Association of Nurse Practitioner: Nurse Practitioner Association of Maryland
Every nurse in this world wants to be associated with an Organisation so that his or her interests are looked at. A nurse also requires an organisation or platform in which his profession can grow. It is through the need to join a nursing organisation that I embarked on researching about the various nursing organisations in the world. As I was doing my research in the website of The Maryland State Council, I came across ‘Nurse Practitioner Association of Maryland’. The activities that this association engaged itself in were really eye-catching to me as they described the kind of nurse that I want to be. In this paper, I seek to discuss about this prestigious organisation, its policies and goals, Privileges of being a member and requirements for joining the organisation among others.
The American association of Nursing defines nursing as the promotion, protection and optimization of abilities and health, prevention of injuries and illness, diagnosis followed by the treatment of human body responses, and the advocacy in the taking care of families, communities, individuals and populations. Basically, that’s what any nursing organisation strives to do in bid to support the society on issues regarding health.
To understand the activities of the NPAM, one has to first go through the association’s mission statement. By understanding about the mission of this association, it becomes easier for one to also understand the goals and activities of the organisation.
The mission of the NPAM is to haveregulatory foundation with sound policies that will enable the nurse practitioners to provide an accessible and the best healthcare to the public. NPAM specifically works to:
Educate health officials and the general public on the activities of a nurse practitionerProvide continuous education for the nurse practitionersEnsure that they provide health care at the highest standards possible.Speak out the interests of the nurse practitioners to state and the federal government.Give out information regarding issues related to nurse practitioners.
A member of the NPAM is an advanced registered nurse who offers health care to ailing individuals. Nursing Practitioners also uphold similar ethical and legal standards as physicians. A Nurse practitioner is committed to provide quality, personalized healthcare to all patients. They are dedicated to bridging any sorts of gaps in medical care to meet the many needs of patients in the state of Maryland.
In a nutshell, the nurse practitioner is a person who:
Provides physical and history examinations to patientsDiagnoses and provided treatment to patientsInterprets laboratory testsOffers counselling services to persons, families and groupsAdministers immunization
For a nurse to be registered in the NPAM, he or she is expected to be a master’s graduate or have completed post-masters certification in nursing practice.
I believe by being a member of the NPAM, one gains personal success and at the same time you will make the world a better place to live in. The society will have better medical care. Most specifically, when one becomes a member of the NPAM, he or she is eligible to premiums that are way lower than those of other members of the public to a variety of services and goods. Every nurse should work towards trying to be a member of this esteemed organisation to have the best nursing experience ever.
Joel, L.A., (2013) advanced practice nursing: Essential for role development. (3rd Ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis. ISBN-13: 978-0803627857
American Psychological Association (2009). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. New York. Paperback
Bernadette Melnyk (2014). Evidence-based practice in nursing. New York. Paperback
NPAM working For YOU! (Nurse Practitioner Association of Maryland)
Retrieved from: Http://www.npamonline.org/
Sample Marketing Essay on Business Competitive Advantage essay help site:edu
Business Competitive Advantage
Competitive advantage may refer to an advantage that one particular business firm may have over and above its competitors that allow it to generate greater sales, and, or retain customers. Geant hypermarket has a competitive advantage over is competitors. It is evident that the business has achieved huge success since its formation in 1898.
There are several strategies that Geant could apply to attain competitive advantage. Some of these strategies may include; setting up favorable prices for the commodities they retail. Many customers prefer value for their money, and the more they can get from the stores with one dollar the better for them. Offering a variety of products more than the competitors will make the business a must destination for every customer. Locating their business premises in easily accessible regions, will allow quick location and shopping by the customers. Offering high-quality goods to the customers, goods that serve the purpose they are purchased for, goods that offer extended service to the customers. High-quality goods create trust in the customer.
The most important tactic of retaining the competitive business advantage is through staying ahead of its competitors. Monitoring the competitors’ capabilities will enable the business always to be one or several steps ahead.
Greant as a retail business should not assume with certainty that it will always be ahead. There’s need for a perpetual evaluation of its competitive advantage. To stay at the top the business has to be innovative, that is, always coming up with better ways of performing an activity. The business should also monitor its position in the market in terms of changing technological advances and market trends. In conclusion, no business is ever safe in the market.
Sample Marketing Term Paper on Marketing Strategy rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help
Company A is an established service provider, handling staffing and business consultancy in China. The company has established office, one in Hong Kong and the other in Shanghai. Both offices enjoy autonomy in decision-making but all work towards united goal. The company is a family-run business that has been in operation for 30 years. Currently, the company has 200 employees who help in the day-to-day running of the company. There is need to have a marketing strategy in order to enable the company grow significantly and have a greater influence in China.
This paper intends to describe the most appropriate market strategy that can be used by the company through appropriate consideration of necessary factors. The factors to be considered in this case are customers segments and area of specialization. This is an important topic will provide deeper understanding of handling market strategy. Most importantly, the company will use the market strategy to enforce necessary changes in order to ensure growth and development.
Marketing strategy is vital in ensuring the business maintain its competitive power by providing necessary direction. This strategy will express the company’s direction and objective in extending its marketing capacity (Kleinaltenkamp, n.d). There are challenges in getting into the Chinese market, which is characterized by high level of competition and great dynamism. These present a great opportunity for the company to offer consultancy pertaining establishing business in the Chinese market. The company intends to extend its services within the Chinese market, by first, establishing a strong reputation within Hong Kong, and then extending to other Cities in China. The main focus is providing consultancy services to German Small and medium-sized enterprises(SMEs), on how to venture into the Chinese market, how to gain suitable business momentum within the region, and most importantly assist the Small and medium-sized enterprises to find the right employee, and provide legal advice. The main challenge German SMEs experience when investing in the Chinese market is how to start and build necessary momentum that will assure them of success in the competitive market.
