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Sample Management Research Paper On Reverse Logistics: Overview And Impacts Cbest Essay Help

Reverse Logistics: Overview and Impacts


The emergence of green technologies pursued for sustainable production has resulted in the improvement of the supply chain management practices. In the contemporary times, reverse logistics is one of the practices that have been adopted widely across the world, with manufacturing companies attempting to reduce the costs as well as the social and environmental impacts of their processes through reverse logistics. Technologies that involve recycling or remanufacturing of products from previously processed products assist in reducing the costs of raw materials while also closing the supply chain loop through reverse logistics. Understanding the concept of reverse logistics and its impacts on the supply chain management practices is thus important in any industry where remanufacturing can take place.

Many studies in recent years have focused on the concept of reverse logistics. Most of the studies associate reverse logistics with green manufacturing as well as with closed loop supply chain management practices. The contribution of reverse logistics in each of these areas is clarified as well as the impacts of the same on the supply chain practices. In the ensuing paper, the main objective of study is to enhance the understanding of supply chain management through exploration of the concept of reverse logistics. In particular, the study objectives include:

To provide an overview of the concept of reverse logistics and what it entails.To explore the impacts of reverse logistics on the supply chain in general, with examples in green sourcing supply chain.

The rest of the paper is in four sections. The literature review section explores the presentations of past studies relevant to the present. In the methodology section, the specific choice of study approach is discussed. The discussion section explores the findings from the literature review while the conclusion provides a recap of the concepts discussed in the previous sections.

Literature Review

Reverse Logistics – Overview

Govindan, Soleimani and Kannan (2015) describe reverse logistics as a process which involves planning, implementation and control of efficient practices of raw material flow which are also cost effective. The process extends to in –process materials as well as to finished goods and information. The flow in this case is from the consumption point to the origin contrary to the normal logistics where material flow is from the source of raw material to the consumer. The reverse logistics flow of material thus starts from the end user. A similar definition is given by Mutingi (2014). In addition to describing the flow of materials, Mutingi asserts that reverse logistics starts with the communication of needs from either the end user or the manufacturer of the product. Practices such as product recall and recycle all fall under reverse logistics. According to Mutingi (2014), reverse logistics entails practices that are aimed towards growth of an organization, and the strategies implemented must be those that foster the intended growth.

The application of reverse logistics enhances the establishment of a closed loop supply chain. This is based on the argument that a closed loop system is founded on the determination of gaps existing between the present manufacturing processes and the intended manufacturing strategies. Through the closed loop supply chain, the gaps identified can be filled cost effectively depending on the strategies used. Govindan et al (2015) opine that the main objective of reverse logistics therefore, is to enhance sustainability in manufacturing processes through reduction of raw material consumption and proper inventory management. It is through such practices like green sourcing, that reverse logistics are accomplished and sustainability is achieved. It is also in this way that gaps in the manufacturing processes are filled.

Factors Affecting Reverse Logistics Practices

            Various authors have discussed factors that may contribute to effectiveness in the closed loop supply chain as enabled by reverse logistics. The objectives of achieving sustainability and closing the manufacturing gaps can only be accomplished through application of strategies that foster the achievement of certain specific goals of reverse logistics. For instance, Mutingi (2014) highlights various indicators of effective practice of reverse logistics. One of the indicators discussed is the raw material usage. Reverse logistics attempts to reduce consumption of raw materials through recycling or remanufacturing practices. By using already available raw materials, the new raw materials purchased will be lower in volumes, an indication of an efficient reverse logistics practice. Other indicators as described by Mutingi (2014) include the take- back penalty costs, investment costs, operational costs and the total profits per activity period. These indicators can help to determine whether the reverse logistics practiced is resulting in organizational growth or not.

Turrisi, Bruccoleri and canella (2013) also discussed variability as a function of effectiveness in the reverse logistics practice. According to Turrisi et al (2013), the extent of variability in the reverse flow within the closed loop system determines the extent of serviceable inventory. Effectiveness in the design of the reverse logistics chain determines the flexibility of the overall supply chain and subsequently the performance of the entire supply chain. This implies that the role of reverse logistics in the closed loop chain is inescapable. Olorunniwo and Li (2010) also provided an overview into the role played by information technology in reverse logistics. While the objective of the authors was to determine the extent to which IT influenced the performance of reverse logistics, they found out that differential impact of IT in reverse logistics performance was negligible. However, the specific attributes of the It networks and practices in a company can affect the performance of the reverse logistics at the company. It alone cannot improve reverse logistics performance, but the key attributes of the technology, such as data and information can. In particular, Olorunniwo and Li (2010) assert that sharing information and collaboration across functions is mandatory for efficient functioning of the closed loop supply chain. Through collaboration and information sharing, reverse logistics can be practiced through better strategies and practices.

Reverse logistics Issues

The benefits of reverse logistics in terms of enhancing operational sustainability are clear through some of the past studies reviewed. Rubio and Jimenez-Parra (2014) for instance, have provided the rationale for the application of reverse logistics in any manufacturing environment. According to the two authors, the first rationale is that reverse logistics has positive economic impacts on the closed loop supply chain. The economic impacts can be either direct or indirect. The direct impacts include reduced expenditure on raw materials. On the other hand, direct impacts mainly correspond to the link between customers and the organization. Other rationales explained include the legal benefits and the social impacts of the same. While discussing the rationales, Mutingi (2014), claims that the performance of the supply chain management process is affected by the reverse logistics impacts in terms of environmental, legal, social and economic functions. In particular, Mutingi purports that environmental consciousness in itself, and the practice thereof through reverse logistics, is a driver of economic advantage. This implies that companies can boost their economic advantage and/ or market shares through environmental conservation

According to Rubio and Jimenez- Parra (2014), reverse logistics still faces some challenges in marketing in spite of the proven positive impacts of the same. For instance, the first concern is the willingness of the buyers to pay for products after remanufacturing. This is due to potential for complaints from some customers who may consider the remanufactured products to be of lower value than the new products. Rubio and Jimenez- Parra however feel that this willingness to pay depends on the specific product under consideration. There are those in which the remanufactured products attract higher values than the new products. The second concern is the cannibalization of trade in new products. According to Rubio and Jimenez- Parra, some of the concerns raised by companies are that engagement in the production of remanufactured products, particularly where the values and subsequently selling prices are lower than the original products, results in lower sales of the new products. Competition with the original equipment manufacturers can also be an issue with reverse logistics which can impact either negatively or positively on the profitability of the remanufacturing process. Moreover, issues such as consumer perceptions and value propositions have been mentioned to affect the reverse logistics practices in the contemporary times (Rubio & Jimenez- Parra, 2014). This means that any strategies applied in reverse logistics have to be analyzed in details to determine their potential impacts on the supply chain as well as the issues that may affect the operations and how to deal with them.


            To achieve the objectives of the study, a secondary study approach was adopted. The secondary study approach is suitable where a study is exploratory in nature and where the required results are theoretical rather than empirical. In particular, the study was designed to use only the available studies from the past to determine the most relevant information for the planned article content. The use of the secondary approach to study required that certain ethical principles be considered for the study to be viable as well as accurate. One of the key ethical principles in the use of secondary resources is that the copyright laws had to be obeyed. This implies that all the articles used for this study were obtained from peer reviewed journals, and were articles availed by the copyright owners for public use. In this way, any copyright violations were avoidable.

            A repetitive abstraction approach was used for the selection of materials for the study. In this approach, key search words were used to obtain materials with matching key words online. The materials accessed were then reviewed independently, selecting the most relevant among them. Even after the selection of the materials, the particular content to be included in this research were reviewed and selected based on the research objectives and intentions. In this way, only the most relevant content was used in this study. Moreover, the accuracy of the content was also evaluated based on the level of support to content from other articles. The greater the support obtained from other articles, the more accurate the article was considered to be. In addition to this, only reliable sources were selected for this study. Reliability was determined based on the sources of the materials. Only articles from peer reviewed journals were selected as they were considered to be reliable. Validity was measured based on the level of fit between the article content and the desired research paper contents. This explains the use of the recursive abstraction strategy used in material selection.

Discussion: Reverse logistics concept and Details

            Reverse logistics describes the process through which materials flow from the end user to the point of origin. It involves the flow of raw materials, in process materials as well as end products. Based on the provisions of various past literatures, reverse logistics is the key enabler of closed loop supply chain systems. The closed loop system however has in process flows which make it somewhat an integrated rather than a circular flow process. The closed loop system is shown in the diagram below.

Figure 1: Reverse logistics overview (Source: Govindan et al., 2015)

Reverse logistics begins with communication from either the user of the product or the facilitator of the supply chain. The objective of the process is to enhance sustainability in operations. This is achieved through the impacts of the process on the aspects of economics, environmental impacts and social impacts. In line with the assertions of various authors, the economic impact of reverse logistics on the supply chain can be either direct or indirect. It has been shown that engagement in reverse logistics practices results in the reduction of costs in terms of raw material inputs. In particular, the raw materials costs are reduced when the raw material inputs are boosted due to the contribution of recyclable or remanufacturing raw materials from reverse logistics. The recycled materials cost less than the new raw materials hence resulting in lower costs for a unit measure of combined raw materials than the cost of the same mass of new raw materials. Indirectly, reverse logistics enables environmental conservation. Practices such as recycling plastics, which have positive environmental impacts lure environmentally conscious customers who boost company sales and enhance revenue generation. In this way, the overall profitability is improved.

Socially, reverse logistics contributes to organizational growth majorly due to the social changes that are experienced in the contemporary times. Changes in manufacturing technologies, which enhance green production processes, have led to more people recognizing the need for resource conservation. More people are advocating for the utilization of the least resource consuming production technologies. As such, engagement in reverse logistics forms an essential indicator of the willingness of an organization to be part of the change initiative, hence in alignment with the social systems in place. In this way, such companies attract more consumers as they are more easily recognized as potential contributors to course of the people. This also aligns to legal requirements in terms of disposal of wastes, environmental conservation and environmental impact assessment activities. Through recollection of used products, separation of wastes for disposal and recycling of parts of the products that can be re-used, reverse logistics encourages adherence to standards for waste disposal.

The indicators of economic, social and environmental impacts of reverse logistics have been described by Mutingi (2014). The take back penalty costs are defined as the charges of disposing wastes beyond the maximum acceptable limits. For instance, there is a legal limit in every country for the characteristics of wastes to be disposed into the environment. Being capable of reducing the concentration of harmful substances in the wastes through selective recycling can reduce the costs of disposal extensively. Reduction of these costs thus indicates an effective reverse logistics strategy. Similarly, the operational costs for re-manufacturing and the investment costs are also lower where remanufacturing is taking place. Thus, a reduction in operational costs and raw material costs indicate effectiveness in the supply logistics. The total profit in an efficient supply chain also increases with increase in the use of reverse logistics.


            Reverse logistics is an essential practice in the modern day closed loop supply chains. This practice enhances productivity through cost reductions, as well as through improved management practices. The use of reverse logistics is thus an important practice in the manufacturing process where the objective is to improve sustainability. The benefits of reverse logistics in the supply chain are expanded and categorized into environmental, legal, social and economic benefits. These impacts can be either direct or indirect depending on how it is viewed. The indicators of these benefits include the expenditures incurred in raw materials, the operational and investment costs, the total profit from the manufacturing process and the take back penalty costs. While reverse logistics has a lot of positive impacts on the supply chain, the practice also faces a lot of issues in supply chain management. Some of these issues as mentioned by Rubio and Jimenez- Parra (2014) include the customers’ willingness to pay specific prices for remanufactured products, cannibalization of new product sales, competition between original equipment manufacturers and the manufacturers of refurbished materials, and other issues such as consumer perceptions about the re-manufactured products.


Govindan, K., Soleimani, H. And Kannan, D. (2015). Reverse logistics and closed loop supply chain: A comprehensive review to explore the future. European Journal of Operational Research, 240: 603- 626. Retrieved from

Mutingi, M. (2014). The impact of reverse logistics in green supply chain management: a system dynamics analysis. International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering, 17(2): 186-201. Retrieved from

Olorunniwo, F.O. and Li, X. (2010). Information sharing and collaboration practices in reverse logistics. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 15(6): 454-462. Retrieved from

Rubio, S. and Jimenez-Parra, B. (2014). Reverse logistics: Overview and challenges for supply chain management. International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 6(12): 1-7. Retrieved from

Turrisi, M., Bruccoleri, M. and Cannella, S. (2013). Impact of reverse logistics on supply chain performance. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 43(7): 564-585. Retrieved from

Sample Astronomy Paper on Telescopes essay help online

Astronomers focus on distant and small objects using telescopes. Telescopes are machines that collect light that helps to focus on an image. A small astronomical telescope is made up of the objective lens, the eyepiece, and the focal point. The objective lens refracts or bends parallel light rays causing them to converge at a particular point to focus on a specified object. The central point is the meet point whereby the rays are refracted. The eyepiece is the part that positions the image in a way that is easy for the viewer to have a good field of view. It allows the eye to view the image comfortably for an extended period.

The distance between stars is measured by a filar micrometer. The micrometer has two fine parallel wires that are movable by the observer. While measuring the distance between the stars, the observer places one wire over one star of interest and moves the other wire to the second star. The distance between the two wires is the angular distance between the two stars. A HR diagram is used by astronomers to classify stars. The diagram classifies the stars according to their color, temperature, luminosity, and evolutionary stage. The figure below illustrates the classification of stars by the HR diagram.

Figure 1. HR Diagram

Figure 1. HR Diagram

Light curves are used to determine the type of binary star system that is observed. The brightness of the curve that describes an eclipsing binary orbit is measured from 0.0 to 1.0. The stars appear based on the amount of brightness that is available. Therefore, at some point of a light curve, two stars in close orbit around each other. The difference in the intensity of the light curve determines the binary starts that are caused by one star passing in front of the other.

Sample Technology Essay Paper on Management Of Information Security global history essay help: global history essay help


All organizations need to have security policies because of the need to protect tangible and intangible assets. Different types of security policies that organizations should develop include acceptable use, clean desk and internet usage policies. However, the privacy policy makes the top list of among the most important security policies that organizations should have. Privacy policies are important because they relate to customers’ private information, which an organization needs to protect from unauthorized use. The increased use of the internet by different users has increased the risk of unwanted access of private information. Therefore, many organizations have developed privacy policies to describe what information a user should provide and how an organization will use that information. Privacy is a constitutional right and organizations should institute privacy policies to protect users’ rights. Furthermore, it is important for organizations to develop privacy policies in accordance to the law and needs of users. The presence of a privacy policy will build trust between an organization and a user.

Management of Information Security


All organizations need to have a set of security policies because they are integral in the protection of an organization’s tangible and intangible assets (Dhillon 2002). Failure to have strong security policies puts an organization at risk of facing financial losses through the loss of physical and intangible assets. A security policy is majorly a document in writing that stipulates the directions that an organization uses to protect assets. A security policy document is never conclusive but is continuously changing depending on changing business circumstances. A security policy, for example, narrates how employees and other officials will oversee the implementation of security measures. Also, a security policy outlines steps that the organization will take in cases of policy breaches (Dhillon 2002). Therefore, the main importance of a security policy is to protect an organization from asset loss. There are different types of security policies, for example, privacy, acceptable use, clean desk, internet usage, and bring your device policy. This paper will discuss the privacy policy, its importance within an organization and how organizations can implement the policy. According to (Dhillon 2002) a privacy policy is a declaratory statement that describes how an organization collects private information from customers. The policy defines the type of information that an organization can collect. Additionally, it describes the steps that the company will take to prevent the access of private information by third parties and malicious hackers (Dhillon 2002).

Literature review

According to Holt and Malcic (2015), the use of remote data storage has increased exponentially resulting in citizen and consumer awareness.  Industry, education, cultural and governments sectors are continuously storing remote data from citizens and consumers through the use of the internet. Digital content distribution relies on cloud storage infrastructure, access to big data and streaming platforms. Many of these sites store personal information making citizens and customers wary of their privacy concerns. Furthermore, the access of digital data by governmental and private companies has increased raising concerns and anxiety among unsuspecting people (Cranor 2003). Therefore, protectionist movements have increased to protect citizens and consumers from unwanted privacy intrusions by big companies and governmental organizations through their websites. Furthermore, many citizens are raising concerns about government intrusion and monitoring of internet communications and phone calls.  Holt and Malcic (2015) argue that managing and securing privacy protection rights is a complex process that is affected by clear laws in global trade, health care, and intellectual property. However, Holt and Malcic (2015) argue that it is the responsibility of government organizations and companies to develop privacy policies that allow users to know what type of information that the websites collect and also how they will use the information.

According to Paterson (2014) when an individual uses a smart phone or a tablet device, the main purpose is to fend for information. Content companies and networks provide the selected information to users by tracking their activities. While Edward Snowden revealed how the government and companies get information from users when they access the internet, people still have little knowledge about how the websites track individuals. Companies and governments do not inform users about the information they store. Therefore, privacy concerns arise because users are misinformed about what data is collected. Also, privacy and public interest groups do not understand how network operators collect information and how they use the information. However, Paterson (2014) confirms that network operators have privacy policies that are very detailed. Most users fail to read the privacy policy during the initial phases of application. Paterson (2014) encourages end users to read the privacy policies of the websites that they visit. The privacy policies stipulate what information the websites will take and how they will use the information. Paterson (2014) ascertains that end-user awareness is important because it will enable the public to understand how their private information will be used.    

When people use the internet, they entrust a lot of sensitive information about the daily activities when using the internet to internet carriers (Clement and Obar 2017). Internet service providers transmit a lot of private information about people when they visit their popular sites over the internet. For example, people spend a lot of time on social media sites, websites and emails. The personal information that internet service providers carry are susceptible and can reveal a person’s nature and habits. Therefore, it is clear that a person’s privacy is affected because of personal information stored in websites. While the use of the internet to communicate and do business has increased in the last decade, privacy concerns have also increased. Major companies that run private websites, social media sites and government sites have developed privacy policies that stipulate how they collect, use and disseminate the information collected from users. According to Clement and Obar (2017), data privacy transparency is the act of being open about in regards to data privacy protection. Also, the privacy policies developed by companies and governments indicate how they manage, store, retain, disclose and distribute sensitive information about users. Clement and Obar (2017) argue that it is important for people to choose reliable internet service providers based on privacy concerns because they can hold them responsible when third parties access users’ private information. Transparency is important; companies, organizations and governments sites that do not safeguard transparency should re-evaluate their privacy policies to protect users’ right to privacy.

According to Han (2017), information technology has helped shaped means of communication around the world. However, information technology has developed a growing concern over privacy concerns because it threatens the social and political lives of individuals. Cranor (2003) argues that the growing concern of privacy is the ability of technology-based systems to track people and analyze their information. Furthermore, technology based systems can disseminate the information, therefore, inhibiting people’s right to privacy. People should have a right to privacy, which should not be equated to the right to secrecy or control, but a right to determine the flow of information about a person. Therefore, privacy policies are important because they protect an individual’s right to privacy (Cranor 2003). Through privacy policies, an individual is convinced that a particular website will not transmit sensitive information to third parties.


A privacy policy should provide a detailed overview of the means of collection, utilization, sharing, and protection of private information. The privacy policy should follow the law to be deemed as valid and ready for use by a company or organization. First, Barth (2008) recommends that the privacy policy should indicate the scope of its use. It should indicate whether it is to be used for online collection of data or offline collection. Secondly, the privacy policy should be available for users to read. For example, websites should contain a section detailing the company’s privacy policy in the homepage. Thirdly, it is important for the texts to be legible. Companies should use plain English, short sentences, key titles and a good format. Also, a website can offer readers language options (Barth 2008). The policy should indicate how the company will collect the personally identifiable information. For example, it should indicate if it collects the information from users or if it does so through the use of cookies and beacons. Furthermore, before collecting data, the company should indicate what types of data it will collect from the public. For example, the website should indicate personal information it will collect such as name, address, and credit card number, email address, and telephone number. 

Key Recommendations

Dreyer and Ziebarth (2017) assert that consumer and privacy laws contain guidelines of how social media providers can develop privacy policies and terms of service. Therefore, the company should assess consumer and privacy laws to develop a sound privacy policy. The purpose of privacy policies is to inform the public about what information a company will collect from users. Furthermore, the privacy policy will indicate how the company will use the information collected and safety measures that it will apply to protect users’ private information. As a key recommendation, it is important that the policy should consider the legal implications of collecting and storage of personally identifiable information (Barth 2008). Many different laws exist to regulate the privacy of data depending on the industry in question. For example, different laws safeguard the right to privacy in the health sector, financial sector, telecommunications sector and educational sector. Furthermore, the policy should be easy for the users to understand.

