries. According to the EU strategy, more expenditure on R & D is encouraged in order to come up with innovations that make the trading block competitive (Parisi, Schiantarelli and Sembenelli, 2006). Many business enterprises within UK spent billions of Euro every year in order to come up with products that meet consumer needs (Conte, 2006). The recent financial crisis in the past has been blamed for less resource allocation towards research and development. This is shown in Figure 1 by the slight decrease within the European Union, especially towards 2010.

The best way to find out what increased expenditure towards innovation can achieve is by S-curve. This comes from the fact that innovation of a given product or service undergoes different stages and there reaches a time when allocating more money on the same line of product may not yield the required outcome. Any kind of technology undergoes a lifecycle, something that may limit allocation of more money on the same line of product or service. In most cases, the beginning of innovation is met by slow commercialization because a number of constraints arise in the process. The continued effort towards solving such challenges leads to more progress in terms of the rate of progress. However, performance of a given technology innovation is limited with age as other fundamental constraints come into play.

Figure 2 below gives a typical S-Curve of a technology where horizontal axis represents cumulative amount of research and development over time. Note that time is an important variable that gives the outcome of an effort. The vertical axis measures performance in terms of the commercial performance. With time, newer technologies emerge into market thus overtaking the older innovations in terms of the commercial performance. This means that the continued expenditure on the same line of products may not lead to the same high commercial acceptance in the market as before.


Figure 2: Technology Innovation S-curve


Performance                                                       T1                             T2


R & D effort or Time

Note: T1 represents the old technology while T2 represent the new technology.

As shown above, a given technology becomes older with time while newer technologies bring alternative solution to consumers. It is apparent that the continued effort put in place in order to come up with more innovation does not yield much in terms of performance. Emergence of newer technologies mostly works to replace the older ones. In figure 2 above, performance improvement in T1 slows down with time as the T2; a newer technology improves its performance in spite of its inferiority. According to the S-curve, T2 overtakes T1 in terms of the performance. S-curve helps in determining how technological changes that affect innovation.

According to Foster (1986), innovation undergoes different phases that influence effect of the expenditure on the same. At time 0, an innovation finds its way into the market through a given product. After the introduction, an organization finds out how to bring effectiveness in to the product by embarking on intense program of innovation. The initial period of innovation registers less growth because the new product tries to establish itself within the market.  The following period, marked by the intense innovation in a bid to find the correct design is known as fluid stage. Expenditure allocated towards research and development is meant to come up with a dominant design that meets a given market need. At this period, the product becomes established in the market with an increased demand from the consumers. This is shown by the increased performance in figure 2 above. Innovations through R & D help in acquiring knowledge that leads to product improvements. After this dominant design, product innovation begins to slow. The last part of the product cycle is marked by the slow growth rate and any further investment in R & D does not yield the required revenue (Foster, 1986).

S-curve proves that the continued expenditure towards research and development leads to increased innovation. At the beginning of an innovation, R & D plays an important role towards developing ideas and methods of producing products that meets certain needs within a market. However, positive growth or performance is registered after an appropriate design has been developed and the demand increases in the market. As shown in the S-curve, times comes when more research and development does not lead to the positive result because new products have emerged in the market. At this stage, no amount of expenditure on the same product in an attempt of coming up with more innovation can help improve its image in the market. Beyond this point, more expenditure does not equal to more innovation (Rogers, 1962). In most cases, new technologies have already emerged in the market and consumers have set their eyes on them.

In order to ensure that expenditure on R & D leads to more innovation, innovative organizations should work towards ensuring that they work towards new technologies that would replace old ones. In figure 2, T2 represents the new and emerging innovation that has come up and is rapidly overtaking the older one (T1). This means that an organization is able to continue experiencing growth of a product through newer technologies meant to solve particular problems within the market. Maintaining an old line of technology through continued expenditure on research and development does not lead to the increased growth and performance.

It is apparent that research is an important factor towards coming up with innovative products and services that satisfy consumers. As noted in the above tables, countries within OECD spend more of their resources in order to increase competitiveness within the trading block. Another fact that stands is that business enterprises make the bigger percentage of the resources committed towards R & D. The goal of such decisions is to come up products and services that satisfy the intended consumers (Johansson and Loof, 2008).  With this respect, it is important to note that not all investments committed towards R & D lead to the intended innovation. For instance, some technological companies have committed much money towards coming with robots that are able to serve humans. Much of these efforts have not yielded the right fruits in terms of innovation (Pisano and Shih, 2009).

In conclusion, research and development remains an important factor that helps organizations come up with innovations that meet consumer needs. Currently, it is difficult to come up as a market leader without having a deliberate plan towards modifying or coming up with new products and services. World leaders in business sector continue to commit resources towards research and development in order to produce products and services that meet expectation of consumers. The positive point comes from the fact that consumers are always ready to try new and modified products that are introduced into the market. On the same note, expenditure has been associated with innovation. The more resources allocated towards research and development, the better the chances of coming up with great innovations. However, S-curve shows that results from research and development on a given product have phases. Moreover, other than R & D, others factors like leadership determine the outcome of innovation.




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Case of Process and Product R&D. Review of Economics and Statistics 78(2):232-243

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Advantage. New York: Summit Books, pp. 88-111.

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Journal of Economics 24(2):198-211.

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Harvard University Press.

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Sample IT Assignment Paper on the Pros and Cons of Cloud Computing compare and contrast essay help

The Pros and Cons of Cloud Computing

Presently, cloud computing is evolving at a high rate and every organization is becoming accustomed to this new technology. This paper focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of technology in both stakeholders and Architectural point of view.

Stakeholder’s Viewpoints


Reduced Cost

One of the reasons that stakeholders employ cloud computing is due to financial reasons, for example, the idea to decrease ICT investment charges and transfer them to service charges. Cloud computing is normally directly related to various stakeholders’ tangible business gains that can impact the bottom line. However, the advantages appeal to different kinds of companies where cloud computing provides an opportunity to widely outsource ICT infrastructure management as it remains scalable and flexible in their vibrant business environment. It offers the best cost efficient method to employ, maintain as well as upgrade.


Many stakeholders have shown an extensive list of practical concerns towards the cloud computing where privacy concerns tops the list.

Availability and Flexibility

Cloud computing provides services that are accessible from wherever the end user may be situated. This approach facilitates easy access to any information as well as accommodates the user needs in diverse time zones and geographic locations as long as the user is registered and there is Internet connection. This facilitates viewing and modifying of shared files and documents.


Security and Privacy

Security is a big concern when it comes to this technology. An organization is normally required to provide its personal information by leveraging a remote cloud technology based infrastructure and this can be private and sensitive. It is the responsibility of the cloud service providers to manage, secure, and maintain them; therefore, every possible alternative must be explored before making a decision.

Inadequate Control

Since the services and programs are run remotely, the users, organizations as well as virtual environments have inadequate power over the implementation and function of both hardware and software.

Low speed

In most cases, there are numerous different users using similar hardware to carry out processing operation or access data. Depending on the number of users accessing the cloud simultaneously and the type of hardware it is operating with, some loads may slow down the system. This slows down the computing time as the user tries to use or access the cloud.

Architectural perspective


Environmentally Friendly

The technology is much efficient as compared to the usual IT infrastructure, whereby it takes fewer resources to compute, hence saving power.  For instance, when a server is not in use, the infrastructure usually scales down, frees the resources, and consumes less energy. At any given time, only the truly needed resources are used by the system.

Quick Deployment

This technology can be operating in a short moment, which makes quick deployment major benefit. In addition, it happens instantaneously when introducing a new user and this eliminates waiting time. Software integration also takes place organically in cloud installations. Organizations are allowed to select the applications and services that best suit their preferences as there is less effort in integrating and customizing those applications.

Performance and Scalability

Scalability is a feature integrated for cloud computing deployments. In this case, cloud instances are installed automatically only when required, thus the user pays just for the data storage and applications he/she needs. Likewise, it offers flexibility because it is possible to scale clouds to need the organization’s changing IT systems demand.


Increased Vulnerability

The cloud based solutions are usually uncovered on the public Internet, hence more vulnerable attacks by malicious hackers and users. In this case, there is no guaranteed security on the Internet and the biggest users are subjected to security breaches and attacks.


There is implied dependency on a service provider, which is one of the biggest drawbacks of cloud technology. It becomes impossible to move from one provider to another once an organization has rolled with him. It is usually painful and burdensome transferring vast information from the previous provider to another.

Women and Gender Studies Paper on Hemogenic Masculinity custom essay help: custom essay help

Hemogenic Masculinity


Gender is constructed in the form of cultural and subjective understandings that often shift and vary (Dines & Humez, 1995. Both men and women are persistently pressured to conform to some sets of gender based dictates of society. This paper will use the case of Klondike’s, advertisement, ‘Five Seconds to Glory,’ above, to argue that often, ideologies of masculinity in the society seem fixed, but when carefully analyzed this is not usually the case.

Social constructions show that men are violent. The perception here has led to the depiction of men in various violent acts. ‘One of the major sources of the dominant masculinity is found in the movie industry’ (Dines & Humez, 1995). When this is related to Klondike’s advertisement, it may be argued that because the man listened to the woman for five whole seconds without, perhaps, acting violently, deserves some reward, since some men would have likely reacted violently. The society associates male gender with violence, hence the depiction of males in movies and advertisements related to violence (Dines & Humez, 19950. ‘Violence scenes on the screen like those in real world are perpetuated tremendously by males’ (Dines & Humez, 1995). On the other hand, violence may be associated with badness yet masculinity depicts males as good.

According to the society, men are not supposed to listen to women for long. The same is in  Klondike’s ‘5 Seconds to Glory’ advertisement campaign where the man receives prizes for listening to his spouse for five seconds. According to society here, listening to a spouse is too difficult a task that should be done in less than five seconds. Considered carefully, this ideology of masculinity draws many questions. Such questions may include whether listening to a spouse is more helpful than not listening to him/her. The line of argument here, therefore, becomes both ambiguous and arguable.

Another social masculine construction is that men are good, but women are bad. Usually, men are shown to have admirable. For instance, in the article ‘This Is for Fighting, This Is for Fun, and it said ‘A among the military people, the ‘good guys,’ is ‘men like us (Dines & Humez, 1995). The badness of women is illustrated thus; ‘The ‘bad guys’ are symbolically women’ (Dines & Humez, 1995).   In light of the Klondike’s advertisement, it may be argued that women are bad, perhaps, because of the way they talk, thus listening to them even for seconds is a weighty duty which should be rewarded with both an ice cream and showering with confetti by beautiful women. The man is presented here as being good by listening to his spouse for just five second. On the other hand, the rewarding of the man may be meant to appreciate his goodness in listening to a spouse, probably because many men do not do listen to their spouses.

In conclusion  different media houses  tend to strengthen societal norms and articulates some set of behaviors, interests and presentations that stand for correct manliness. For instance, the article This Is for Fighting, This Is for Fun  states that “ their ad features a man drinking beer and sees another man steal from a woman, the beer drinking man flicks a bottle top and hits the stealing man, thus saving the day”. Whereas the article 5 seconds of glory says that “the media reinforces societal norms and articulates a set of behaviors, interests, and representations that depict appropriate manhood. Images targeting men construct what “manly” means, and often try to insinuate that masculinity is biologically determined, rather than socially constructed”. Different images targeting men in media houses seem to prescribe what ‘manly’ represents, and usually try to suggest that masculinity is in-born, rather than socially built. Although the ideology of masculinity often seems fixed, a closer examination may realize that they are subject to different arguments. It is important that the issue of gender role is looked at critically because of ambiguity that some present when carefully analyzed.




Dines, G., & Humez, J. M. (1995). Gender, race, and class in media: A text-reader. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage.

YouTube. Klondike 5 Seconds to Glory: Good Listener. Retrieved on 30th April, 2014 from


Religious Studies Assignment Paper on the Bible as a Reliable Source for Theology essay help websites: essay help websites

The Bible as a Reliable Source for Theology


The Bible is a book that has often come under heavy criticism and at the same time high praises. Christians in all generations have regarded this book as the inspired word of God and have been used throughout generations to teach theology. However, critics of the Bible have always found something against this book. In the recent past, an attack has been instigated against the New Testament and most especially the Gospels. However, others like Lee Strobel, a supporter, and defender of the New Testament have risen to defend the New Testament and try to prove its reliability. He considers several pieces of evidence in support of the New Testament books.

Eyewitness Testimony

Each of the writers of the gospels (Mathew, Mark, Luke, and John) was able to accurately record direct or indirect eyewitness testimony. This is because they were present with Jesus at every event. These recordings were facts for direct and indirect eyewitnesses. Critics, however, claim that the accounts of Matthew and Luke are a copy of Mark thus they are not independent accounts and that the authors of Mark and John are still disputed. In light of all these criticisms, the fact that these were first hand witnesses still overrides all possible criticisms and they might not have had different views of the same subject.

Reliability of oral tradition of the ancient Middle East

Initially, most of the New Testament books existed as oral traditions (Strobel 23). This was before they were penned down. These oral traditions were passed from generation to generation and memorized so that a particular generation could teach the next generation. During the oral culture, memorization was stressed upon so as to preserve the culture and pass it over to the younger generation. The materials on the life of Jesus and His teachings were stored in memory for approximately thirty years before they were written. Critics have however questioned the validity of these oral traditions and how accurate they could have been after thirty years considering that human memory is unreliable because over time it fades (Strobel 36). Documentary evidence from different geographical areas were found to be identical thus suggesting that they were identical to the original copies even in the absence of the original memo (Strobel 35). This showed that the New Testament was recorded accurately in the ancient literature.

However, notable changes could be pointed out between these documentary evidences. These were as a result of changes done by the different church council considering several issues which included the authors, belief of the Christians at the time and the use of the book by the church at that time (Strobel 58). There is also presence of corroborating evidence that confirm the presence of the New Testament books.

Research over the years have proven that in as much as human memory fades over time and one can easily forget what they were previously taught over time, chances are that the likelihood of first hand witnesses to remember these incidences will be higher than those whom these were given as oral narrations. At the same time, human mind is made in such a way that if something is repeated more often, it easily sticks in the memory as compared to those that are rarely mentioned.

Possibility of bias

The Bible is a collection of books most of which were written in different places at different times and by different people. The gospel writers underwent much persecutions and torture so as to pen the words of the gospel (Strobel 45). They spent much time and so many resources so as to produce these books of the gospel. Would these efforts be for nothing or would they go through all this just to cover up what never happened? Not, at all. They must have believed in the course of which they had taken. They could not have gone all that way just to show bias towards anything.

Criteria used for the inclusion of books in the New Testament

The council in the early church used three basic criteria to determine the documents that are to be included in the set of books to be contained in the New Testament. First, they doubted if the book was authored by an apostle or a follower of an apostle. The early church decided to only include books written by apostles (Strobel 64). Moreover, as the gospel spread and more believers joined Christianity, they were taught the doctrines that pertained to the faith. Written documents were scrutinized to check if they conformed to what the Christian family already believed.Lastly, the churches acted in unison in that if a church in a different location did accept the book, it would be rejected in other areas.

The role of archaeology

Archeology has proven some details in the gospel of Luke and supported the credibility of the gospels of Mark and John. However, archeology cannot prove or disapprove spiritual truths and at the same time, they cannot confirm the validity of Jesus’ statements (Strobel 5).


Considering all the arguments brought forward by the critics against the reliability of the New Testament books, Lee Strobel tackles some of the most crucial evidences to support the Bible as a reliable theological book. These include the eyewitness evidence, documentary evidence, corroborating evidence and archeological evidence (Strobel 19). These he used in support of the New Testament books. However, he never sought the views of the critics so as to get a wider perspective of their views.



Works Cited

Strobel, Lee. The case for a Creator: a journalist investigates scientific evidence that points toward God. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2004. Print.


Religious Studies Homework Paper on Pillars of Islam gp essay help

Pillars of Islam

According to Kobeisy (2004), the five pillars of Islam will ensure that a Muslim is able to live a moral and pure life according to the will of God. The first pillar of Islam, Shahadah, helps Muslims to develop a strong faith for Islam through accepting that there exists only one God (Allah). It is practiced to demonstrate a Muslim’s total faith to the only existing God. The Kalima is a recitation for all Muslims based on the first pillar, which demonstrates a Muslim’s total faith to the only existing God. Salat (salah) is the second pillar that is the foundation for Islamic prayer. It is practiced because everyone has a direct link with God through prayer. The third pillar of Islam, Zakat, requires all Muslims to participate in alms giving according to capability and accumulated wealth. It is practiced to promote the economic status of the less fortunate in the society, which is considered a service to God. Sawm as a fourth pillar requires that every Muslim should undertake fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. This is practiced as a sign of deep personal worship to God. Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam that requires all able Muslims to visit Mecca once in their lifetime during which they demonstrate complete obligation to the requirements of the Islamic religion.

Hajj is the most difficult pillar to adhere to because the proximity of all Muslims to Mecca is limited by distance (Hedayetullah,  2006). The high cost of traveling to this place would hinder most Muslims who cannot meet the financial cost.