In order to be able to build a strong marketing strategy, customer’s recognition is the first step. In this case, the company intends to engage German SMEs within the Chinese territory. As a result of good relationship between German and China, there are several German enterprises venturing the Chinese market. The main reason why the company creates major focus on the German SMEs is because currently, German is the top European inventor in the China. German and China enjoys a strong relationship based on trade between these countries. The company will materialize on these great opportunities to establish a reckonable brand in China.
There are many business consulting firms in Hong Kong; however, the area of specialization definitely reduced the great the numbers of competitor. By creating a major focus on German SMEs, competence in the handling German culture will be required. These aspects require a mixed Chinese-German management in the company in order to be able to relate effectively with both culture.
In order to maintain and meet a large number of customers, the company will engage in promotions that will express the quality of services offered by the company to the public. This will be effected through intensifying marketing promotion campaigns in trade fairs and holding sessions in conferences within German business network. On important occasions, the company will be engaged in giving speeches in major conferences on event related to German culture.
The company offers consultancy services, mainly to German SMEs, on how to venture and succeed in Chinese market. There is great competition and much dynamism in the Chinese market, a fact that discourages many foreign investors. However, with reliably advice from the company, the investors will be able to establish themselves within the Chinese market. The company has already established some reasonable ground by building a great reputation for the 30 years it has been operating. Currently, the company is in the “expert status”, which signifies a great opportunity for more advances and growth.
The relationship between marketing instruments in the marketing mix
Marketing mix is composed of a set of controllable marketing instrument that a company uses to get vital feedback from the target market. It carries all necessary tool required by a company in order to effectively influence demand for its products. Marketing mix is necessary in creating a market plan and its execution. Normally, there are four groups of variables that are evaluated in market mix, commonly referred to as four Ps. They include:
1) Product-Involves the good/services that the company intends to offer. It entirely describes the characteristic of these good/services, their uniqueness, and why the company intends to engage in providing them. The instrument involved includes features, variety, design, quality, packaging, brand name, and services.
2) Price– This is the cost expected from the product. The instruments involved include: credit terms, discounts, payment period, and allowance.
3) Place– The process that makes products (goods and services) available for customers to purchase. The instruments involved include; inventory, logistics, location, transportation, channels, assortments and coverage.
4) Promotion- This involves the process used to communicate the availability of the product in the market, its features, and advantages which attracts the customers to purchase them. Tools involved in this process include public relations, advertisement, sales promotion, and personal selling.
Evaluation of Marketing Strategy According to Various Relationships
Different companies employ different marketing strategies in order to effectively promote or convey vital message about the product or services offered. There are several essential approach that can be used in coming up with effective marketing strategy. Markets consist of customers, who differ in one or many ways. Customers may differ in terms of customer’s perception, locations, attitude, and culture. Through market segmentation, the company is able to divide a big heterogeneous market into smaller units that can be handled more effectively with services and products that match their unique needs.
The most appropriate approaches that can be used by the company to capture significant market is niche or concentrated marketing strategy. Concentrated marketing, which is also referred to as niche strategy, creates target on one particular market segment or audience (Kleinaltenkamp, n.d). The strategy normally focuses on small groups of people because the nature of its design appeals a specific segment.
The greatest benefit in this strategy is that it concentration on smaller units eliminates competition from competitors, who are largely involved in the wider market. Actually, small market segments may not be the specific targets from other competitors. Therefore, it is likely that in smaller groups or niche, the supplier in most cases may hold a quasi monopoly position and therefore enjoy great benefits associated with monopoly. Unlike differential market strategy where concentration is divided in order to capture the entire market, niche strategy ensure necessary concentration is given to one particular group thus increasing the intensity of coverage. Normally, there are increased challenges in ignoring the aspect of customer segmentation as employed undifferentiated market strategy.
In our case, the company intends to market its services to a particular kind of group, which is German SMEs, who want to enter the Chinese market for the first time and have no idea how to do it. This fact eliminates all other SMEs, including the ones from China. The main reason behind creating a significant focus on German SMEs is that there is ready market because of great influx of German SMEs and few consultancy firms in Hong Kong and Shanghai. Since the company has two offices, which work independently, one in Hong Kong and the other in Shanghai, it is expected that each office will focus on its own area to focus on German SMEs.
Creating such a focus will helps the company concentrate and specialize in handling one group in order to increase perfection and ensure the needs of the specific segment are thoroughly met. In order to have measurable area, it is important for the office in Hong Kong to consider the region of Hong Kong, while the office in Shanghai to consider the region of Shanghai as the main area of focus. Hong Kong and Shanghai are both famous cities, known not only in China but also globally for their great influence in the global markets. There is great numbers of companies established in these regions as a result of high the demand from the high population in the region. Considering the nature of the company, a medium sized company would comfortably handle niche strategy.
Marketing strategy plays a crucial function in development and expansion of a company. Companies have make use of different marketing strategy in order to gain wide access to the available market. However, for the family-run consultancy firm, the niche strategy will be employed. As explained; there are greatest benefit in using niche strategy, because concentration on smaller units eliminates competition from competitors, who are largely involved in the wider market. Normally, it is likely that in smaller groups or niche, the supplier in most cases may hold a quasi monopoly position and therefore enjoy great benefits associated with monopoly. Small market segments may not be the specific targets from other competitors and therefore this provides opportunity for the business to grow and expand. It is also important to consider marketing mix when employing marketing strategy in order to have a clear direction, which the company should take.