In regards to privacy policy comprehension, Sumeeth, Singh and Miller (2010) argue that many social media sites and popular websites draft the information contained in privacy policies and terms of service in legal terms that users cannot comprehend. Therefore, it is a key recommendation for the company to draft the privacy policy texts in simple words rather than using complex legal jargons that customers cannot understand. Furthermore, an organization should use participatory transparency to improve transparency between the organization and customers. It is important for an organization to discuss the terms and policies with users; it should illustrate the meaning of the legal jargons found in the privacy policies to enable customers to understand their meaning. Sumeeth, Singh, and Miller (2010) assert that participatory transparency can influence users’ interest in reading the terms of service stipulated in the privacy policies.

Users should know what information the website will collect and how it will be used. Also, different laws suggest how companies should collect data from users who are below 13 years of age. Therefore, when developing the policy, key stakeholders should take the legal implications of privacy breach into consideration. It is ethical for a company to ensure that it meets the stipulated legal requirements when developing privacy policies. Also, companies and organizations should refrain from using a lot of legal jargons when developing the policies because it reduces the interest of users to read the policy. Furthermore, it puts users at risk because they will not understand how the company/organization will use their data (Barth 2008).

Privacy policies stipulate the actions that the law will take against companies that disseminate private information to third parties. The websites contain a lot of personal information, such as full names, places of residence, credit and social security numbers. The ability of third parties to access such information means that an individual is liable to suffer from fraudulent activities by malicious hackers and criminals. Therefore, an organization wishing to develop privacy policies should stipulate the type of information that it will take. The guideline will enable a user to refrain from submitting information that is not indicated under the privacy policy. Furthermore, it is a key recommendation for organizations to share information about the level of security of the websites. The information on security will strengthen the trust between the organization and users. In the event that the organization faces a breach of security, the privacy policy should indicate the steps that it will take to mitigate the risks.


Technological advancements have changed how people communicate and do business. The use of the internet has become widespread in both developed and developing countries. As a result, many companies and organizations that run public websites contain a lot of sensitive information about their users. Furthermore, many citizens have accused the government of monitoring their calls and internet activity. The Constitution protects the right to privacy; therefore, many companies have developed privacy policies that indicate the type of information collected and how the information will be used. Privacy policies are a necessity because they assure the public that third parties will not access the personally identifiable information. 


Barth, A, 2008, Design and analysis of privacy policies. Stanford University.

Clement, A and Obar, J, 2016, Keeping Internet Users in the Know or in the Dark. Journal of Information Policy, 6, p.294.

Cranor, L, 2003, P3P: making privacy policies more useful. IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine, 1(6), pp.50-55.

Dhillon, G, 2002, Social responsibility in the information age: issues and controversies. Hershey, PA, IRM Press.

Dreyer, S and Ziebarth, L, 2014, Participatory Transparency in Social Media Governance: Combining Two Good Practices. Journal of Information Policy, 4, pp.529-546.

Goldberg, I and Atallah, MJ, 2009, Privacy enhancing technologies: 9th international symposium, PETS 2009, Seattle, WA, USA, August 5-7, 2009: proceedings. Berlin, Springer.

Holt, J and Malcic, S, 2015, The Privacy Ecosystem: Regulating Digital Identity in the United States and European Union. Journal of Information Policy, 5, p.155.

Paterson, N, 2014, End User Privacy and Policy-Based Networking. Journal of Information Policy, 4, pp.28-43.

Sumeeth, M, Singh, R, and Miller, J, 2010, Are Online Privacy Policies Readable?. International Journal of Information Security and Privacy, 4(1), pp.93-116.

Zhu, L, 2011, Privacy in Context: Technology, Policy, and the Integrity of Social Life. Journal of Information Privacy and Security, 7(3), pp.67-71.

Sample Management Essay Paper on Organizational Transformation instant essay help

Organizational Transformation


The formulation and designing of any organization are based different principles including management and industrial policies. To understanding the organizational context, one has to take into account the internal and external factors that affect the operations of a given firm.  Furthermore, it provides room for examining the structure of the enterprise, resources, functions, and culture. It also allows addressing of the issues relating to management of environmental changes. Essentially, an organization is a platform whereby individuals from various backgrounds come together to work as a collective unit to achieve set goals or objectives.

With the existing dynamism among employees, the management may experience distinct challenges that may affect the organization both positively and negatively. The United States army, for example, is one of the largest agencies in the world and has over the years experienced various encounters that promote change in its operations and organizational culture. Throughout the history of the United States, the treatment of sexual minority groups has shifted both on medical and popularity platforms. The military regulations, for example, have moved from punishing of homosexuals to discharging service members responsible for changing the notion among medical professionals about the causes of homosexuality (Mills, 2017). The ban was first implemented in 1940 but was only limited among commanders and specific branches of the force. However, the number of discharges decreased during World War II due to the need for personnel. Department of Defense officials recently acknowledged that the prohibition of homosexuals in the army has not resulted in a complete removal of gays and lesbians from the military and that many members of the sexual minority groups have served honorably in the armed forces. As such, this research will discuss different events that have led to the change in policy on homosexuals in the United States army. Additionally, it will assess on the various policies that have been formulated by the United States Congress on the recruitment of gays and lesbians in the military.

The United States Army

From the American Revolution to the Indian and civil wars and in between, the United States military has helped in the foundation and stabilization of the country in different occasions. The organization was founded in 1775 during the continental congress and later named George Washington as its first general. Later, in 1789, the new American constitution made the president its Commander in Chief with the responsibility of representing the enterprise to the congress and issuing orders when called to task (Johnson, Rosenstein, Buhrke, & Haldeman, 2015). Currently, the company is divided into five groups; The Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, The Coast Guard, and the Army. In total, there are 1,429,995 soldiers distributed across the different groups of the American military.

   Like any other company in the world, the United States army experienced different challenges that affect its operations and tarnished its image across the world. Some of these challenges include ethical misunderstandings, economic instability, and cultural change. Additionally, over the last two decades, the U.S. military has had laid down inconsistent policies on the homosexuality of the military and even carried out frequent tests  on their members to determine their sexuality. Before the Second World War, there existed no written policy that barred gay people from serving in the army. Although sodomy was considered a crime, numerous cases of gay people in the army were reported since the revolutionary war times.

 During the different wars that the United States Army was engaged in, they referred to homosexuals as medically incomplete persons and therefore barred them from joining the force. Its medical recruitment criteria were later reviewed to allow anybody willing to join the force to be enrolled. Due to the increase in the need for soldiers to fight during the war, the military eased the screening procedures, therefore, permitting homosexuals to enlist hence increasing their numbers. After the war, the leadership of the organization embarked on decreasing them in the organization.

 In 1982, the department of defense banned homosexuals from serving in the military terming them as completely incompetent and later published a directive in the DOD effecting the directive.  According to the government accounting report of 1992, approximately 17,000 men and women in the army were discharged after the publishing of the policy. All through the 1980s, efforts to revise the policy emerged as a priority for the non-governmental organizations that advocated for both gay and lesbian rights.  Homosexuals in the military came out and vigorously challenged the basis of their discharge.  

By the beginning of 1993, the campaign had spread across the United States; even civilians joined the campaign. Although President Clinton had promised to reinstate and protect the right of gays and lesbians in the military, different congressional leaders threatened to pass legislation that would bar such soldiers from serving in the military. Later, the president adopted a policy labeled “Don’t ask, Don’t pursue, and Don’t Tell” (DADT) whose terms required that questions about the sexuality of an individual not to be asked during recruitment (Connell, 2017). However any soldier seen displaying any romantic gestures, having sexual relations with a member of the same sex disclosing your sexuality to another member of the force was considered sexual misconduct that resulted in involuntary discharge.

 Although their recruitment into the military faced different challenges, including discrimination from their colleagues, the concept slowly changed. In 2010, most of the enlightened junior members embraced homosexuals and even shared different facilities with them at the training school. During the same year, the Senate voted to repeal the policy set by President Clinton, making it voluntary for anybody to mention their sexuality during recruitment.  A study was done by Johnson, Rosenstein, Buhrke, & Hardeman((2015) estimated that approximately 65000 gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals and men were serving the United States military, comprising 2.8 % of the total military personnel. Moreover, a report by the government’s accountability office (GAO) suggested that the cost of discharging a member that had been fired due to homosexuality from the fiscal year 1994 to 2003 had totaled to over $217 million. On the contrary, the palm center in California suggested that the actual cost of the DADT policy amounted to $415 million.

Notably, both findings imply that the government incurs between $22000 and $43000 per person as a result of the DADT policy. Moreover, from 2003-2008, an additional 3279 troops have been discharged, which suggests that an additional $74-$140 million was spent during the period (Johnson, Rosenstein, Buhrke, & Haldeman, 2015). According to Johnson, Rosenstein, Buhrke, & Haldeman (2015), the department of defense acknowledges that many of the homosexual service men and women have served honorably and displayed good work ethics throughout their careers. Furthermore, the top officials have opposed the myth that homosexuals are a threat to national security but express increased concerns about the removal of the ban. They further state that by removing the prohibition, the United States Army will experience a decrease in morale, unit cohesion and operational effectiveness.

Primary Stakeholders

  The work done by the United States army involves the participation of both the government and its citizens. Other involved parties in the entity may include suppliers, soldiers, and international bodies including human rights organizations and non-governmental agencies.

Understanding Organization Culture

  Every company has a different way of dealing with unique personalities and upholding existing culture. It is through culture that a company can portray uniqueness in its operations as well as empower its employees. Mills (2017) defined organizations culture as an inevitable but powerful force in the firm that influences the mode of exploitation and behavior of the members of the entity. Connell, (2017) defined culture as a system that helps in promoting and sharing of social assumptions, beliefs, and desirable values.

Consequently, every organization has to develop and maintain a unique culture that provides boundaries and guidelines on ethics both within and outside the company. Excellent organizational culture should have various principles including improving innovation, attention to detail, emphasizing on the outcome, people, and promoting teamwork and stability. Seemingly, the United States army also has a culture that has been developed and maintained for decades. The culture helps in keeping the members of the military alive, promoting work ethics, and ensuring proper security is achieved (Mills, 2017). Based on the above principles in the army and their image to the American citizens, creating a change in the culture already adopted will require the availability of adequate resources throughout the process.

Culture can only be effective if it is applied in the relevant era and on proper standards. Many entities require both internal and external drivers such as the society and the help of the top management to initiate culture shift. Although all the stakeholders may not welcome the process, it is the duty of the leadership of the enterprise to increase awareness of the desired objectives. Notably, toxic culture needs pruning from the organization to enhance values and cohesion. Through this, the company will be able to improve on leadership expectation as well as increasing organizational growth and synergy.

Addressing the Challenge

  The problem of homosexuality in the United States military has been in existence since the 1940s; it has brought about other complexities including creating division among the members of the force and limiting the strength of the organization. Even with the new justifications, the old theory concerning the group has not changed. In the 1950s, the allegations were primarily based on the notion that sexuality was a psychological criminality that was promoted by habitual and unattended mentality. Additionally, leaders in the force feared that both gays and lesbians would be vulnerable to blackmail due to the increased social stigma attached to their sexual orientation.

 Combating this challenge can be linked to a series of events including the formulation of the DADT policy by President Clinton in 1993. In the recent years, more strategies have been adopted to help in the management of the problem. In their campaign trail in 2007, Senator Obama  and the democratic party promised to repeal the DADT policy within 100 days in office. Later, in 2010, the Pentagon announced the modification of the previous guideline of the law and provided greater protection from false evidence or accusations (Connell, 2017). Moreover, the new law provided that any organizations providing information on gay service personnel must be subjected to public scrutiny to avoid provision of false allegation on the military. Additionally, Virginia Court’s Judge Philips issued an injunction to stop the enforcement of the ban on gays who serve openly. In 2013, the U. S supreme court abolished a large portion of the Defense Of Marriage Act of 1996 (DOMA), which restricted same-sex marriages among government employees, including the military (Segal, Segal, & Reed,  2015). Such events portray a struggle by the American society to ensure equality is achieved in the army and hence stop institutional discrimination.

Adopting a Different Approach

 In a different context, it is important for the American government to take a different approach to the menace facing the military of the country.  The repealing of existing law only acts as a cover-up strategy that aims at giving the United States government control over gays and lesbians serving in the military. It is important for the authorities to engage other stakeholders in fighting for the rights of homosexuals and lesbians. This will provide a better platform for understanding the plight of the disadvantaged group thus enabling the formulation of a viable solution. Alternatively, the defense department should start a member cancellation program that will counsel members of the American army on the best way to deal with stigma from the society (Segal, Segal, & Reed, 2015).

Through advocating for the rights of homosexual soldiers, the government and other stakeholders will enable them to serve without prejudice. Allowing transgender people to engage in honest work would promote their behavioral change and humanize them (Connell, 2017). The research further estimates that there exist 2, 450 active members of the force each year and that 65% seek to change annually. According to mills (2017), the transition program funded by the Pentagon costs between $2.9 billion to $4.2 billion in every financial year and acts as an incentive to the victims to take up the program.

Researcher’s Proposition

 According to Segal, Segal, & Reed (2015), there is no lesbian or gay human being on the battle field as everybody has to fight to protect both themselves and their countries. As it is with other militaries in the world, including Israel and the United Kingdom, a distinction must be made between the official homosexuality ethics, human rights, and military culture in the United States. Gay and lesbian rights in the army have over the years experienced a harsh reception from both the society and the government. As such, the gay and lesbian soldiers had to wait until reserve service hours to open up about their sexuality since it provided a conducive atmosphere to talk openly about their private lives. Although the law requires that homosexuals do not disclose their status to their peers, their achievements as soldiers should be recognized and rewarded appropriately.

Notably, most of the lesbian and gay personnel have served honorably even with the ban. Additionally, senior military commanders now acknowledge that many of the sexually disadvantaged people serve ably but privately in the military. For instance, high-level members of the United States army of 1992 suggested that the motivation behind the ban was not based on the performance or approach to work but to help in maintaining the dignity of the force and that of the country (Segal, Segal, & Reed, 2015). Although over 76% of the senior officers continue to oppose sexual minorities participating in the United States army openly, their rate of performance in the field is more than expected from any soldier (Segal, Segal, & Reed, 2015). Consequently, the U.S. government should limit the sanctions regarding policies that are imposed by the military gay and lesbian groups. The reduction of homosexuals will provide an interactive platform between the straight and homosexuals, which, in turn, might lead to the transformation of gay soldiers 


 The military has over the years experienced an increase in cases of assault on homosexuals in the United States. If the current policies against gays and lesbians in the army are not repealed, the menace of gays and lesbians serving in the United States military will increase in future. Conversely, if the laws are overturned to accommodate homosexuals in the U.S. military, the number of stigmatization cases will reduce. Notably, allowing them into the force will act as an example to other troops all over the globe that do not recruit gays or lesbians. Additionally, it would enable the U.S. military to be among international organizations that advocate for equal human rights regardless race, color, gender, or sexual orientation. The U.S. government should, therefore, tighten the policies and laws that permit the serving of gays and lesbians in the force.


Connell, C. (2017). “Different than an infantry unit down in Georgia”: Narratives of queer liberation in the post-DADT military. Sexualities, 1363460717699771.

Johnson, W. B., Rosenstein, J. E., Buhrke, R. A., & Haldeman, D. C. (2015). After “Don’t ask don’t tell”: Competent care of lesbian, gay and bisexual military personnel during the DoD policy transition. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 46(2), 107.

Mills, A. J. (2017). Studying the Gendering of Organizational Culture over Time: Concerns, Issues, and Strategies. In Insights and Research on the Study of Gender and Intersectionality in International Airline Cultures (pp. 71-91). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Segal, D. R., Segal, M. W., & Reed, B. J. (2015). Diversity and citizenship in the modern military organization. Turkish Journal of Sociology, 35, 43-61.

Sample Environmental Studies and Forestry Essay Paper on The Borneo Pygmy Elephant Management and Recovery Plan essay help app: essay help app

The Borneo Pygmy Elephant Management and Recovery Plan


The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) first identified the Borneo pygmy elephant was as an endangered species in 1986. Over the years, their population in the wild has reduced to 1500 as identified by Good (2014). If this trend continues, there would be no Borneo pygmy elephants left in the wild. Increased human encroachment on the elephants’ habitat, poaching, and other human activities have immensely contributed to the problem facing these elephants..  According to Loong (2015), of all the elephant species that are surviving the Borneo pygmy elephant is the most at a risk of extinction because of three reasons. Firstly, information about the animal is limited. Since 1986, information that is relevant in facilitating the recovery process of the Borneo pygmy elephant has been scarce. Secondly, the population size of the animal is extremely low.  As aforementioned by Good (2014) the numbers of the Borneo pygmy elephants are small; consequently, it is hard to come up with a well detailed study about the animal. Finally, the recovery strategies employed by the authorities remain unsuccessful in these animals’ recovery process. Over the last decade, a variety of measures have been employed to aid in the recovery process of the Borneo pygmy elephant efforts in saving the gentle giants from extinction; nonetheless, there is a need for more action in the long term. This paper discusses the issues that render the Borneo pygmy elephant as an endangered species and the reasons or risks that make the Borneo pygmy elephant a candidate of extinction as well as the management and recovery process required to help the Borneo pygmy elephant flourish.          


Part One

Spcies status. Today there are approximately 1,500 pygmy elephants (Elephas Maximus Borneensis) in the wild. Since 1986, this species has been considered an endangered species, based on the fact that its population had halved by the end of three generations (Rautner, Hardiono, & Alfred, 2015). The Borneo elephants are located to the northern Borneo. Over the years, the Sabah location that harbors the Tabin Wildlife Reserve and adjacent Dipterocarp Forest host the largest population of Borneo pygmy elephants (Phillipps & Phillipps, 2016). On the other, Kalimantan host a smaller population.  

Figure 1:Past and present distribution of Bomean Elephants in Sabah

Sources;      In reference to their food patterns, the Elephas Maximus Borneensis are herbivorous depending on plants as their main food. Despite their name, Borneo pygmy elephants grow up to 2.5 meters and are similar in size as other Asian elephant species. However, their facial features are different, for instance they have larger ears and straight tusks than other Asian elephant species. According to Phillipps and Phillipps (2016), an animal’s size determines the amount of food it consumes in a day. Nonetheless, on average, a Borneo elephant consumes about 150 kg of plants every day.  The lush vegetation at Sabah and Kalimantan location stands a reason the gentle giants are predominantly found in this regions. Varieties of scientific researchers have been using satellite tags to map the animal’s behavior in its natural habitats.  For instance, a recent research by Alfred et al., (2012) indicate that Borneo elephants’ social constructs restrict them to specific herds  unlike their African cousins. Additionally, they suffer from depression and other psychological issues that result from their continuous decreasing numbers. From Figure 1, it is evident that the Borneo elephant habitats are shrinking. Sabah and Kalimantan state regions have been encroached by human beings leading to the destruction of the elephants’ habitat, hence their decline in numbers.

Threats facing the Borneo elephant species. For three decades, the Borneo elephant has remained endangered and a number of measures have been placed to avoid the animal’s extinction. However, most of these policies have failed due to the fact that human’s in dynamic ways are the main threats to the beats. The extinctions of some elephant species such as the Wooly Mammoth (Mammuthus Primigenius) and Mastodon (Mammutid proboscideans) were a result of natural forces.  The Borneo Pygmy Elephant’s impending extinction however, is not being engineered by natural processes but a variety of factors such as poaching, encroachment and disease infestation.  The biggest threat facing the Borneo elephant species is interference by human beings. According to Loong (2015), human beings affect the population of the Borneo elephant in two ways. Foremost, human beings interfere with the natural habitat of this species of elephants. Agricultural practices have seen human being encroach into both the Sabah and Kalimantan locations reducing the space that the Borneo elephant, therefore, preventing them from thriving. A recent study that tracked the endangered species conducted by Goossens, et al., (2016) indicated that the remaining herds are under threat from forest fragmentation as well as loss of habitat.  Borneo pygmy elephants thrive on flat, low lands and river valleys. Similar characteristics are favourable to agricultural practice, hence human beings’ attraction to the areas..  Alfred et al, (2015) indicate that over the last half a century, approximately 40% of the forest located in  Sabah on the northeastern part of Borneo has been cut down to create room for human settlement and palm oil trees plantation. It should be noted that Sabah hosts the largest number of Borneo pygmy elephants on the Island.  Elephants are known to cover a large areas during migration or seasonal changes in particular during mating; in the instance this movements are affected it is expected that the breeding patterns will also be affected. Additionally, the elephant’s natural urge to move through its habitat has caused a clash between the beats and humans. Hance (2017) indicates that data collected during the study indicated that due to increased killings by farmers  are approximately 1,000 pygmy elephants remaining in the state of Sabah, and not 1,600 as earlier estimated by Alfred (2012). The study also attributed the reducing number of these elephants to their decreased habitat.  The invasion of these elephants’ habitat by human beings resulted in the introduction of foreign diseases. With the arrival of human beings came other animals and the use of chemical compounds on farmlands, which introduced new diseases in the area. Therefore, the interaction between the elephants and farm animals has seen the rise of illnesses such as Pasteurellamultocida in the area. Additionally, chemical compounds used for weed control have seen food supply reduce. The chemicals used in killing weeds is extensively used and sprayed in areas that go beyond the farmlands; consequently, the supply of the lush vegetation is reduced and this makes it hard for large herds of the pygmy elephant’s population to exist within the already limited habitats.