Shahadah is the easiest among the other pillars to adhere to because it is based on only citations. It requires that every Muslim recite the Kalima, which is very easy because it only needs to understand the citation.





Hedayetullah, M. (2006). Dynamics of Islam: An Exposition. Bloomington: Trafford Publishing.

Kobeisy, A. N. (2004). Counseling American Muslims: Understanding the Faith and Helping the People. Westport: Praeger Publishers.


Sample Research Paper on Why Workplace Inspection Is Important computer science essay help: computer science essay help

Why workplace Inspection is Important


It is essential for all organizations, institutions, companies and all other institutions of work to regularly carryout workplace inspection (Johnstone, 2011). This is crucial because these inspections help to prevent accidents and other injuries that might have occurred to the people around the place at any given time. Illnesses and other potential or actual hazards can be prevented if the dangers can be detected and corrected during inspection (Dikshith, 2013). The core role of inspecting the surrounding of workers and where they carry out their duties at work is to provide a safe environment, which is healthy from all kinds of risks. The inspection decreases chances of workers getting injured and hurt, and instead increases their morale to work in a safer environment. This task of inspecting the workplace plays a key role in trusting between the employers and their workers (Hopwood, 2006).

Workplace Inspections

It is important for the management of any organization to carry out an inspection of the workplace because the results of these inspections are recorded when identified, and this helps in planning on taking action and determining the best actions to prevent any injury or illness from the harmful situation (Collins, 2001). These activities of monitoring and reporting the inspection can be done by joint efforts from the occupational health and safety committee. These programs demand that the workplace gets inspected on a regular basis so that the workers can be saved from any impending risks.

Purpose of Inspection

When the inspections in a workplace are carried out regularly, they enable the management and the health and safety committee to listen to the issues and concerns raised by the employees. Sometimes the employees may have issues to raise, but the general supervisors may shun their concerns, claiming they are not serious to worry about. The management may also say that they will conduct the necessary action at a certain time of the year so that not to interfere with the normal operations of the organization (Hopwood, 2006). For instance, when the remedy to an impending danger involve demolishing a building and renovating or building a new structure, the management may decide to hold the action for a period of time until certain projects are over if they think the concern is not too risky.

Inspecting a workplace helps the inspector gain further knowledge concerning the nature of the job and the tasks. This is important because it helps them to familiarize with situations so they would identify any impending risk during their inspection programs in the future. In addition, the inspection programs help the health and safety committee to identify and record the present and prospective hazard (Collins, 2001). When identification is done, recording, and reporting are the next steps taken, so that action is taken to save the lives of the workers and evade destruction of other properties.

Results obtained from the inspection programs are crucial because information on how to monitor and control hazards is presented to the workers and other personnel in the environment. People are provided with, and encouraged to use protective equipments to avoid any looming danger (Dikshith, 2013). In addition, engineering control is carried out to ensure that the hazards do not cause any harm to the workers. Policies and procedures can also be implemented and the workers advised on how to adhere to them, to avoid injuries from accidental hazards on the premises. When all the inspectors are done, the committee is able to recommend the proper action to be taken by the management and the general workers as well (Hopwood, 2006).

How to examine for inspections

Every inspection is planned and the areas to be covered revolve around the people (who), place/location (where), time (when), what and how. These factors are also crucial in providing accurate information and in planning for the most effective actions to take. Items in the workplace are examined so closely, especially those likely to develop unsafe and unhealthy conditions, likely to arise in time because of situations such as misuse, impact, chemical reaction, stress, heat, wear corrosion or vibration (Collins, 2001). The entire place of work should be inspected during the normal routines of the program to ensure that no chances are taken that can pose a danger to the workers. These programs should be extended even to areas that are rarely active and where no work is carried out regularly, such as locker rooms, parking lots, office storage, and rest areas.

Inspection Principles

When inspecting a workplace, keen attention should be focused on the presence of any immediate danger.
All the risky places that cannot receive immediate repair should be locked and access denied to the workers until the fault is corrected.
Inspectors should not operate on any equipment, especially if they do not have knowledge of how to operate the equipment.
The operator should be asked for demonstrations on how to repair the faulty equipment.
While taking the records, all hazards should be noted in correspondent to their location in the inspector’s rough notes.
The inspector should ask necessary questions without disrupting the process for effective results.
If any equipment is not operating because it was shut down in a previous inspection, the inspector should postpone the exercise until the equipment operates again.
The inspectors should have group discussions over the concerns raised during the inspection process and reach a decision on what appropriate actions to take.
A thorough monitoring of equipments should be applied in the process to effectively detect a hazard and identify a corrective action.
Sketches and photographs should be taken in cases that the inspector cannot clearly describe a situation (Johnstone, 2011).


Workplace Elements

The elements to focus on in a workplace during the inspection routines include the environment, the equipments inside and outside the buildings in the working environment and the whole process. The hazards that are present in the environment include poor ventilation, poor lighting system, vibration, temperature, and noise. The environment, therefore, should be inspected regularly to ensure these hazards are not present and in cases they are, the proper actions are taken to reduce the risks of the workers and improve their morale. Equipments in the workplace include the materials, apparatuses, and tools that are used to come up with a product or a service. These equipments are liable to get damaged and end up causing danger to the workers (Hopwood, 2006). They are bound to get damaged because of factors such as tear, corrosion, and misuse by the worker, among others. The process in the workplace involves how the employees intermingle with other rudiments in the workplace during a progression of operations (Collins, 2001). These operations need to be inspected so that the appropriate action, such as further training of the employees unable to operate with the available materials is taken.

Types of Hazards likely to Manifest in a Workplace

In a working environment, depending on the nature of the work the organization deals in, there are several hazards that should be looked for during an inspection routine. In safety hazards, the dangers are posed from conditions such as unsafe work practices by the workers or other people in the organization such as the management. Other factors such as inadequate machine guard can be very risky because the machines are mostly programmed to perform tasks and when not properly guarded, they can cause severe injuries to employees. These machines also require regular servicing to avoid injuries to the workers. Unsafe workplace conditions such as open electricity wires and flammable substances can be very dangerous too, and only regular and thorough inspection can be crucial in detecting them (Collins, 2001).

Biological hazards are mostly caused by parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi organisms. These organisms cause diseases of the workers as well as spread any contagious disease from a person in the environment to other workers. These organisms should be inspected to ensure that the place is hygienic and safe for workers to operate. In addition, medical help can be offered in the workplace in these biological hazards are identified during the inspection program. Workplaces are also at risk of chemical hazards, which are caused by mist, gas, fume, vapor, solid, dust, and liquid (Dikshith, 2013). These chemical hazards may cause corrosion, wear and tear to other equipments that may hurt the employees.

Ergonomical hazards are caused by the psychological, anatomical, and physiological demands posed on the workers during their working periods. These demands may arise from repetitive and forceful movements caused by the processes and apparatus used. Demands from vibrations present in the workplace cause these ergonomic hazards such as stress (Collins, 2001). Extreme temperatures such as too hot or extremely cold condition affect the workers negatively. Some work station may be built in poor designs causing the workers to work in awkward postures, causing body pains such as leg and back aches. Awkward positions may arise because of improper work methods, poor tools and equipments that the employers are forced to use, resulting to extreme effects. The employees may also get hurt from physical hazard that are posed by factors such as heat, pressure, noise, radiation, vibration, electricity energy, cold and unfavorable weather conditions. All these hazards should be identified and proper measures put in place so that the safety of the workers is improved and their morale to work increased so that the positive effects can be felt in production outcome (Collins, 2001).

Important Information on Inspection Report

Equipment Inventory

During inspection, it is important to use the relevant equipments to come up with accurate results (Johnstone, 2011). This process can start from determining what kinds of machinery or equipments are available in the workplace. When in the inspection process, the technical safety date sheets should be reviewed and the manufacturers’ safety manuals guide followed to avoid injuries and other poor results that may jeopardize the outcome of the exercise. Work area records are also very significant because they give the inspectors a familiarity with the injury and illness potential of the materials (Hopwood, 2006).

Diagram of Area

The inspector should use drawn layout of the workplace, stairs, alarms, fire exists, and other locations illustrated and divide the workplace into sections based on the processes carried out (Hopwood, 2006). The activities in the workplace should be visualized and movement of equipment and workers shown.


Sample diagram of an area of a workplace (Source: Labour Program)


Chemical Inventory

Inspectors should determine what chemical materials are present and use in the workplace environment and whether data concerning material safety is available (Dikshith, 2013). The inspectors should also find out whether the actual sources are effectively controlled.


These are necessary to clarify inspection duties, control inspection processes, and present a report of the findings of the inspection process.

Sample of a check sheet (Source: Labour Program)


Inspection records are significant because they help in decision making from the previous incidents identified. They also identify the areas frequently inspected and those not visited. They draw concentration to budding hazards in the workplace (Johnstone, 2011).


Inspectors’ Preferred Skills

Health and safety committee members are the obvious choice to carry out inspections in the workplace environment (Eaton, 2000). These are the most preferred, especially if they have gone through training concerning inspection and they have received certification. There are other criteria that management chooses to consider while selecting personnel to carry out inspections in their workplace. These include personnel with knowledge of regulation and procedures used to carry out inspections. The personnel with knowledge concerning potential hazards in the workplace are also considered to be effective in their work. While choosing the people to inspect a workplace, those people who have gained enough experience in the procedures involved are also considered (Johnstone, 2011).

During inspections, other personnel such as engineers, health and safety professors, maintenance personnel, managers, supervisors, or occupational hygienists may be called to be part of the inspecting team, to help with explanations of equipments or processes. Large workplaces can have different teams inspecting different areas because it is important to have the entire place inspected at once during all the routines (Eaton, 2000).

It is sometimes important to have supervisors in the inspection team because they have prior familiarity with the environment, equipment and the workers. The work of supervisors involves taking necessary action to prevent accident and injury to the workers. The advantage of having prior familiarity with the workplace and the workers can be of much help to the inspection team (Eaton, 2000). However, sometimes the familiarity can interfere with a supervisor’s objectivity in making decisions concerning the safety of the workers. It is important to contact the supervisor when the inspecting team is at work but the supervisor should not operate as a tour guide in the workplace. If the supervisor is not around, and still cannot be present to accompany the supervising team, the supervisor should be contacted before the team leaves the workplace for general and specific information they may want to know. The supervisor should be informed of the recommendations reached and advised on the items that need immediate correction. These then should be noted as approved, on the report. These are necessary because they keep the record clear and act as reminders during the next inspection routine (Eaton, 2000). The hazards should be reported by the inspection team even though at times it may be interpreted as criticism by the supervisor. However, these reports should be objective and sustain a firm and friendly attitude, which is fair.

Inspection time

No specific fixed amount of time can be set aside for inspection because those processes depend on several factors such as number of questions raised, the number of the things found on the ground and the complexity of the work matters. If limited time is set aside for the operation, and only allows for a hasty observation, the results can be ineffective (Eaton, 2000). Therefore, because the process involves detecting and presenting a workplace free of hazards, the time should state when to inspect a certain area or equipment in the workplace, who should carry out the operation and the degree of detail that need to be inspected in every area and equipment.

Frequency of inspection

Frequency of inspection depends on varied factors for every workplace, such as the legislation set by the organization (Eaton, 2000). The accidents and incidents recorded that have been previously recorded determine the number of inspections carried out in a workplace. The size of varied work operations and type of equipments used in the workplace, for example, those that are dangerous require more frequent inspections. Number of shifts in the workplace and new processes or machinery in the workplace also determines the frequency of inspection processes. The areas with the highest risk in the workplace environment should be given extra attention and more frequent inspections.

 Inspection Procedures

Prior to a concrete examination process, the inspectors should engage in a discussion about the planned route of inspection. A review of what is to be searched and the route to be taken by all members of the inspection team is crucial before the process begins. For instance, before starting to inspect noisy areas, it is important for a group discussion on what is expected to avoid the use of unsatisfactory methods of communication such as arm waving and unnecessary shouting during the processes (Hopwood, 2006).

The inspectors should wear protective equipments before getting into high risk areas and if these equipments are not available, the inspectors should not get into these risky areas (Hopwood, 2006). This should therefore be listed as a deficiency in the final report so that re-inspection can be carried out later when these protective equipments are available.

Routine inspections are an imperative aspect of programs in place to cater for accident prevention, occupational disease and fire prevention. It also helps in ensuring that workplaces comply with the requirements laid out by the labor codes of a given region (Hopwood, 2006).

Role of Routine Inspections in a Prevention Program

The main goal of routine workplace inspection is to prevent hazards through prevention programs that focus on health and safety. The safety programs are objectively placed to aid in the identification of health and safety hazards that may arise in the workplace, developing health and safety standards and procedures, establishing preventive measures and monitoring the effectiveness of controls (Hopwood, 2006).

When implemented in the right way, routine inspections aid in supporting and improving other aspects of program components, and therefore, should not be perceived as a one-time activity. To ensure effectiveness, the inspections must be performed as frequently as possible, and be made a vital element of a logical accident avoidance program (Eaton, 2000).

It is also important for the senior administrators or the managements to demonstrate their commitment to performing inspections and the goals that they intend to achieve. One of the most important moves to make this a reality is by developing and disseminating a prevention policy, which emphasizes on inspection (Johnston, 2011). The form and the components of that policy may vary depending on the requirements of one’s business, but generally, it should ensure that the senior management is committed to inspection and that they recognize its importance, clearly outline the role(s) of inspection aiding the implementation of the company’s overall aims of the company, particularly related to workplace health and safety . The policy should also illustrate the designation of the persons tasked with ensuring proper operation of the inspection system as well as specifying the measures that are required of the employer and the employees to abide by, in terms of the company’s code and the regulations (Hopwood, 2006).

The second important move to ensuring optimal effectiveness would be to develop specific procedures that identify the frequency of inspections, the work areas that require inspection, the responsibility for conducting inspections, review of the recommendations and the implementation of the corrective measures, as well as the qualification of the individuals that have the responsibility of carrying out the inspections.

Steps to Setting up a Good Workplace Inspection Program

Planning the Action to be taken

The team carrying out the inspection ought to be comprised of the manager, the floor supervisor, an employee with good background knowledge of the different procedures, and an employee that is a member of the work place committee or just a representative. The members of the team may be determined by the work areas that need inspection and the particular technical necessities. However, an expert knowledge, such as an electrician or engineer, should always be involved in the inspection of all the equipment, processes and practices (Hopwood, 2006).

The effectiveness of an inspection procedure is determined by the overall ability of the team members to identify hazards, and this requires good knowledge and understanding of the nature of the industrial processes, tasks and operations, and the relevant safety requirements and standards. It also requires a comprehension of the full range of a variety of hazards linked to equipment, processes and the working environment, as well as the knowledge of the previous accidents and the work areas that are prone to particular types of accidents to ensure workplace health and safety (Hopwood, 2006).

As a backup plan, the management should develop “floor plan guides” to facilitate their efforts in the identification of the major pieces of equipment, storage compartment and traffic regions (Hopwood, 2006). It is also necessary to take note of any information, which may be of relevance to the purposes of inspection, like the location of first aid kits, fire extinguishers, ventilation outlets, among others.

Physical Inspection of Premises

In the view that there is no single workplace that can be considered as perfectly safe, all workplaces, including offices, storage areas and maintenance areas ought to be inspected. Some of the areas that are not commonly used as workplaces, like parking facilities, cafeterias or locker rooms are also supposed to be inspected. There are a number of factors that should be considered when determining the number of inspections to be performed and the frequency of occurrence. These factors can be the number and scale of the processes, operations or tasks to be inspected, the equipment considered hazardous and that require inspections at fixed intervals. The processes that pose a significant hazard and that require separate and more frequent inspections, the number of shifts, as well as the introduction of a new process or new machine in the work place that require inspection also establish inspection rate (Hopwood, 2006). Generally, it is important to note that the entire workplace ought to be under inspection at least once annually.

In the attempt of ensuring consistency and avoiding the possibility of disastrous oversights, it is recommended that the management ensures that they have prepared a checklist, which identifies all the potential hazards. The checklists should be under regular review to ensure that they reflect all the changes or alterations to the equipment or processes and the accident reports. The most effective checklists should be based on particular processes, activities or workstations. In the case of small businesses, they may need to address a single worker or just a particular task. The bottom-line is that every workstation is supposed to have its own checklist (Hopwood, 2006).

The checklists are developed progressively, with repeated inspections, over long periods of time, that could take years, but they should cover all the areas of business processes. Each organization should design own checklists, based on the processes in place and the years of experience it has. Generally, it is important to note that any of the workplaces present unique opportunities for hazards and it is only through the checklists that one can have a point of reference (Hopwood, 2006). However, attention should not be limited to the items on the checklist. As soon as other hazards are identified, they should be immediately recorded and appropriate steps initiated to address them and one all this is done, the inspection is complete.