Kleinaltenkamp, M. (n.d). Market Segmentation. Chapter 2
Sample Research Paper on Alcoholics Anonymous common app essay help
I have been attending Alcoholics Anonymous group called Zig Zag from San Pedro, and over the period of attendance I have achieved and learned a lot regarding drugs and drug abuse. In our coursework, the instructor has explained a lot regarding this issue but the meeting with the victims of drug substances depicted a clear picture of the danger that lies ahead for those individuals engaging in drug abuse. Hearing the revelations from them on the plight they have endured in the life of drugs was touching. Most of them are now under rehabilitation to reclaim them from ill-health.
The first reading we had in the group was about Gutter Bravado. In the reading, I understood that substance abuse could affect the physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, social, and psychological state of a person. This consequently may lead to ill-health and other disorders that at severe stages may lead to death. Gutter was a professor in Pennsylvania State University, and he was a heavy alcoholic. Too much abuse of alcohol almost claimed his life because his liver became damaged as doctors pointed to liver cirrhosis. The man lost his career and did not manage to establish a family, and now he is picking up pieces to start a whole new life from scratch under rehabilitation.
According to one of the victims, drugs, in particular, the alcoholic abuse led to him being socially detached from his family. The man had a wife and three kids of whom he explained that a year ago he did not even know their grade levels in school. He could rarely spend an hour at home nor talk to his kids. Efforts from his wife to make him reduce his thirst for alcohol did not bear any fruits, and, in fact, it led to the wife seeking to file for divorce because she could not put up with the life the husband was leading. Worst of all, the kids had spent a lot of time without any love from their father that they could not even call him ‘dad’. Finally, the wife decided to run away with the kids leaving the man with more room to have his favorite drink. He explained how he cheated death once, and since then, he had to visit a rehab where he seeks to have his life back. However, he lost his family ties not to know where his wife and kids are up to date.
There was one medium-sized man of 35 who surprised everyone with his talk. He was in his third year in university taking Bachelor of medicine only to quit studies due to marijuana addiction. He had taken the drug excessively that he became mentally distorted and could not continue with studies anymore. He explained that he had a cube-mate in the university who had introduced him to the drug thus ended up destroying such a beautiful career. His mental disability was such a big mess that he had to be taken to a local rehab where he has improved to reveal more about his life. Marijuana and alcohol made him waste a whole decade that he could have used to establish his career to be a medical surgeon. Since he lost the sponsorship of his university degree, he cannot go back to school but does manual labor to earn his daily living.
Most of the people who talked about their experiences explained how their physical health deteriorated while under the influence of the drugs. Some of them thought they were HIV/AIDS victims due to abnormally slender bodies. I can recall one revealing how he used all his earnings in the local pub drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes. He did not have time to take diet meals because he saved the cents he could use to buy food for alcohol. Lack of proper food caused him to be deficient thus developing a very poor physical state.
However, the most touching story while I attended Zig Zag Alcoholics Anonymous group was that of one young mother of 51. She lost her daughter who was in her final year in college to drug abuse. The daughter died after a night out at a party with her friends where she drank her heart out. It was later revealed that some boys intentionally mixed some marijuana to her drink and, unfortunately, her body could not sustain the effects of the mixture of alcohol and marijuana hence her death. This was when I realized that death and drug abuse was simple and possible.
In my life at campus, I have seen students curious to try out alcohol and other drugs. They do not realize how serious their adventure could be in the long run. My experience with the group was a captivating and emotional one to understand the deadly impacts of drug abuse, first hand. Everyone out there needs to know the weight of substance abuse; maybe this would reduce the dangers associated with them. I decided I would take a role to keep others aware through campaigns and publications on the negative impacts of substance and drug abuse.
Strategic Management Case Study Paper on Apple-Smartphone my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london
Strategic Management Case Study: Apple-Smartphone
The current case study analyses the current strategies being pursued by Apple and offers recommendations that can help the business` future growth. Apple`s overall performance remains impressive in the technology sector. The company has maintained its leadership position through differentiation and innovative product development. Nonetheless, competition is becoming stiffer and this implies that Apple should up its game or risk being overtaken.
As a response, Apple should continue with its product development strategy, but also focus on diversification. The future of the smartphone industry remains turbulent owing to rapid technological changes. Apple should use its financial resources and its R&D assets to launch new product lines and move its business forward. This will counter its falling market share and increase value for shareholders.
This study seeks to provide a comprehensive analysis on the strategic position of Apple Smartphone. Apple Inc. is one of the largest technology companies in the world, with 92,600 full time and part-time employees and amarket capitalization of $741.8 Billion and $261.89 billion in assets. For 2014, itsnet profit was $39.5 billion. Apple`s major brands include Mac, iPod, iPhone, iPad, iTunes, and Apple Store (Reuters, 2015, p.1).
This analysis analyzes Apple Smartphone from a strategic management perspective by applying various frameworks and models. The report analyzes Apple`s current environment, its present strategic position and future prospects. In addition, the assessment identifies the possible areas for improvement and offers recommendations on the way forward for the company.
The PESTEL model offers a framework through which the megatrends arising from the political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal environments are identified (Doke, Hatton, & Smortfitt, 2007, p.59). The following mega trends have been identified in Apple`s external environment.
The mobile market has grown far beyond smartphones. Currently, it incorporates phablets, tablets, Ultrabooks, lightweight notebooks, Chromebooks and many more. Apple has significantly contributed to the expansion of the mobile market in the last few years through products such as iPad and iPhone. However, the company faces stiff competition from products such as Amazon Kindle, Samsung Note 3 $ 4, and Nexus, which threaten the company`s sales and its dominant position in the smartphone space (Reisinger, 2014, p. 1).