            The Borneo elephant have tusks that have caused poachers to hunt them towards extinction. According to Alfred, et al, (2011), initially, farmers killed the Borneo elephant due to their destruction of their farmlands. However, with time they began killing them for their tusks as well as other body parts that were shipped to nearby China to be used as medicine ingredients. As humans keep reducing the Borneo elephant habitats the animals have been forced to take refuge in areas where their predators have a high advantage over them. Because Sabah is adjacent the dipterocarp forest the Borneo elephants have been forced into thes area, which is habited by various predators such as tigers and jaguars that hunt them, thus reducing their numbers.

while the mentioned threats against these elephants have existed for a while, their intensity has been augmenting over the years. Currentily, is more demand for land, therefore,  the altercation between man and beast has become more frequent than before,  which has increased the pace of the extinction of the species. since the main cause of the problem facing the elephants in question is human activities, there is a need for  individuals to create a management plan to ensure that the species does not perish.   

Part 2

Endangered species management and recovery plan. since destruction of thids species is a result of forces that are not natural,, coming up with measures to increase the animals’ population enpugh to rule out extinction is achievable. Hence, the purpose of this management plan is to reduce the threats that have caused the reduction of Borneo elephant. This objective will be achieved in two ways which include;Relocation of some Borneo elephant to other areas, that have similar characteristics with their original habitat, that are less affected by human social and economic activities as well as predators.  

Setting up orphanages and game reserves that will be used to aid orphaned calf to grow to maturity as well as researchers learn more about the animals that will help in developing strategies to help the recovery process of the species.

Currently, the government, through initiatives promoted under the “Heart of Borneo” agreement, ensures that the rapid depletion of forestland throughout central Sabah will not be experienced in the future. However, when engaging in a species management and recovery program it can be argued that the remaining land is not enough to host a large population of pygmy elephants. Additionally, a larger crowd of the animals would mean more altercation between the beasts with farmers. Therefore, there is a need for the relocation of some animals to less populated locations as well as game reserves that have similar physical conditions with their habitat. This solution will see an increase in the pygmy elephant numbers without the risk of human altercation.

Additionally, relocation them to game reserves will allow scientists to study the animals; therefore, information such as breeding practices may be better understood, and consequently, aid in increasing their population in the long-term. The current conservation efforts to save the Bornean elephant have been placed to protect the animals range as well as better land use. However, as yet, none of the recommendation previously presented has been put into practice, not on the basis of the lack of priority or interest in policy, but the lack of information. Alfred, et al., (2011) state that the pygmy remains endangered because little is known about the elephant’s habitat use, migration and seasonal movement, as well as animal profiling; for example, female behavior during mating season or bulls’ risk to other elephants during musk period. There is a need to fill in these knowledge gaps to because with enough information concerning the species, policy makes can create effective population recovery strategies that would save the species from extinction.         

According to Fui and Bema (2005), the management of endangered species requires significant public participation. In China, the World wildlife Fund used a public awareness program to aid in the recovery process of the endangered Panda. A similar program can be used in this case, there is a need to open up orphanages for young elephants and game reserves for the larger, older animals so as to attract the public’s attention. In Africa, one of the solutions that were highlighted to aid in helping the African elephant’s population recovery is the development of orphanages for the young calves where the public bought their younglings within the opharanage, paid for their feeding and safekeeping. After three years of the program, there were more requests from the public in terms of adopting a calf. Therefore, the same services were diverted to developing game reserves to aid the safekeeping of the larger older animals, and these game reserves have seen a considerable reduction of poaching and an increase in population figures of the animals for the first time in decades.        


The Borneo pygmy elephant was first identified as an endangered species in 1986 when it was established that its population hand more than halved in three generations. Currently, it is estimated that only 1500 of these elephants remain in the wild. The Borneo pygmy elephant is only found in the northern and northeastern parts of Borneo Island at Sabah and Kalimantan states. The Borneo authorities have embarked on cautious efforts to increase the elephant’s numbers but not much success has been achieved. The reason for this has been blamed on increasing human social and economic activity that has seen threats facing the Borneo pygmy elephant augment over the decades. Currently, the threats include forest fragmentation, diseases, poaching, and increased exposure to attacks by predators. In reference to the threats indicated against the Borneo pygmy relocation and the development of game reserves as well as orphanages, guarantee an increase in the animal’s population.   


Alfred, R., Ahmad, A., Payne, J., Williams, C., Ambu, L., How, P., & Goossens, B. (2012). Home Range and Ranging Behaviour of Bornean Elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) Females. Plos ONE, 7(2), e31400. Retrieved from

Alfred, R., Ambu, L., Nathan, S., & Goossens, B. (2011). Current Status of Asian Elephants in Borneo. Gajah.

English, M., Gillespie, G., Ancrenaz, M., Ismail, S., Goossens, B., Nathan, S., & Linklater, W. (2014). Plant selection and avoidance by the Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) in tropical forest: does plant recovery rate after herbivory influence food choices?. Journal Of Tropical Ecology, 30(04).

Fui, D., & Bema, D. (2005). Guidelines on the Better Management Practices for the Mitigation and Management of Human-Elephant Conflict in and around Oil-Palm Plantations in Indonesia and Malaysia (1st ed.). Selangor: WWF-Malaysia. Retrieved from

Good, K. (2014). WTH? Borneo’s Endangered Pygmy Elephants are Being Poisoned by Palm Oil Producers. One Green Planet. Retrieved from

Goossens, B., Sharma, R., Othman, N., Kun-Rodrigues, C., Sakong, R., & Ancrenaz, M. et al. (2016). Habitat fragmentation and genetic diversity in natural populations of the Bornean elephant: Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation, 196.

Hance, J. (2017). World’s smallest elephants killed for ivory in Borneo. the Guardian. Retrieved from

Loong, J. M. (2015). Wildlife and Human Interaction: Creating a Mindful Link between the Visitor and Pygmy Elephant Territories. McGraw Hill.

Phillipps, Q., &Phillipps, K. (2016). Phillipps’ Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo and Their Ecology: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan. Princeton University Press.

Rautner, M., Hardiono, M., & Alfred, R. J. (2015). Borneo: Treasure island at risk : status of forest, wildlife, and related threats on the Island of Borneo. Frankfurt am Main: WWF Germany.

Sukumar, R. (2006). A brief review of the status, distribution and biology of wild Asian elephants Elephas maximus. International Zoo Yearbook, 40(1).

Sample Communication Paper on Research in Business college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Research in Business


            There are various reasons why businesses are involved in research. The major reason is to ensure that the companies are in line with the needs of the consumers, and ensure the continuity of their products or services in the future (Solaja, Idowu & James, 2016). Apple is an example of businesses that have incorporated research in their operations. Apple is a tech company whose flagship products are the iPhone, iPad, MacBook, and iOS.  The tech industry is extremely competitive, consequently forcing apple to embrace innovation (Rosoff, 2016). The marketing approach of this company targets the high-end market for its products. This segment of the market is demanding regarding quality. Hence the company has devoted vast resources research and development-wise to provide its customers with the best devices on the market.

Potential Problems that Can Be Solved by Research

            One of the challenges that Apple is facing is the struggle to maintain dominance in the high-end market of computing and hand held devices. For instance, it is facing stiff competition for mobile devices from Samsung (Heisler, 2012). Samsung .owns the Galaxy Note and Galaxy S series brands, whose ratings in the market are similar to those of iPhones and exceed the iPhone in some aspects such as the quality of their camera (Rosoff, 2016). Regarding the operating system of the handheld devices, Google’s  Android version, which has been adopted by major mobile companies and consumers is a formidable adversary. Onee of the problems facing Apple is that IOS devices are not compatible with other devices. Hence certain activities such as data sharing with other devices is constrained.. Moreover, since the company only deals with the high-end market devices, ignoring the mid-level and low-end markets its competitors venture into these markets. 

Indicators of Research within Apple Company

            The tech industry is very dynamic because of the rapid advancement in technology, and miniaturization of computing devices. There is a move from desktop applications to cloud computing, and the functionalities of hand-held devices are increasing and improving fast (Heisler, 2012). For example, the advancement of the tech field is so rapid, that a new mobile device can be rendered obsolete in less than one year. Apple has managed to set the pace for the advancement of computing technology by launching new and better versions of its flagship products every year. By doing so, the firm has created a following in the high-end market as customers are always on the lookout for new versions of their favorite products (Heisler, 2012). Releasing new and better versions of computing devices each year is not an easy undertaking. Moreover, it is an indicator that that research and development department of the company is constantly devising better ways of improving the experience of its customers.

 Use of Secondary Research

            Secondary research is reliant on data that is collected and compiled by other researchers from an entity or firm that is distinct from Apple. The company makes the best use of secondary data when researching trends in the needs of the consumers and the market because it would be expensive and time consuming for the company to conduct primary research. However, If the objectives of the company are specific, it can also contract a firm to research on its behalf. The data that is collected this way is considered to be secondary, given that the party collecting the data is external to the company that will use the data. Secondary data can be accessed for  free or bought by the company. It is advisable, however, to avoid using freely available data. This is because it is available to competitors of Apple, making it have no leverage over the competitors.

Use of Primary Research

            Primary research entails the collection of data by the firm or researcher that will utilize the data. In the context of Apple, the research done by the research and development department of the company is an example of primary research. The data best applies when carrying out research to learn how the products of the company can be improved. These improvements are usually confidential and lead to new patents for the enterprise. Hence, the designs that result from this research cannot be revealed to outsiders, as it would be a breach of patent rights. Primary research costs this company a lot, and that is why it has been involved in lengthy disputes with its major competitor, Samsung, over breaches of patent rights.

Future Possibilities of Research for Apple

 In the tech sector, there are many developments taking place. These developments include increasing computing speeds of the mobile devices, converging the virtual world with reality,  the internet of things, and, cloud computing. Additionally, they spell opportunities for Apple and other tech companies that might be interested in commercializing them (Rostek and Skala, 2014). The company is already using cloud computing to store the consumers’ apps and media. Furthermore, the company ought to explore how to implement the Internet of Things by making its iOS compatible with most of the electronic devices used by the average consumer.


Heisler, Y. (2012). How Apple conducts Market Research and keeps iOS source code locked down. Network World. Retrieved from

Rosoff, M. (2016). The key to Apple’s future is contained in this one chart. Business Insider. Retrieved from

Rostek, K., & Skala, A. (2014). Differentiating Criteria for High-Tech Companies. Management And Production Engineering Review, 5(4). Retrieved from

Solaja, M., Idowu, E., & James, E. (2016). Exploring the relationship between leadership communication style, personality trait, and organizational productivity. Serbian Journal Of Management, 11(1), 99-117.

Sample Criminal Justice Paper on Legal Rights Journal essay help from professional writers

Legal Rights Journal

A contentious issue in the education system of the United States is whether students, like adult citizens, have a right to personal privacy and free speech. For a long time, school officials have faced opposition from courts on the way minors in schools are handled. The U.S. Supreme Court came up with measures to balance the civil liberties of students and the mandate of schools to provide safe environments for students (Siegel & Welsh, 2016). From a neutral perspective, students should not expect certain privacies in the school environment. Over the years, there has been a significant rise in incidences of delinquency and indiscipline, which goes against the rules of several educational institutions. In such situations, educators can legally invade the privacy of students and legally search them, and this can only occur when there are reasonable grounds to believe that the students are in violation of school rules or laws (Siegel & Welsh, 2016). According to the U.S. Supreme Court, the violation of certain privacies of students must be reasonable, and there are set limits to how far or the extent to which student privacies can be invaded.

Similarly, students have the right to speech like other citizens, but this does not mean that they can say whatever they want in school or at school events. Students right to speech can be invoked in situations where they appear to interfere with the educational process (Siegel & Welsh, 2016). Ingraham v. Wright maintains that teachers can use corporal punishment in situations where students interfere with educational programs and processes through their speech (Wasserman, 2010). Further, American law allows schools to control both on-campus and off-campus speech in selected circumstances underscoring the fact that students cannot say whatever they want in school or at school events.


Siegel, L. J., & Welsh, B. (2016). Schools and Delinquency. Juvenile delinquency: The core. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Retrieved from

Wasserman, L. M. (2010). Corporal punishment in K-12 public school settings: Reconsideration of its constitutional dimensions thirty years after Ingraham v. Wright. Touro L. Rev., 26, 1029. Retrieved from

Sample Education Essay Paper on Strategic Planning for Educational Leadership devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

Strategic Planning for Educational Leadership


Strategic thinking describes how people think about and assess their desired future and create it for themselves and others.Strategic thinking can be used in work or personal context to guide the making of decisions by an individual (Bowman, 2016). The person that is applying strategic think has to have goals and objectives for the short term and long term. This makes it easier for them to plan their actions along the way and ensure that the desired future is achieved effectively. To become effective at strategic thinking, there is a need to develop a set of mental and cognitive skills.

Strategic thinking

            Without cultivating on these skills, it becomes very hard to plan for the future and lay out a set of actions that will be taken to achieve it (Ebersole, 2017). This is done while making allowances for unexpected contingencies along the way. Most of the persons holding managerial and executive positions in organizations and institutions are required to be very competent in strategic thinking. The same applies for persons having senior positions in the government.

A strategic thinker must have the ability to use both sides or segments of the brain. The left side of the human brain is responsible for logic while the right side enables creativity (Bowman, 2016). Combining both makes the individual capable of analyzing the situation at hand, make predictions for the future and imagine the desired future together with a gameplan of how it can be achieved (Bryson, 2017). To use both sides of the brain requires a lot of practice and confidence. It is a very valuable skill to have. A second skill that is needed in strategic thinking is the ability to have a vision that is focused (Ebersole, 2017). This applies in both personal and career or organizational vision. Having a strategic purpose and a vision purpose are qualities that complement each other in strategic thinking and increase the odds of future success.

            In addition to having a clear vision, an effective strategic thinker needs to have the ability to have well-defined objectives that are accompanied by action plans. Each of the objectives ought to be broken down into specific tasks, with the resources required for each task listed down (Bryson, 2017). A timeline for the completion of each task should also be well defined. Strategic plans do not always flow or work out as expected by the strategist. This is the reason why a strategic thinker should include some level of flexibility in their plans to cater for the possible challenges and deviations from the action plan (Ebersole, 2017). Benchmarks that are to be used in reviewing the progress of the strategic plan should also be put in place. The benchmarks are useful in recognition of opportunities that might initiate a revision of the initial plan (Bowman, 2016). This can only be possible if the strategic thinker is proactive and anticipates a change at any time in the implementation stage of the plan as opposed being reactive to changes after they have already taken place.

A high level of awareness and perceptiveness is required of the strategic thinker. They are capable of recognizing external and internal clues in their environment and use them later to recognize an opportunity that can be incorporated in the strategic plan (Bowman, 2016). They are good and attentive thinkers, listeners and readers that will use the subtle information they collect every day to come up with solutions and plans for their personal and career lives. A strategic thinker must embrace learning in his/her whole lifetime (Ebersole, 2017). This is because learning has the effect of gifting them with experiences that became handy when thinking strategic issues and plans (Bryson, 2017). Strategic thinking requires the person doing it to occasionally take some time off from their major occupations. This is usually a form of retreat or vacation, and it is on such occasions that great ideas for a strategic plan are stumbled upon.

Importance of strategic thinking

            Strategic thinking has numerous merits in personal life and business life as well. It forces an individual to make predictions of the future based on the present conditions. A strategic thinker then has the responsibility of ensuring that he/she is well prepared for that future or to make provisions that will make the later outcome favorable (Hill, 2014). Strategic thinking makes an individual or a team question the status quo and want to improve the performance of the organization or the quality of life of the members of the organization (Verghese, 2017). The curiosity that is roused by questioning makes it possible to view the available information from different perspectives. Through doing this, different approaches, possibilities, and outcomes are realized by the strategists.

            This approach to planning and making decisions enhances the leadership skills of a person. This is made possible by the coherence of communication of ideas that a strategic thinker gives to the other members of the team in an organization. The information possessed gains the strategic thinker respect among peers and subordinates, making it easier for them to trust his/her directives and execute accordingly (Hill, 2014). By so doing, the processes taking place in the organization are streamlined, improving the performance of the company later on (Johnsen, 2015). Strategic approach in making decisions by a firm boosts the confidence of the members in the leader and also gives the management boldness required to handle conflicts at the workplace in a fair manner that leaves all the involved parties satisfied with the resolution given.

            Most organizations and business tend to deal with limited resources in times of money, people and time. Strategic thinking takes this into consideration when coming up with plans for the future and gives the owner a glimpse on how the limited resources can be used to attain the objectives of the company in an efficient and effective manner (Hill, 2014). Strategic thinking reveals to the management the teams and markets that are most likely to succeed and those likely to fail with a fair degree of accuracy (Verghese, 2017). In this manner, it assists the company in avoiding costly mistakes. An example of a mistake that can be avoided by a firm is setting up of a new retail branch in a location where there is low human traffic.

Engaging in strategic thinking helps the decision makers in an organization to acknowledge that the business environment is dynamic  (Verghese, 2017). Changes are experienced all the time. Changes can be experienced in the national or local economy; the spending power of the consumers varies from time to time; and prices for inventory can rise or fall unexpectedly (Hill, 2014). These changes can represent either a threat or an opportunity to the organization. Strategic thinking makes the management prepare adequately these changes and maximises the opportunities and advantages presented by the changes.

Strategic thinkers run their organizations like a chess player. The opponent, in this case, includes the competitors and other players in the industry (Santovec, 2014). An organization that applies strategic thinking has a habit of continually comparing its strengths and weakness with those of the competitors in the field (Verghese, 2017). The outcomes of this comparison are used in the determination of the right time to turn the tides in its favor (Hill, 2014). This approach of thinking gives the management of an organization a chess mentality, which determine where, when, and how to improve products and services. It also determines the message that is sent out to the consumers and marketplace at a particular time.

The growth of a business is the best metric of indicating the progress of the organization. As such, businesses are always under great pressure to grow. The growth of an organization is often accompanied by higher revenues for the investors and success in the competition with other organizations (Verghese, 2017). Having strategic thinkings makes the management feel under pressure to evolve their practices and make the company move forward (Bianca, 2014). This leads to increased innovation in the company, regarding processes and operations (Hill, 2014). The company, thus, becomes a trend setter as opposed to a follower in the market. Once a company is identified as dynamic, it usually ends up appealing to the market more and increases its market share.

As mentioned earlier on, decision making is a key function of the management and strategic thinkers in an organization. Firms that have made strategic thinking a core component of their management philosophy often become better at strategic thinking over time (Bianca, 2014). Strategic thinkers tend to realize how making small, almost insignificant changes in their business environments results in a profound effect on their revenues (Verghese, 2017). Strategic thinking enables the management to make decisions that would have been overlooked earlier on, and in the process make the company more competitive (Hill, 2014). A strategic thinker is in a position to predict with a good degree of accuracy how the competitors are likely to react to the actions and strategies they put in place. It makes the management and leadership of an organization to start viewing it as their consumers would do, thereby making the business decisions based on what would best appeal to the clients.

Strategic thinking in an educational setting

            Education is a strategy in itself, aimed at ensuring that the population is knowledgeable enough to continue with the advancement of civilization. It is a form long term investment in the younger generation, to impart values and knowledge that will be used in the continuity of the human race (Billingham, 2012). Education ensures that mankind does not revert to primitive practices, and this is done by preserving the knowledge that has been acquired over the years (Santovec, 2014). An education system is organized in a manner that enables the products of that system to be capable of facing and resolving present challenges. It also imparts them with curiosity that makes them become innovators in various fields.