Writing Reports

Good reports make it easy to acquire information and obtain support from management for observations resulting from the inspections. These reports are necessary in mitigating and eliminating risks, and are used to bring awareness to the management about the problems in a concise and factual manner. The efficiency of inspections can be enhanced if the findings are speedily passed on to the stakeholders and corrective measures are promptly formulated and implemented (Hopwood, 2006). The individuals that should receive an inspection report include the workplace manager, department managers, supervisors, members of the place committees, workplace health and safety representative, health and safety coordinator and maintenance manager.

Following up on Recommendations

For effectiveness of inspection in any prevention program, the information gathered must be analyzed and rightfully utilized. Given the differences in organizations, the skill levels of the persons tasked with the responsibility of reporting will vary, but there are factors that should be constant among such individuals (Collins, 2001). First, the responsibility of analyzing the inspection reports is one of the primary roles of the workplace committee and the work place health and safety representative. Some particular issues may require the opinions of some experts. If concerns are raised during an inspection procedure, the individuals tasked with the responsibility of reviewing the inspection reports should also have the authority to undertake the necessary corrective measures and delegation of authority as appropriate (Hopwood, 2006).

It is also important that those tasked with the responsibility of performing the inspections receive timely feedback because lack of it may lead to assumptions like the inspection is pointless. Lastly, the information acquired from regular inspections should be subjected to comprehensive analysis, to determine the areas that need general corrective measures and any trends for the effectiveness of the auditing program.

Thorough analysis of the inspection reports is essential in identifying the need for training in certain areas, explaining why certain types of accidents are prone in certain areas and establishing an order or priority for the corrective actions (John stone, 2011). In addition, it aids in establishing healthy work methods or improving the existing methods, as well as identifying areas equipment and tasks, which require more in depth risk analysis.





Collins, L. R., & Schneid, T. D. (2001). Physical hazards of the workplace. CRC Press.

Dikshith, T. S. S. (2013). Hazardous Chemicals: Safety Management and Global Regulations. CRC Press.

Eaton, A. E., & Nocerino, T. (2000). The Effectiveness of Health and Safety Committees: Results of a Survey of Public‐Sector Workplaces The Effectiveness of Health and Safety Committees. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 39(2), 265-290.

Hopwood, D., & Thompson, S. (2006). Workplace safety: A guide for small and midsized companies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Johnstone, R., & Frick, K. (2011). Regulating Workplace Risks: A Comparative Study of Inspection Regimes in Times of Change. Edward Elgar Publishing.



Sample Composition Essay on Why does class/cause advocacy usually have more political aspects to it than case advocacy? essay help 123

Question One: Why does class/cause advocacy usually have more political aspects to it than case advocacy?  Provide an example or two in your answer.

Embedded in the understanding of the phrase, “class or cause advocacy”, it is clear that class advocacy is a type of advocacy that can take the form of advocacy for purposes of achieving reforms, social change, or even policy advocacy. Additionally, it is imperative to note that class or cause advocacy makes use of the power and the manipulation, influence, or pressure of communal, collective, or combined action to attain justice in a society. On the other hand, case advocacy has a main definitive feature in the understanding of its meaning, ‘individual advocacy’, which means that it mainly deals with an individual or a person’s justice and not a community. Since class advocacy deals with matters that affect a community or communal policies, politics is characteristic of it because it needs legislators, who are politicians, to achieve. For instance, an agent who is involved in negotiating or brokering for an individual to access basic education as a right is involved in case advocacy, while an advocacy agent interested in changing the education system of a country is involved in class advocacy.

Question Two: Many class advocacy project organisers will seek the support of some ‘key people’ at the start of the advocacy.  What are some of the advantages of doing this?

The main parties that are involved in class advocacy include a community or population that is marginalized, a system that acts as a change agent, thus, a collective bargain or action, and a system that is targeted, which in this case is identified as the party whose main aim is to uphold, maintain, or preserve the status quo. Since this kind of advocacy involves negotiating with individuals who are interested  in maintaining the status quo, it would require a stronger force or pressure from key personalities in the society to attain its purpose. For instance, when the ‘key people’ in the society, such as legislators support the course of a class advocacy agent, may be to change the education system of a country because it is not meeting the market standards, it would be easy to pass such a motion in a legislative house because they are the ones that sit and deliberate on legislative issues, thus advantageous. Their influence will help influence and fasten the process of achieving the purpose of the class advocacy agent. They will also influence the decision-making process of the State government or local governments [authorities] to approve the proposed legislation.

Question Three: Using the hypothetical case study of the Melbourne Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (and your imagination), apply the Force-Field Analysis Technique to list the likely driving and restraining forces of this advocacy project.  Against each factor, give your (subjective) estimate of the strength of each one by putting ‘very strong’, ‘strong’, ‘neither strong or weak’ or ‘weak’ alongside it.  For example:

Driving Force

One State Government already has an MSIC—VERY STRONG

Restraining Force

The attitude of CBD businesses to having an MSIC near their premises—STRONG

Driving Forces:

An already operational and successful MSICs in Kings Cross Centre- Very Strong

Advisory Board’s Support- Very Strong

Support from Colleagues and Supervisor: Strong



Restraining Forces:

Lack of Funding from the Agency- Very Strong

Fear of Affecting the Agency’s Reputation in the Community- Strong

Lack of Support from the Victorian Government- Very Strong

Question Four: Why is a good initial advocacy plan essential for a class advocacy


The nature of class advocacy demands that the advocacy agent gets ‘key people’ or powerful individuals, personalities, or organizations/ institutions to effect major changes, which may not even be in their immediate interest. The agent must work under the watch of the public, which calls for transparency and accountability, and finally, the change agent must stick out his or her neck to certain risks because they are taking a stand against an opponent that is stronger. As such, initial planning will help the class advocacy agent to determine possible challenges that may hamper the process before they happen. Additionally, the change agent may manage to avoid shocks, surprises, or astonishments that may arise in the process, including those that may make them appear clumsy, stupid, or ineffective. In a similar manner, an initial plan before beginning advocacy may help the agents to clarify their goals, clarify the procedure or steps that will enable them to achieve the objectives, and finally increase their capacity to succeed in the process. Without a proper initial plan, a valuable amount of energy and efforts may be wasted, great opportunities may be missed, and individuals that are worth keeping in support of the advocacy plan may be antagonized.


Case Study Paper on Road Cracks and Damages gp essay help

Road Cracks and Damages


In designing a road, the aspect of durability is normally considered. Most of the roads are made to last for more than 20 years but in most cases, cracks and damages occur before the end of the expected span. Road crack and damages are common phenomena along most of the roads and pavements. However, during the construction, the contractors intend to make roads free of crack. They consider the ratio of mixing the construction materials carefully, but at the end, the roads end up having some cracks and damages after a certain duration. These crack and damages usually become safety hazards that can lead to road accidents and damage the vehicles. There are many reasons that usually cause such unfortunate occurrences. Some causes are environmental, climatic, traffic loading and sometimes poor construction.

Cracks and Damages

Crocodile Crack

They are also known as alligator or fatigue cracks. They are normally interconnecting cracking in the top layer of asphalt resembling crocodile hide, as indicated in the above photo. They usually occur due to poor drainage, brittle base, low modulus base, sub-base failure, and high pressure due to overloading.

Block Cracking

These are cracks that form bigger blocks than those of crocodile cracks. This is caused by weak joints on the underlaying layer, shrinkage cracks on the bitumen surface, fatigue cracks formed in the bitumen course, and also shrinkage and fatigue found in the underlaying cement material.

Longitudinal Cracks

They are elongated cracks along the roads or pavements as shown in the picture above. They normally occur because of poor paving lane construction in the bituminous surface. In addition, displacement of joints at the windings of pavement and differential settlement aligning between the cut and fill causes longitudinal cracks.

Surface Distress

This is the disintegration of physical chipping or scaling wearing the top surface. It is either caused by moisture or thermal stress. In some cases, it is poor construction or poor materials mixing like using excess water and surface overworking. Normally, it brings roughness and shortens the lifespan intended for the road.


It is normally caused by dragging off a paver during the actual laying when the bitumen mix temperatures are low. Moreover, high stress on the roads and pavements due to braking and accelerating vehicles causes shoving. This sometimes leads to a thin wearing occurring frequently on course. Such damages occur on a module base course which is low.

Causes of Road Cracks and Damages

One of the main causes of road cracks and damages is traffic loading. Usually, the vehicles have varying weight. Heavy vehicles like trucks and Lorries project great pressure to the roads. Depending on the strength that the road has to overcome such pressure, damages may occur. If the pressure on the road or pavement is too high, the damages and cracks occur. Normally, up and down movement caused by vehicle subjects the roads and pavements to some vibrations that lead to cracks and damages. Long-term pavements, which are made by increasing the thickness of asphalt should be put in place. This kind of pavements tend to overcome high pressure without incurring cracks.

Another cause of road cracks and damages is varying climatic conditions. Normally, in arid and semi-arid zone, there are huge temperature differences. The temperatures are normally too high during the day and too low at night. When the temperatures are high, the soil generally expands due to heating. As the soil elements enlarge, spaces are created connecting the particles. When the temperatures fall at night, the soil particles contact causing cracks in the spaces that had been created by expansion. This alternating temperature variation causes widening of the cracks. Normally, asphalt pavements are most preferable in such zone compared to rigid concrete pavements because they are flexible, and have some tolerance to displacement. Rigid pavements are prone to cracks in such zones. Roads are designed to last for certain duration of time. Aging is also a factor that may lead to road damages. Immediately the hot tarmac is put down and begins to cool, the aging factor comes in. The materials used for construction becomes weak when the time intended for them to work well expires. Therefore, cohesive and adhesive force that causes particles to attract one another is weakened, and the particles are made to split. Heat also increases the speed of deterioration. This splitting of particles becomes crack.

Poor drainage on the roads and pavement can lead to cracking. Crocodile cracking is also caused by poor drainage on the pavements. When the pavement is subject to high moisture content for a long period of time, it tends to break up and loosen the particles. How penetrated water causes cracks can be explained in simplier terms. When the water finds its way underneath the asphalt, it settles in tiny voids between the base of the road and asphalt layer. When heavy trucks drive along the road, they render high pressure that pushes the accumulated water downwards. As the water goes, further down it displaces some soil particles or dirt. This creates pockets underneath the roads or pavements. The air and water pockets created eventually lead to bulging of the pavements, which matures to cracks.

Prevention of Cracks and Damages

Poor designs and construction renders the road vulnerable to cracks and damages. The quality assurance body that monitors the standards of roads and highways should put strict and punitive measures to contractors who fail to meet the expected standards.

Since poor drainage on the roads and pavements leads to cracking, it is important to ensure that proper drainage system is maintained. This can be done by ensuring the pavements and roads are constructed with a certain inclination to ensure that no water accumulate on the pavement. The underground drainage system should be put in place to ensure that water flows preventing any kind of water logging. Water drainage channels should be made along the roads to ensure that the pavements or the roads are always kept dry. Storm sewers are also necessary for clearing rainwater.

Treatment Measures

When the affected area is small, it can be repaired by scooping the affected area and replacing it with new asphalt surface. Sometimes, sealing the cracks may be necessary. This is done using crack sealant. If the affected area is extensive, a complete reconstruction may be the most appropriate method in order to ensure a firm layout.

Crocodile Cracks

The most effective treatment for these cracks are strengthening the pavements or reconstructing it in zones with inadequate thickness of the pavement. In addition, strengthening the base or reconstructing should be done on low modulus base. The drainage should be improved or reconstructed where there is poor drainage system. Nevertheless, brittle wearing course the can be treated or replaced by using fog seal, slurry seal or armor coat.

Longitudinal Cracks

These can be treated by cutting and patching zones with shrinkage cracks, or replacing the bituminous surfacing on poor paving construction. In addition, it can be treated by reconstruction of joins in an area with joint displacements at the pavement widening. Crushed aggregate overlay is necessary in areas with differential settlements occurring between cut and fill. These are treatments that are made in order to remove longitudinal.


The treatment for shoving includes removing the surface and base where necessary and replacing it with a more stable material. Reconstruction of base is necessary in cases of low modulus base. In cases where shoving has occurred due to high pressure exerted on the pavement by accelerating vehicles it is advisable to overlay bitumen with a stiffer mix or using mix of high compaction.

Maintenance and Rehabilitation Plans

Construction deficiency leads to cracks on the road. Usually, materials are supposed to be mixed at certain ratios considering the required procedures and conditions. Asphalt is heated and laid when it is hot. As it cools down, a firm and solid layer is formed due to the chemical processes involved. Failure to follow the required procedure may lead to crack after the asphalt has just cooled down. This may cause pealing of layers.

Road monitoring systems should be put in place to ensure that overloading does not take place on asphalt pavements. Very heavy commercial vehicles damage most of the roads. It is appropriate to have specific road channels for the heavy vehicles that are designed to overcome high pressure. Tractors and fight tanks should not be allowed to move on pavements and roads since the cause physical damage on the roads and pavements.

Local and International Comparison

In different countries, different techniques are used to deal with cracks and damages. Actually, different places are vulnerable to different cracks and damages depending on transportation policy, environment, and climatic conditions. Zones that fall near the pole zones are mostly affected by water seepage in the soil while zones that are found near deserts are affected by a wide range of varying temperature. Some zones in the United States of America like Alaska are prone to ice formation. When the ice melts, it causes moisture penetration in the roads and pavements. This penetration normally interferes with the structure of the asphalt, leading to Cracks.

Different countries have different construction techniques. The ratio of mixing the construction materials also varies widely. In Autobahn road in German, a very thick layer is applied on a strong solid foundation. This curbs cracking and reduces the cost of maintenance.

In Africa, the place near Sahara desert as Chad is normally subject to high temperatures during the day and very low temperatures at night. Therefore, the rocks and the soil expand and contract often. This leads to cracking due to varying temperature conditions.


In order to work on the damages and cracks, it is important to conduct a survey to establish the figures of the areas that need to be attended. Prevention mostly depends on the plan and construction of the transport roads. It is also crucial to establish the reason of cracking before repairing the road or the pavement.

Creative Writing Essay on Lesson Plan college application essay help: college application essay help

Lesson plan



Date: 05/25/2014

Subject: Mathematics

Lesson length: 1 hour

Theme: Operations and Algebra

Grade level: 3-5 (ages 8- 11)

Lesson Objectives:

The students will work with visual models and demonstrations to represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division
Learners will recognize the properties of multiplication and the connection between multiplication and division.

Common Core State Standards

Math.Content.3.OA.A.1/ CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.A.2

Interpret products of whole numbers and whole-number quotients of whole numbers (Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2014)

Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide whole numbers (Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2014)

Materials and resources

Index Cards
Student dry-erase boards, markers, gloves
40 tennis balls



The use of whole number visual models and classroom demonstrations enables students to gain a better understanding of multiplications and divisions and consequently develop greater insight into the concepts of real number multiplications and division. In this lesson, students will demonstrate the concepts of multiplication and addition using 40 tennis balls and use index cards for group work to represent and solve multiplication and division problems. They will analyze the demonstrations and identify common student mistakes in working with multiplication and quotients of whole numbers.

Lesson Development

Introduction or Anticipatory Set                 time 5 Minutes

Connect to Background

Who has ever had to share items before? Whom did you share them with? What were the items you shared?  How did you share them?  How did you divide them?

Relate to Prior Knowledge

Ask the students take a look at their rulers. What do you notice on your rulers?

Possible answers: Numbers, Inches, Centimeter, Lines.

How many lines are there in between two centimeters/ numbers/ inches/ lines? How do you think this was achieved?

Lesson presentation

1)         10 minutes

Tennis balls demonstration

Give each student in the class a tennis ball
Ask the students at random state how many tennis balls there are all together given that each has one
Represent the total number of tennis balls as well as the number each student has using multiplication and division concepts.
Take the balls back from the students and call out eight students to the front of the class
Give five balls to each of the students and ask the rest of the class to determine the total number of balls.
Use the concepts of multiplication and division to represent the total number of balls and the number of balls with each of the eight students

2)         10 minutes

Teacher to give out hand outs to each learner and write the pose the following expressions appearing on the hand outs on the board;

On the board;

Say: the empty boxes in the first set of expressions represent two numbers that when multiplied by 40 and 8 respectively, the answer equals to 40.

The second set of expressions of represent another two numbers that divide 40 to get 5 and one respectively.

3)         15 minutes

Pose the following expressions on the board

Say: the expressions in the first bracket have the same value. This shows that for multiplication of two numbers, the order of the whole numbers does not have an effect on the result of the equation. This is called the commutative property of multiplication.

For the second set of equations the expressions show that multiplication is distributive, this is referred to as the distributive property of multiplication.

Practice the problems

4)         10 minutes

Guided practice

Group work

Divide the class into small groups of 5 students per group and give each group a set of pre-prepared index cards. The cards comprise of word phrases and numbers. For each group, one student will read out the phrase aloud as the rest of the group work in collaboration to compute the multiplication or division problem. The students will then shift roles until every student has taken the roles of reading and working out the solutions.

5)         5 minutes

Independent practice

Give the students two exercise questions from the course text book and instruct them to complete them individually.

CLOSURE    Time: 5 Minutes

Say: algebra involves addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. In this lesson, you have learned how multiply and divide as well as the properties of multiplication.