Apple Inc. is in the process of addressing this competitive threat by developing new product innovations by integrating its iOS and OS X systems. In addition, the company is developing smartphone devices such as iPad Pro, with larger screens that will make them more appealing to users compared to competitor products.
Shorter Product Life Cycles
The industry where Apple operates is characterized by rapid technological changes. As a result, new products quickly become obsolete (Park, Yang, and Lee, 2011, p. 300). As a result, the life cycle for products has been drastically shortened resulting in intensified competition.
Apple Inc. responds to this challenge by investing heavily in research and development, which makes its products to be at the top in terms of innovation. In addition, investments in R&D has enabled the company to introduce new products in the market faster than its competitors, making it a market leader (Morrissey, 2010, p.71).
The legal environment has also been a source of mega trends for Apple. The company has faced a number of patent law suits where it has been accused of infringing on other companies patents. These include the Smartflash lawsuit in which Apple paid US$533 million (Chung, 2015, p. 1). Other patent cases include the cases by Evolved Wireless LLC and A123 Systems. Apple has also sued companies such as Samsung for patent infringement.
In an effort to tackle this threat, Apple continues to invest heavily in research and development to ensure that it produces original products. In addition, the company is aggressively involved in efforts to protect its intellectual capital by filing patents for its innovations and inventions both in the U.S. and in other countries across the globe.
According to Sull (2009, p. 4), the smartphone industry is highlydynamic, very turbulent, and significantly complex. Smartphone gadgets are technology intensive and they are highly profitable. As a result, competition among industry players is significantly high and predicting the market winner is a difficult exercise. Many cool gadgets that were considered must haves in the early 2000s have slowly disappeared from the stores and online stores. For example, Nokia is no longer in business and Motorola can longer be regarded as a dominant industry player. The highly dynamic nature of the industry explains why new innovations and inventions emerge in this industry so rapidly, which makes it more unpredictable (MPP Global, 2012, p. 1). Despite the turbulent nature of the industry, Apple has remained a market leader in terms of product design, innovativeness and uniqueness and originalityof its products.
Porter’s 5 Forces plus Government Model
Based on this model, Apple is affected by several mega trends. Rivalry among competitors is a major threat because competition is continuously increasing. Other than the tablet segment where Apple is an outright leader, the smartphone segment faces stiff competition from companies such as Samsung, Google and RIM leading to reduced margins. The government is also an important stakeholder in the industry. Because of recent reports indicating that Apple was evading taxes in different countries including the U.S., governments have strengthened their tax laws to fill the loopholes (Irishexaminer, 2014, p. 1). In addition, the high availability if substitute products at a lesser cost threatens Apple`s business. Worse still, substitutes within Apple`s diverse product range also complicate consumer decision making. However, the company`s loyal fan base and its long-term contracts with key suppliers offers significant opportunities for the business.
Overall, despite its dominant position in the industry, Apple`s relative competitive position is declining when compared to companies such as Samsung. There is need for management to be more focused in tackling the mega forces and trends identified above.
Apple`s competitive strengths are its protected ecosystem and brand appeal. Only the company`s products run on its operating system-iOS. On the other hand, many competitor devices use Google`s Android. This means that for a customer to remain part of the Apple family and maintain their digital purchases, they must purchase devices that run in iOS. This has helped the company make its devices rare, valuable, hard to substitute and difficult to imitate (Nilsson and Rapp, 2005, p. 34).
Apple`s brand appeal is another core competency. Apple smartphones are regarded as luxury brand, which allows it to sell even average smartphones at premium prices. For example, whereas Galaxy S6 outperforms iPhone 6 in CPU speed, display, RAM, battery and Camera, the price foriPhone 6 is more than that ofGalaxy S6 (Magee, 2011, p. 1). This makes Apple`s products to be valuable, rate and hard substitute.
Strategic Competitive Advantage
The SCA for Apple is its efficiency in developing user-friendly high-tech products that are closely integrated, which offer customers with products and services that are rare, valuable and relatively not substitutable.
In summary, Apple`s competitive strengths has allowed it to lead the market while offering user-friendly high-tech products and services to its loyal customer base. However, its previous successes cannot be an indicator of its future success. The tech giant Apple must continuously change and develop its offerings or risk being dethroned by nimble competitors whose produce more relevant products and deliver higher value to the consumers.
Strategic Vision and Mission
Apple`s vision is to change people`s lives by delivering state of the art products and services. Apple`s mission states that the company is committed to delivering the best personal computing experience to its customers across the globe by developing innovative design, hardware and software (Banton, 2011, p.90).
StakeholderSalienceStakeholder demands/Needs that must be metStrategic objectives to address stakeholder demands/needsStockholdersDefinitiveDividend growth Sustainability of businessReduction in costsGrowth in profitsA good brand imageCustomersDefinitiveBest quality products Innovative design Value for money Good customer serviceImproved product qualityImproved customer serviceCreative and innovative developmentEmployeesDominantJob security Workplace safety Career developmentImproved welfare for the employeesManagement of workers` health and safety Offer training programsSuppliersDominantMore business Sustained collaborationDevelopment of supplier relations Product availability Product diversityCommunityDominantCommunity wellbeing Financing community projectsCSREthical retailing Technology development GovernmentDominantJob creation Make appropriate tax contributions Reduce pollution Product diversification Profit growthCorporate social responsibility (SCR)EnvironmentDiscretionaryLess carbon emissions Less land pollutionReduction of carbon emissions Recycling of production materials
Definitive stakeholders for Apple are its customers and shareholders. These stakeholders exercise major power and influence on Apple. Owners of the business are interested in getting a return on their investments and the suitability of their business venture. Accordingly Apple`s objectives of cutting costs and increasing its revenues seeks to meet the demands of its shareholders. Customers demand quality products and services and value for their money. Apple achieves this by delivering high quality products and improving its level of customer service.