 In education strategic thinking can help improve the performance of the students and also in making materials taught in school more practical and applicable in real life. The allocation of resources in the education sector is one of the major ways in which strategic thinking is applied in planning for the future of the sector (Santovec, 2014). The application od strategic thinking in the education sector is a bit different from the business sector. The difference comes from the fact that in the business sector, the strategy is aimed at getting more customers and higher revenues (Maluma & Kovacevic, 2012). In education, the intention is to achieve all the broad goals of improving the performance of students and responding effectively to the changes in the demographic while staying within the restricted budget that is given to the schools (Cook, 2012). An educator needs to understand the differences between operating in the education sector and business, to assist in the application of targeted strategic planning.

            The application of strategic planning in the education sector began in the 1980’s, and this was done by adopting the models that were used in the private business sector. Over time, strategic planning in the education sector had evolved and diverged from the original models that were applied initially (Maluma & Kovacevic, 2012). The reason for this is to suit the needs and philosophies of the education sector, which are much different from the ones used in private businesses (Maluma & Kovacevic, 2012). Some scholars have even expressed concerns that strategic planning in the education sector is so distinct from mainstream strategic planning, that there is a need to coin a new name for it (Maluma & Kovacevic, 2012). There is an increased political aspect in the application of strategic planning in education this is done to increase the number of community stakeholders involved in education (Bryson, 2017). In the business sector, strategic planning is a boardroom activity. In the education sector, however, it is a process that involves the community.

            Unlike in the past when policies regarding the education sector were made solely by the educators, strategic planning in the present involves the participation of the parents and other members of the community as well (Sá & Tamtik, 2012). This is due to the understanding that it is possible for the educator to be out of touch with the needs of the students and community, as they might be blinded by the idealist approach to education (Billingham, 2012). Leaders in the education sector have recognized that failure to consider the needs and opinions of the community can make the strategic plan fail (Maluma & Kovacevic, 2012). They, therefore, collaborate with the community in drawing up strategic plans for the school districts. The needs of schools districts differ depending on the prevailing demographics and the resources that are available to the communities. Hence, it is not possible to use the same script when implementing strategic plans in multiple areas.

 An education leader interested in becoming successful in strategic planning needs to consider three factors and apply them in strategic planning. The fast one is to ensure that the educators, community and all interested parties reach a consensus regarding what is contained in the strategic plan (Johnsen, 2015). With this in mind, it is advisable to have a reference document at hand, which is made available to all of the stakeholders (Maluma & Kovacevic, 2012). The second important consideration is to have the community engage early in the process of coming up with a strategic plan. This is done with the aim of gauging the insights and preferences of the community in time (Sá & Tamtik, 2012). A strategic plan that is supported by the community has a higher chance of success than one having limited input from the community (Bryson, 2017). The third key consideration is to be open minded and a collaborative leader as well. A collaborative education leader gains the support of the community, and his/her suggestions are well received. Investing in community support pays exponentially at the end (Maluma & Kovacevic, 2012).

Key players in education strategic planning

            The key players in education strategic planning include the communities in the education districts, the parents, educators, and officials in the department of education. Coming up with strategic planning entails treating the views all these stakeholders with the same weight (Cook, 2012). The community is best placed identify the educational challenges facing them and make them known to education leaders. The educators are the ones acting as liaison between the community and the officials in the department of education (Maluma & Kovacevic, 2012). The parents have a direct stake in the strategic plan carried out by the educators, while the officials in the department of education are the ones that make approvals for the budget to be allocated to the education districts.


            In conclusion, strategic thinking and planning refer to the process of setting desired goals, deciding on the actions that are required to achieve them and mobilization of the resources that are needed to make those goals a reality. A strategic plan, in particular, describes how the objectives can be achieved making use of the resources available. The application of strategic planning in the education sector is different from doing the same in private businesses, as the community affected has to be included as well. The various key players in education strategic planning include the community, educators, and officials from the department of education.


Bianca, A. (2014). Why Is Strategic Thinking Important to the Success of Business?. Retrieved 23 August 2017, from

Bowman, N. (2016). 4 Ways to Improve Your Strategic Thinking Skills. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 23 August 2017, from

Bryson, J. (2017). Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Cook, S. (2012). How to Do Your Own Personal Strategic Planning. Women In Higher Education, 21(1), 29-29.

Ebersole, G. (2017). Strategic Thinking: 11 Critical Skills Needed. Retrieved 23 August 2017, from

Hill, B. (2014). Why Is Strategic Thinking Important to the Success of Business?. Retrieved 23 August 2017, from

Johnsen, Å. (2015). Strategic Management Thinking and Practice in the Public Sector: A Strategic Planning for All Seasons?. Financial Accountability & Management, 31(3), 243-268.

Maluma, M., & Kovacevic, S. (2012). Strategic Planning in Education – 3 Keys to Success. Thoughtexchange. Retrieved 23 August 2017, from

Sá, C., & Tamtik, M. (2012). Strategic planning for academic research. Higher Education Management And Policy.

Santovec, M. (2014). Achieve greater career success with strategic planning. Disability Compliance For Higher Education, 20(5), 8-8.

Verghese, T. (2017). The Importance of Strategic Thinking – Blog | Procurious. Retrieved 23 August 2017, from

Sample Tourism Book Review Paper on Principles Of Tourism Management college essay help free

Principles of tourism management by Johanna Muller

The rate of tourism has increased across different parts of the world. Therefore, the tourism industry has a significant effect on world economies. The book, Principles of Tourism Management by Johanna Muller covers the different theories and concepts that the tourism sector uses in regards to management. It covers different tourism topics such as sustainable and cultural tourism and factors (both economic and non-economic) that affect tourism. Additionally, Johanna Muller discusses the issues that surround tourism management in the book. It contains 214 pages that discuss the fundamentals of tourism management. Undoubtedly, Johanna Muller is a prolific writer with diverse knowledge and experience in the tourism sector. Moreover, she has written other books such as Tourism Management, Modern Hospitality and Tourism Management, and Corrosion Des Bronzes Cu-Sn En Milieu Sulfate. The main aim of the book in question is to use various case studies to provide readers with a worldwide view of the topic. Also, the book is an excellent source of information for academic professionals, students, and individuals who work within the industry. 

The book provides an excellent discussion of factors that affect the management of tourism such as sustainable tourism. Muller applies an interdisciplinary approach to discuss the various principles such as policies and planning[a1] . Policies refer to rules and regulations that tourism managers should oversee. In addition, planning is important in tourism because it allows managers to organize activities that will help achieve a desired goal. The book uses different case studies to engage the reader in international, national and regional factors that affect tourism[a2] . Examples of factors that affect tourism include political stability, availability of transportation and the global economy. The demand for hospitality and travel has facilitated the growth of tourism.  Some countries rely on tourism as the main source of foreign income. Therefore, efficient management of the sector is mandatory[1]. Johanna uses the book to help people understand how different economies can improve tourism outcomes.

Sustainable tourism is an example of a topic within the book that Muller describes as very important. Tourism growth involves various environmental activities that can put a strain on the natural environment. Muller agrees that the development of tourism is the primary cause of environmental degradation in most countries that support tourism[2]. Examples of environmental degradation factors include sound, noise and water pollution. Other causes of concern in regards to the environment include loss of biodiversity, deterioration of wildlife and increased collection of waste products in coastal beaches and streets. Environmental degradation affects tourism destinations[a3]  and contributes to global pollution. For example, environmental degradation leads to habitat loss and extinction of species. Johanna Muller asserts that sustainable tourism is important for the protection of the environment because tourism thrives on [a4] physical and cultural attractions. Examples of environmental protection methods that tourism managers can use include the use of energy saving bulbs in hotels, use of eco-friendly detergents, and water saving initiatives. Furthermore, tourism managers need to develop awareness programs that inform the public about the need for environmental protection[3]. The main idea is to minimize the negative impacts of tourism.

Johanna Muller uses real world examples of how different tourist companies approach the topic of tourism management[a5] . For example, Muller exaplains how the global recession in 2008 disrupted tourism activities. Students, tutors, and individuals working in the tourism sector need to read Muller’s book because of the practicability of the case studies. Also, different tourism companies can use the book to make important decisions about the need to promote tourism. Furthermore, Muller discusses the economic and non-economic factors that affect tourism. For example, the global financial crisis of 2008 reduced tourism activities. Business leaders in the tourism sector should make policies in regards to economic factors like a recession. Furthermore, Muller mentions noneconomic factors like political stability to be significant factors that affects tourism[a6] . A tourism business leader reading Muller’s book will understand the different factors that affect tourism and in turn, make important decisions related to the same to prevent losses.

The importance of marketing is another topic of importance in the book. Marketing is an integral part of tourism management because it is how tourists become aware of possible destinations[4]. However, tourism destinations should embrace proper marketing tools and channels to increase traffic. Tourism growth is, therefore, a necessary aspect of many world economies[5]. However, it is important to incorporate old and new marketing strategies to promote growth. For example, the use of the internet through social media sites has provided businesses a new avenue for marketing. Therefore, businesses in the tourism sector should remain competitive by employing new marketing techniques like the use of social media sites to promote growth.

In conclusion, Muller’s Principles of Tourism Management book is a good educational tool for students, tourism leaders, and educators. The use of innovative case studies within the text is important for giving readers an idea of how the principles apply in the real world. Therefore, Muller does a commendable job in explaining the principles of effective tourism management. All respective stakeholders in the tourism sector should read the book.


Bhatia, Arjun Kumar. Tourism development: principles and practices. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 2002.

Muller, Johanna. Principles of tourism management. Willford Pr, 2016.

Rana, Varinder Singh. Principles of hospitality and tourism management. Delhi: Diamond, 2016

[1] Bhatia, Arjun Kumar. Tourism development: principles and practices.( New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 2002): 25

[2] Muller, Johanna. Principles of tourism management. (Willford Pr, 2016):

[3] Rana, Varinder Singh. Principles of hospitality and tourism management. (Delhi: Diamond, 2016): 42

[4] Muller, Johanna. Principles of tourism management. (Willford Pr, 2016): 56

[5] Rana, Varinder Singh. Principles of hospitality and tourism management. (Delhi: Diamond, 2016): 59

 [a1]Discusses what about policies and planning? This is an incomplete idea.

 [a2]I think an example of these problems is necessary.

 [a3]How does it affect tourism? Please always  remember to justify arguments, rather than just stating points.

 [a4]This phr


 [a6]Please proofread your work, always.

Sample Nursing Essay Paper on Affordable Care Act college application essay help online


Every year, Americans suffer from chronic diseases. Apart from consequences such as premature deaths, chronic illnesses affect the economy of the U.S. negatively because they cause absenteeism from work. In the year 2010, the former president, Barrack Obama, signed a law (Affordable Care Act) that brought about reforms in the health care sector in America (KFF, 2013). The Affordable Care Act helped in strengthening primary care delivery in the nation through reimbursement rates since it utilizes innovative models of delivery. Additionally, it provided an opportunity for Americans to acquire affordable health care that helped in preventing deaths and some illnesses thus improving their lives. The Prevention and Public Health Fund is a provision under the Affordable Care Act that has helped in the prevention of several chronic diseases.

Affordable Care Act


Preventing diseases is paramount to improving the health of Americans while keeping the economy of the nation in check. The Prevention and Public Health Fund provision was initiated as a way of raising funds to help in the prevention of various chronic diseases. According to CDC, chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and cancer are the main contributors of 7 out of 10 deaths in the nation annually (CDC, 2013). Therefore, there is a need to invest and spend more on the prevention of chronic diseases. When sufficient funds are available, they facilitate a timely detection of these chronic diseases through screening thus initiating treatment at the right time. Timely treatment has been found to minimize the number of deaths resulting from the diseases. Undoubtedly, the Prevention and Public Health Fund provision offers preventive care that is more accessible and affordable to Americans through which positively affects not only health, but also the economy. 

The Bottom Line of Prevention and Public Health Fund on Consumers

The main reason for coming up with Preventive and Public Health Fund was to ensure that everyone can access a private health care plan with low-cost sharing or no cost. The government ensures that this is possible by providing the right funds needed to help in the prevention of different chronic diseases. Disease prevention is important because it helps people to live longer and cuts the costs of health care. Additionally, one of the reasons why individuals self-medicate is the high cost of accessing treatment in health centers. Self-medication is dangerous because symptoms of different diseases mimic each other; hence it is easy to misdiagnose one and allow a disease to advance. Making healthcare affordable, therefore, reduces the need to self-medicate and minimizes chances of misdiagnoses (CDC, 2013). Women are among the groups of people who have benefitted from this healthcare plan because it allows for cost-sharing at a lower rate for specific preventive services such as cholesterol screening and mammograms.

Ways in Which PPHF Makes Healthcare Accessible and Affordable

Through PPHF funding, it is easy for various public and private health care institutions that had been strained by shortage of nurses or equipments to become accessible. They can use the money allocated to them to employ more nurses and purchase the necessary equipment such as beds, which would increase the hospitals’ capacity. Consequently, this makes it easy for the health care institutions to treat their patients effectively minimizing the number of unhealthy or sickly population in the nation (Kampen et al., 2014). Moreover, the funding offered under PPHF has helped in the formation of public health programs that are aimed at reducing the major causes of disability or deaths in the U.S. The programs mainly support the early detection of life-threatening diseases and facilitate evidence-based strategies that can be used to treat or prevent them. When lives are saved through early detection, it means that the larger population will be healthy thereby affecting the economy of the nation positively (Kampen et al., 2014). At the same time, when the larger population is healthy, health care will become affordable because the demand for treatment shall have reduced.

Role of Registered Nurses

The nurses play an important role in ensuring that healthcare is not only accessible but also affordable to the entire public. When it comes to disease prevention, registered nurses can help the people to live longer, happier, and healthier by taking them through counseling. Some of the issues in which they can counsel the citizens or patients are regarding living a healthy lifestyle by avoiding smoking, eating better, minimizing their levels of alcohol intake, and avoiding depression. When specific illnesses such as heart attacks and cancer are prevented by living a healthy lifestyle, which is advocated by the registered nurses, the costs of spending on healthcare is minimized. The nurses are also involved in conducting the screening and prenatal care for pregnant women that helps in detecting any form of abnormalities or sicknesses such as high blood pressure. It is important to note that when there are fewer patients visiting health facilities, access of health care becomes easy because the nurses are not strained. As a result, they offer the best services possible.

In conclusion, the Prevention and Public Health Fund provision is an Affordable Care Act section that was established with the main intention of providing funds for treatment of patients. Through various funding sources which are used to fund health care institutions, the level of health care services offered becomes better. At the same time, the funding provides room for prevention techniques for various diseases to improve the lives of the people in the nation. PPHF as Affordable Care Act provision is crucial to sustain and improve health outcomes while ensuring that health care quality is enhanced.


CDC. (2013, June 12). Preventive health care. Retrieved from

Kampen, I., Engelfriet, P., & Baal, P. (2014). Disease prevention: Saving lives or reducing health care costs? PLos ONE 9(8), e104469. Retrieved from (2013, Apr 25). Summary of the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from

Sample Criminal Justice Paper on Forensics science my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help


Porous surfaces are places where a material absorbs latent print. An example of a porous surface is a piece of paper. Some of the chemicals that forensics science developers use to process latent fingerprints in a porous material include physical developer and ninhydrin (Houck, 2016). The chemicals work by reacting with residues in the latent print, such as inorganic salts and amino acids. The latent print becomes visible through the detection of the patterns of the amino acids in print. Furthermore, the reaction of the latent print residue with ninhydrin makes the print to turn into a purple color. Therefore, forensics examiners photograph the latent prints and try to match the prints with possible suspects. Also, forensics examiners use DFO, a chemical, to detect latent prints on porous materials. The chemical makes the fingerprints absorb light. A forensics examiner also illuminates the prints with blue-green light to get the exact match of the prints. Forensic professionals can locate the item in a crime scene at any particular location. The paper can be on a piece of a desk, on the floor or a chair (Tilstone, Savage & Clark, 2006).  

The use of ninhydrin chemical in detecting latent prints is common among forensic scientists because it is cheap, productive and efficient (Tilstone, Savage & Clark, 2006). The use of ninhydrin produces permanent documents because crime scene experts photograph the prints. The experts print the prints on paper and keep a soft copy of the pictures, where they are stored in computer systems. The use of computer systems to store soft copies of latent prints makes it easy to cross-match the prints with police records. According to Houck (2016), ninhydrin has helped crime scene experts to detect criminals. 


Houck, M. M. (2016). Forensic fingerprints. San Diego, CA : Academic Press

Tilstone, W. J., Savage, K. A., & Clark, L. A. (2006). Forensic science: An encyclopedia of history, methods, and techniques. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.

Sample Psychology Essay Paper on Explain Your Beliefs About Why Humans Are Either Attracted to or Avoid Cruelty Towards Others admission essay help

Explain Your Beliefs About Why Humans Are Either Attracted to or Avoid Cruelty Towards Others

Cruelty towards others is often frowned upon by the modern society, and the default expectation of every person is to avoid inflicting acts of cruelty on others. This, however, has not always been the case in the course of human history. This can be proved by the many wars, executions and punishments that have been inflicted by humans upon others, all this being fully endorsed by the society at the time. This can be well explained by the punishments that were inflicted by the church on persons accused of being witches or involving themselves with heresy. Despite the negative connotations that cruelty has been given in the present age, there are some people that seem drawn to it (Luna, 2017). This happens even when they are the ones on the receiving end. An explanation for this is that it makes the victims feel superior morally, as they perceive themselves as not capable of inflicting such damage to others (Luna, 2017). It makes them feel more human that the persons that are inflicting suffering on them or others and as a result, plays a part in inflating their egos. This can be one of the explanations behind the attraction of cruelty to some people.

There is a common complaint in dating circles regarding the way women are attracted and attached to men that are cruel to them. This is because women have evolved psychologically to only pine after the strongest males in the population. This was important in the past, as only the strong could protect her and her offspring and also provide for her. In the past, strength was best demonstrated in the form of aggressiveness and violence, and it seems that these are the traits that these women tend to look for before getting involved with a potential mate (Barreca, 2012). The modern workplace and society is relatively peaceful compared to the wild where early humans used to reside among other animals. There is little need for the modern man to become violent or aggressive for survival. There are very few men that have those traits, and it is unfortunate that they are the ones that get the attention of most women (Barreca, 2012). The reason why the women in abusive relationships refuse to leave their cruel partners is because at the back of their minds, they feel that it will be a downgrade from an ideal man to a lesser specimen.

Just as there are reasons why people are attracted to cruelty towards others, there are also reasons for the avoidance of cruelty. One of the main reasons why people avoid cruelty is their background (Rose, 2011). If a person was brought up in a loving home with no instances of violence, be it in the form of words or actions, then these persons tend to avoid being cruel and avoid persons that are violent as well (Rose, 2011). There are also other personalities whose avoidance or attraction to cruelty is determined by the circumstances or the environment around them. These are people with a bullying mindset. If they determine that there is no other dominant individual in the vicinity, they tend to become cruel to others. On the other hand, if they sense that they might be overpowered by their opponents, they avoid cruelty altogether.


Barreca, G. (2012). Why Do Women Fall for Cruel Men?. Psychology Today. Retrieved 7 August 2017, from

Luna, A. (2017). Why Are People Abusive, Unkind and Malicious? ⋆ LonerWolf. LonerWolf. Retrieved 7 August 2017, from

Rose, M. (2011). What Causes a Person to Be Intentionally Cruel?. LIFE AS A HUMAN. Retrieved 7 August 2017, from

Sample Nutrition Paper on Diabetes my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london


Diabetes, also known as Diabetes Mellitus, is an illness that occurs when your blood sugar level is too high. Blood sugar, or as some people call it blood glucose, is the main source of energy and comes from the food one eats ( Anstee, 2013). The pancreas in the body produces insulin hormone, which helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. The pancreas may make little or no insulin at times, or may even fail to use the insulin well, all which contributes to diabetes. Diabetes is classified as a chronic condition. This means, although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high blood sugar levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion, its action or both. General symptoms include:

FatigueNauseaDehydrationIncreased susceptibility to infectionsBlurred vision

Relationship of Nutrients to Organs in Diabetes

Generally, the food one eats is closely connected to the amount of sugar in their blood. Therefore, the right food choices help one to control their blood sugar levels. Diabetes patients are advised to work with a meal plan which tells you what kinds of food to eat during meal time and even snack time. A meal plan even tells you how much to eat.