Use Exit Ticket:

Give each learner an index card and ask them to write their name on top.
To show that you have understood the concept of multiplication and division in algebra, answer the following question on your card and submit it for marking:
Name two properties of multiplication

Differentiated instruction

Differentiated instruction in this lesson is achieved by;

1)         Checkerboard puzzle (Jurek, 2013)

In the guided practice exercise, the groups were formed by grouping learners of different abilities in the same group. Each group of five contains at least two students of high ability in mathematics and the others are learners with difficulties.

2)         Think Dots (Jurek, 2013)

Through this activity, learners will be paired in mixed ability groups and given a set of algebra problems to solve. Each student in the group will then have to demonstrate to the partners how to complete their problem.


Assessment and evaluation

Ongoing assessment will be done throughout the lesson; teacher will continuously monitor the guided practise and provide assistance as necessary.


The teacher to give individual practice exercises and move round marking the student’s work
Teacher to give homework assignments to be submitted for marking before the next class session




Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2014). Operations & Algebraic Thinking. Retrieved May 25, 2014, from Common Core State Standards Initiative:

Jurek, K. (2013). Differentiating Instruction in Algebra. Waco, Texas: Prufrock Press.


Sample Health Care Homework Paper on Health Care Services popular mba argumentative essay help

Health Care Services

Health care institutions involve many activities that revolve around the health of patients. Among the many sections in the institutions are the emergency departments that attend to patients who report with emergency health needs. When admitting these patients there are some examples of ways of creating value during the process in the urgent care units. Elimination of paperwork by filling forms with information of the patients, reducing the time that patients have to wait to be offered services at the waiting desk and accessing an appropriate depiction about the patient so that the information can be passed on the physician who is to attend to the patient.

Offering free services in the form of offers to those who are less fortunate, cannot afford the services given, and are in need of them is also another value creation strategy. Integrated EMR systems/communication with patient’s PCP so that everyone is aware of what is going on and that the patient was seen by the urgent care clinic -Patient follow-up/referral system (if they need to seek emergency medical attention) to make sure they received the care they needed and are doing okay. One of the most effective is the ability to provide patient with cost of visit up-front.

Some of the examples of post-service value added strategies to such patients include sending letters to the patients for making a choice to use the facility as this will ensure that they feel appreciated. Palliative as well as holistic care, which involves supporting those patients that have suffered from illnesses that have no cure emotionally, spiritually and physically. Follow up checkups would also help patients to gain fully their health back after an illness. Sending a survey of care that the patient receives after visiting the facility will make him feel valued. Giving them notes for their discharge with the relevant information to contact the facility is also good. Referring a care provider if follow-up care is needed, also the care provider can call the patient to initiate the setting up of appointments. A clear outline of the charges for the services will give the patients ease of understanding what they were billed for.

Plane tree is an organization that does not make profits and aims at linking hospitals and the necessary tools that to demystify experience in health care for both parents as well as families. Architectural and interior design conductive to health and healing- designing and maintaining an uncluttered environment encourages patient mobility and sense of wellness. The organization gives a room for hospitals to share their concepts and experiences. Value added services of Plane tree include the interactions that are involved among humans as well as delivery of care to patients based on their perspective and creation of an environment where patients participate to motivate their healing. In addition to this, there is recognition of good nutritional methods, educating patients, family and spiritual support, a human contact that encourages communication, development of healthy societies and importance of human touch, which is an essential way of communicating caring.

The general requirement of a PCMH certified are offering of appointments that happen on the same day, health advice via telephones, documentation of the records of the patents and access by patients after the working hours through electronic means. Additionally, such homes ought to be able to identify patients that face high risks and give them the required care. Continuity, as well as home medical duties, are part of the home under which teams are to operate in offering culturally and linguistically appropriate services. Information on patient is a requirement and the home ought to use information about population in its management. Its strategic importance is that it has a structure that gives it a competitive advantage that is stronger than any other services that are offered by other health institutions. Competitors do not easily copy the services it offers, it offers access, coordination of care, care continuity, which are some of the services that will create value to patients, and thus the model becomes successful in offering services to patients.

Sample Essay Paper on Resume college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc


FirstName LastName

Street Address

City, State


Email Address


To secure a better teaching field and demonstrate valuable technical and communication skills.
I am a dedicated teacher ready to continue with a full-time career and can provide a good record of commended performance education grades, with a zeal for education and steadfast commitment to optimize success for both school and students.
I would like to be a member of universities and get a scholarship to complete my Ph.D. program.


Classroom Discipline and Management

Creative lesson preparation

Learner Assessment

Syllabus Development



Bachelor in Islamic Law with a high GPA of 3.85 at Umm Alqura University, Makah, Saudi Arabia

Masters degree from IUPUI in American Law, United States


I worked as a teacher for three years in privet schools and with a contract with a public school.

During my LLM program, I worked with OIA as a volunteer monitor for international students related to my field.

Key Contributions

Obtained high marks for the creativity and excellence in classroom teaching, lecture plans as well as instructional materials needed in teaching various subjects.
Actively served on a number of task forces and school committees focused on syllabus development and textbook review.
Established affirmative relationships with fellow teachers, parents, pupils and school administrators.
Developed inventive approaches that were continually aimed to meet district objectives in areas such as experiential learning and literacy.
Consistently applauded for the capacity to readdress students portraying behavior problems through replacing disruptive and unproductive conduct with good behaviors.


Uphold effective communication between school board and core group members.

Develop cultural knowledge through attending and taking part in various events involved in schools.


I am exceptionally dedicated to my students, who consistently bring innovation and creativity into my lesson plans and classroom
I can effectively address diverse learning styles

Sample Essay on Information Technology and Society: Musanada Company online essay help: online essay help

Information Technology and Society: Musanada Company

2.0 Introduction

Information technologies are powerful systems adopted and applied across global communities. Advanced technologies and innovated systems have facilitated growth and development in relation to information management across global organizations and societies. Information technologies enable global organizations and societies to utilize innovated and digitalized systems for various functions and operations. These functions and operations include communications, convergence, networking, storage, and multimedia processing among others. Currently, global organizations and societies are utilizing the internet to gain social, political, and economic gains. Social gains are mainly retrieved from the wide and spreading social media networking sites. These sites include Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, MySpace, and YouTube among others (Viveca, 2005).

Political persons and organizations are utilizing the internet to communicate their mandates and manage people’s expectations during their tenure in political authority. They also utilize the platform to seek relevance and acceptance in the community especially during election periods. Economically, persons and groups are conducting commercial businesses through the internet for recognition and financial gains. Currently, small, medium, and large organizations, firms, and companies ought to develop a website. The website should provide the public with relevant information regarding the commercial entity. Social networks are also being utilized to acquire economic gains. For example, Facebook is widely used to advertise products and services among various companies to increase sales. Thus, social media is also a platform to conduct marketing. As a result, they facilitate growth and expansion due to the increasing commercial activities (Konsbruck, 2013).

3.0 Research Objectives

The objectives of this report are as follows.

Review Musanada Company in relation to operations and functions.
Discuss project management operations and functions at the company.
Evaluate the current management information technologies at Musanada Company.
Review how information technologies are currently applied at Musanada Company
Evaluate how management information technologies have adversely affected operations and functions at Musanada Company based on data analysis.
List and discuss various recommendations to solve the challenges and issues.

4.0 Research Questions

What is the current information technology systems applied at Musanada Company?
What are the challenges they present to the company in relation to project management?
Which parties at the company are tasked in managing information technologies?
Which are the main ways of ensuring that information is effectively managed in a project?
How can the company utilize Proalince software to ensure that information is effectively managed in a project?

5.0 Musanada Company

Musanada Company is a large organization tasked in project management. Project management refers to procedures involved in planning, organizing, managing, motivating, controlling, and achieving basic and specific goals and objectives. These procedures are combined to create and manage a project. At Musanada Company, project management includes improving current services at the firm to meet and fulfill consumer needs, wants, demands, and desires. Consequently, the company strives to utilize the available resources on a budget constrained platform in relation to time, human, and financial resources. Technologies are applied to ensure Musanada Company undertakes project management functions and operations more effectively and efficiently. However, the current information technologies at Musanada Company can be improved. For example, they can be faster, economical, essential in maintaining permanent project management records, and crucial for the firm in relation to efforts of gaining a competitive advantage. Thus, information technologies face various challenges on short and long term basis.

Global societies and companies are constantly changing to suit the diverse and increasing social and economic structures. As a result, the amount of information being managed has also increased. This has led to the development of crucial need to identify information technologies able to manage the increasing amount of data. Persons and companies need and want to preserve and protect the large amounts of data effectively, efficiently, and economically. Information technologies have therefore developed newly advanced forms of recording, managing, retrieving, and storing data. These new information management technologies comprise of records storing data electronically in database archives (Konsbruck, 2013).

Project management requires handling and managing a large amount of information. Thus, information technologies are vital at Musanada Company as they can manage and store a large amount of data. More so, the data should be protected from the public and rival companies.  However, managing large amounts of private and sensitive information poses a threat to the electronic data at the company. Data electronically generated and stored is often vulnerable to changes and manipulation. It can also be redirected to the wrong parties who can utilize it for the competitive advantage position or in destroying the company’s reputation. Management information technology systems need regular maintenance and updating. This is because they can be obsolete leading to loss and/or damage of crucial company data. Electronic records and manual records face similar hazards such as fire. More so, they are vulnerable to rapid development of formats that can damage a document containing crucial company information (Brahima, 2013). This report will therefore discuss how management information technologies have impacted operations and function at Musanada Company. The report will collect data from the company to evaluate the current advantages and disadvantages of information technologies at the Company. The data will be analyzed to identify measures and approaches aimed at improving and enhancing effects of relying on management information technologies

6.0 Literature Review

6.1 How you to Organize Musanada Company to Take Advantage of Innovation

According to Chris Eveleens, innovation has grown and expanded over the past decades. As a result, different models of innovation have increasingly infiltrated into the information management technology markets and industries. Innovation can be compared to a scientific and technological management style aimed at ensuring a company thrives and grows in a market and/or industry. Innovation can be aligned to various needs in the company or organization. At Musanada Company, innovation is crucial as it facilitates development of new approaches aligned to project management. As a result, it is also crucial for the company to achieve and sustain a competitive advantage in the industry. Innovation also ensures companies improve qualities and standards in relation to services and products. Thus, innovation is imperative for a company to be established, acquire market recognition and acceptance, grow and expand due to competitive advantage (Chris, 2010).

Musanada Company is a relatively huge company managing a large amount of information. As a result, it is prone to face the following challenges related to innovation and information management technologies. For example, various project management functions and operations at the company purposely developed through innovation have occasionally failed. This has adversely affected the company’s efforts to achieve a competitive advantage against rival firms and organizations due to poor management of information. Chris asserts that, for a company to avoid facing similar issues and failures due to innovation, it ought to adopt the following measures. Foremost, identify the key competencies in the company. This will ensure Musanada Company adopts information management technologies based project management. Musanada Company ought to identify core competencies aligned to information management in order to adapt newly innovation and advanced information management technologies (Chris, 2010).

Secondly, environmental changes affect and impact companies. Coupled with changes attributed to innovation and information technologies, the company can fail to identify with the changing consumer needs and market regulations. Project management aims at identifying business goals and objectives, developing a plan, and formulating a repetitive process or system to meet and fulfill them. In relation to information management technologies, they often advance to meet the changing market and consumer needs. For example, mobile phones innovations have applied advanced technologies to manufacture sophisticated smart phones. Musanada Company should therefore acknowledge that, innovation and information management technologies can change the planning, organizing, managing, and controlling procedures in a project management task (Chris, 2010).

The company should conduct regular consumer and market evaluations to identify with the needs in order to meet and fulfill them. According to Cooper, innovation affects both services and products. A company should therefore acknowledge innovation is inevitable. Companies ought to acknowledge that, identifying, implementing, and managing innovation is crucial in ensuring firm operations and functions are consistent. Companies should therefore adopt and implement innovation and information management technologies successively, continuously and consistently. The process should be based on the advancing process of information management technologies (Chris, 2010).

According to George Chryssochoidis, innovation and information management technologies affecting products and services predict if a company will succeed in growing and expanding its operations and functions. Innovative momentum ought to be based on the level of information technology advancements. This is because it impacts on production, levels of competition, and distribution supply chains. At Musanada Company, project management operations are highly influenced by innovation and information management technologies. Project innovativeness refers to identifying the need for new and highly performing devices and/or tools. These should be coupled with high levels of skills, talents, and knowledge in relation to information management technologies and persons undertaking the project. Combining inputs and outputs can achieve product and service innovation. Consequently, they can be introduced into the market and/or industry to achieve the competitive advantage (George, 2003).

Project supervisors and managers at Musanada Company should therefore invest on acquisition of knowledge and skills aligned to information management technologies. They ought to learn lessons aligned to information management. They should also gain experiences on the diverse factors affecting project management. This can be applied in developing high quality and standardized managerial services aligned to project planning, controlling, regulating, and execution (George, 2003).

According to Catherine Maughan, innovation combined with advanced information management technologies results to different and better results. However, an organization ought to solve internal and external issues challenging the innovation process. Achieving high levels of competency in relation to innovativeness requires building an organizational culture aligned to information management technologies. More so, company owners, managers, supervisors, leaders, and overall employees should be committed to embrace innovation and the use of information management technologies. They ought to provide the right climate for the innovation culture to thrive in the company (Catherine, 2012).

Musanada Company employers and employees should therefore challenge and involve each other to solving a big problem hindering the firm from achieving greater heights of success. They should strive to achieve new performance thresholds. This can further facilitate the company to gain and sustain a competitive advantage in the project management industry. The ideas and opinions applied in project management should be aligned to Musanada Company goals and objectives. The core values to organizational innovation involve developing creative, applicable, high quality and believable ideas. Musanada Company should therefore establish a group or department of innovators. They should be encouraged and supported to create multi-disciplinary, flexible, and autonomous, innovated designs and approaches aimed at improving operations and functions in the company. However, the leadership skills in the firm should be strong, stable, and consistent. This ensures innovation does not interfere with company’s intellectual properties, organizational asymmetry, and contracts (Catherine, 2012).

7.0 Research Methodology

7.1 Data

The data presented in this report was collected from Musanada Company. This is because Musanada Company was ideal in studying innovation and information management technologies as the firm is involved in the development of complex software solutions related to project management. The data was collected by conducting interviews and investigations. Statistical data or documentary information on innovation and information management technologies was also applied.

7.1.1 Questions

Do you use information management technologies?
Can you detect poor information management in a project?
Can you list issues affecting company’s information management technologies?
What issues and challenges faced by the company during a project’s development process?
Are they caused by lack of effective and efficient information management technologies and systems?

7.2 Data Collection Methods

Interviews were conducted among project supervisors and managers at Musanada Company. These persons were targeted as they are solely responsible in overseeing the developments of various projects at the company. Consequently, documents containing relevant information on various projects undertaken at Musanada Company were collected. They were utilized to gather statistical data and documentary information. It was crucial to ensure all the documents had been utilized during various projects at Musanada Company in planning, designing, developing and implementing diverse projects. They were collected to assist in gathering at least ninety percent of correct and relevant information on information management technologies aligned and project management.

Other documents collected included consumer response documents. The company utilizes them to capture responses from clients in order to evaluate levels of satisfaction in relation. Thus, Musanada Company utilizes ninety percent of the documents to improve and enhance project management operations and functions. The results are applied to rectify, change, and/or develop new service delivery approaches aligned to consumer needs, wants, and desires.

7.3 Data Analysis and Discussion

The qualitative data analysis method was applied in this report as it entails reviewing the pre-set project schedules against the actual completion time. It was helpful in determining how effective information management technologies can help in completing a project in a timely manner. The data analysis findings revealed the following.

Foremost, ninety nine percent of company employers and employees acknowledged the use information management technologies in a project. Project managers are the main creative directors. They create ideas and opinions on how to apply various project management designs. They also create a plan guiding supervisors and employees tasked in executing the project. Ninety percent agreed they can detect poor information management in a project.

The interviews and investigations revealed project managers are required to develop the project plan in a period of one week. They ought to provide the final draft to clients and company owners for approval. The approval period ought to last for three days. Ninety five percent agreed that, the major issue affecting company’s information management technologies involves approval period lasting longer. These claims were confirmed by investigating statistical data and documentary information. Ninety percent listed absentee company owners and clients taking longer to respond to approve as a major contributor. Seventy percent listed ineffective communications systems in the company as a major contributor. After the draft is approved, the project supervisors and employees are tasked to follow the guidelines for successful execution of the project. Although various projects can take varying timelines, the findings from the data analysis reveal that the longest project ought to last a period of one month. This is aimed at awarding the client enough time to review if the final project meets the stipulated requirements. Thus, the company strives to ensure consumer needs, wants, and desires are met and fulfilled on a timely and financial basis.