Apple`s workers, suppliers, community and government are dominant stakeholders. They have legitimacy and power. Workers are the company`s most significant assets. To meet their demands, the company above industry pay perks and ensures they are safe and healthy. Suppliers want more business, and to meet their needs, Apple works very closely with its suppliers through its supplier relations program. To meet the needs of the global community, Apple is involved in numerous CSR programs such as providing clean water to communities and using renewable energy (Apple, 2015, p.1).The government is also a dominant stakeholder because it can influence the direction of the business through its swift regulations. Of late, Apple has been on the spotlight for alleged Tax evasion and exporting of jobs. The company attempts to address the needs of the government by diversifying its operations to create more local jobs, generating more profits to grow the economy, and complying with the tax codes.
Finally, the environment is a discretionary stakeholder because it lacks urgency and legitimacy (Donaldson and Preston, 1995, p.65). However, as an environmentally responsible company, Apple addresses the needs of this stakeholder by reducing its carbon emissions and recycling its production materials (Apple, 2015, p.1).
In conclusion, based on the analysis, it is evident that Apple Inc. has successfullyrecognized its main stakeholders and lined up its strategic objectives to satisfy their legitimate demands.
Key Broad Business-Level and International Strategies
Ansoff’s Product/ Market Business Level Strategies
Based on Ansoff`s matrix (Cole, 1997, p.70), Apple Inc. pursues product development strategies. The company`s iPhone products are developed from an already existing product by thinking of which products can successfully satisfy the needs of customers at the optimum level while outperforming competitors. The company`s product development strategy can be seen in its series of iPhone products with each successive iPhone being more better and powerful than its predecessor. The company originally released iPhone with 4GB of internal memory, in July 2008, iPhone 3G was launched with 16GB internal memory. This was followed by the launch of two variants of iPhone 3GS in June 2009; one with 16GB and the other with 64GB. It also came with an inbuilt navigation system and improved camera and performance compared to iPhone 3G. This was followed by iPhone 4 in 2010 with Apple A4 processor and HD display. In 2011, iPhone 4S with a powerful Dual-core A5 processor was launched, followed by iPhone 5 in 2012 iOS 6 with operating system. In 2014, it launched iPhone 6 followed by iPhone 6 plus in 2015 (Time, 2014, p.1).
Miles and Snow’s Adaptive Strategies
Based on Miles and Snow’s Adaptive Strategies framework (Barney and Griffin, 1992, p.52), Apple Inc. has taken the prospector approach by being highly innovative and is continuously looking for newer opportunities and the firm remains focused on growth and risk taking. It was the first to enter the smartphone market with innovative products and the first to implement horizontal and vertical integration by using its own operating system (iOS) and its own proprietary designs. Apple took the risk to join the mobile phone industry and was the first company to manufacture a revolutionary mobile device with a touch screen (Harrison and John, 2008, p.93).
Porter’s Competitive Business Level Strategies
Based on Porter`scompetitive business level strategies (Porter, 2004, p. 5), Apple employs differentiation strategy in its business. The price of iPhone is twice as expensive as those of other smartphones with the same features, therefore, not a cost leader. However, iPhone`s success has been brought about by its high level of differentiation. Apple`s smartphones come with features such as in-built GPS, multi-touch and an app store, and runs on iOS, which differentiates it from all the other devices in the market. In the words of Tim Cook (Apple CEO), the company seeks to make the best in the market and not the most out of each product segment (Ritchie, 2013, p. 1).
Apple pursues a global strategy by selling standardized products across the globe. The only thing that Apple changes in its products is the source of power because of voltage differences across countries. If the company was to use a multi-domestic strategy, it would face excess overhead and the company`s managers would be unable to control operations. Worse still, its image of advanced and cutting edge technology and products can be destroyed. Product design ideas come from its head office, but manufacturing is done in China through two companies- Inventec and Foxconn.
In conclusion, Apple has selected differentiation as the business level strategy to pursue its strategic objectives. It designs unique products that are easy to use, which creates strong brand loyalty and high switching costs.
Strategic implementation: General perspective
Environmental Turbulence Analysis
There are indications from the environmental turbulence that there is a mismatch between volatility and strategy for Apple. Specifically, Apple faces significant competitive rivalry from Samsung, Google and RIM. Moreover, the company is facing significant problems in enforcing its property rights. This is evident in the many patent lawsuits involving the company. From the analysis, a second curve activity is necessary to transform the company. For the company to succeed in promoting the Apple culture and benefit from it, it requires leadership with a track record in revolutionary innovation and value creation.
Apple`s BCG matrix is reflected in the figure below. The iPhone is Apple`s rising star. The iPhone has recorded immense success and still has more potential. Apple`s Mac laptops are the cash cow. Computing is shifting from the PCs to mobile devices. The question mark represents Apple TV. This segment is yet to achieve its full potential. The dog represents Apple desktops and old iPod.
Apple invest more in R&D as strategy to sustain its strong product innovation and differentiate its offerings in the market. Most importantly, this will help the company to diversify into other profitable areas.
Strategic Implementation Issues
Using the McKinsey 7S Plus model (Witcher & Chau, 2010, p. 249) a number of strategic implementation issues facing Apple have been identified.
Declining market share
Apple is losing its market share to competitors such as Android and Windows. The company`s market share dropped from 47.7% in December 2014 to 36.5% in March 2014 (Jones, 2015, p. 1). Low priced devices running on windows and android platforms are increasingly coming to the market. In the past, cheap smartphones running Android OS delivered poor user experience and their quality was very low. This is no longer the case. They are many quality budget android devices made by companies such as Huawei, Samsung and ZTE. Apple`s strategy is based on offering high-end devices with the best user experience but at a premium price. This strategy is being threatened by competitors.