A good diet should be low in cholesterol levels, low in salt and low in added sugar. This applies for both those diagnosed with diabetes and even those without. Recent research by doctors indicates that eating sugar does is not problematic for diabetes patients as long as it is the balanced diet. However, diabetes patients should refrain from intake of too much sugar or even adding sugar to foods as this puts their health at a risk.

For each meal that one takes, one may have two choices of carbohydrates, one choice of proteins and some amount of fat. Carbohydrates are found in dairy foods, starchy foods such as bread, and in some fruits and vegetables. These fruits should however preferably be fresh rather than canned. Carbohydrates could also be found in non-fat mayonnaise, mustard, and ketchup.

Proteins and fats are also very important in one’s diet. Proteins are found in meat, poultry, and fish. White meat is however preferred over red meat. Fats, on the other hand, are found in many dairy and meat should avoid fried foods as they contain too many fats.

Types of Diabetes and Risks Associated

The most common types of diabetes are Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes

This type of diabetes occurs when the body does not produce insulin. Although appearing at any age, it mostly occurs in children and young adults. The pancreas is destroyed by alcohol, disease or even removal by surgery, thus no production of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes require daily insulin treatment to sustain their life.

Type 2 Diabetes

In this type, the pancreas does not produce insulin nor make good use of it. It is however common in middle aged and older people after 45 years old. Control is through weight loss or oral medication.

Gestational Diabetes

This occurs among pregnant women in their second half of their pregnancy. It is however resolved upon the birth of the child. Women who have this form of diabetes are likely to develop Type 2 diabetes later in life.


Anstee, Q. M., Targher, G., & Day, C. P. (2013). Progression of NAFLD to diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease or cirrhosis. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 10(6), 330-344.

Sample History Paper on Abigail Adams essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Abigail Adams

Abigail Adams is best remembered as the closest confidant and advisor of John Adams. In many ways, she is taken as one of the founding figures of America. Although titles of Second Lady and First lady were rarely used during the early years of the 1800s, Abigail is considered as the designated holder of the above titles. As the mother of John Quincy Adams, Abigail Adams took a central role in influencing John Adam’s administration and much of Congressional decisions (Cappon 2015). Through her letters to John Adams, Abigail Adams contributed in many ways on numerous legislations, the establishment of the Constitution, and public policies that affected the common populace. For example, she is remembered as an instrumental force before, during, and after the American Revolutionary War.

Many accessed the president through her and she played a vital role in upholding her husband’s policies, political decisions, and career in general. According to Cappon (2012), she is best remembered as the first occupant of the White House when she moved into the Presidential Home (Moynagh 2016). She played a key role in designing and making the White House habitable with the East Room remaining a favorite place for her laundry. Despite her husband’s defeat in a reelection, she continued to make follow up on her son’s career in politics in addition to keeping in touch with other influential political figures such as Thomas Jefferson.

According to Moynagh (2016), important, memorable activities on women rights, slavery, and religious activities remained landmarks in her legacy. For example, she pioneered the campaign against slavery and is mostly remembered for her strong belief that slavery continued to be a threat to the democratic growth of the United States. Additionally, her religious beliefs and writings influenced many, especially her faith in the Supreme God. Far and beyond, Moynagh (2016), argues that Abigail Adams remains a feminist and strong-minded woman in both social circles and political platforms during her public life.


Cappon, L. J. (Ed.). (2012). The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams. UNC Press Books.

Moynagh, P. (2016). Abigail Adams is often held up as a feminist thinker and rightly so. Her most quoted line “Remember the Ladies” appears in a letter, dated March 31, 1776, written to her husband, John Adams, future president of the United States. But at this moment, the United States is not. Fifty-One Key Feminist Thinkers, 1.

Sample Criminal Justice Essay Paper on Military History: The influence of the Cold War and the Vietnam War on the UN Navy essay help site:edu

Military History: The influence of the Cold War and the Vietnam War on the UN Navy


The US Military history, in particular, the US Navy history is divided into two primary eras; namely, the ‘Old Navy’ spanning from 1775 to 1882 and the ‘New Navy’ spanning 1882 to present date. Nonetheless, as explained by Wilson (2013), the greatest changes in the Navy have been witnessed during the ‘New Navy’ ear. In particular, the Cold War and the Vietnam War are the two international conflicts that are responsible for the greatest changes in the US Navy. The Cold War, as well as the Vietnam War, stand as the result of conflicts concerning the ideologies between the super powers at the time; the USA and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was an avid supporter of communist leadership and showed its support through the support of North Vietnam in the Vietnam War. In contrast, the US opposed communist ideologists consequently supporting the South Vietnam regime. The consequence of these two wars saw the US Navy augment its weaponry power through advances in technology from a variety of fields of military sciences.  This article offers an in-depth comprehension of the changes in the US Navy as a result of both the Cold War and Vietnam War.

Origins of the cold war and Vietnamese war

For a long time, the perceived history between the USA and the Soviet Union has indicated significant hostility. The said history of the two countries is only partially true. By the end of World War 1 the US and Britain allied with the Soviet Union for seven months leading to the defeat of Germany.  However, even at this particular time, the Soviet Union used the communist leadership while the USA used the socialist approach. These ideologies later saw the Soviet Union withdraw from World War 1 as well as cause the Bolshevik Revolution that cost Russia greatly. According to Pillar (2016), Vladimir Lenin at some point suggested that the Soviet Union had earlier associated themselves with “hostile capitalist encirclement”. Such suspicions led to the Cold War, which as presented by Jones, et al. (2002) was a political or an ideological conflict between the USA and Russia that caused significant military tension and economic rivalry. The war also resulted in the nuclear arms race between two power nations.

From the presented information, it is clear that the Cold war is a proxy war of propaganda, coalitions, as well as espionage inherited from the First World War through to World War 2. In a similar fashion, the Vietnam War is perceived to be an effect of the Cold War. In essence, it is a conflict inherited from the Second World War, which led to many proxy wars, coalitions, propaganda, and espionage. The Cold War was based on a growing sense of fear and distrust, holding the former allies to a confrontation that neither could afford. At the same time, however, neither of the two countries could avoid the war. Bew, (2017) states that the Vietnam War was first fought between the communist North Vietnamese Army (NVA) alongside the Viet Cong (VC) fought against South Vietnam’s Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). The US involvement started mildly as it supported the AVRN. Nonetheless, in the mid-1950s, they played a direct role in the fight where they expected to use their military superiority to employ ‘their firepower to overwhelm the enemy’s will power’ (Burr, 2009). The NVA and VC, on the other hand, claimed that they had superior tactical powers and were capable of fighting an extended war, which would eventually guarantee them a win against the US.  According to Cooper (2002), during the Vietnam War, the US had the best-equipped troops, their weaponry was significantly sophisticated technology wise, as well as the fact that it had a powerful Navy that saw them ferry numerous amounts of resources to the War Zone.  

The Influence of the Vietnam War and the Cold War to the US Military

According to Jones et al. (2002), the Cold War might have been a conflict of a variety of aspects; however, it was mainly a show of military superiority in particular nuclear armament. Cooper (2002) stated that as of 1945, prior to the Cold War, the Soviets had a stronger conventional ground-based military then the US. The reason for the weaker US ground-based army was due to the fact the US withdrew most of its troops from continental Europe after the end of World War 2, unlike the Soviets who maintained their military influence; consequently, having a numerical advantage. Nonetheless, even during this time the US boasted of a better Navy that dominated both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans without contest.

During the Cold War, the status between the two nations military influence remained unchanged though technology saw the US become more of a threat as the country had developed nuclear Submarines while the Soviets had invested heavily on conventional submersible vessels. Additionally, despite the two nations’ stalemate in terms of their air force, the Navy with the use of the ‘F-4 Phantom 2, had the capacity to host a fast and nimble plane on their carrier battleships (Burgess, 2016). The Soviets Tupolev Tu-95D was never a match in ‘Dog fights’ against the US Navy equivalent.

As earlier indicated the Cold War is remembered for its Nuclear threats; however, as stated by Burgess (2016), the early nuclear weapons affected the balance of the war in a variety of ways; consequently, affecting ear tactics on both ends. During the Cold War, the US developed a number of defensive nuclear weapons that included area air defense that worked in a strategy to block the Soviets movement against the ‘Fulda Gap’. According to Wilson (2013) the Cold War warranted the US to develop mid-range missiles, ground to air A-10 planes as well as attack helicopters to counteract any soviet attacks though the Fulda Gap.  

Coming to the beginning of the Vietnam War, the US had well equipped military in terms of weapons. Bew (2017) indicates that during the Vietnam War the US employed three tactics of security, enclave plus search and destroy due to their superiority. However, the juggles of Vietnam played against their troops. The weapons though sophisticated could not deal well with the conditions at Vietnam making the US less of a super power. In addition to this, the Soviet supported NVA and VC were equipped with the famous AK-47 which best performed beyond the US M16. This force the US army change in weaponry most times using the soviet AK-47 which was later replaced by the US version of the refile.   

Influence of the Cold War and the Vietnam War on the US Navy

 As earlier mentioned in this article, the two Wars influenced the US military in terms of weapons and strategy at a significant rate; however, as a stated by Burgess (2016), the US Navy witnessed the most change in terms of technology influence. According to Jones et al., (2002) throughout the history of the US Navy there have been three major submarine wars namely the first battle of the Atlantic, the second battle of the Atlantic, and the US Navy’s (USN) ware against the Japanese. Nevertheless, Pillar, (2016) states that there greatest of all US Navy Wars never went hot as it was witnessed during the Cold War. The US employed the full potential of military science in developing the first fleet of ballistic nuclear submarines (SSBNs) bomber that the ability to launch nuclear missiles while submerged from the enemy. Additionally, here was the introduction of the ‘Hunting Submarines known as the SSNs set to destroy Soviet submarines. Finally, the Cold War saw the US develop ‘Special operation’ submarines that were used by the Navy Seals who needed to be deployed deep into enemy territory.

The Navy also saw the use of large Cruisers such as the USS Long Beach and the USS Virginal, which were new vessels in the Navy fleet.  During the Vietnam War, the Long Cruiser ships were used to both hold a significant defense on ground troop defense. Additionally they were used to ferry supplies to the troops.


The US has been embroiled in a number of wars throughout the nation’s history that have seen the country change its weapons as well as tactics. However, the greatest use of science in the battlefield was witnessed during the Cold War and the War in Vietnam War. The paper presented highlights the origins of both wars, the military status of the USA before and during the wars, how the conflicts altered they weapon and tactic of war and in particular their effects on the US Navy. 


Bew, J. (2017). Rehearsing for war. New Statesman, 146 (5363), 22.

Burgess, R. R. (2016). Books Highlight Naval Aviation, Post-Cold War Strategy.Sea Power,            59(2), 60-61.

Burr, W. (2009). “Casting a Shadow” Over Trade: The Problem of Private Claims and Blocked Assets in U. S. -China Relations, 1972–1975. Diplomatic History, 33 (2), 315-349.

Cooper, I. (2002). The Cuban Missile Crisis/The Vietnam War/The End of the Cold War…            (Book).Booklist, 99(6), 599

Jones, T. E., Toth, L., Charnizon, M., Grabarek, D., Larkins, J., & Mueller, M. (2002). The End      of the Cold War/The Causes of the Cold War (Book). School Library Journal, 48(5), 172.

Pillar, P. R. (2016). Generation War. National Interest, (144), 41.

Wilson, J. R. (2013). The challenge of a secure military cloud. Military & Aerospace            Electronics, 24(11), 20.

Sample Criminal Justice Essay Paper on Impacts of Juvenile Treatment on Recidivism college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Impacts of Juvenile Treatment on Recidivism

            Studies conducted on the impacts of juvenile treatment on recidivism have shown that various types of juvenile treatment have different impacts on the longevity of preventing recidivism. In most of the studies however, juvenile treatment has been found to reduce recidivism in all instances. Different types of juvenile treatment including institutionalized treatment, community involvement and family therapy have different impacts on the durations over which they can prevent recidivism. For instance, Roberts (2014) asserts that family treatments can reduce recidivism for up to one year post treatment. Similarly, institutionalized care and probation are also shown to have different prevention longevities, although Roberts further reports that the prevention duration is not significantly affected by the treatment type. Group treatment strategies have also been found to be effective against recidivism albeit for shorter periods, mostly within six months. While these treatment strategies have a positive impact on the reduction of recidivism, keeping juveniles out of the justice system entirely would require effective community re-entry strategies to be put in place.

Conrad et al (2014), report that female youths who have experienced sexual abuse in the past are more vulnerable recidivism. Similarly, those who have been under drug abuse are also vulnerable to recidivism due to drug related practices. Sexually abused females often experience higher levels of trauma hence are more vulnerable to drug use and abuse; they are also more likely to develop psychopathological behaviors, which increase their tendencies to re-offend.  As such, preventing such youths from recidivism not only requires that they be accepted into the society once out of the juvenile justice system but also that they be guided once out for some period of time. This is where probation comes in as a follow up strategy on youths out of the juvenile justice system.


Conrad, S.M., Placella, N., Toluo- Shamms, M., Rizzo, C.J. and Brown, L.K. (2014). Gender differences in recidivism rates for juvenile justice youths: The impact of sexual abuse. Law and Human Behavior, 38(4): 305- 314. Retrieved from

Roberts, A. (2014). The effect of juvenile offender treatment programs on recidivism: A meta- analysis of 46 studies. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy, 5(2): 421- 441. Retrieved from

Sample Education Essay Paper on Social Class And Education essay help site:edu

Social Class and Education


According to Marx, the ruling class has the power of control over the working class not with force, but using ideas. Through these ideas, it justifies its dominant position while concealing the true source of its power together with its exploitation of the subject of class. In a capitalist society, education plays the role of enhancing obedient and reproductive workforce through schools. Functionalists posit that just like other elements of the society, education plays a contributory role in maintain the common good. Education does not create or propel the creation of social classes, but helps in creating social solidarity, teaching skills necessary for the work environment, socializing individual on core values, and allocating roles based on meritocracy. This essay assesses the relationship between social class and education through an evaluation of the contribution of Marxism and functionalism in the development of an understanding of education and social class.   

Marxist View on Education and Social Class

Marxism is an ideology founded on the capitalist belief that the ruling class, who are also owners of capital, have the power to exploit the working class and this creates a social-class conflict. The effectiveness of the ruling class in controlling the subject of class is attributable to its ability to hide the source of its power from the consciousness of the subject of class (Feinberg & Soltis 2004). For Marxists, this is the false consciousness such as the role of meritocracy in education, which is used as a tool for controlling the working class. Through meritocracy, the ruling class controls the working class by developing a culture through which they accept rewards for being good and doing as they are instructed.

According to Marxists, such as Louis Althusser, in a capitalist society, the main role of education was to enhance the reproduction of an obedient and reproductive workforce through learning institutions. The school curriculum, in the view of Althusser, is used in the transmission of the ideology that capitalism is reasonable and just (Feinberg & Soltis 2004). This is because it established the development of a competitive society in which the teachers, through examination expect students to compete with others by trying to be better. Furthermore, the education system in a capitalist society trains potential workers to become submissive to authority. Other than the segregation of society into social classes, Althusser argues that in a capitalist society education is used as a tool of transmitting the ideology of capitalism with the objective of establishing social control (Feinberg & Soltis 2004). For Althusser, education is an apparatus that the state uses in passing on the ideology of the ruling class as a technique of justifying the capitalistic system.

While supporting the assertions of Althusser, Marxists such as Bowles and Gintis assert the presence of a correspondence principle in understanding the associating between the social relationships established in the classroom setting and those in workplaces. While arguing from the concept of the hidden curriculum, Bowles and Gintis assert that education is an instrument that prepares students for workplace experience (Tierney 2015). Other than the transmission of skills in mathematics and science, education also teaches students certain norms and values such as respect for authority and punctuality. This facilitates the creation of a hardworking and disciplined workforce capable of propelling the objectives of a capitalist society (Tierney 2015). From a capitalist perspective, the education process is fundamental in social reproduction because it ensures the availability of a new generation of workers, who through the system have been disciplined into accepting their role in the society.

According to Bowles and Gintis, this occurs through the school and workplace. The hierarchical structures that characterize learning institutions mirror workplaces. In these institutions, teachers have the authority of issuing orders, which students are expected to obey. Students exercise limited control in workplaces when operating according to the authority and existing school rules. This is a common occurrence in workplaces where the owners of organizations make the rules and regulation that guide the operationalization of their organizations. The workers in these organizations are expected to follow the existing guidelines, and failure to act as required may attract negative reinforcement in the form of punishments (Tierney 2015). Learning institutions reward desirable attributes such as punctuality and obedience to authority while dismissing attributes such as independent thinking, creativity, and critical awareness. For Bowles and Gintis the hidden curriculum plays an instrumental role in facilitating this process.

Social inequality through the education system is also a technique used by the ruling class to not only establish their authority but also enhance social reproduction. The establishment of a competitive environment in schools implies that those who put much more effort than others in their work deserve better rewards and top jobs in the future (Bray et al. 2007). For Bowles and Gintis, this is the myth of meritocracy in which learners are taught the belief that it is only through hard work that success in life can be realized. Additionally, in learning institutions and workplaces, individuals who demonstrate resilience and hard work in their work are provided with superior rewards. Education in a capitalist society is, therefore, a tool used for the justification of inequality (Feinberg & Soltis 2004). Furthermore, Bowles and Gintis argue that the rewards of the education and workplaces also propel inequality because they are sometimes given based on the social background of an individual. They argue that the higher the social class of an individual, the more likely that they will attain higher academic credentials and higher positions in workplaces.

For Marxist, the social class conflict created by the extension between the ruling and the working class in a capitalist society can be attributed to the divide that exists between these classes. Within the education sector, individuals originating from different social classes will be subjected to different education systems regarding quality of education. Children from the ruling class often access the best schools characterized by the availability of learning resources and highly qualified personnel. The success of these children is not based on their abilities, but on their social backgrounds (Tierney 2015). Accessing such education platforms provides them with opportunities for interacting with individuals with equal social status, and as they progress through the ladder of academic success, they secure job opportunities in highly functional and successful workplaces. Learning institutions motivate these students to embrace and secure their position in the society.

For children emanating from the ruling class, the deplorable conditions of their social life imply that they will attend low-quality learning institutions with limited academic resources and less qualified staff. The environment provides limited motivation for the students to succeed in their future lives (Bray et al. 2007). Their failure to access highly functioning institutions explaind=s why there is limited progress from the working class to the ruling class. The unavailability of resources for the working class to realize reputable academic success can be used in explaining the strategies that the ruling class uses in maintaining the status quo. The inequalities propelled by the existence of social class, especially in education, can also be understood as founded on social stratification. According to Marxists, social stratification is a major contributor to the existence of social class because it is a technique developed by the ruling class to place people into different categories based on a hierarchal system (Bray et al. 2007). For Marxists, in a capitalist society, individual born in a wealthy family have better chances of receiving a high quality education because they have the resources required for the acquisition of such services. Capitalists consider social stratification as an element of meritocracy whereby those who receive the greatest awards demonstrate hard work in their activities (Tierney 2015). However, this capitalist approach affects the ability for every member of the society to access equal opportunities in education. It impairs the ability for everyone in society because of the social stratification, which facilitates the creation of social classes, differentiates individuals according to their backgrounds hence demarcating the boundaries that limit social progress.

Functionalist Approach to Education and Social Class

Functionalists adopt the consensus approach in understanding the role of education in the society. Unlike Marxists, functionalist believed that just like other elements of the society, education plays a contributory role in maintaining the common good. According to them education does not create or propel the creation of social classes but helps in creating social solidarity, teaching skills necessary for the work environment, a socializing individual on core values, and allocating roles based on meritocracy (Feinberg & Soltis 2004). For functionalists, education is, therefore, a tool through which the society realizes unity in its operationalization.

According to Emile Durkheim, education plays the role of creating social solidarity rather than social conflict because it provides members of society with the opportunity of participating in the societal process. Durkheim views learning institutions as generating a sense of belonging and shared a sense of identity through subjects such as history. Education for Durkheim is, therefore, a tool for transmitting shared beliefs and values. Schools can be considered as miniature societies that teach students the essence of desirable attributes such cooperation, the division of labor, and specialist skills necessary for societal progress (Tierney 2015). For Durkheim, learning institutions provide students with skills that are essential in the development of a future society.