The second part of qualitative analysis involved reviewing effects if ineffective information management technologies in a project. To gather data, responses acquired from customers pertaining particular projects were reviewed. The reviews were helpful in assessing the contribution of effective information management technologies aligned to customer satisfaction. Investigations on statistical data and documentary information revealed that, one hundred percent of project ideas are developed at Musanada Company. However, it also awards consumers with a fifty percent opportunity to create individualized project ideas that suit their requirements. A successful project management relies on effective and efficient skills in relation to communicating, transmitting, and managing project instructions and data. Additionally, it ensures all parties strive to follow and respect to the project schedule. This aims at minimizing and eliminating misunderstandings to reduce additional project costs coupled with unsatisfied customers. Meeting customer requirements improves levels of client satisfaction improving company’s reputation.

It is therefore important for the company to undertake a project within a sufficient period of time. This period should ensure the company is able to deliver the final project within the client’s stipulated timeline and requirements. This ensures the company saves resources on time and money in trying to meet and fulfill consumer requirements without extending the project schedule and budget. Thus, Musanada Company relies on effective communication and management in developing, planning, and executing a project.

Musanada Company acknowledges how critical it is to reduce the period of time taken to transmit project information among creators, planners, executors, supervisors, managers, and clients. Innovation and information technologies are applicable in eliminating barriers of distance and time thus, saving the company financial and non-financial resources. Musanada Company has faced issues and challenges during a project’s development process due to lack of effective and efficient information management technologies and systems.

Ninety five percent of company employees agreed ineffective information management technologies have led to confusion and creation of projects that neither meet nor fulfill consumer needs, wants, demands, and desires. If project staffs fail to communicate the instructions clearly, the project is bound to fail disappointing the client. Project staffs should therefore understand their tasks to prevent the company from spending more financial and non-financial resources correcting errors and mistakes that could have been avoided. Consequently, this can prevent the increment of project costs. Unclear instructions communicated result to development of low quality, sub-standardized and unfulfilling projects. As a result, the clients are neither happy nor satisfied. The company policy asserts that clients can request managers and supervisors in the firm to correct and amend the misleading and incorrect concepts in the project. This further leads the project to run out of the schedule costing the company more time and finances.

At least ninety nine percent of project supervisors and managers at Musanada Company acknowledge project management relies on clear communication. Clear and comprehensible communication skills among persons carrying out a project achieve the following aspects. Instructions and information are clearly written in a simple and understandable language. This reduces the project’s scheduled running time. Consequently, the company saves money and time resources. Lastly, the final project meets the client’s needs, wants, demands, and desires leading to consumer satisfaction. As a result, the company achieves and sustains the competitive advantage in the project management industry.

8.0 Conclusion and Recommendations for Practice and Future Research.

Information management is the main factor determining the success or failure of a project. Managing information effectively and efficiently reduces the project’s running time and costs. Thus, the company ought to complete a project within the budgeted time and financial resources. More importantly, it ought to ensure customer satisfaction is achieved by delivering products and services incorporating the customer’s requirements. This guarantees a project management company such as Musanada continues to undertake business operations and functions in the industry. More so, it achieves a competitive advantage. Meeting and fulfilling customer needs and desires improves and increases the company’s marketing reputation.  Thus, more persons are willing to engage with the company for future projects. In conclusion, effective information management technologies in a project facilitate clear communications, meeting and fulfilling customer requirements within the set time and budget.

For Musanada Company to be effective and efficient in project management the following approaches aligned to innovation and information management technologies should be adopted. Foremost, misunderstandings and lack of clear communications between parties involved in executing a project should be eliminated. The company should therefore invest in innovated and digitalized communication devices. Emails and telephones can fail due to varying reasons. The company should invest in the latest digital systems such as smart phones and I-Pads. These devices are capable of digital convergence. They can reduce the amount of company resources budgeted in sending information to various parties involved in the project. This is because they use a single transmission or distribution channel (Attila, 2007).

Proalince software is a technologically innovated system utilized to improve capital projects in relation to costs and performance. Proalince software streamlines the project’s plans. It is designed to incorporate project owners and agents in managing and controlling it. Thus, Proalince software manages the planning, development, execution, and restructuring of a project especially if it is large. Proalince software is critical for project management companies seeking to control and reduce project costs and scheduled running time without compromising on quality and standards. It manages the project’s time line, costs, and schedules on an adaptable platform. The platform is often capital-intensive as it caters for various all consumer requirements included in the project (MS, 2014).

Proalince software provides automated workflow. It promotes visibility while improving on budgeting. This is achieved by planning and forecasting on project costs and schedules. Thus, company employees are able to anticipate changes enabling them to formulate solutions, enhanced schedules, integrated workflow systems, and alterations in contract management. Lastly, proalince software promotes team work. It ensures team members in the project are supportive, motivated, healthy, and fairly as well as equally remunerated (MS, 2014).



9.0 References

Attila, K. (2007). Technology and Society in the Information Age, Network for Teaching Information Society Report.

Brahima, S. (2013). Measuring the Information Society, International Telecommunication Union.

Catherine, M. (2012). Organizational Innovation: A Review of the Literature, Curtin University Working Paper.

Chris, E. (2010). Innovation Management; a Literature Review of Innovation Process Models and their Implications, Innovation Management Review.

George, C. (2003). Factors Affecting Product Innovations: A Literature Review, Agricultural Economics Review, 4(1), 47-62.

Konsbruck, R. L. (2013). Impacts of Information Technology on Society in the new Century, Switzerland, Route de Chavannes.

Meridian Systems (MS). (2014). Capital Program Management Software for Owners, Meridian Systems Trimble Company.

Viveca, A. (2005). Information Technology Challenges for Long-term Preservation of Electronic Information, International Journal of Public Information Systems.

The Operation of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) in a World of Corporate and Other Codes of Conduct global history essay help

We live in a world in which 13 of the top 50 economies are companies, not countries. How does this change the responsibility companies have for providing for social needs and addressing big-ticket challenges of the future?

Companies that are the top economies always play a huge role in the provision of social needs. Given that such companies are increasingly surpassing their countries in GDP, people are likely look up to these companies to solve the world’s social and economic problems (Nudelman and Erik 28). However, these companies will need to work together with governments in order to enhance good governance, especially when exploring emerging markets, such as the developing world.

How can companies ensure their own future prosperity by beginning to engage looming issues of concern—from energy needs to public health to income inequity?

People are increasingly pegging their trust for companies on the ones that carry out corporate support for social causes. This implies that companies have a bigger effect on social good than any other institutions or charitable organizations and they can exploit this strength and opportunity to ensure their own future prosperity (Nudelman and Erik 28). The companies can therefore apply their immense resources, expertise, and management talents to challenges they comprehend and in areas they have a stake.

Is the proliferation of nongovernmental organizations the result of incapacity on the part of governments? Or, are NGOs an innovation in human social organization and an important step forward for addressing global and local challenges?

The proliferation of NGOs is due to governments’ incapacity to address the social and economic challenges facing people around the world. The NGOs are very significant actors because they have filled in the gaps in the provision of social services, encouraged people to participate in local and national politics, and connected them to rich resources and ideas around the world (Nelson 8).

How can NGOs and governments work together to complement one another? How should the private sector involve itself in such coalitions?

The NGOs can develop collaborative strategies to work together with the governments in order to double their efforts because they are all focused on the same goal of improving the living standards of people (Nelson 8). They can take joint efforts aimed at solving social, economic, and environmental challenges or putting up initiatives to meet public needs that are beyond the competency or resources of the government alone. The private sector can mobilize its resources and engage in community development initiatives for which the government resources for the NGOs may not be sufficient when acting alone (Nelson 2).







Works Cited

Nelson, Jane. “The operation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a world of corporate and other codes of conduct.” Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative, 2007.

Nelson, Jane. “The Public Role of Private Enterprise.” School of Government, Harvard University, 2004.

Nudelman, Felice, and Erik R. Peterson. “Seven Revolutions: Scanning the World Out to 2025.”

Nursing Homework Paper on Family Health Assessment easy essay help: easy essay help

Family Health Assessment


A family health assessment is quite essential in creating a foundation to enhance family health and to establish the features of health in relation to human function. Knowing the health situation of the patient’s family is the first step in providing effective treatment plans. Family structures are essential in determining the outcomes of patients. Healthy families adapt their structures according to the changing needs of their members while others remain rigid under stress (Mitrani, et al., 2005, p. 445). This study will focus on analyzing the health assessment questionnaire, in which an interview was carried out in Steven Hanks’ family on eleven aspects of health patterns. The study will also cover on theoretical perspective of family health assessment.

Summation of Family Health Assessment

The family health assessment questionnaire was conducted for the family of Steven Hank, a nuclear family consisting of the father, 45, mother, 41, daughter, 17, and son, 14. They all live in one house; thus, have numerous things to share. Hanks’ family values highly the health of each member because a healthy family is always happy, and encourages mental growth. Children may understand fully the value of health, but parents are trying to teach them on the importance of maintaining good health. The family maintains its health through taking health foods, which incorporate all nutrients. The family also consults a nutritionist on matters concerning a balanced diet, in addition to paying a visit to health specialists twice a year.

Hank’s family takes bread and fried eggs in the morning, in addition to a fruit, or fruit juice. Since everyone is usually out during lunchtime, everyone is allowed to take his favorite food at this time. Dinnertime is a special time for everyone, after a day’s work. In many occasions, the dinner incorporates fried beef, a share of green vegetables, and rice. On top of this, fruit juice, or hot milk is also served. The family head usually takes a glass of wine, which, he said, assists in digestion of food. Sometimes, scones and juices from MacDonalds are served during the weekends, when everyone is at home. According to the latest report from the health specialist, none of the family members is overweight, as the family usually observes rules on healthy eating.

Due to his busy schedule, the husband only sleeps for five hours while the wife and children sleep for seven to eight hours. No one in the family complains of insomnia, or having to struggle in order to sleep. Even at the time of waking up, all members claimed that they felt relaxed, and ready to kick off the day. Both parents stated that they usually visit the toilet more than five times for urination, and an average of two times for bowel elimination. Both son and daughter did not have the exact number, but they admitted that they take a lot of water and juices daily, thus, stating the exact number was quite hard for them. According to the physician’s advice, four to six times is quite normal, thus, the family can consider itself on the right track in this section.

Although the family has a gym that is a partially equipped, family members do not participate together in exercises, as each member has his/her own schedule. Hanks prefer to do some press-ups and weight lifting before leaving for work. The mother does not participate in exercise, but in few occasions, children join their father in the morning for simple exercises such as sit-ups and peddling. The father is a former soccer player, thus, is a fan of soccer while mum is a fan of athletics. Just like the father, the son loves soccer, whereas the daughter is a big fan of basketball.

All members in Hanks’ family seemed to have no difficulties in remembering things, such as their birthdays, as well as upcoming holidays. Both parents prefer listening and writing in learning while children fancied a mixture of visual and audio teaching. They like it when their parents show them how to undertake activities rather than just receiving instructions. To ensure that no one has a problem in reading, the family usually goes for eye tests once in a year. No one in the family wears spectacles while reading. Everybody in the family prefers fruits that have sweet taste, but the son would not mind taking fresh lemons, as well as avocados. Both parents are usually annoyed by loud music, and would prefer low music sound, or no sound at all. Both son and daughter love listening to music, hence will not mind loud music. When kids break glasses, they often panic until they are assured that nothing will happen to them. Both parents claimed to feel bad when they see a family member breaking a glass or other utensils.

Everyone feels discouraged after failing to achieve something important. However, not everyone has the capacity to control temper. Only the son claimed not to ask for help when he failed to accomplish a task as he is introverted. The father is the main provider in the family while the mother assists in instilling discipline in the children. Since the son and daughter are old enough to undertake responsibilities, they usually assist in house chores. It is the role of the father to ensure that nobody in the family is ill. He has ensured that everyone has health insurance cover. Both parents contribute voluntarily in helping the needy in the community. Children also participate in institutions’ clubs that assist in communal activities.

Both parents have claimed that their sexual relationship is quite satisfying and have opted to maintain the status quo. They use contraceptives and condoms in family planning, since they have few side effects. They also claimed to have begun teaching their children on sexual matters even before they were in Grade 3. Since both parents are Christians, they turn to prayers when they are stressed. Children will isolate themselves for a while, until the stressful situation cools down. Both parents consult a counselor in case of any misunderstandings between them while children turn to their uncles and aunts for help. Parents opt to discipline their children, rather than punishing them of their misbehaviors.

Wellness Nursing Diagnosis

Wellness nursing diagnosis usually focuses on how the patient progresses in achieving health behaviors. This type of diagnosis indicates the ability to progress to the optimum level of health, or even better. In Hanks’ family,

The parents were teaching their children on observing good health behavior through taking balanced diet, and avoiding unhealthy diet.
The presence of a gym in the house was an illustration that the family had invested on self-care activities. Exercises are vital in maintaining good health.
The family was also working on methods of enhancing their sleep without taking sleep-enhancing pills. They ensure that everybody is asleep by midnight so that they can wake up feeling energetic in the morning.

Theoretical Perspective of Family Health Assessment

Nursing professionals have recognized that families are complex entities, where multiple processes happen simultaneously. They utilize theories and models to enhance clients’ care and outcomes. In nursing process, theories assist in organizing, as well as classifying patient information. This information is then analyzed and interpreted according to the patients’ health situations. Numerous theoretical perspectives exist to guide the nursing process on the assessment of the family. These include family social science theories, nursing models, and family therapy theories.

The most helpful and effective theoretical approaches that nursing professionals can rely on are family social science theories, since they inform nursing process on family phenomena, such as family functions, interactions, transformations, and reactions to health and illnesses (Kaakinen et al., 2010, p. 66). Family social science theories incorporate several theories that are usually abstract in nature. The structural functional theory perceives the family as an institution that purpose to maintain the social network of the family. Symbolic interaction theory emphasizes on symbolic communication and interactions with other families. Family systems theory works to enhance interactions among family members in a system, and may lead to functional or dysfunctional outcomes.

Other theories include the family stress theory, which focuses on analyzing family experience in coping with stressful life events ((Kaakinen et al., 2010, p. 67). Change theory explains what happens when there is a change in the family structure, or an external influence. The transition theory predicts how families change over time through their life cycle and change of roles. Thus, family social science theories have the capacity to express how clients live with the family structure. The most important part is the theoretical concept, which enables the nursing professionals to formulate diagnoses.

Using Family Structural Theory

Family structures can change depending on the current situation. The level of agreement that family members create concerning both short-term and long-term goals determines the family structure to be taken. Difficulties may emerge when a second marriage comes in. While parents approach remarriage with ease and joy, children are usually uncomfortable due to impending changes in their lives. The structural model allows flexibility in families through regrouping into various subsystems to accommodate different situations (Gurman & Kniskern, 2014, p. 53).

The structural aspect of the family determines how the family members will react to each other. Individual experience that is influenced by external conditions creates a strong argument in structural family therapy (Levy, 2006, p. 60). When a new marriage comes in, the family structure should be disintegrated to allow for an integration of another family. New unions are created with different values and beliefs. The foundation for the new structure should be effective in accommodating gradual changes, as too many unexpected changes may create discomfort among kids. A strong support system is necessary to guide children on new changes. Parents should first set rules and guiding principles, which every family member should follow.

Structural family therapy provides a subjective outlook of social system. Thus, different individuals will react subjectively under different circumstances. It is upon the new couple to decide what to include in the family structure, depending on the needs of each family member. Above all, they should encourage communication between them and children. Sometimes, a marriage counselor can be sought to assist in uniting the two families.


The family health assessment is vital in the nursing process, as it provides information that can assist nursing professionals offering effective care to patients. Every member in the family has a role to play, and to assist in achieving family goals. Family structures should be flexible to accommodate new changes that occur among the members. In case of a second marriage, both parents should devise new rules that would guide on integrating both families into one while children should be given time to adapt to new rules.




Gurman, A. S., & Kniskern, D. P. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of family therapy. New York, NY: Routledge.

Kaakinen, J. R., Gedaly-Duff, V., Hanson, S. M. H., & Coehlo, D. P. (2010). Family Health Care Nursing: Theory, Practice, and Research. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.

Levy, J. (2006). Using a Metaperspective to Clarify the Structural-Narrative Debate in Family Therapy. Family Process, 45(1), 55-73. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.2006.00080.x

Mitrani, V. B., Feaster, D. J., McCabe, B. E., Czaja, S. J., & Szapocznik, J. (2005). Adapting the structural family systems rating to assess the patterns of interaction in families of dementia caregivers. The Gerontologist, 45(4), 445-55. Retrieved from

Business Studies Paper on Improvement in the Human Resource Management at Steamatic Inc computer science essay help

Improvement in the Human Resource Management at Steamatic Inc

Background information

Steamatic Inc is a company that started as a carpet cleaning company, which was started in the year 1948. The company is based in the United States of America. In the year 2006, the company was bought by Bill Sims. Since 2006, Steamatic Inc continues to grow and many cleanings services have been identified as a need among the people of America. The company draws upon its global resources in order to meet the needs of its clients. One of the needs that the company has committed to fulfilling is that of Indoor Air Quality for both commercials as well as a residential building. The company saw this particular need more than 25 years ago and embarked on its development in order to meet this need. Moreover, the services that are offered by the company include carpet cleaning, furniture, and drapery cleaning, and air dust cleaning. The company also deals with a number of other cleaning activities including window cleaning in the United States. The services provided by the company to its clients are highly important, as the company’s goal is to ensure high quality as well as customer satisfaction.