The company has been involved in a series of patent lawsuits. However, these companies, which include Samsung, HTC, Motorola and Kodak have been fighting back, and the tablet and smartphone patent battles have intensified. These conflicts have been transformed into a legal nightmare, with each company suing or being sued. However, Apple has suffered the most from these litigations (Thierer, 2012, p.1). Although Apple has won a significant number of these cases, the costs associated with these litigations have posed a major risk to the company and it has affected Apple`s ability to quickly innovate.
The company`s business success has caught the attention of antitrust agencies in the U.S. and beyond. The European Commission and U.S. Department of Justice antitrust officials have been investigating the company and book sellers on grounds that they are using anti-competitive practices. Moreover, questions are being raised about the company`s market power, which could attract more investigations. As a result, antitrust has become a major issue for Apple such that it affects almost every business decision the company makes (Thierer, 2012, p.1). Moreover, the fact that the company`s vertical integration is the source of many of its innovations, antitrust threatens its very business model and existence.
Using the triple bottom line framework, Apple has successfully addressed its strategic objectives as discussed below.
The company has consistently met its environmental objectives by ensuring that its production processes comply with environmental requirements. Similarly, the company has reduced the amount of packaging that goes into its products, for example, iPad Air takes 20% less material compared to its fourth generation iPad (Apple, 2013, p. 4). Apple also prides itself in renewable energy use and continues to phase out harmful substances from its production line.
Apple ensures it suppliers treat their employees with dignity and that they provide safe and fair workplaces. The company also undertakes numerous programs that benefit local communities such as the provision of safe drinking water. In addition, the company offers its employees competitive perks that are higher than the industry average.
Apple has registeredremarkable revenue growth. Its revenues grew from $170.9 billion in 2013 to $182.8 billion in 2014. In addition, its net profit increased from $37.0 billion to $39.5 billion over the same period. Apple`s financial position indicates that its short-term assets are insufficient to meet its short-term debt obligations. However, its large operating profit allows it to fully service all its debt (Businessweek, 2015, p.1). Despite the rising revenues, Apple is losing its market share, and this is a worrying trend that should be urgently addressed.
Conclusion: Current and Future Prospects and Recommendations
Apple continues to register impressive performance owing to its heavy investments in R&D that has allowed it to differentiate its products from those of competitors. However, the industry is becoming highly competitive, with competitor products becoming more appealing to many consumers. This implies that Apple`s differentiation and focus on high-end market may no longer be an effective strategy. Although it is important for Apple to continue differentiating its offerings, there is need for increased innovation. Its single product line (iPhones) cannot guarantee its future survival in an industry where competitors are increasingly diversifying into new sectors.
The future of the technology industry remains largely unpredictable owing to frequent and rapid changes and it is not easy to compete in this industry. For Apple to remain relevant, it must invest heavily in research and development and be proactive in its approach by creating new innovations. For instance, the company should consider investing more in its Apple TV segment, which remains under exploited.
Going forward, Apple needs to combine its product development strategy with diversification to benefit from untapped market potential. Rather than just focusing on its traditional product lines, the company should consider entering new product segments and use its brand and R&D resources to gain competitive advantage.
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Economics Review of Rudiger Dornbusch’s “Comparative Advantage, Trade and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods” mba essay help: mba essay help
Review of Rudiger Dornbusch’s “Comparative Advantage, Trade and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods”
Rudiger Dornbusch, S. F. (1977). Comparative Advantage, Growing Trade and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods. American Economic Review, 60-67.
Rudiger Dornbusch tried to explain the concepts of comparative advantage and the continuum of goods using Ricardian model in his article ‘Comparative Advantage, Trade and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods’ in the American Economic Review journal. The Ricardian model weighs the wage and trade requirements of a country and the constants involved; labor aspects are considered as constant factors with the demand and trade dynamics determining the comparative advantage between two countries/nations. The world economy is assumed to be composed of two countries: the home and the foreign country. The relative wage rate and the price criterion for goods exported/imported by a country can be determined from this model by comparing the values of [wage rate×labor time] for the home and foreign country. Consequently, Rudiger assumed zero trade hurdles and transport costs in determining relative wage rates in the home and foreign country.
In the article, Rudiger defines wage ratios as the comparison between the labor rates of the home and foreign country and explains further their contribution to the overall trade pattern between the two countries/economies. He gives a case of the trade pattern favoring the export of goods from the home country to the foreign country which will create a higher demand for the home country’s goods (and consequently the labor) translating to a trade surplus for the home country. Trade equilibrium will only occur if the trade patterns between the two nations are balanced.
Rudiger also deliberated on trade dynamic like the changes in customers’ preference for the goods from the home or foreign country that would affect the import/export figures for the two nations. This would create a comparative advantage for the country exporting the preferred products. Rudiger’s perspective of the demand shift created by the continuum of goods depicts clearly the change in position of the equilibrium trade balance curve from the neutral point. The article undoubtedly explains the Ricardo model, comparative advantage and continuum of goods in a precise form.
Rudiger Dornbusch, S. F. (1977). Comparative Advantage, Growing Trade and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods. American Economic Review, 60-67.
Sample Criminal Justice Essay Paper on Stalking college application essay help online
Over the years, I have gained experience on dealing with the victims of stalking. It is necessary to understand the signs of stalking. This is because the signs help the victims to monitor and assess future stalkers as well as reducing the current impact of stalking. The signs also help the victims to determine the extent of damages resulting from the perpetrators of stalking. Stalking can be defined as the act of an individual continuously harassing another individual limiting his or her comfort (Baum, 2011). For example, the individual might continually send spam emails. Therefore, it is important to understand the common signs of stalking in order to identify stalkers.