Durkheim affirms the dynamic purpose of education in equipping students with specialist skills for work. From his perspective, the role of education is to align its curriculum with advancements in the industrial economy, which requires a massive and relatively complex approach to division of labor. Through such alignments, education ensures that students specialize in different areas of work to meet the growing demand for specialized skills. At an early stage, schools introduce students to basic elements of language, arithmetic, and history. However, as they advance the curriculum is integrated for the accommodation of diverse interest of the students and the demands of the economy. Through such disintegration, it becomes possible for the education system to satisfy the demand of the society and those of individual members (Bray et al. 2007). This is critical in the realization an operational society regarding allocation and division of labor.

According to Talcott Parsons, regardless of an individual’s social class, education is a focal socialization agency in the society because they teach students on core values as secondary socialization agents. Unlike the role played by the family as the primary social agent, Parsons asserts the essence of education by arguing that schools are representative of the wider society that operates in accordance with different principles from those of the family (Tierney 2015). Through education, children learn essential values that they must adapt if they are to cope in the wider society. While in their families, parents judge their children according to particularistic standards that provide roles appliance to a specific child. Through these standards, children are allocated responsibilities according to their unique attributes and parents adopt rules that suit these attributes. However, in learning institutions, Parsons acknowledges that the same universalistic standards are used in judging children and adults (Bray et al. 2007). Education, therefore, teaches children on values that are applied equally to all members do the society irrespective of their social call and unique attributes. Education in the view of Parsons prepares children for life outside their immediate families.

Parsons further argues that education enhances meritocracy in the society considering that very member of the society is given an equal opportunity for success. The society recognizes achieved status by rewarding achievements based on ability and effort. Parson’s view is based on the understanding that the prosperity of the modern economy is dependent on human capital. Allocation of responsibilities and tasks in the society is only possible through meritocracy. Functionalists such as David and Moore support the role of meritocracy through the belief that education selects and allocates responsibilities to highly talented individuals (Tierney 2015). Through education, it is possible to sift and sort individuals according to their abilities.

The social class background in which they argue that education is a tool for the transmission of the ruling class ideology influences Marxist perception of education. This implies that in learning institutions students are puppets who are engaged d in passive acceptance of their school values. Unlike functionalists, Marxist asserts that the idea of meritocracy is a myth used by the ruling class to establish their authority over the working class.

Social Class and Education in the Contemporary American Society

The concept of social class in the contemporary American society can be recognized through the three tier structure, which delineates the upper, middle, and lower classes. Education plays a critical part in the determination of an individual’s social class. This explains why the upper class possesses substantial education backgrounds, they have high-status occupations and maintain powerful social networks. The hierarchical nature of the American social class structure classifies the upper class as constituting 3% of the American population, the middle class at 40% and the lower class at 57% (Tierney 2015). In this culture, there are individuals born and raised in their social classes, and they maintained dominant positions within these classes. For instance, the majority of the individuals in control of major family businesses, political institutions, and corporate entities have inherited these positions because of their social backgrounds. There are also individuals within the working class who emphasize on professionalism and are positioned in mid-level managerial positions. Low class is characterized by living below the poverty line (Bray et al. 2007). The social class status in the American society is not only dependent on the income level of individuals but also educational attainment and occupational prestige.

Despite the existence of social classes that characterize the American society, there are opportunities of moving from one social class to another through the education system. America is a highly individualistic society that emphasizes on elements such as meritocracy. Meritocracy achievements are rewarded based on abilities and educational attainment. An individual in the lower class can progress to the upper class by attaining higher education standards (Tierney 2015). Highly qualified individuals have the ability to navigate the social ladder through the education system especially if they specialize in disciples that are considered attractive in the American economy.

The American dream considers the class as achievement based because it is founded on meritocracy. This implies that membership to a social class is determined by career and educational accomplishments. There are critics who argue that class mobility in America is an illusion since social class is an inherited attribute. For these critics being born in a particular social class may infer certain benefits and disadvantages which increase the likelihood that an individual will remain in that specific social class. These critics are in agreement with the Marxist who asserts the role of education in maintaining the status quo that is defined by class conflicts between the ruling class and the upper class (Tierney 2015).

Despite the perceived existence of social class in the American society, critics of this attribution argue that America is characterized by stratification along a continuous gradation. This implies that America is characterized by social inequalities whereby there is member of the society who attains higher social status than others do. However, these critics acknowledge the role of education in the continuous gradation that stratifies the American society. The successful individual in the American society who progress through the continuum often attribute their success to education because, through learning institutions, they access opportunities of developing skills that make them competitive in the American market (Bray et al. 2007). A highly competitive individual attains higher stands and higher social status compared to less competitive individuals in the American society.


According to Marxists, the ruling class uses education as a tool for establishing control over the working class using ideas to justify their dominant position while concealing the true source of their power together with their exploitation of the subject class. For Marxists, this is the false consciousness such as the role of meritocracy in education, which is used as a tool for controlling the working class. Functionalists consider education as a tool that enhances the society irrespective of the social class. Through education, it is possible to establish highly competitive society characterized by specialization and division of labor.


Bray, M., Adamson, B., and Mason, M 2007, Comparative Education Research: Approaches

and Methods. Hong Kong, China: Comparative Education Research Centre, the University of Hong Kong.

Feinberg, W and Soltis, JF 2004, School and Society. New York: Teachers College Press.

Tierney, WG, 2015. Rethinking Education and Poverty. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins

University Press

Sample Business Studies Coursework Paper on Business Project Management persuasive essay help

Business Project Management

Statement of Work

Business Need

The United States army, ground forces, and special operations team use backpacks that do not have refrigeration pouches and radio modules. The lack of these essential items in the backpacks endangers the lives of the military personnel. Therefore, it is important for the army to acquire backpacks that are fitted with the above requirements. This is because refrigeration pouches, for instance, enable the army and Special Forces to preserve food and cold water during their missions. Therefore, the lack of the refrigeration pouches means that they cannot conserve food, a factor that renders them at risk of energy loss during their missions overseas. Furthermore, the lack of radio modules in their backpacks means that they cannot communicate effectively during their missions. Therefore, a section of the army might be in distress during a confrontation and would be unable to contact other teams for backup. Their lives might be at risk because of the failure of communication. It is, therefore, mandatory for the army to seek the services of a company that will develop new backpacks. Superpacks will develop a new backpack product with a built-in refrigeration pouch and radio module. The new tactical backpacks will allow the military to conduct their operations with ease during their out-of-country operations.

Product Scope Description

The new tactical backpack developed by the Superpacks Company will be specially designed to suit the needs of the army, ground forces and special operations team. The new tactical backpack will be custom designed to incorporate special equipment such as communication and radio modules, a refrigeration pouch to store food, and a special package for medical aid assistance. In regards to radio module, the backpack will have a radio compartment that will secure the PRC117F and PRC119F radio frequencies. Also, the new features that support communication will include a clear-view port, proper ventilation system, and a proper frame to ensure comfort and stability. Furthermore, the new backpack will have a refrigeration section that is wide enough to store food and water during missions. The army and special operations can refill the food at their base camps after a mission. Also, the backpack will feature a medical compartment that will be easy to access because of its related medical supplies. The new backpack will enable the army, ground forces and special operations professionals to complete missions without any setback in regards to food, water, communication or first aid kit.

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

The Superpack team will individually develop the three new features and incorporate them in one tactical bag. Afterward, the team will assess the quality of the new bag and correct any errors that might interfere with the bag’s ability to support the new features. Also, before mass production, the team will show the new bag to the army officials to seek their approval for mass production. Lastly, the team will mass produce the new bags and deliver them to the army officials, who will distribute the backpacks to the army, ground forces, and special operations personnel. The Superpack team requires the army to report about the quality of the backpacks after use in their missions. 

Sample Criminal Justice Essay Paper on Position Paper on the Topic ‘Locked Up’ scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Position Paper on the Topic ‘Locked Up’

In the thirteenth chapter, ‘Locked Up,’ the author theorizes that prisons do not fulfill their mandate, which includes contributing to the rehabilitation of individuals that might have been incarcerated for committing crimes. Based on the figures provided, it would be possible to confirm that the number of inmates has been on the rise over the years. For instance, the author provides that more than two million adults had been locked up in different prisons by the end of the year 2011. This figure shows that the number of individuals in correctional facilities has increased significantly. In this light, it would be plausible to argue that the prison system in the nation has failed to fulfill one of its primary functions, which is to rehabilitate criminals.

An opposing viewpoint to the idea that prisons do not rehabilitate inmates could be attached to the social learning theory. This theory supports the provision that learning takes place within a particular social context. In this case, an individual can learn through a particular number of forms, which are inclusive of observing the behavior of other people and judging the outcomes of these behaviors. Since most people have the ability to control their behavior through self-regulation, this opposing viewpoint indicates that the incorporation of this theory as a component of the prison system’s work release programs have supported the rehabilitation of inmates. On the same note, it would not be fair to assume that the prisons are not fulfilling their functions. Instead, other factors might come into play to explain the reason for the increase other than dismissing that prisons do not contribute to the rehabilitation of inmates.

Contrary to this idea, correctional facilities do not perform their rehabilitating functions. Reference to abolitionist literature could reiterate this position. In this regard, abolitionist literature would suggest that prisons play a key role in reproducing criminal behavior rather than rehabilitating the offenders.  Stanton Samenow reiterates this claim when he indicates that when a criminal absorbs crime, the absorption does not mean that the criminal tendency diminishes since he or she is behind bars. Instead, the inmate has to work towards ensuring that he is safe, which means that he might join gangs within the prison. The other example that could be used to indicate that prisons do not contribute to the rehabilitation of inmates is the existence of gang operations and the provision that some of the staff members might facilitate criminal activities, including the distribution of illegal drugs.

To conclude, the examples provided reveal that prisons do not perform their rehabilitative function. Some of the staff members in the various prisons participate or assist the inmates to make money by selling drugs among other contraband within the correctional facilities. This means that they are not engaging in activities that would ensure the rehabilitation of the criminals. Conversely, a criminal might choose to remain in the correctional facilities since he or she might be making more money than it would be possible to make outside the facilities. However, having taken note of the idea that prisons do not rehabilitate inmates, one of the possible recommendations would be to incorporate social learning theory as a component that could be implemented in work release programs. The implementation would possibly have a positive influence on ensuring recidivism reduces.

Sample Geography Paper on The American Dream assignment help sydney

Discussion Post

The American Dream

In the American Dream by Cisneros, a different depiction of individual and communal desires is provided. Cisneros paints the picture of a community that lives below their desires financially in spite of having loving and cooperative social relations within the family level. Esperanza for instance, can best be linked to the American dream through her desire to leave Mango Tree and to be somewhere where her dreams could be accommodated and achieved. Her thought of the American dream is that existence which utilizes her capacity, not one which cannot accommodate her capabilities. Similarly, different people have different perceptions of the American dream. While others desire the collectiveness of family and financial security, others only desire what they lack where they are. For me the American dream changes with my circumstances.  At any given time, my dream is to be more than I am. To do more with my talents and capabilities and to be recognized for them both at the family level and in other spheres of life are part of my desires for life and for the American dream in particular. Nothing would feel better than to fully accomplish one’s desires.


“Neighbors” depicts a life of persistent insecurity threats, which subject people to lives of fear. For instance, while neighbors realize that they are lonely within the confines of their home, noticing the same kinds of feelings among their neighbors is somewhat difficult due to their feelings of insecurity. The death of Chuy cannot be blamed on Aura but on the insecurity in the society. Whereas confidence of security drives others to care about the happenings in the neighborhood, insecurity causes feelings of segregation, which eliminate liability in case of any tragic issues in the neighborhood. As much as one would say Aura should have acted differently in response to her neighbor’s situation, one should also assume Aura’s position and realize that were they the ones faced with such a dilemma, they could have acted in the same way.

Sample Business Studies Essay Paper on Chinese Versus Japanese Economy essay help: essay help

Chinese versus Japanese Economy

China’s economy is one of the world’s largest economies when measured with the purchasing power parity (PPP). In fact, there are arguments that PPP is one of the main factors behind China’s big economic growth surpassing countries such as the United States.[1] However, this growth did not take place overnight because by the 17th Century, China had already demonstrated a great potential for its economic growth. The country began its economic catch-up in 1978 after the implementation of reforms. The changes have seen China lift over 800 million Chinese people out of poverty resulting in a ballooning middle class. However, the point of interest is how China managed the feat. Foremost, China adopted labor-intensive methods of production and became the world’s manufacturers, which led to an increase in the exportation of cheap goods to the world. In 2016, however, China experienced a GDP growth of 6.7% from the previous year’s 6.9%. The decline is attributed to the waning manufacturing and construction output which are the primary drivers of economic growth.[2] It was also attributed to the decline in the labor force with slightly over 12 million jobs created between 2012 and 2016.[3] Additionally, China’s total debt has increased to 237% of its GDP making it difficult to sustain the high investment. On the other hand, Japan, which is a major exporter of automobiles and electronics and importer of oil in the world, is the third largest world’s economy having been overtaken by China in 2010.[4] In the 1980’s, it experienced an economic bubble due to rising stock and real exchange prices.[5]  However, the situation was salvaged when the Tokyo Stock Exchange collapsed in 1992 leading to a hike in the real estate business. Japan has experienced an almost constant growth of 1.5% which is quite low for a developed country. While deflation continues to be a challenge for Japan’s economy, the Bank of Japan has enhanced its monetary policy making it more flexible and sustainable.[6] China is likely to follow the growth-bubble-burst inflation, experienced by Japan.

China has experienced a rapid economic growth over the decades to become one of the superpower nations. Virtually, everything in contemporary China has changed fast and quickly that it is like ancient and contemporary China are two different places.[7] However, it may follow in the footsteps of Japan because of several reasons. To begin with, China is still a developing country because as at 2010, the world-bank estimated that 360 million people in China lived on less than $3.10 a day which is too little for such a huge number of people. Additionally, regional disparities in China are a harsh reality, and therefore, the economy of China on its own cannot be sustained by the locals only. However, China continues to export its electronics, machinery and even garments to other countries, which brings attention to the question of where China sources the money to support its economy and ensure a continuous production. China is on a borrowing spree, which is worrisome because its national debt has risen to 250% of the GDP making hard sustained investment pretty hard. The country is likely to move from a growth stage to a bubble considering excessive loans triggered Japan’s economic bubble in the 80’s.[8]. The country managed to gain a competitive advantage over the Western nations as it could manufacture almost similar goods but sell them at lower prices. The Bank took increasing risks as it borrowed funds which were then invested in numerous buyouts in the U.S. China is currently showing the same confidence. It has even surpassed Japan to become the second-best economy in the world, yet its national debt continues to rise. Currently, China provides 40% of its annual growth and supplies 20% of the U.S imports which was the same percentage in the mid 80’s when Japan’s economy crashed.[9]

The other proof that a bubble is looming in China is the extent of similarities between the two countries more so in the production line and the decisions that led to the crisis in Japan in the 80’s with critics attributing Japan’s crisis to restructuring of institutions contrary to institutionalist expectations.[10] Foremost, industrialization in both China and Japan majorly came about due to the manufacturing and assembling of machine parts and electronics. Additionally, in the mid 80’s, Japan was an economic bubble while stocks and real estate suffered inflation at the same time.[11] People became wealthy homeowners, and the cost of living in the city skyrocketed. Similarly, Presently in China, the middle class have become very wealthy. The cost of an apartment in Beijing city is 50 times the average annual income of the residents. Surprisingly, the city is flooded despite the high cost of living, which points to the fact that China has so much liquid money in its economy. Moreover, the socio, political and financial euphoria experienced in the 80’s by the Japanese is currently being experienced in China. The Chinese, presently, have a financial freedom and are touring the world like never before. For instance, in 2016 alone, 122 million tourists from China toured the world while in 1989; 9.66 million tourists from Japan explored the world. China’s economy is also experiencing gradual integration into the global economy, what is attributed to the country’s systemic change towards the market system and the focus on export-led growth.[12]

China’s trade surplus created a conflict during the 2008 Global Financial Crisis. The country’s surplus had peaked to $350 billion which meant that China’s exports were minimizing the market for other countries. As a result, China was partly blamed for the crisis, and this points to the fact that its local economy on its own cannot result in a favorable GDP as the country’s wealth is not evenly spread out. Therefore, China was maximizing its returns by supplying surplus goods to the world. Hence the trade imbalance resulted in a peak in global unemployment rates. Similarly, Japan received a backlash in the 80’s when its surplus peaked to $83 billion. Shortly after that, Japan’s economy burst.

It is quite evident that China is experiencing an economic bubble. However, the problem is that bubbles create an optimism that breaks all limits. Investors want to participate ignoring the risk of the bubble bursting soon. If the bubble bursts, it may result in serious global implications. The main problem is that China’s economy did not grow gradually like that of USA but instead suddenly peaked due to increased exports. As a result, the country neglected the domestic demand that has its fair share of importance. Statistics show that China’s GDP growth rate has continuously declined from 2012 to 2016. In 2012, the country’s GDP was 7.9%, it then decreased to 7.8%, 7.3%, 6.9%, and by 2016 it had reduced to 6.7%. The consistent decrease is a sure indicator that an economic problem is looming.[13] The economic slowdown in China is quite noticeable because some sectors like mining and manufacturing are already showing signs of collapsing.[14] Additionally, factories are struggling while many that are owned by the state are manufacturing goods that no one is buying, which can largely be blamed on the fact that China has neglected the domestic market.

The other reason that confirms that an economic bubble burst is approaching is that China adopted the same policy that Japan used in the 1980’s to generate rapid development. Therefore, the country is repeating the same mistakes Japan made in the 80s. China has recently enjoyed a remarkable economic growth phase; unfortunately, the same policies are now likely to drive it into deflation or even economic stagnation. Furthermore, the worst scenario may happen in China because of its poor infrastructural development and a vast population of poor people. Wasteful investments are being undertaken by many people who eventually are going to send the country to its knees. The country is nurturing targeted industries and promoting exports in a bid to generate rapid growth. The result is excessive cement factories and steel plants that are keeping growth engines spinning. Additionally, property prices are rising rapidly such that there has been an intervention to control them. Soon the Bank of China may have to intervene by tightening the lending policies as it happened in Japan, and this decision may plunge China into an economic bubble burst and an ultimate economic limbo. Economic bursts usually occur when a country has too much money in the economy due to lenient lending rates and poor spending habits. At the time that Japan was falling into an economic bubble burst, the country had lending rates of almost zero percent.[15] A burst of China’s economic bubble will send a massive deflation shock to the entire world, and therefore, the reason an immediate check should be placed.

Japan is still grappling with an economic deflation several decades later. Even after recovering from the economic burst and implementing the yield control curve, Japan has only succeeded to control volatility in yields. Currently, the leverage in China is worse than Japan in the 1980’s. Hence, China needs to set on a path to financial recovery before it triggers a Global Crisis. An example of how worse the situation can be is that in 2016 while China’s economy was booming on borrowed money, the commodity prices all over the world was rising. Credit conditions have started tightening in China, and the result is a decrease in the prices of ore. Should China reduce the demand for crude oil, then the result will be a decline in oil prices. These few examples show how much influence China’s economy and purchasing power has the whole world. Consequently, the Chinese government should embark on a journey of reducing bank lending. Practical measures should be put in place. The longer China delays dealing with its excessive lending, the worse the scale of the problem will be.

Some economists are, however, not convinced that China is headed to an economic growth-bubble-burst-deflation. There have been arguments that Japan’s downfall happened when the country got into the Plaza Accord agreement in New York that would see the dollar depreciate. The risk was too great for the country that had just recently been an economic superpower to handle. The Japanese Yen indeed strengthened against the dollar three years later. However, China has always avoided risks that are too critical. For instance, its reluctance to take risks was seen in 2015 when the country salvaged the situation to rescue the stock market. Second, some economists argue that China has already overcome most of the pitfalls that led to the collapse of the Japanese economy in the 1980’s. Andy Rothman, an investment analyst, argues that many differences exist between Japan in 1980 and China presently. Additionally, some have argued that the mistakes Japan made in the 80’s were grave and they have served as lessons for China and other countries; hence China will not meet Japan’s fate. Moreover, it has been argued that China has sufficient engines that it can use to rebound from the great crash unlike Japan thus the move to a consumption-driven model from an export-driven model.[16] From a personal viewpoint, these opinions may be unacceptable because the first mistake China made was adopting the same policies that had led to the collapse of the Japanese economy. Hence, it is inevitable that it will face the challenges faced by Japan since it has implemented  the erroneous policies of Japan.