Implementing Six Sigma methodology in the human resource functions presents a number of questions, such as how to measure the human resource, how to apply the 3.4 defects per million opportunities rule to the functions of human resources when there is no organization that has a million employees. There is a very high demand from the clients for every company. In order to meet this expectation, it has become highly imperative on the part of the company to perform its best according to its potential. Therefore, the human resource department cannot afford to be an exception. This also means that the human resource department cannot afford to keep from applying the Six Sigma tools as well as techniques in order to enhance its operations. The question that lingers is the reasons as to why the human resource department needs the tools and techniques of Six Sigma in order to improve its processes. This paper illustrates how human resource management can use the Six Sigma methodology in order to enhance its processes. Moreover, interacting with few Black Belt experts working in Six Sigma projects in different organizations, this project will demonstrate how various factors such as change, consideration, captain, and communication may play a very important role in the successful implementation of the Six Sigma methodologies in the human resource functions.


The idea of perfection marks an endless dream for a number of organizations.  The quest for man’s flawless performance in entirely all the work is taking him a step high in order to ensure as well as improve his functions. Also, the idea of defects is very dangerous, because defects usually have consequences that are much worse than ever before. Therefore, modern times have forced many of the businesses in the world to explore the various methods in order to improve their processes as well as works in order to ensure defect-free in their products and services. This exploration has contributed to man’s discovery of various methods in order to improve the quality of work. Six Sigma is one of such revolutionary methods, which has profoundly transformed the manufacturing industry in terms of quality as well as excellence. The concept of Six Sigma has also changed the paradigm of excellence in the processes and activities that an organization is undertaking. Most prominently, the concept of Six Sigma has changed the qualitative parameter of quality as a measurable parameter.

Problem statement

Continuous improvements in the quality of products and services are triggered by the execution of carefully selected projects. In order to reach a solution, the management must be willing to step up and try to improve their areas. The human resource management of Steamatic Inc would have to graciously agree to lend their support to offer the proving ground for the process of improvement possibilities as well as resources to work on this project. One of the potential opportunities for improvement would be the human resource processes. The human resource department in Steamatic Inc has previously not taken a keen interest in the process of employees hiring and training. A company needs to have a team of competent employees who are well trained in order to achieve its goals and objectives.

The objective of the study

The goal of this study will be to improve the processes of the human resource management of Steamatic Inc using Six Sigma techniques and tools.

The Six Sigma

The concept of Six Sigma was first born at Motorola in the year 1986 when the company was reigning under huge losses as well as unable to face the level of competition in the market at the time. The term sigma is derived from the field of statistics in which it is used to represent the standard deviation, which is a measure of variability from the mean of the population. In the organizational context, it is used to measure the deviations from perfection, and the lesser the level of deviations, the more the company moves towards perfection. These deviations in terms of sigma may be expressed in terms of defects per a million opportunities. In this concept, therefore, sigma allows only 3.4 defects per a million opportunities. Moreover, the defect per million opportunities values for 2, 3, 4, as well as 5 sigma levels include 308537, 66807, 6210, and 233 respectively. The concept of Six Sigma is inclined by the quality improvements of its proceeding era.

Six Sigma is a statistical tool that measures an organization’s process in terms of defects. Six Sigma is considered to be a problem-solving technique that uses an organization’s human assets, data measurements, as well as statistics in order, identify important factors that can decrease the rate of wastes and defects, while increasing the level of customer satisfaction, company profits, and the value of shareholders. The concept of Six Sigma focuses on creating a world class business performance as well as offering an organization a roadmap and structure through which its goals may be achieved. Even though very paramount in improving the value of goods and services from the perspective of a customer, the idea of Six Sigma is also highly applicable in enhancing the efficiency as well as the effectiveness of all the processes, transactions, and processes of any company. Many of the companies in the world today, have not understood the dire effects of poor quality on their bottom line, as poor qualities would compel many of these companies to rework on their designs, lead to huge wastes in form of scrap materials, warrant many claims, resend products, and facing a number of court cases. In the efforts of tracking companies from many of the industries across the board, it has been realized that the cost of poor quality ranges between 20-30 percent of the total operating costs. However, a company that is engaged in Six Sigma may expect a cut in these costs, which is almost half over a period of three years.

In its methodology, the concept of Six Sigma starts with the cost of poor quality, which can trigger the improvement of quality in a company. The concept of Six Sigma leads to the effort of improving products’ quality from customers’ perspective. Six Sigma helps in setting as well as establishing the benchmarks for comparing the progress made in a process since comparisons are very inevitable. The manner in which performance, as well as quality levels of an organization, are compared with other organizations in the same industry, is also the same manner in which the Six Sigma techniques are compared with other previous quality improvements.

The manner in which Six Sigma works

Focus on defects

            It is highly paramount to understand the idea behind the Six Sigma. Six Sigma has been defined as the standard deviation. The concept is 99.9997 percent perfect. The major focus of this concept discipline is on statistics and it is all about how to collect and analyze information in order to determine the rate of defects of whatever is being measured. In the manufacturing setting, it is much easier to identify as well as measure the rate of defects. When following the concept of Six Sigma, most of the information is collected from the voices of the customers.

However, in the service industry, is becomes much more difficult to identify the rate of defects as well as measure how much this matters to the customers. This is so because what is to be defined is intangible. For instance, the definition of clean or a house cleaner’s definition of what is clean may vary. Thus, in the service industry, the concept of defining something may differ from one person to the other person in a significant manner. A lot of these variations are based on the extent of perception as well as acceptance criteria and efforts that are involved.

What many of the organizations have to realize is that, when seeking to define the defects, it fundamentally depends on who is the customer. Many of the service industries lay a lot of efforts into collecting information for customer satisfaction; however, customer satisfaction may vary based on the customers’ last experience. The company could be offering the same level of service, but some other variables might have created negative experiences for the customers. The dilemma of intangible services make it frustrating, if not impossible, to define as well as collect information for defects. However, this is not to suggest that service industries do not need to apply this concept, though the reality of implementing this project might be costly. More often, many of the organizations that attempt to apply the idea of Six Sigma for their services find themselves compelled to focus on the tangible aspects, including transaction volumes, re-work, as well as time consumed.

Literature review

The concept of Six Sigma has been described as process improvement technique in order to improve the quality perception of customers towards the product and services of a company. Six Sigma has been transformed into a management philosophy for a number of organizations. The human resource department of an organization performs a very important function in the successful operation of Six Sigma projects. However, when it comes to the issue of implementing the Six Sigma tools to the processes of human resource domain, many impediments pose challenges. These challenges range from the questions of feasibility, measurability, to the challenges of applicability. There is a widespread notion that the tools as well as techniques of Six Sigma cannot be applied to the processes of human resource. But, the biggest challenge lies in the perception of human resource professionals towards the Six Sigma methodologies (Albeanu et al, 239).

Six Sigma techniques is a quality improvement process that starts with the voice of the customer and uses data as well as statistics in order to solve customer problems or concerns. The idea of Six Sigma is organized around individual projects with fixed timelines, and each project starts through forming a team in order to identify the customers as well as customer needs. The team is tasked with the functions of measuring how the needs of the customers can be met, analyzes the variables that may affect the level of customer satisfaction, suggests improvements to the processes, and finally, establishes the improvements in order to control the processes. All the parts of the Six Sigma methodologies which includes to define, measure, analyze, improve, and control are applied (Jenab, Kouroush, and Staub 13-23).

It has also been established that there is nothing wrong with the idea of near perfection goods and services for customers. The concept of Six Sigma that is applied to the service industry primarily focuses in offering services, as contrasted to the manufacturing industry that focuses in providing products. Therefore, the manufacturing and service industries are different industries and should be treated differently. The concepts that may contribute to the sense of perfection in the manufacturing industry might not exist in the service industry. For instance, many of the Six Sigma metrics as well as calculations are not sometimes tracked or even captured in similar service processes (Albeanu et al, 304).

The human resource department is no different than any other aspect of an organization being able to deliver the Six Sigma with significant financial gain to the company. Many of the projects are fundamentally directed towards the internal customer through undertaking the human resource functions faster as well as much more efficient, or towards the external customers through contributing to the ongoing transformation of the organization’s achievement of a well functional Six Sigma program.

Research methodology

An unstructured interview will be used and conducted with five Black Belt experts, who work on the various Six Sigma projects in various organizations. Online mode will also be used in order to have discussions with these experts. Moreover, convenience sampling technique shall be applied. This paper will use primary data as well as secondary data from various sources including published journals, books, and online materials.

Six Sigma’s DMAIC process

The DMAIC is a five step process that makes up the Six Sigma technique and its sole objective is to drive the costly variation from the manufacturing as well as business processes. The DMAIC five step processes include define measure, analyze, improve, and control. As the framework of the Six Sigma methodology, the DMAIC leads to a sustained defect-free performance as well as highly competitive quality costs in the long-run.


The concept of Six Sigma is aimed at decreasing the rate of defects. The first step is figuring out what a defect would be. Steamatic Inc may decide that leaving dirty streaks on carpets is a defect because it is a source customer satisfaction. The measure stage is very important as it sets out the nature of the problem that is to be solved through the Six Sigma techniques and tools. This implies that the problem or issue is identified as well as defined during this particular stage.


This is the next step in collecting information in order to find out why and how often these defects occur. This may include process flow maps of where the employees start as well as finish cleaning. Other metrics may include recording what tools the employees use in their cleaning activities.


This marks the third step in the process. After the data is measured, the company’s Six Sigma team would identify that a particular employee is better at cleaning the carpets than other employees. This can also be done through the use of analytic tools including Anova analysis as well as other techniques.

A defect is any incident or event which fails to meet the customers’ expectations. Standard deviation is the measure of variation within a process.  It is indicated by the symbol, sigma (s).  A review of the normal distribution bell curve shows that:

68% of defects fall within 1s of the mean

95% of defects fall within 2s of the mean

99.99997% of defects fall within 6s of the mean

By aiming processes at Six Sigma, then, there would only be 3.4 defects per one million opportunities. Also, With the Six Sigma defects as a goal, that is 3.4 defects in one million opportunities, then processes can be evaluated to reach a target level with upper and lower limits.  In order to reach these limits then the process variation will have to be reduced.  As a result the bell curve will become more peaked as illustrated with the green bell curve.


This is the forth step in the process. The team would then implement that particular employee’s process as a standard way of cleaning the carpets. This step is first determined during the third step, which is then adopted during this fourth step. The results found in the analyze step will be very critical in initiating the improvements that are to be made during this stage. The profits are expected to increase as indicated by the following graph.


This is the final or the last step in the DMAIC process. During this particular stage, the company human resource would teach new employees the correct as well as the most suitable manner identified during the improve stage to washing carpets. With time, there will be a significant improvement in the level of customer satisfaction, which will as a result increase the level of business activities in the company. Moreover, it may take the Six Sigma team one or more brainstorming sessions in order to clearly define its processes, but the DMAIC process remain purely the same.

Benefits of Six Sigma to Steamatic Inc

The financial gains of implementing Six Sigma are measured in a number of organizations and they have proved to be highly impressive. The world’s corporate giants, such as Motorola and General Electronic have successfully implemented the concept of Six Sigma and saved a lot of money. This can also be applied to Steamatic Inc in order to help the company in saving its financial resources. Moreover, other companies including Ford, Microsoft, and American Express have used this concept and registered the same benefits. However, the Six Sigma is not only about money, but more of a management philosophy, way of doing things, method of thinking, and above all, the commitment of an organization. In many of the top organizations in the world today, majority of the key managerial slots such as human resource management need Six Sigma certification.

Welch Jack is regarded as one of the greatest chief executive officers in the world; he initiated the concept of Six Sigma in General Electric. It was the most important initiative that the company has ever taken. Moreover, this initiative became part of General Electric as a code of its future leadership. The concept of Six Sigma would help Steamatic Inc to identify and embrace a culture of accountability, because it is a concept that is aligned to the employee expectations as well as effective system or reward and consequences. Similarly, the concept of Six Sigma would have a lot of performance variations. Through managing such variability, the company can raise the overall performance and initiate an organic growth within the company (Brewer 45-49).

The need for Six Sigma in Human Resource

There is very high anticipation from customers for each organization. In order to meet this expectation, it has become highly imperative on the part of each department within an organization to perform to its best level. The human resource cannot be left out and cannot afford to keep distance from applying the concepts of Six Sigma in order to improve its processes (Bloom).  There are a number of reasons as to why the human resource of Steamatic Inc should use the concepts of Six Sigma it its human resource department, which include;

Create excellence in the process delivery

In order to deliver the business’s day-to-day service consistently and focus more on its strategic goals, the human resource has to make sure that its processes run more smoothly with no or minimal issues. The idea of Six Sigma marks an excellent method of delivering processes as well as excellence to the company, thus the need to follow the principles of Six Sigma in order to guarantee the sustainability of the company’s excellence in the long-run.

Reduce the rate of defects

From the many queries, which are time-wasting to resolving the issues that surround wrong salaries and inaccurate employee data, the human resource processes are highly prone to generating many defects during the process of delivery. More often, these defects remain unidentified until they start causing problems, which may as  a result affect the company at a much higher level and significantly affecting areas, including finance, the legality of the company, as well as customer satisfaction. It is therefore, a high priority to identify such defects and minimize the level of these problems in order to ensure the company’s success. Achieving the Six Sigma rate of 99.9997 percent flawless process might not be a reality in human resource, but through tracking and taking the Six Sigma method, the rate of the company’s defects can be reduced significantly.

Increase efficiency and reduce scrap

Through the concepts of lean technologies and combined with the concepts of Six Sigma techniques and tools, the human resource of the company can work in order to decrease the rate of resources that are lost in ineffective manner, often through unnecessary tasks. The use of Six Sigma in the company can considerably deliver service delivery within the desired standards.

Creating a quality and focused mindset

For the human resource of the company to deliver value, the whole department needs to be focused on quality as a measure of the company service level and customer satisfaction metrics. The concept of Six Sigma initiates this kind of mindset, which the organization needs to implement as well as embed into its organizational culture.

Gain from the best practice

For the human resource of the company to perform effective reviews of the processes that would lead to maximum gain, the Six Sigma tools and techniques offer the best methods that have been found relevant in many organizations. Through this, the organization would be able to make significant advantage in the market and overcome the level of competition.

Fetch clarity to the processes  

The human resource processes may contain hidden issues, which might sooner or later impact on the services that are being delivered including significant number of defects. The two of the fundamental process of the Sigma Processes focuses primarily on creating clarity to the processes as well as its metrics through the application of the statistical techniques, which can offer deeper understanding into the inner workings of the human resource processes and the external factors that affect these processes. This in return enables for delivery improvements.

Use of structured and scientific approach

The application of the concepts of Six Sigma not only presents the opportunities for both products as well as service improvement, but also presents a proven method based on well and structured methodologies, which can provide a framework that may be applied in any process improvement within an organization. Moreover, issue of time consuming may also arise due to the processes of communication that are involved in human resource management, the Six Sigma, therefore, helps in reducing the variety of confusion in these processes and initiate a lot of improvements.

Maintaining the control of the company’s processes

It is very common that an effectively designed process can develop a number of issues as well as inefficiencies as quickly as possible. One of the major functions of the Six Sigma techniques is to ensure that after delivery, the new as well as improved processes continue to generate consistent results for a long time as the company’s processes functions.

Strengthen the company’s business case   

Six Sigma has proven profoundly successful in a number of businesses in both the service and the production industry, and some of the world’s best and largest companies are benefiting from the results of Six Sigma. Following this, the human resource management of the company can improve its processes and gain more credibility if it is based on the principles of Six Sigma, especially where the methodology has already been used in other parts of the business.

The Challenge of Six Sigma in Human Resource

The challenges of implementing Six Sigma in the processes of human resource include issues surrounding the manner in which it can be done, how it can be measured, how to improve the processes of human resource within the company, as well as how the human resource of the company can be at 3.4 parts per million, since it does not deal with a million people.

The concept of Six Sigma is essentially a data driven method, which is motivated, to eliminating defects as well as improving the processes of products and services. Thus, it is obvious that for any kind of process to be subjected to concept of Sigma evaluation, it has to produce data for from its operations. This means that the process must be measurable. When applying the concept of Six Sigma to the human resource processes of the company, an inevitable issue that emerges deals with the extent to which the human resources processes within the company are measurable. Measuring these processes in the manufacturing industries becomes a bit easier. However, some factors may also come into play. These factors entail:

The measurability of a process relies on the perception of the individual human resource personnel.
Human resource might not be considered as a major function within many of the organizations due to the issues of non-measurability nature of the human resource processes.
Many of the organizations fail to consider the human resource management as a human capital.
The human resource of a company need to ensure that there is excellent returns on the level of investment in the human capital.