In California, stalking is criminally defined as when any persons who willingly and repeatedly tracks and harasses another person with an intention to interfere with the safety of the individuals. Any individuals proved to be stalkers are liable for fine, imprisonment, or both. The Cal Pen Code § 646.9 states that any individual who violates the regulation of stalking are subject to a restraining order or other court decision to restrict their stalking actions (Spitzberg & Cupach, 2014). Under section 273.5, 273.6, or 422, stalkers are warned of the strict punishment associated with their actions including fine and imprisonment. The stalkers should avoid annoying, tormenting and terrorizing individuals without any legitimate reasons. Therefore, in many U.S states, stalking is a criminal offence and offenders are subject to punishment.
For all official personnel, I think they should understand the available legal remedies in case they are facing stalkers. Firstly, the victims should contact the nearby police in relation to their stalking situation. In addition, the victim should get a lawyer in order to file a restraining order against the suspected stalkers. The restraining order seeks to compel the stalker to stop their actions or face arrest. However, the legal actions should be reserved for serious concerns. Other preventive measures including keeping sensitive information secure and among others (Baum, 2011). The office personnel should be keen on the restraining orders, as it is believed they might increase violence.
Moreover, the level of stalking has increased due to the access to social media. According to Spitzberg and Cupach (2014), close to one in 13 women and one in 46 men are stalked at least once in their life. The majority of the victims are women at 78 per cent with men being the majority offenders estimated at 8777 per cent. Most of the victims are usually familiar with their stalkers. There is a strong correlation between stalking and domestic violence in most situations. Breiding et al. (2015) suggests that a former intimate stalks 80 per cent of women. Thus, stalking is a common feature among relationships facing domestic violence.
In 1990, the California state enacted a stalking law that sought to prevent stalking in the state. This was the first law in the U.S seeking to reduce the impacts of stalking in the state. The victims of stalking should be keen to understand the signs and dangers of stalking including humiliation. They should undertake precautionary measures to protect from the adverse effects of stalking such as seeking legal redress. For instance, they should report any cases of domestic violence, as they play a significant role in increasing cases of stalking. As a result, the victims of stalking should assistance from criminal lawyers and other experts.
Baum, K. (2011). Stalking victimization in the United States. Collingdale, PA: DIANE Publishing.
Breiding, M. J., Smith, S. G., Basile, K. C., Walters, M. L., Chen, J., & Merrick, M. T. (2015). Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization—National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011. American Journal of Public Health, 105(4), E11.
Spitzberg, B. H., & Cupach, W. R. (2014). The dark side of relationship pursuit: From attraction to obsession and stalking. London, UK: Routledge.
Sample Health Care Essay on Health Services Organizations Place and Price Decisions global history essay help: global history essay help
Health services organizations place and price decisions
Description of the Products/Services and the target Market
APS healthcare service provider has been at the forefront in delivering health services that are specially tailored with focus on improving the health services in way that it lowers cost and improves the quality of life of the people. It is a sub company of UAC with their headquarters in New York. The target market is the US and Puerto Rico, which it has been serving for twenty years. Their main market opportunity was that there was need to provide quality services to their customers and the broader communities they served. Based on this, their main competency is delivering innovative health care services that will positively impact on the lives of people.
It brings wealth of experience and technological knowhow in service provision; something that makes them unique in the market. The technology aspects connect the people to the services they need that would increase the service delivery while also generating a lot of profits through increased sales.
The services that they offer revolve around Medicare/Medicaid and include disease management by helping the vulnerable members of the community get medical solutions. They do this by educating them on the best healthy behavior that can impact positively on the life of the people while strengthening relationships with their customers. They also offer behavioral healthcare service through having well administered services, children welfare and drug abuse services.
Before deciding on the price, APS must segment the customers by grouping them based on similarities and the potential of buying (Tanner and Raymond, 2012). The target market for this healthcare company is the general demographic population consisting of children, youths and adults of all the ages in the US and Puerto Rico.
How the organization arrives at their pricing of services
According to Armstrong and Cotler (2007) price can be understood to be the amount charged to get a product/service that will allow customers to get the benefits of such products/services.
Most organizations arrive at their prices based on what the competitors have to offer. This puts a lot of weight on prices that will beat those of the competitors, the standardized prices of products currently available and the frequent changes in the products or services. Non price factors of the features of the product/services, the quality of promotion and distinct features are also taken into consideration when deciding on the pricing.
Healthcare service providers have a series of selection of the pricing strategies that they can use to arrive at their prices. This can be summarized to include geographic pricing that designs prices based on the location of the organization, others include discount, promotion, differentiated, image, channel and time pricing strategies.
This organization uses cost based pricing that brings out pricing aspect based on the costs that the organization incur in providing the services and products in addition to the cost of purchased supplies.
The price is set up such that: Price = Variable cost + Average fixed cost + Fixed profit percentage
This pricing strategy is designed so that when the unit services or products are offered or provided the ultimate return on investment will be more that the cost involved translating to increased profits. The cost based pricing is done but with consideration on the geographical location of the target market, where pricing is arrived differently for the different customers in different locations. It is asserted that knowing the consumer behavior will allow for improved and better understanding and forecasting on the motives behind their buying (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007).
Do you think the pricing strategy is appropriate? Can it be improved to better meet its customer’s needs?