To sum up, an economy is held together by its policies and financial decisions. Continued lending by banks in China is going to send the country and the world into an economic crisis. The country is reading from the script that brought down Japan’s economy 30 years ago. The government is experiencing faster debt-growth and rapid asset appreciation. The increased prices in Beijing are a great pointer. The biggest problem is that the government has refused to acknowledge that an economic crisis is at hand. In essence, its leaders are content and is the reason why at the recent World Economic Forum, the Chinese premier told leaders that the reforms were working for them. China also has anti-monopoly laws that have hindered government protection of businesses. It is quite possible that an economic crisis is about to hit China and the world unless immediate measures are implemented.


Baig, Mr Taimur. Understanding the costs of deflation in the Japanese context. No. 3-215. International Monetary Fund, 2003.

Breslin, Shaun. How China Changed the Global Economy and the Global Economy Changed China: Thirty Years of Investment and Trade. unpublished working paper, University of Warwick, 2008. Retrieved from

Hamada, Kōichi, Anil K. Kashyap, and David E. Weinstein, eds. Japan’s bubble, deflation, and long-term stagnation. MIT Press, 2011.

Kwon, Hyeong-ki. “Japanese Employment Relations in Transition.” Economic and Industrial Democracy 25, no. 3 (2004): 325-345. Retrieved from

Lin, Justin Yifu. “China’s economic development and cultural renaissance in the multipolar growth world of the twenty-first century.” China Economic Journal 6, no. 1 (2013): 1-11. Retrieved from

Lin, Justin Yifu. Lessons of China’s transition from a planned economy to a market economy. Leon Koźmiński Academy of Entrepreneurship and Management, 2004. Retrieved from

Lin, Justin Yifu. New Paradigm for Interpreting the Chinese Economy: Theories, Challenges, and Opportunities. Vol. 7. World Scientific, 2014.

Scissors, Derek. “The United States vs. China—Which Economy Is Bigger, Which Is Better.” Backgrounder 2547 (2011): 1-10. Retrieved from

Wang, Gungwu, and Yongnian Zheng. China: Development and Governance., (2013). Retrieved from

Wilson, Dominic, and Roopa Purushothaman. Dreaming with BRICs: The path to 2050. Vol. 99. New York, NY: Goldman, Sachs & Company, 2003. Retrieved from

[1] Scissors, Derek. “The United States vs. China—Which Economy Is Bigger, Which Is Better.” Backgrounder 2547 (2011): 1-10.

[2] Baig, Mr. Taimur. Understanding the costs of deflation in the Japanese context. No. 3-215. International Monetary Fund, 2003.

[3] Wang, Gungwu, and Yongnian Zheng. China: Development and Governance., (2013).

[4] Wilson, Dominic, and Roopa Purushothaman. Dreaming with BRICs: The path to 2050. Vol. 99. New York, NY: Goldman, Sachs & Company, 2003.

[5] Baig, Mr. Taimur 26

[6] Baig, Mr. Taimur. 27

[7] Breslin, Shaun. How China Changed the Global Economy and the Global Economy Changed China: Thirty Years of Investment and Trade. unpublished working paper, University of Warwick, 2008.

[8] Lin, Justin Yifu. New Paradigm for Interpreting the Chinese Economy: Theories, Challenges, and Opportunities. Vol. 7. World Scientific, 2014.

[9] Lin, Justin Yifu 17

[10] Kwon, Hyeong-ki. “Japanese Employment Relations in Transition.” Economic and Industrial Democracy 25, no. 3 (2004): 325-345.

[11] Baig, Mr. Taimur 23

[12] Lin, Justin Yifu. Lessons of China’s transition from a planned economy to a market economy. Leon Koźmiński Academy of Entrepreneurship and Management, 2004.

[13] Lin, Justin Yifu 32

[14] Lin, Justin Yifu. “China’s economic development and cultural renaissance in the multipolar growth world of the twenty-first century.” China Economic Journal 6, no. 1 (2013): 1-11.

[15] Hamada, Kōichi, Anil K. Kashyap, and David E. Weinstein, eds. Japan’s bubble, deflation, and long-term stagnation. MIT Press, 2011.

[16] Lin, Justin Yifu 43

Sample Music Essay Paper on Diversity And Historical Issues Related To Jazz global history essay help: global history essay help

Life and Career of Louis Armstrong

Born on 4th August 1901, in the USA and Nicknamed Pops, Satch or Satchmo, Louis Daniel Armstrong, was a man of many talents. He was an occasional actor, composer and a trumpeter renowned for his Jazz prowess. Armstrong had a troubled childhood having been disowned by his father, William Armstrong, a factory worker.[1] He was brought up by his mother Mary Armstrong and his maternal grandmother. At age eleven, Armstrong dropped out of school. This was to later land him in informal groups. On new years’ eve on December 31, 1912, he fired a gun and was sent to reform school. While in the reform school, his musical skills were discovered. He was a member of the school band and played the cornet and bugle. His contribution and enthusiasm for music and musical instruments were qualities that made him appointed the school band leader. He was released from the reform school on June 16, 1914. He then started to  rely on manual labor to establish a career in music. Armstrong joined the cornetist Joe Oliver in the kid Ory Band whom he later replaced in 1918. This was after Oliver’s relocation to Chicago.

 In the spring of 1919, Armstrong joined the Fate Marable band until the fall of 1921. His Five-decade career started in the 1920s all through to the 60s. His skills in trumpet playing blended well with his stage presence and was regarded as one of the pioneers of popular music. His skills in music were evident in his skills at scat singing. These skills enabled him to overcome the racial barriers at a time when America was racially divided. This was because Armstrong was well accepted by the upper echelons of the society owing to his personality and artistry. He rarely politicized his race much to the dismay of his fellow African-American community.

In 1923, Armstrong made his first record as a member of Oliver’s band. Under the persuasion of his wife, Lillian Harden, (married in 1924) a pianist in the Oliver band, he left the Oliver band and joined Fletcher Henderson’s band in New York. In 1925, Armstrong returned to Chicago and joined the Dreamland Syncopators band which his wife was also a member. This saw him switch from cornet to trumpet.[2] His contribution in music had gained him sufficient notice among music recorders. On November 12th, 1925, he got contracted to Okeh records. This was where he made his debut recordings. He made a series of recordings with studio groups. These included the Hot Fives or the Hot Sevens. Recording of Muskrat Ramble by the Hot Fives gave him a top ten hit in July 1926. During his time with the Hot fives, he managed to transform Jazz into a soloist art and made more than 60 records.

Perception of race in the U.S.

Louis Armstrong was a silent fighter for civil rights. He integrated the Blacks and whites silently through his music. His music was enjoyed by Blacks and Whites alike. Together with “King” Oliver, they popularized Jazz which used to be predominantly played in nightclubs only frequented by the blacks. [3]His silent revolutionary tactics were often criticized at a time when the Black community was actively agitating for equal rights. His cancellation of a goodwill tour to the Soviet Union after the Little Rock Central High School crisis was remarkable. He never wavered to pressure for him to change his looks. During his tours, he insisted on being booked in luxury hotels where Blacks were excluded. His personality enabled him to create a good relationship with the public and the government alike.

Events and personalities involved in the progress achieved in breaking the color barrier in jazz in the 1930s.

The 1930s was a difficult period; the great depression had befallen the United States with over 25% of the population without jobs. With many businesses closing shop, Jazz music was resilient. The community embraced Jazz and it played a key unifying factor among the races. The spread of Jazz in the 1930s following the invention of the radio and popular Jazz periodicals like the Downbeat heightened competition between blacks and whites.  The repeal of the prohibition of alcohol in 1933 helped to spread the sounds of swing. Legitimization of speakeasies following the repeal of alcohol enhanced the spread of Jazz to large audiences through radio waves.

 A notable personality who was involved in breaking the race is John Hammond. He was an advocate of racial equality who believed that it was only through unity that the Blacks and Whites can prosper. He demonstrated this when he hired a black pianist, Teddy Wilson to perform with Benny Goodman’s band. He highly criticized Duke Ellington who played at the Cotton club, whites only. Jazz made people to question racial barriers in the society and consider the need for integration. Benny Goodman, with a large radio following, hired Fletcher Henderson with whom he had purchased 36 arrangements from in 1934. Goodman won the American public with a taste of real Black music. He helped legitimize real Jazz and in the process made a mark for racial tolerance.

Effects of Jazz on race relations

Jazz was a unifying social force for blacks and whites at a time when the two communities lived like two separate nations within the United States.[4] The genre provided a rare avenue through which a majority of young white Americans discovered the rich black culture. Jazz musicians played a vital role in bridging the gap in racial discrimination. Teddy Williamson and Lionel Hampton broke the color barrier when the two worked for Benny Goodman. The New Orleans Rhythm Kings, led by Paul Meres who was trained by “King” Oliver. Though members of this band were predominantly white, they recognized Jazz music and by so doing, embraced the African culture. Music was one way through which the black community overcame white dominance. Jazz music made an impact on the young generation of the Swing era, College and high school students embraced the new genre. [5]James Lunceford played a significant role to bring together high school music students. Blacks and whites were represented and produced a true collaboration of the Blacks and Whites. Jazz music had an appeal to both the whites and the blacks, providing a culture where the individual and the collective became inextricable. Jazz provided a space where a person’s ability was judged individually and not by race. [6]Billy Holiday delivered her song “Strange fruit” inspired by the lynching of two blacks; Thomas Ship and Abram Smith in 1930. The hit became an anthem of early civil rights crusade. Jazz music played a significant role to bring together the Blacks and Whites at a time when the American society was experiencing hard times.


Morgenstern, Dan. The Jazz Story. [New York]: [New York Jazz Museum], 1973.

Monson, Ingrid T. Freedom Sounds. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

A History Of Jazz. Ware, Hertfordshire: Jade Books, 1983.

[1] Dan Morgenstern, The Jazz Story ([New York]: [New York Jazz Museum], 1973).

[2] A History Of Jazz (Ware, Hertfordshire: Jade Books, 1983).

[3] Ingrid T Monson, Freedom Sounds (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).

[4] A History Of Jazz (Ware, Hertfordshire: Jade Books, 1983).

[5]A History Of Jazz (Ware, Hertfordshire: Jade Books, 1983).

[6] Dan Morgenstern, The Jazz Story ([New York]: [New York Jazz Museum], 1973).

Sample Music Essay Paper on Louis Armstrong: A Jazz Maestro And Legend essay help cheap

Louis Armstrong

            Louis Armstrong is one of the most important figures in the checkered history of jazz. His mastery of the trumpet and cornet was awe-inspiring. His mastery of the instruments and the trademark coarse voice with which he belted out the scat lyrics during performances endeared him to many jazz fans across the racial divide. It was a rare feat for a young African American musician. More impressive was the fact he rose to prominence and acted as a unifying figure at a time when the United States was divided along racial lines. For jazz lovers, he symbolized the face of the genre of music. He improvised jazz and introduced it to international audiences with performances in several continents he toured. His music exploits earned him a celebrity status and a good relationship with government.   

Stylistically Improvising Jazz                            

            Louis Armstrong established himself from an early age as a virtuosic jazz performer. His reputation as a revered cornet player was established from an early age. He fell in love with the instrument as a seven-year old after a Jewish family he was working for as a casual laborer gifted him the wind instrument. Armstrong’s vocal interpretation is accredited with the coarse vocals that jazz lovers became accustomed to during his era. To further distinguish himself from the crowded field of established and aspiring jazz musicians, Armstrong introduced scant vocalization. It marked a significant deviation from the jazz music being performed at the time. His improvisation was characterized by nonsensical and almost playful lyrics. Moreover, his lyrics had a conversational tinge that made his performances more gripping[1].

            Armstrong was a role model for many aspiring jazz musicians due to his ability to stamp his charming personality on stage. His performances were marked by a virtuosic feel that was new to jazz. He was dramatic and expressive and approached his soloist performances with a legato rhythm instead of a staccato that many jazz soloists were accustomed to. He is credited with introducing blues and the swing to jazz performances. These were improvisations that saw his star rise meteorically from an early age. By 24 years, Louis Armstrong had carved out a name for himself as a celebrated jazz musician. Many tried to copy his style while many such as Frank Sinatra and Bing Crosby drew inspiration from him and later became influential jazz activists. He transformed jazz into a commercial art that artists like him could live off. But most importantly, his dedication to jazz saw him become an internationally recognized artist. He not only toured Europe; he visited other continents such as Africa where he performed alongside established and budding jazz artists including Victor Olaiya from Nigeria[2].          

Recordings and Bands

            Throughout his long career, Louis Armstrong performed alongside some of the best jazz musicians in the United States and abroad. After being released from Colored Waifs’ Home where he had been placed for a year following a gun incident, Armstrong had the privilege of being mentored by the legendary Joe Oliver. The budding jazz musician performed alongside the maestro in New Orleans. Together with other musicians such as Kid Ory, Fate Marable, Buddie Petit and Bunk Johnson, they performed along Mississippi River in boat bands[3]. He performed in Chicago with Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band for two years before moving to New York in 1924[4].

            His move to New York was a career turning point for Louis Armstrong as he mastered the art of playing the trumpet and trombone. He played alongside the great Fletcher Henderson and his Fletcher Henderson Orchestra, which was a top African-American band[5]. Throughout his career, the man fondly nicknamed ‘Satchmo’ and ‘Pops’ by his peers, played in several bands including Louis Armstrong and His All Stars and Louis Armstrong and His Hot Seven. His husky and mellow voice and his mastery of the trumpet were also enjoyed by revelers in Australia, Europe and Africa. Additionally, he performed alongside several artists including Jack Teagarden and Suzy Delair during jazz festivals and concerts in several U.S. cities.

            Armstrong released several original and critically acclaimed tracks. In 1979, “West End Blues” was honored with a Grammy Hall of Fame induction. The song was composed by Joe Oliver and recorded by Armstrong at Okeh Records in 1928. Despite the changing jazz scene in the U.S. due to the emergence of a young generation of jazz musicians, Armstrong recorded “Hello Dolly!” in 1964. The song became a big hit topped music charts for over seven months. His tracks covered a wide variety of topics including race and trouble with the police.               

Ambassadorial Duties and Race Relations

            Despite criticism from some African Americans for his silence on the heightening race issues in the country, Louis Armstrong talked the topic when he felt it mattered. His popularity across the country among whites and African Americans saw him appointed as the unofficial goodwill ambassador for the U.S. government. His prolonged silence on racial segregation however earned him the black-on-black racial moniker, Uncle Tom. His free mingling the whites, demeanor and polished dress code were perceived by some as bending to whims of the oppressors of his kind[6]. Armstrong was a likeable character but that did not stop him from being targeted racially. He was even a victim of a failed bomb attack in while performing at Chilhowee Park in Knoxville in 1957[7].     

            Louis Armstrong rarely complained publicly by the country’s racial situation. Therefore, when he canceled his planned tour of the Soviet Union to protest the mistreatment of African Americans during the climax of Civil Rights Movement to end racial segregation, his voice was heard. President Eisenhower yielded to the growing call for desegregation of schools. He was briefly watched by federal security agencies for his strong stand against racism especially after he declined to visit America’s fiercest rival at the height of the Cold War[8]. However, he was a true patriot who carefully picked his moments carefully.         

            In conclusion, Louis Armstrong is a classic example of a true art legend. He is a man who followed his passion and ended up influencing a whole generation of Americans and revolutionized a music genre. Armed with a trumpet in his hand and husky voice, Armstrong gallantly stamped his identity throughout jazz. He improvised the genre of music with unique and dramatic approach to soloist performance. He globalized jazz through his tours to several continents. He holds the enviable title of being the first African American entertainer to trample racial lines at a time when the United States was reeling from deep racial divisions. While he remained true to his profession as an entertainer, Louis Armstrong added his voice to the Civil Rights Movement sweeping across the country.   


Gioia, Ted. The History of Jazz. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Hersch, Charles. “Poisoning Their Coffee: Louis Armstrong and Civil Rights.” JSTOR 34, no.3 (2002): 371-92.

Schwartz, Ben. What Louis Armstrong Really Thinks. The New Yorker, February 25, 2014.

Yanow, Scott. “Louis Armstrong… and All That Jazz.” Biography, Jul 5, 2016.  


Hersch, Charles. “Poisoning Their Coffee: Louis Armstrong and Civil Rights.” JSTOR 34, no.3 (2002): 371-92.

Schwartz, Ben. “What Louis Armstrong Really Thinks.” New Yorker. Last Modified February 25, 2014.

Yanow, Scott. “Louis Armstrong and All that Jazz.” Biography  Last Modified  July 6, 2016.

[1]   Scott Yanow, “Louis Armstrong and All that Jazz,” Biography,  July  6, 2016.

[2] Scott Yanow, “Louis Armstrong and All that Jazz,” Biography, July 6, 2016.

[3] Ted Gioia. The History of Jazz (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 47 – 55.[6] Charles Hersch, “Poisoning Their Coffee: Louis Armstrong and Civil Rights,” JSTOR 34, no.3 (2002): 371-92.

[7] Ben Schwartz, “What Louis Armstrong Really Thinks,” New Yorker, February 25

[8] Ben Schwartz, “What Louis Armstrong Really Thinks,” New Yorker, February 25

Sample Aviation Essay Paper on Canadian Aviation Laws, Prohibitions and Penalties argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Canadian Aviation Laws, Prohibitions, and Penalties

Canada, like any other country, has laws that regulate the possession and operation of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The laws that regulate aviation are referred to as the Aeronautics Act (Dodek, 2013). The regulations of UAV’s falls under the federal government and are regulated by the Canadian Air Authorities. It is mandatory for a UAV operator to have the special flights operation certificates that define the weight of drone and its use, whether recreational or non-recreational

The actions prohibited include the dangerous operation of aircraft and endangering the safety of other aircraft (Bartsch, 2012). In this case, penalties could be monetary fines, jail term, and imprisonment. Secondly, the private use of jamming equipment to disrupt drones is illegal in Canada. (Bartsch, 2012) The usage of drones should be limited to an accountability structure that ensures that they do not infringe on people’s privacy. The penalty is a fine of Can $5000 for individuals and $Can 25000 for Corporations (Dodek, 2013). Any individual found to operate a UAV in a reckless or negligent manner is also subject to the above-quoted fines. The other prohibition is operating a UAV in an airspace that has been restricted like over a forest fire or too close to a built-up area. This is punishable under the Aviation Act (Dodek, 2013).  

Operation and control of a UAV through a monitor or smartphone is prohibited (Yechout, 2003). Instead, the drones should always be controlled by a human operator every time. The penalty for this falls under the Aeronautics Act and is punishable by fines up to can$15000 for corporations. Finally, operating a drone during the night or in a bad weather is punishable by a fine of Can$5000 for individuals or more for an organization as it portrays negligence (Dodek, 2013).  

In conclusion, Transport Canada has put in place measures that will ensure safety when operating UAV. The pilots that operate the UAV will be considered as ‘pilots’ under the Aeronautics Act. Transport Canada has also put into place new regulations that will do away with the present distinction between recreational and non-recreational use based on weights of the unmanned air vehicles.


Bartsch, R. I. C. (2012). International aviation law: A practical guide. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Pub.

Dodek, A. (2013). The Canadian Constitution. Toronto: Dundurn.

Yechout, T. R., & Morris, S. L. (2003). Introduction to aircraft flight mechanics: Performance, static stability, dynamic stability, and classical feedback control. Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Sample Business Studies Research Paper on Skype essay help fairfax


            The past few years have seen an explosion in communication technology hinged on invention and innovation. Perhaps one of the most important of the invention is the Internet and the launch of the World Wide Web at the turn of the century.  With computers being able to communicate with one another and the masses able to access online pages and websites from the different web browsers available, the Internet and World Wide Web have ideally become the most important platforms for human communication. Perhaps of most importance has been the enablement for innovation that has come with the availability of the Internet for the masses, particularly in relation to communication.  Email and instant messengers such as AIM, Yahoo Messenger and Windows Live Messenger (initially MSN Messenger) were just among the first communication tools to get to the masses over the internet. Largely, these communication tools allowed users to send text and images, as well as attach files (email) in communication with other users. Aside from instant messaging and email, voice and video calls have increasingly become popular since the establishment of the Internet. One of the most important inventions in voice and video calling over the Internet is Skype, whose launch brought a great change in online communication (Fell, 2011). With users able to call other users (friends and relatives) over the Internet for free or at cheaper rates, Skype has indeed changed the lives of many, greatly narrowing the distance between people, while at the same time saving on the cost of communication in comparison with traditional voice calls.