As illustrated above, a number of challenges that pertain to the use of Six Sigma in the processes of the company’s human resource are present. Nevertheless, human resource marks a very important component of any organization and without its critical functions, the future of the business lies in a balance. It is important that the functions played by human resource management within the company be received in equal measure as any other department within the organization (Barone, Stefano, and Franco).


The use of Six Sigma within an organization has been proved to be of high relevance to the operations of the company. The concept of DMAIC has enabled a number of companies in pursuing their goals as well as objectives. The Six Sigma to the processes and functions of human resource are complicated as compared to other functional areas of a business. This is attributed to the abstract nature of the functions as well as processes of human resources department. However, in regard to the competitive nature of the market environment in the world today, it is very paramount to analyze the processes of human resource within an organization in order to ensure sustainability as well as success.





Works Cited

Albeanu, Mircea, Ian Hunter, and Jo Radford. Six Sigma in Hr Transformation: Achieving Excellence in Service Delivery. Farnham, England: Gower Pub, 2010. Internet resource.

Barone, Stefano, and Eva L. Franco. Statistical and Managerial Techniques for Six Sigma Methodology: Theory and Application. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley, 2012. Internet resource.

Bloom, Daniel. Achieving Hr Excellence Through Six Sigma. , 2013. Print.

Brewer, Peter C. “Six Sigma Helps a Company Create a Culture of Accountability.” Journal of Organizational Excellence. 23.3 (2004): 45-59. Print.

Brewer, P C. “Expectations-rewards Alignment Six Sigma Helps a Company Create a Culture of Accountability.” Journal of Organizational Excellence. 23 (2004): 45-60. Print.

Jenab, Kouroush, and Selva Staub. “Analyzing Management Style and Successful Implementation of Six Sigma.” International Journal of Strategic Decision Sciences (ijsds). 3.3 (2012): 13-23. Print.

Sample Philosophy Book Review Paper on Protocol Paper Assignments college admissions essay help

Protocol Paper Assignments


The book by James Rachel “Elements of Moral Philosophy” introduces morality in Chapter 4 and its dependence on religion making intriguing points to human social coexistence. Rachel begins the discourse through an introduction of the problematic pedagogy in determining morality and religion within the society. One point emerges from Socrates that morality, if it is true that it is intertwined with society, then depends greatly on religion. It is evident that the existence of religion and gods to determine the life of humans is present long before the outset of Christianity. The Divine Command Theory and morality dictate that right becomes a command from God. The following issues stand out in the divine connection and God.

First, religion makes morality a mysterious conception. Secondly, arbitrariness is attributed to God’s commands so that no question can suffice his judgment. Therefore, these ideals create a variance between religion and natural law upon which norms exist because they are right and relevant to the justification of the society.


Rachel has established his ideals of moral problems through case studies of characters in the society including that of Moore who is a judge introducing Christianity and the Ten Commandments in his law courts. It is surprising just how society feels attracted to elements of divinity despite the judicial system being objective to natural law. In elaborating and differentiating between divine law and natural law, it becomes clear that society relies more in being comfortable with mysteries rather than absurd natural explanations for the origin of morals. One example that Rachel gives is the case of child abuse, which God condemns. The question emerges as to why God would condemn it. One perspective dwells on the fact that it is not right which replicates the question as to why it is not right. This way, Rachel claims that a cyclic domain emerges that is complex in trying to determine which theory is relevant.


After studying the chapter, it is not clear what position the society holds regarding morality and the religious values of God as the creator. How do the law and conscience determine morality in a case such as that of child abuse? Additionally, where do we draw a line between religion and human existence? It becomes confusing when Rachel asserts as to lacking answers to such critical social quests as that of religion being a major determiner in morals and right or wrong. Such a question should determine the answer to my quest for a connection between science, society, and morals in philosophy.


Rachel introduces various elements of religion through the divine theory when he says “Christians, Jews and Muslims all believe that God has told us to obey certain rules…”(Rachel & Stuart 51). Such a belief becomes interesting when Rachel continues that people become more subjective and personal in morality and religion as he says “…if morality is a violation of God’s commandments, there is an easy answer: On the day of reckoning, you will be held accountable” (Rachel & Stuart 52). Such quests are exemplified by Aristotle in the theory of natural law where he believes that everything exists for a purpose (Rachel & Stuart 54).


Reflecting upon my life, I remember various doctrines that I have learnt from my Christian upbringing. My mother has been an ardent believer in Christ and calls for purpose and a call in everything she does. Her prayers have seemed to be answered as far as she has always prayed for us and we have lived a life fearing God and doing His will making the whole concept of right and wrong religious. On an objective note however, I question why the same God who makes me whole and satisfied and keeps me from my enemies make others suffer.


From the connection to my Christian background and the relationship that necessitates proper and moral decision-making, I find this chapter very helpful and necessary in determining the value of morality and moral judgments especially in matters to do with religion. Specifically, the manner that Rachel introduces the cases and relates them explicitly to morality and religious elements in the society pleases me and makes it easy for anyone to understand the nuances of morality, moral agents, and reasoning within the context of the society and God’s commands. Subsequently, the organization and connectivity between every subtopic serves to make the chapter quite easy to understand and reason.





Rachels, James, and Stuart Rachels. The elements of moral philosophy. New York: Random                        House, 1986.

Environmental Studies and Forestry Sample Paper on Regulating Toxic Substances buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

Regulating Toxic Substances

The government of the United States can deal with uncertainty in regulating toxic substances using the precautionary principle. This principle is used to assess environmental and health laws. The local, federal, and state government has used this principle to regulate toxic substances (, 2014, p. 1). It focuses on the risk of harm rather than the benefits of the substances. For example, if a particular plastic used in the manufacture of toys had toxic chemicals, this principle would be used to assess the extent of harm that is most likely to occur and take the necessary steps. Additionally, the risk assessment approach would be used by the government to regulate toxic substances. This approach requires proof of the actual harm before the enactment of regulations to reduce harm, implying that the majority of governments try to manage the risk of toxic substances.

The pesticide is supposed to be banned because it poses a risk to the health of human beings. The government should ban the use of this pesticide because it can lead to death, hence interfering with the life of human beings. The use of this pesticide will violate the right to human life. Although the pesticide has some benefits, the government should only allow it to be used after research has been carried out, and found that it does not cause harm to human beings. The technology-based approach is better than the health-based approach based on a number of reasons. Firstly, it avoids problems associated with the cost-benefit analysis because it does not require the regulatory agencies to translate regulation benefits into monetary terms. The technology-based regulation treats all its members uniformly (Glicksman, 2014, p. 1). Additionally, it is flexible. It has source emissions limits for individuals and they are very easy to be met. For instance, one can buy emission credits from different sources that have been over-controlled. Other reasons why technology-based approach are the most preferred is that they do not cost oblivious, and it is easy for the public and agency to enforce. They enable agencies to take the necessary steps to protect wellbeing, safety, and the environment even when there is a lack of certainty with respect to the precise amounts of harm attributable to developmental and industrial activity concerning necessary expenses to avoid the harm. Lastly, this approach has been found out to be flexible, affordable, and effective.

Yes, there are differences between water and air pollution that require the state to take different approaches. Because these are two different types of pollution, there is a need for the statutes to use different approaches in dealing with the problem. For instance, the rate of air pollution is high compared to those of water pollution. Several gases are emitted on a daily basis in the atmosphere, hence causing air pollution. This implies that air pollution threatens life of human beings and therefore it will require an approach that is effective so that the health of human beings is not put at risk (, 2014, p. 1). This may call for use of approaches like technology-based approach. On the other hand, water pollution can use the risk assessment approach to reduce the rates of pollution. It is understood that water pollution may be caused by the discharge of waste products in water bodies. This approach can be effective because firstly, it will assess the risks of using polluted water by both human beings and aquatic life.





References (2014). Chemical Risk Assessment and Regulatory Decision Making. Retrieved 23 May 2014, from: <>

Glicksman, R. (2014). Center for Progressive Reform: CPR Perspective: Technology-Based Standards. Retrieved 23 May 2014, from (2014). Statutory Design. Retrieved on 23 May 2014, from:

Sample Criminal Justice Paper on Criminalistic DB5 essay help cheap

Criminalistic DB5

Gathering forensic evidence is usually one of the damning processes in a criminal case. However, it is enough to turn a courtroom into a gaze. In an attempt to link the defendant to the crime, the prosecutor normally presents expert testimony on different forensic techniques, such as fingerprints comparison, DNA analysis, bit marks, and lip print. When presenting this forensic evidence, the prosecutor testifies that a characteristic associated with one sample from the crime scene matches another characteristic of a sample taken from a defendant. To make this forensic evidence valid, they must be diagnosed thoroughly and proved to be reliable (Saks et al, 2008).

Forensic evidence usually uses an array of evidence to crate individualization fallacy. The major patterns that are used to create this fallacy include fingerprints, DNA analysis, Lip prints, palm prints, bite marks, and firearm evidence. These sets of elements enable both the judges and the parties involved to assert a definite conclusion regarding the case and develop relevant measures. Empirical research demonstrates that most of the experts commit an array of errors when interpreting the probabilistic evidence associated with these criminal elements. These errors are approximately 0.1-0.001% in most cases. These errors demonstrated that to capture the criminal is not merely a hypothetical construct, but an important procedure that requires high skills (Craft, 2007).

In conclusion, palm prints, lip prints, and bite marks are not enough to create valid forensic evidences. Therefore, the proper application of the forensic technique by the experts requires a reliable frequency estimate for them to be regarded as relevant.  The characteristics must be curtained to be substantially independent to one another in order to be a prospect in a valid court.





Craft, K. J., Owens, J. D., & Ashley, M. V. (2007). Application of plant DNA markers in forensic botany: Genetic comparison of quercus evidence leaves to crime scene trees using microsatellites. Forensic Science International (Online), 165(1), 64-70. doi:

Saks, M. J., & Koehler, J. J. (2008). The individualization fallacy in forensic science evidence. Vanderbilt Law Review, 61(1), 197-219. Retrieved from

Public Administration Sample Paper on Prescribing Policies write my essay help: write my essay help

Prescribing Policies

Maximize effectiveness at the least cost: From the graph below, one of the most important ways to maximize effectiveness at least costs is through enhancing better communication. Such communication emerges from angles such as the charities as well as accomplished tracks. When communication is poor in terms of quality, cost effectiveness is formulated and driven through an angle of the groundwork of operation and implementation.

Maximize effectiveness at a fixed cost of $10,000: From the notation above, a fixed cost of 10,000 USD becomes an element of cost effective application. In this case, the distribution is given a standard deviation of 1, which stands for the replication of the various points of operation as well as implications that may emanate from it. In so saying, the N90.1) is denoted as the outset of an effective cost benefit analysis. The following angles reveal a standard that is close to 16 percent in charities and the production quarters of analysis.

Achieve a fixed effectiveness level of 6,000 units of service at a fixed cost of $20,000: the cost effective analysis can get tricky when faced with units and a fixed element cost of 20,000 USD. When units have a value say 6,000, they are implicative of the production element and output cost variance. The angle of general production becomes a critical tie within this framework and operation as may be seen at various angles. With 6,000 units and a zero donation, cost effectiveness emerges at 54 percent represented as an inverse notation curve in the graph in figure 5.2.

Maximize net benefits assuming that each unit of service has a market price of $10: In a firm wishing to maximize net benefits from a nit service of 10 USD, the figure is relevant to an estimate that can garner over 1,000 USD. When given to a firm input mechanism, the elements are represented by an X, which enhances a rough estimate of 10,000 USD. When such factors as the price and the inverse notation index are considered, the element of operation become complicated and adherence to operations is enhanced. Such an estimate would stand at N (X.X).

Determine which of the two main programs (program 1 and program 2 should be selected under each of these criteria: The two priorities are the benchmarks up to, which an elaborate production sets. When the two programs are implemented, they are enhanced at a more realistic level and generated at an operational analysis that freelances society. This will save on the two programs to release a major operational line for the two levers for better production and cost effectiveness (Mrozek & Taylor 2001). Program 1 is, therefore, an effective choice because you can adjust further preferences to accommodate the nuances of productivity and groundwork as may be witnessed at a selective piece of the operation.

The conditions under which each criterion may be an adequate measure of achievement of objectives: The criteria involve an evaluation of the two programs of operation. The involvement of the two firms depicts a critical element of operation that will enhance the formulation and operations of substances at each angle. A justification emerges when the two factors are considered, an element of operation and program default emerge to determine the actual operative beyond which realistic nuances of production are determinate. Referring to the graph below with a focus on the two elements of operation found below.

Determine the assumptions that govern estimates of the value of time lost driving, indicating which assumptions are more tenable than others: when driving, the value of time lost is often estimated at a realistic element of operation which is the relevant factor of operation applicable. When the two missions are in place, the world becomes adapted and realigned to the elements of operation and implementations that was the formative reflex of the firm in question. One assumption dwells on the cost effective nature of such a drive often represented by an inverse notation index of (No). O’ryan (1996) notes, when such elements become tenable and applicable to the operations within these spheres, they generate a more complex structure that enhances cost effectiveness.

Determine the best way to estimate the value of time justify position: The best way to estimate such a value of time depend on two paradigms. The valuations are whether such time is the working time or non-working time. Such a division is an implicative measure of the value attached to the various dimensions under every proposition. In an organization, when an employer pays 30 USD per hour for every time an employee stays within a premise, the value of that time is equivalent to the time spent at this angle as well as the operational structures that are enhanced through such operational structures. When these values are included, a more complex cost analysis emerges.

Determine the best way to estimate the cost of a gallon of gasoline. Justify your position: In determining the cost of gasoline, various factors are used in the process. The first element of operation is the mileage upon which such gasoline would cover. When a given measure of gasoline has the ability to cover say 1 mile, the mile can be translated to a value of money. The warehousing charges, as well as the yardsticks of operations, are then implemented to drive the firm to a full operational cost. Therefore, the value of such products would be determined by various elements such as the mileage, warehousing as well as operational basis, and market control analysis.

Determine the more reliable method to estimate driving speeds and miles per gallon by using: The estimation of how motorists drive and save on value may differ depending on the cases of operation and application enhanced. The process of saving time and enhancing the degree of heterogeneity within the cases above may enhance a more cooperative principle that should have the ability to cooperate the dimensions of cost analysis. The costs made in the real market situation reveals numerous instances of cost effectiveness that would be relevant and applicable to the yardsticks of operation. The engineer’s method through Rubin multiple computation analysis enhances the scope of operation and drivers upon which the frameworks exists. The framework reveals an essence in accounting for errors as well as determining the operative index within the mileage access. The department of energy and the engineering access to efficiency would, therefore, be a realistic nuance of operation based on the gasoline and driver’s mileage under operation.

According to Quiggin (1999), the two frameworks should work in tandem with the gasoline and drivers to enhance effective analysis and operations. When the driver garners from the traffic connection as well as the engineer’s rules and report work, options emerge which may be utilized in case of realistic elements of work hitches.

The consequence of using one element at the expense of the other reveals a more realistic operation as well as an expensive payment mode for every element applied. When a driver chooses to use the traffic controls mode, then they are closing their eyes to instances when the need for a proper mileage cover would be necessary. Such elements are free and emphatic of situations of operation and immersion.

Estimation of the value of life saved: The life saved when driving and enhancing efficiency is often higher compared to the rates of deaths denoted by the traffic authorities. When the value of life saved is compared to the elements of operation and demands, the two factors are generative and applicable to the nuances of operation and frameworks (Quiggins 1999). The value of life saved would therefore be the simple factors that are considered when driving in terms of speed limit adherence as well as the maintenance in terms of effective analysis and operation upon which the factors are enhanced and driven for success. VSL emanates from a more complex stricture that will enhance the coordination and affiliation of operation for a more realistic element of operation. Therefore, the stricture of enhancing the life saved can be tricky in operation and affluence as may be determined by the elements applicable and available to the concerned parties. When drivers are out on the road, they often have rules and jurisdictions that determine their driving and mileage. When they fail to adhere to these elements, they pose as a great risk to the public. In driving, the public include the driver, the passengers, the pedestrians, as well as people who happen to be by the roadside at the time of the accident. The value of life saved is priceless and cannot be calculated from one angle. Instead, the factors influenced here will emerge from the operations and affiliations upon which the operations are enhanced.

Determine which policy is preferable (the 55mph speed limit or 65mph limit): When driving, for instance, a driver has the choice of selecting either mileage for say 55 or 65 miles per hour. These variances, as set by the traffic department stand that heavy-duty vehicles as well as BCE vehicles can operate. The choice of which speed limit to chose, therefore depends on the type of service of the vehicle as well as the nature of roads applicable. In certain places, the roads require a more direct mileage when driving while certain areas are more open.

Heavy-duty vehicles as well freight vessels often have a mileage cover of 55 mph while smaller vehicles such as saloon cars and SUVs often have a higher limit at 65 mph. these variances depend again on the roads as well as nature of operation implied by the two types of vehicles. Ideally, these elements are complex and require a more regulated traffic system of operation.