This pricing strategy is appropriate for this healthcare company as it is easy to design and implement. The organization just needs to calculate on the cost and add some amount on the unit cost of a product or service. For example if the price to purchase a packet of drug is $40 the company can simply charge $50 for the product to their customers, the same as the service on healthcare provision. This pricing strategy is also simple in the case where the cost of a product or service falls or reduces it is easy to adjust. In the case above if the cost of a packet drops to $35 then the price would definitely also fall to $45. This strategy also makes it easy for the organization to defend its prices as it will simply be charging above the cost of a product or service. This pricing is appropriate within the healthcare industry because of the unpredictable changes in cost of manufacturing or offering services brought about by the government or other regulating bodies.
This strategy can be improved by examining the market and competition thoroughly to establish the weaknesses available. This is because different healthcare organizations may get their products and supplies from different suppliers who in turn may charge differently; this means that individual companies may incur different costs in getting products and so different prices. This may make organizations to charge differently.
Is the organization hindered or helped in their pricing decisions by government or payer restrictions. If so, how do these restrictions impact their pricing strategy?
The organization is hindered by the government, for example, Obamacare, which advocates that all public and private payers have the obligation of negotiating own payments with the providers and that all rates will be binding to all payers. This affects the pricing as there is inability for the health service providers to resist the pricing power.
The government also hinders the pricing through continuous price regulations together with the cost of operations. This act makes it difficult and frustrates the producer or healthcare service providers to compete for the clients in the market and so the need to offer incentives to the customer that would considerably bring down the level of services.
The delivery network and distribution strategy used by the organization
Healthcare companies should choose the best delivery methods and networks that would increase access to their products and services in the market while cutting on costs and ensuring the security of the different products or services offered by the organization. There are different models that can be employed by different organizations.
APS healthcare uses a horizontal delivery network since it uses the concept of “Provider Relations”, which means that it collaborates and works with different medical practitioners to reach their customers. The APS staff visits such facilities providing the education, capacity building together with the services and products. The horizontal model would ensure less control as it depends on the others in the chain to do their part. The success would benefit each and every person in the value and it has lower capital requirement since it allows others to hold different assets of distribution.
The organization uses an exclusive distribution based on agreements with other service providers through Provider Relations that will allow them offer the products and services to the different geographical locations. This strategy is appropriate as it reaches a greater number of target markets using less resource and also the fact that it can allow the provision of limited or scarce products and services.
There are several factors that influence this strategy and they include the type of product or service to be distributed, the services and products that are offering competition, the customers or clients and their motivations behind buying.
It is customer focused since it takes into account the competing companies’ product and services and the gap that is still not met based on service. In other words it ensure the provision of services that are unique that are lacking in the market. The major channel members in the chain are medical provider and specialty pharmacy who in turn distribute to the traditional distributor and specialty distributor, who offers the products or services to the target customers.
Recommendations to the value delivery network
Several changes can be recommended for this company’s value delivery network to help reach more customers. These would include ensuring that there is better market segmentation based on the different products and services to the different customers, having greater agility in the network to reduce the incurred cost and promoting flexibility in service delivery, and having in place measurements that would assist gauge the success of the model or network. In addition is aligning service delivery through networks that will portray global standards to reach more market and ensuring that the network can provide greater collaboration across the value chain to increase the client base.
Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P. (2007). Marketing: An Introduction. (8th ed).New
Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall
Schiffman, L., & Kanuk, L. (2007). Consumer behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Tanner, J., & Raymond, M. (2012). Principles of Marketing Version 2.0. Flat World
Sample Religious Studies Essay on Realism from a religious perspective essay help services
Realism from a religious perspective
Throughout history, religion has provided human beings with interpretations of many mysteries of life. The interpretations have sufficiently brought meaning to life and this has enabled men and women to understand themselves significantly in relation to different contexts. Religion understands what is real as what we go through in real life, for instance waking up, going to work, looking after the kids, looking for what to eat, and getting ready for the next day, among many others. We face reality and trials each new day, for instance diseases like heart attack, cancer, malaria, typhoid, and other challenges in life, such as car accidents that lead to death. Heaven, eternal life, and a supernatural being responsible for our existence are considered real things in my discipline.
The level of religious vehemence has waned and flourished in equal measure in various civilizations. The discipline has never stopped to be a point of concern; it has enjoyed praise in certain times and been rejected on other occasions. Religion looks at creation the way it is and tries to come up with explanations of how we came into existence.
Death is a mystery that remains strange, thus bringing fear in its wake even to those who have faith in different religions, for instance the Christians who believe in life after death. Heaven is real, based on concepts in my discipline. We are an ordinary family as human beings but we are sandwiched in between extraordinary circumstances. We desire to be faithful to the supernatural being that is a source of inspiration and encouragement to our encounters in daily life. Heaven is real and this is a message we have been given to share because it deals with the crucial belief of eternal life.
The existence of a super human, life after death, and heaven as our final destination are the main areas that are emphasized. For instance, some people believe that the superhuman created everything. The same super human is thought to be our provider and protector in our daily lives. This is the reality and those who dare question it so long as you profess the same faith are thought to be misled. The superhuman is taken to be beyond all knowledge and understanding. Human beings obtain fulfillment in speaking to the superhuman and direct themselves to the mystery of reality in its aspect, which acts as a source of their wellbeing. Those who observed the rules in different doctrines are thought to be in heaven. Eternal life is also real; it is believed that those who die without sin enjoy eternal life in heaven.
My discipline poses several questions on what it considers real. Heaven exists and its location remains a mystery for people in my discipline. The place where people go after death also remains a controversial question.
My discipline analyses what it considers real by relying on divine interventions about reality. Religious doctrines and prophesies have remained significant in the analysis of what is reality-based religion. Heaven is considered real in my discipline, and the main contribution is that the reality of heaven helps to solve the mystery of death. Believers in different religious doctrines view and lean on an understanding that there is a connection between heaven and life after death, especially for the righteous.