In conclusion, the systems of analysis and prescription depend on various elements, which are necessary to determine an appropriate way of driving and values estimations. These variances are available within the framework of operation as well as the nature of generalities available within the special features of operation. Therefore, the suggestions above are systems application from critical outlook and evaluation of the rules and patents in the roads governing systems.




Mrozek, J.R.; Laura Taylor (2001). “What Determines the Value of Life? A Meta-Analysis”. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 21 (2): 253–270

Viscusi, Kip; Joseph E. Aldy (2003). “The Value of a Statistical Life: A Critical Review of Market Estimates Throughout the World”. JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY 27(1): 5–76.

O’ryan, R. E. (1996). Cost-effective policies to improve urban air quality in Santiago, Chile. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 31(3), 302-313.

Bleichrodt H, Quiggin J (December 1999). “Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?”. J Health Econ 18 (6): 681–708.

Religious Studies Sample Paper on the Son of Promise Genesis 18:1-18 college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

The Son of Promise Genesis 18:1-18

Original Meaning

The Audience and Presentation Context

The devotional below was written to be presented to members of The Vineyard Compass Ministry at The Vineyard Church in Dalton, Ohio on Thursday 22nd, June at the weekly compass fellowship. The fellowship comprises of both male and female young adults of the age 18 to 30 years. The group contains church goers, miscellaneous denomination members and some unchurched individuals. The bible literacy level of this people is high as some of frequently been involved in bible classes and studies for a long time and have even facilitated the bible studies program.

The Son of Promise Genesis 18:1-18

GENESIS 18: 1-18 contains a memorable narrative on Abraham’s invitation of the three holy men and the promise of his son. While in the Promised Land; in the plains of Mamre, Abraham was sited at the entry of his tent and the lord appeared to him in the heat of the day (verse 1). The verse says that the lord appeared to Abraham in Mamre and some three men also visited him. The men are said to have engaged in all human activities like eating and walking. This appearance of Yahweh to Abraham was not a peculiar occurrence since he had previously appeared to him several other times. This was the sixth time the Lord was visiting Abraham[1]. At this time, Sarah was back in her tent.

The culture of the Middle East people involved welcoming of strangers who looked tired and weary. Abraham welcomed the three holy men, not just as a cultural practice, but also due to his generosity. This visitation bears the concept of freedom as well as that familiarity. Abraham requested the three men to come under his roof and get some little water to bathe their feet, and get some rest with him under the tree.

Abraham saw the men after lifting his eyes to see whether there were any men passing that way. The three gentlemen stood beside him. They might have probably descended from the heaven directly to the spot where Abraham sat or they might have traveled for quite some distance before getting to where Abraham was seated.

He then rushed into the tent and asked his wife to make some three morsels of bread. He then took a tender and lovely calf and handed it to his young servant who slaughtered it and prepared it. When the meal was ready, Abraham set it before the men; some cheese, milk, the baked bread and the meat that the young men had prepared, and served his three guests[2].

One distinct factor is that the men appeared in human bodies. The tent had openings on both sides so that he could be able to see the strangers who came from the east and the west and welcome them[3]. Abraham did not have anything in particular that he was doing but was probably looking for an opportunity to do good. He might have been waiting to see some strangers who he could entertain. Unlike these days there were no inns then, sojourners would be welcomed and treated by the people of the land where they travelled.

The three men were spiritual beings who were visible to Abraham and he could converse with them. Several debates have risen on who those men really where. Some bible scholars have argued that they might have been angels while others believe that one of them was the son of God. On seeing them, he bowed to the ground as a sign of honor. This was despite his advanced years

Customarily, washing of feet was a usual thing in the hot climate in the Middle East where sandals were the only attire for the feet. Due to the climatic conditions, the feet were dirty as a result of the debris and sandy terrain that characterized the roads[4]. Therefore, it was important that one washed their feet to prevent blemishing the host’s house as well as relieving the aches and pains that were caused by walking for long distances. Entertaining visitors is something that we should not forget. This is not only the visitors that we know but also for the strangers who we have never met before. Hebrews 13:2 says that, for in so doing some have welcomed angels to their satisfaction. Abraham’s home was open to strangers and this portrayed his love to God by showing hospitality to humanity. On seeing the three gentlemen, he did not wait for them to approach but he ran towards them to welcome them. Abraham’s generosity brings association with the divine creatures.

Abraham did not sit to eat with his guests but stood so that he would be able to carry out any task that they requested. The physical eating of the three holy men was natural partaking of supper just as Jesus would do with his disciples during the last supper (Luke 12:41). Abraham had a personal relationship with God. 2nd Chronicles 20:7 as well as James 2:23 refer to Abraham as an acquaintance of God. This friendship was founded on a continued relationship and deeds of obedience to the divine will. He agreed to leave his homeland (Genesis 12) and even accepted circumcision; both he and the males of his family.

After staying with him, they asked Abraham; “where is Sarah your wife?”. Mentioning Abraham’s wife by name signified that though they were strangers, they knew Abraham and his family all by their names. In addition, asking about the wife showed that they were concerned about the whereabouts of Abraham and his family.

When she heard them ask about her, she drew her attention and began to listen to what they were to say. That led to her hearing them tell her husband that they would return to visit him and that at a time like then, Sarah would have a son. This tells us that the Lord returns to those who welcome him. Sarah’s reaction to those words was laughter. Hers was not laughter of faith but one of doubt, distrust, and awe. To her, it was not biologically possible for a woman of her age to conceive. She was past the natural child bearing age.

The situation was further magnified by the fact that she had been barren. She kept questioning how this would be. The condition was further escalated by the truth that her lord was already old just like herself. Sarah called her partner Abraham, lord. The New Testament acknowledges Sarah’s respect and submissiveness, which led her to calling her husband Abraham, her lord. On the other hand, Abraham called the holy men “my lord.”

Abraham’s hospitality compelled the holy men to tell him what their mission was. They could no longer keep hiding from Abraham what they were going to. God deliberately expresses himself in the councils of men. This secret is greatly with those who fear the lord and who abide in him and have by faith put their lives in continued communion with God. Such people have a divine insight in the present as well as the things that are to come.

Contemporary Significance

Abraham’s lifestyle and relationship with God is something worth emulating by Christians today[5]. He portrayed a lot of faith in whatever thing that he did and no wonder the Bible calls him an acquaintance of God. Christians should be hospitable and give their best not only to friends and fellow Christians but also to strangers.

Christians should honor all men. Abraham; the father of our faith bowed to honor the “strangers.” As a sign of honor .The Holy Spirit notices any single act of affectionate and hospitable welcome like the one that Abraham gave to the angels[6] . In addition, the Christian wives are recommended to imitate and follow Sarah’s wifely character and submit to their husbands.



Henry Mathew. 2012. Commentary on the whole bible volume1 (Genesis to Deutronomy).CCEL.

Hunt, Steven A., and Marvin R. Wilson. 2010. Perspectives on our Father Abraham: essays in honor of Marvin R. Wilson. Grand Rapids, Mich: W. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co.

Longman T. III. 2009. How to Read Genesis. Intervarsity press.

Scharfstein, Sol. 2008. Torah and commentary: the five books of Moses : translation, rabbinic and contemporary commentary. Jersey City, NJ: KTAV Pub. House.

Smith Dudley. 2012. The expository commentary: genesis.

The King James Version Bible.

Walton, John H., and Victor Harold Matthews. 1997. The IVP Bible background commentary: Genesis–Deuteronomy. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press.

[1] Dudley Smith, (2012). 80

[2] Scharfstein, Sol. 2008, 66-67

[3] Steven A hunt and Marvin R Wilson. 2010. 89

[4] John H. Walton and Victor Harold Matthews. 1997. 44-45

[5] Tremper Longman III. 2009. 36

[6] Mathew Henry. 2012 (n.p)

Criminal Justice Research Paper on Criminal Case Evidence Study english essay help online

Criminal Case Evidence Study

Background of the Study

December 14, 1969, will mark the day when a single young mother named Diane Jackson was brutally murdered. As was usual, the telephone operator got to her workstation in Houston and parked her car. After parking the car, she was forcefully abducted by unknown individuals who brutally raped, strangled and stabbed her to death. The Houston police department did their best to carry out the investigations but unfortunately, no potential suspect was identified. They decided to lift the latent prints from the scene (Suro, 1990).


Decades later, without potential progress, the case became cold. In the year 1989, her brother David Maxwell decided to review his sisters’ file. He requested the Houston Police Department to critically review the original evidence and provide a report for the new leads (Hart, 2004). One of the Houston local newspapers publicized the murder case and requested the public for any potential assistance. During that time, the Houston Police Department re-examined their lifted latent prints of 1969. The prints were thoroughly investigated using the Automated Fingerprints Identification System, which never provided any positive results.


Jill Kinkade, a safety Latent Print technician in Texas, prepared the prints and made a fresh search using the Alternative Light source. This was on July 23 2003, and in less than 5 hours, 20 potential matches were revealed and the highest potential candidate was James Ray Davis who was arrested, arraigned in court and charged with murder (Manzer, 2009).

As technology constantly advances, it is important for innocent citizens to avoid crime scenes as much as possible. The alternative light source can be a rich source for searching any trace in the crime scene.




Hart, L. (2004, Nov 27). The Nation; evidence at issue as woman’s execution nears; lawyers for Frances Newton, convicted of killing her family in Houston, seek new tests. Los Angeles Times. Web. 22 May 2014. Retrieved from

Manzer, T. (2009, Jul 17). Family, police seek help in long beach cold case. Press – Telegram. Web. 22 May 2014. Retrieved from

Suro, R. (1990, Oct 01). Special to The New York Times. “As inmates are freed, Houston feels insecure.” Web. 22 May 2014. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Nursing Homework Paper on Evidence Based Practice instant essay help: instant essay help

Evidence Based Practice

Kleinpell and Goolsby (2006) state that Evidence Based Practice is a process in which questions are raised, critically analyzed, and variable evidence searched to support the findings in the clinical profession. The practice involves deep research and thus the findings are meant to make solutions and decisions that last and are useful to the nursing people. It has also opened up more scientifically reliable information that makes Evidence Based Practice an important element in nursing education.The Evidence Based Practice does not conduct new researches instead, it uses the available scientific findings from multiple types of research to make informed decisions about the type of care for every patient (Grimmer, et al, 2014). This makes the practice more time efficient and reliable and determines the quality of a nurse. To enhance the validity of information acquired from the research, guidelines have been set because the decision made will have an impact on an individual patient.

Evidence Based Practice is a process that is a bit complex due to the procedural steps followed, but it is efficient and ensures the elimination of simple mistakes and thus, provides quality care in accordance with the patients’ need (Grimmer, et al, 2014). The probability of nurses following the Evidence Based Practice completing their tasks is high as compared to the nurses that ignore it. According to Kleinpell and Goolsby (2006), Evidence Based Practice involves critical analysis of a situation; it can, therefore, provide solutions to the many uprising different needs of patients. Since the practice has proven high accuracy to those using it, it should be a compulsory requirement for nursing students when doing their assignments in order to instill the thought and practice of always basing their performance upon it. This will ensure that all nurses or medical officers formulate a habit of critical thinking in their minds before providing any medical care to a patient.




Grimmer, K., et al (2014). Efficient Clinical Evaluation of guideline quality: development and testing of a new tool. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 14(1), 1-18.

Kleinpell, R., and Goolsby, M. J. (2006). American Academy of Nurse Practitioners National       Nurse Sample Survey: Focus On Acute Care. Journal of the AmericanAcademy of Nurse  Practitioners. 18(9), 393-394.


Ethics Essay Paper on Climate Change research essay help

Climate Change


in climate change refers to an area of research that focuses on the ethical
dimensions of human induced climate change, for which policies are formulated
for control purposes. The ultimate justification for responding towards climate
change is that it is an issue of moral concerns (Gardiner, 2011). The world is
faced with ethical dimensions concerning climate change because humanity fails
to take action to rein in factors such as carbon emissions. The ethical
concerns focus on the cost of the current generation, which is spread further
into the future and it questions why the future should pay for the current mess
causing climate change.  The rational for action depends on what matters
to the people the most and what they think is right, in weight of economic,
scientific, and social consequences.

Climate Change

changes have been caused by varying factors most of which are human caused,
such as pollution, deforestation, and gas emissions among others. Emission of
gasses can be in a large or small scale, varying from the emission of pollutant
gasses from the factories to the small scale emission of gasses from house hood
sprays (Gardiner, 2011). The leading cause for the changes is greenhouse gas
emissions from the surface of the world for the environment. Human activity is
the cause of this challenge, and it affects everyone across the world become
there is only one ozone layer to serve the whole world; therefore, it is through
human ethical decision that it can be solved (Urry, 2011).

changes have contributed to the more contemporary issue on the earth today with
experts, and the entire society is seeking for a remedy to curb the
repercussions. This contemporary issue is global warming, which has caused many
negative effects on the living organisms and the earth in general (Moss et al.,
2010). The consequences of climate changes involve rising temperatures, rising
sea levels, melting glaciers, variable rainfall patterns, and extreme weather,
which is causing drastic hazards, such as floods and drought on earth (Moss et
al., 2010). The consequences of climate change are affecting the daily lives of
people because of the changes that humanity have been forced to comply with,
such as changing patterns of rainfall (Moss et al., 2010). This, for instance,
has affected many farmers in the production of food and has affected the
economy at large because agriculture has been termed as the backbone of the
economy in many countries (Bellard et al., 2012). The world has prompted
organizations to set policies and guidelines, for which countries and
organizations have become signatories in order to comply with climate change
ethics and environmental safety regulations.

the case of soil acidity and pine trees, soil that has a PH below 6.5 is
regarded as acidic and this condition of acidity can occur either naturally
over time or at the point of direct contact with activities leading to acidity
caused by human practices through agriculture. According to land ethics, an
action is deemed to be right only at a time it seeks to safeguard the
integrity, stability and the aesthetics of the environment as well as the
biotic ecosystem. It is therefore, unethical when these human actions tend to
do otherwise. In this case, if planting the pine trees does not preserve the
integrity and stability of the biotic community, it is then regarded as

 The effects arising from acidic soils include
problems in crop production and home lawns and landscapes, which lead to poorer
crop yields and scanty lawns. Recurring plantations of the same crop over a
long time, decaying of organic matter, interfering with parent material as well
as precipitation and leaching are the major causes of soil acidity. These
factors raise ethical concerns in the environmental conservation and

human activities such as air pollution through greenhouse gas emissions are
released to the environment, they get trapped in the atmosphere and when rain
collects in the sky and start to fall on earth, the chemical materials present
in the polluted air in the atmosphere is carried down by the rain, causing the
reaction to occur and cause the acidic conditions in the soil. These gasses
also include car exhausts and industrial pollutants and these are the major
contributors to causing acid rain that eventually causes acid soils. Pine trees
are responsible for adding acidity in the soil because the pine needles are
acidic and when they fall on the soil surface, they add acidity to the soil.

ethical concerns in the issue of pine trees and soil acidity come in when
individuals decide to plant the pine trees, which have a further effect on the
next generations. These effects lead to lower yields of crop production for the
next generation which is unethical, particularly if the remedies to neutralize
the acidity are not carried out. Therefore, if the treatment of the problem will
not impair or disturb the needs of the endangered species locally, then it
meets the ethical requirements.

treat the problems of climate change regarding soil acidity and pine trees, the
environmental ethics should be adhered to and the guidelines to remedy these
problems followed. There should be stewardship treatment to remedy the soil acidity
problems. Ethics require that the treatments applied to remedy the problem
should not in any way affect or disturb the habitat biotic community. When
trying to remove the soil acidity from the soil under the pine trees, ethics
require the process to uphold the integrity of the environment, biotic beauty
and guard the ecosystem chains. In addition, human safety and needs should be
considered to maintain the food chains by upholding and conserving the

ethical reflections on the best way to respond to climate change are very complex,
and therefore require both solidarity and responsibility, which is in terms of
an individual and collectiveness (Gardiner, 2011). There should be an
underlying feeling of solidarity, which emphasizes the value for human
relationships and the world at large. This implies that every moral decision an
individual makes is carefully thought out and is one that flourishes all other
human beings and the whole world.

runs through space and time, and it requires that every human being measures
their responses to climate change by considering the needs of all humans,
particularly those who are most threatened. They should realize that the
effects will not only affect the people living today, but also the future human
beings and the world they shall inherit (Bellard et al., 2012).


to the anticipated severe impact that climate change can result to, such as
disruptions in the living conditions of multitudes of people, there is adequate
convergence of ethical principles that make a number of recommendations for
individuals, organizations and governments. Understanding the facts about
climate change and human rights is the first step towards climate change


C., Bertelsmeier, C., Leadley, P., Thuiller, W., & Courchamp, F. (2012).
Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Ecology
letters,15(4), 365-377.

S. M. (2011). A perfect moral storm: The ethical tragedy of climate
change. Oxford University Press.

R. H., Edmonds, J. A., Hibbard, K. A., Manning, M. R., Rose, S. K., Van Vuuren,
D. P., & Wilbanks, T. J. (2010). The next generation of scenarios for
climate change research and assessment. Nature, 463(7282),

J. (2011). Climate change and society. Polity.

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