            Launched in 2003, Skype is a service that allows its registered users to call one another for free over the internet, with an option of paying for its premium service, which allows the users to call landlines and mobile phones (Keane, 2010). The service allows users to send text messages as well as video messages in addition to allowing the exchange of digital documents. Perhaps the most distinctive of Skype’s services is the video call and video conference calls. The video call feature allows users to make video calls to one another through computers and cellphones, with the option of adding other users to the call for a video conference call. The video conference call feature allows the creation of a group, and up to 25 people to participate in the video conference call at a time (Skype, 2017). Moreover, within the group feature is the option to have group chats, which ideally allows users to participate in online text chatting instead of the video conference call.

Skype uses voice-over-Internet protocol, a technology that allows users to make telephone calls over the Internet. Essentially, voice-over-Internet protocol (VoIP) employs a technology that changes the analog voice signals into digital data packets sending them over the Internet network (Arora, 2000; Desantis, 2008). Arora (2000) informs of VoIP “VOIP can be achieved on any data network that uses IP, like Internet, Intranets and Local Area Networks (LAN). Here the voice signal is digitized, compressed and converted to IP packets and then transmitted over the IP network. Signaling protocols are used to set up and tear down calls, carry information required to locate users and negotiate capabilities” (p. 2). While the technology relies on the Internet protocol and VoIP service providers such as Skype to provide the connection, interconnected services are much more intricate. According to Desantis (2008), interconnected VoIP services allow users to make and receive calls to and from traditional landline and mobile numbers, but for a service fee. Skype has such a feature, but users need to have Skype Credit or a subscription to make such calls (Skype, 2017).


To facilitate calling, Skype uses peer-to-peer sharing software, which users download and install on their computers. Through the technology, Skype can have as many users as possible using the service for free, and allowing the network to be more stable and reliable (Aamoth, 2011). Furthermore, with the peer-to-peer service, Skype could essentially allow its users to use the service for free, making calls to each other across the world. The clarity, speed and stability of the service’s network rely on the number of people using the network, and the more reason the service has continued to be popular (Aamoth, 2011). 

Skype’s underlying peer-to-peer network originates from Kazaa, a peer-to-peer file-sharing program launched in the early 2000s. At its launch, Kazaa enabled sharing of different files among its users including music, video and programs, a fact that made the program very popular (Aamoth, 2011). The working of the software and the file sharing feature is that it provides a connection across everyone on the network. Additionally, the network is in such a way that there is no central server holding all the files. Thus, the more people there are on the network, the faster the network in sending files back and forth. Additionally, the more the number of people on with the specific file, the faster it is to download the specific file (Aamoth, 2011).

In its rudimentary stages, Kazaa was a backend music-sharing software built by Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu and Jaan Tallinn, all from Estonia. Niklas Zennstrom from Sweden and Janus Friis from Denmark then further developed Kazaa, later selling it Sharman Networks (Aamoth, 2011). The idea and technology used in Kazaa, however, stuck with the two (Niklas Zennstrom and Janus Friis), and they used the idea to build Skype. In the new technology, the two used the peer-to-peer file sharing feature to bundle voice over the internet as a calling feature. The service then gained popularity since it allowed people from remote areas to make free, clear calls from and to other remote areas over the internet. 

At the onset, Skype allowed people to make voice and video calls over the internet through their computers. All the users needed were a headset for the earpiece and microphone, and one would then make the calls. Later however, the company launched instant messaging and live video conferencing, using the peer-to-peer network, which guaranteed clarity and stability (Aamoth, 2011). While all these were free, the company began charging for making calls to landlines and mobile phones, as well as receiving the calls, although the charges are still cheap in comparison with payment for standard phone charges for long distance calls.

From its initial release, Skype has been a desktop application installed on the user’s computer and using the Internet connection to avail its services. The application is available for Windows operating system, OS X (Mac) and Linux. With the proliferation of smartphones and tablets as well as other portable devices, the developers have released Skype for all these platforms. The application is therefore available for downloading from the App Store (for iOS), Play Store (for Android), for Windows (through the Universal Windows Platform release for all Windows-based products), BlackBerry, and Symbian.


            Skype’s underlying software Kazaa, built by the Estonian developers Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu and Jaan Tallinn has the Estonian prime minister to thank for its existence. According to the Economist (2013), after independence from the Soviet Union, the prime minister created a good environment for business in Estonia through a flat income tax, sound money and privatization. The government additionally embarked on building its own digital system having declined Finland’s free analogue telephone exchange (The Economist, 2013). By 2000, the country (Estonia) had declared Internet access to be a human right, with free Wi-Fi a common occurrence in the country.

            These events set a precedence of a tech-savvy population, given the country’s belief and extensive use of the Internet and technology (The Economist, 2013). Therefore, with a belief in technology, the country experienced an upsurge in the number of technology start-ups, one among which wrote the code to Kazaa. The belief in the country on what technology could do and its widespread use in the country across different sectors including education set the precedence for the establishment of Kazaa. By meeting and building Kazaa as a peer-to-peer file sharing software, the Estonians, Swede and Danish coders built the foundation for the development of Skype.

            While Skype is not the only VoIP service, the fact that it is free made for its great success. Having been borne out of the peer-to-peer service that was Kazaa, Skype became widely popular in comparison with other VoIP services.   The free Internet in Estonia and the very need to share files (and the service) had a great impact in the creation of Skype as a free online calling and chatting service. In creation of Skype, the idea was to bring a free service that could allow people to communicate freely over the Internet, much as it was the idea in the creation of Kazaa as a free file sharing software (Arora, 2000; Desantis, 2008). The idea of creation of Skype, and even its underlying software and functionalities, therefore came as a result of the success that came with Kazaa.


Skype had Niklas Zennstrom from Sweden and Janus Friis from Denmark as the main entrepreneurs who worked in its creation and running in the early years of the company, and the innovation that allows people to make voice and video calls from the Internet on their desktop computers, and most recently on their mobile phones.  With its headquarters in Luxembourg, Zennstrom and Friis had previously worked in the creation of Kazaa, a peer-to-peer file sharing software in collaboration with Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu and Jaan Tallinn from Estonia (Fell, 2011). Having worked on the creation of Skype, Zennstrom and Friis released the first public beta version of the software in 2003, making its first official launch to the public (Fell, 2011).

In the early beginnings of Skype, Zennstrom and Friis were the main players behind the software, later making agreements with to offer the software to the Polish market. The agreement with the Polish web portal allowed Skype to get further market and exposure before it purchase by eBay, which paid $2.5 billion for a 65 percent stake in the company (Fell, 2011). eBay’s purchase of Skype not only allowed the company (Skype) to gain more traction, but also brought more performance-based considerations allowing the software to bring even more features, while at the same time registering more users. The performance-based considerations by eBay are especially visible given that 2006, a year after its sale to eBay, Skype had more than 100 million registered users; double the users it had the previous year (Fell, 2011).


At the onset, Zennstrom and Friis were the only people involved in the investment and management of Skype. Given that it was a free service, there was not much in revenue that the software brought, although it carried advertisements, which brought a little revenue. The introduction of Skype Credit and subscription, however changed the company’s revenue streams, allowing it to get some revenue from its users. With a $2.95 monthly subscription fee, users could make unlimited (within the fair usage policy) calls to landlines and mobile phones in the US. The feature allowed the company to gain more in revenue, in addition to the Skype-In feature, where people using landlines could call Skype users through a regular phone number for $12 for three months or $24 for a year (Fell, 2011).

After its purchase by eBay, Skype added even more features given the monetary backing that came with such a purchase. By 2007, Skype was generating $382 million in revenue in addition to having more than 276 million active users (Fell, 2011).  Skype’s ownership by eBay was however a short hiatus, as the company (eBay) sold the online video and voice calling company to Silver Lake Partners and other investors for $2 billion (Horowitz, 2011). Skype’s sale to Microsoft for $8.5 billion made things better for the Internet telephony company given Microsoft’s financial backing and in depth knowledge of the technology industry. Today, as part of Microsoft, Skype has become the default video calling app for all Microsoft products including Windows 10 and Xbox.


From the onset of its launch, Skype was a desktop client. The first beta version released to the public in 2003 was a desktop application that allowed users to download and install the client on their desktops. In addition to running the native desktop client, Skype is also online on the web through its IP addresses and Thus, after launching the native client software for users to download from Skype’s online domains, users would register and have their accounts ready to make video and voice calls over the Internet (Horowitz, 2011).

Downloading Skype and installing on the desktop across different platforms, creating a username and being able to make free video and voice calls was the first step in disseminating the innovation. After its purchase by eBay, then Silver Lake Partners, and later to Microsoft, the businesses increased advertisements to popularize some features the innovation, which were initially not part of the application. For instance, at its launch and a few years after its launch, Skype did not offer video conference calls. However, over the years, Skype has included video conferencing as part of its offering (Skype, 2017).

With a proliferation of smartphone and other handheld devices, Skype has moved from just the to-go desktop video calling client to becoming one of the most popular smartphone applications. Despite having competition on the Android and iOS platforms in Google Hangout and Apple’s FaceTime, Skype’s Android and iOS apps are still among the most popular for video calls (Horowitz, 2011). Today, therefore, users can easily download Skype from the App Store (iOS) and Play Store (Android) as well as Microsoft’s Market Place onto their smartphones and easily make local and international calls to both Skype users and none-Skype users on their landline and mobile phones.


Over the years since its launch, Skype has grown to become one of the most popular online voice and video calling application.  From its launch to date, Skype has had unprecedented success changing the way people communicate. Among the greatest impacts Skype has had is availing the ability of people to communicate across different platforms. With clients for desktop computer across the different platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux), Skype has essentially enabled easier communication among people, and at no cost to its users. Even more is that Skype is currently available for mobile phones across the different mobile device’s platforms. Although it faces competition from Google’s Hangouts and Apple’s FaceTime, Skype’s main advantage over its competitors is the ability to work across different platforms, while its competitors are platform specific.

Skype’s value goes beyond simply connecting people socially over long distances. According to Moskvitch (2013), Skype has become a professional tool used by people from different professions. For instance, doctors are actively using Skype to give instructions on procedures to peers far away, a feat that would have been impossible over voice or email. Moskvitch (2013) informs that doctors find it easier to give instructions and explain intricate procedure via video. Using vide in this case makes it easier as the other can see what the other is doing, and provide immediate feedback, in addition to demonstrating the procedure.

Making traditional international calls is an expensive affair to both the recipient and the maker of the call. Skype on the other hand, offers a cheaper option for users to make local and international calls over the internet at a fraction of what telephone companies charge. Essentially, Skype allows people to keep in touch cheaply a fact that increases social bonding across the geographical divide (Moskvitch, 2013). Families, friends and relatives can today stay in touch regularly at cheaper or no cost at all.

Skype for business on the other hand, allows businesses to communicate with their clients, other businesses, and employees, as well as enable employees working in teams to collaborate on different projects. Through a video conference call, employees working as a team on a project can communicate and work as if in one room. Skype for business additionally allows businesses to make, receive and transfer calls in the office, at home and on the road at low rates. Given the availability of the software on both desktops and phones, businesses can therefore transfer these calls on PC and mobile.

Skype continues to face competition from other cross platform voice and video calling applications on smartphones such as Whatsapp, Viber, and ooVoo among others. However, it is noteworthy to mention that while the competition offer greater choices to users, the revolution began with Skype. Moreover, while the new competition may be good at providing the video and voice calls on mobile phones, Skype remains king in online desktop telephony. The growth of Skype was unprecedented, and over the years, the company has retained most of the engineers who worked on the first iteration of the software, giving it consistence, and perhaps the stability it requires to keep connecting people and changing the world as it did when the service first launched in 2003.


Aamoth, D. (2011). A brief history of Skype. Time. Retrieved from

Arora, R. (2000). Voice over IP: Protocols and Standards. Washington University. Retrieved from

Desantis, M. (2008). Understanding voice over Internet protocol (VoIP). US-CERT. retrieved from

Fell, J. (2011). Skype: From startup to $8.5B in eight years. Entrepreneur. Retrieved from

Horowitz, B. (2011). Why the Skype investment worked. Fortune. Retrieved from

Keane, M. (2010). The secret to Skype’s success: Growing the online phone market. E Consultancy. Retrieved from

Moskvitch, K. (2013). Skype: How the online chat revolution changed lives. BBC. Retrieved from

Skype. (2017). Groups calls. Retrieved from

The Economist (2013). How did Estonia become a leader in technology? The Economist. Retrieved from

Sample Marketing Essay Paper on Segmentation, Targeting And Positioning Strategies; Apple Inc. Retail Outlets college application essay help online

Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Strategies; Apple Inc. Retail Outlets


With the ongoing technological advancement in the business environment, the electronic devices industry has become significantly competitive (Elmancy, 2014). Consequently, companies have had to come up with novel strategies in their marketing policies. Being a market leader in such an industry, Apple Inc. for years had placed its emphasis on innovation. In this position, Apple had a significant advantage on its financial situation, data management, as well as brand name; nevertheless, the strategy was disadvantageous in a changing environment (O’Reilly, 2014; Viardot, 2004); Myslewski, 2013). In the external environment, a company’s customer base relies on differentiation. Subsequently, Apple has been efficiently using a segment, targeting, and positioning strategies a factor that will discuss in this research.

A Theoretical Literature Review of Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning

In general, there are three approaches to marketing namely markets segmentation, targeting, and positioning. A centralized market is that treats all potential client the same; consequently having the same desire to own a product. With the current happenings in the current global markets, this kind of market structure is non-existent. The current status supports a differentiated market where all clients are unequal and would have differentiated wishes to own a product. Consequently, businesses have been forced to find the best possible marketing strategies that attract the best of their desired clients. As explained by the site the STP (Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning) strategy best highlight the new marketing models.

Market Segmentation

The market segmentation strategy is based on dividing the customer base into smaller sub-divisions that are characterized by their distinct needs or behaviors. To discover particular segments that are common, market research techniques must be employed to find patterns of similarity among customers in the market. Typically, a market is segmented by demographic (age, sex or location); nonetheless, a market can be segmented by behavioral similarities and benefits similarity (when advantages customers seek to achieve from buying a particular product) (Viardot, 2004). 

Through research, market segmentation is performed on an overall market, and once the market has been split into segments, each segnifies a ‘target market.’

Target Market

Target marketing is defined as the process of applying marketing strategies to a particular group of the market. Having decided the possible way to segment the markets, marketing experts are faced with a variety of questions on how many as well as which portion to approach. As explained by Viardot (2004), three factors should be considered when choosing a preferred part the first is the size and growth potential of each segment. The best segment to target is one that guarantees significant sales both in the present and future market conditions. Second, their structural attractiveness, this includes issues such as some competitors, potential entrants, the threat of substitutes, as well as consumer and supplier bargaining power. Lastly, the experts should consider the organization’s objectives as well as resources. The best possible market is one that resounds with the company’s goals.

Market Positioning

As stated by O’Reilly (2014), positioning is a process of arranging of a particular company product to appear distinctive as well as desirable relative to rival products in the minds of the target market. The best marketing positioning strategy presents brand superiority. This consequently reduces the amount of competition through consumer loyalty. Apple Inc. retail outlet STP (Segment, Targeting, and Position strategy).

Apple Inc. segmentation, targeting, and positioning strategies present the company’s important marketing efforts. Since the founding of Apple Inc. in 1976, the organization had centered its marketing on two principles on innovation and price. From 1976 to 1981 the company had developed three kinds of PC models each better than its predecessor. Such was Apple Inc. giving the public a better device that was worth the cost, until 2001. The current market is informative due to the internet and consumers know what they want from a product. Apple seems to have this idea before its competitors as it produces unit and subunits for all its products. For instance, the current iPhone 7 has two versions (Apple iPhone 7 and Apple iPhone 7 plus) this is a variation from the previous marketing strategy. This new strategy is based on marketing mix brought through using segmentation, targeting, and market position. Additionally, the company has made sure over the years to make their retail shop reflect their understanding of the market. Apple has the highest number of customer aid retail shops globally compared to its rivals. In Addition to this Apple has special help stations that are dedicated to particular clients all developed from their marketing mix strategy.     

Apple Target Segment  

Types of segmentationSegmentation criteriaDevices: iPhone, iPod, iPad, Mac.Services:  iTunes and the iTunes Store, Mac App Store, iCloud, Apple Pay.Operating system & software: iOS, OSX, iLife, workAccessories: Apple TV, Apple Watch, and related accessoriesGeographicRegion     Density  US and international   UrbanUS and international   UrbanUS and international   UrbanUS and international   Urban          Demographic  Age   Gender     Income   Occupation      20 – 45   Males & Females   High Earners   Professionals, managers, and executives  18 – 30   Males & Females     High Earners   Students Professionals, managers  20 – 35   Males & Females   High Earners   Professionals, managers, and executives  20 – 45   Males & Females     High Earners     Professionals, managers                          BehavioralDegree of loyalty     Benefits sought                       User status‘Hardcore loyal.’ ‘Switchers’   Sense of achievement and belonging Self-expression   Speed of service, advanced features, and capabilities   Non-users, potential users‘Hardcore loyal.’ ‘Switchers’     Speed of service Efficiency                     Users Non-users, potential users‘Hardcore loyal.’ ‘Switchers’   Efficiency Speed of service                     Users Non-users, potential users‘Hardcore loyal.’ ‘Switchers’     Recreation Self-expression                     Non-users, potential users      PsychographicSocial class     LifestyleMiddle and upper classes   Resigned Aspirer Succeeder ExplorerMiddle and upper classes   Aspirer Succeeder ExplorerMiddle and upper classes   Aspirer Succeeder ExplorerUpper class       Aspirer Explorer


The table above is a tabular representation of how Apple Inc. segments its market. Additionally, it shows whom the company targets (high-income earners, students, as well as professional experts) in the process of dispensing its customer care services other than producing products.

Apple Inc. as an organization targets customers through design, quality, and performance as well as services at an original price. From the table above it is evident that four market segments are targeted by the Apple organization namely Geographic, Demographic, Behavioral, and Psychographic. The Apple retail stores are adapted to serve all the above segments by first offering a variety of the company’s products to the specific clients. The first variable that the Apple is the demographic of age. There is evidence about Apple Inc. centering its efforts on the tech-savvy youth demographic in particular students (O’Reilly, 2014). Nonetheless, Apple devices are extensively designed to affluent business experts (Elmancy, 2014). Consequently, this can be reflected on service provided this is about the segments. As stated by DeMers (2014), the Apple genius bar is an example of Apple Inc. extending its differentiation strategies to the clients through service other than product. The Apple genius bar is a support station found in all but one of the Apple retail stores. Its purpose is to provide concierge or personalized style support for all clients. The genius bar serves a variety of age-based demographics. From the table above the services offered to go across a demographic that serves ages between 18 years and 45 years old. The Company’s former Vice President referred to the Apple genius bar as the ‘heart and soul’ of the organizations retail outlasts (Myslewski, 2013).

            Apple Inc. retail outlets are also target oriented to three types of segments that have shown high profitability. A visit to any Apple retail shop identifies a particular pattern, which is an extensive array of iPhone and iMac devices assistants (Borison, 2014). As indicated the company has a broad segment of potential clients; nevertheless, the iPhone and iMac remain the most frequently been updated device over the years. The company uses the demographic variable of income as well as behavioral factors of loyalty in targeting their clients. Customers expect topnotch services when they spend high amounts in acquiring devices, a principle Apple has seemed to master when offering its services (Anon, 2014). On the other hand, the company has also developed outlet service systems that improve consumer satisfaction. The company’s stores are well stocked and equipped to offer both quick service hardware and software solutions to the iPhone and iMac clients (Gmoser, 2014).

            Apple Inc. has gone through a metaphysis of brand position. Since the beginning of the new century, ‘Apple computers Inc.’ shifted to ‘Apple Inc.’ considering the introduction of the new line of smart devices. During this time, the company has identified its brand with high-end users who are willing a premium price to acquire the best of what technology can offer (Clifton, 2009). The company has also adopted a similar approach when it comes to its outlets as it offers a dissimilar ‘brand’ in serving its clients. The Apple shops are known to be service oriented more than any of the rivals. According to the research conducted by Bradshaw and Platt (2015), to date, Apple Inc. has the most number of outlets globally. The organization has set its new positioning strategy in personalized services to its clients. 


Anon. (2014). Apple Keeps Customers Happy – And Paying a Little More Each Year. The Guardian. Visited on 24th September [Online] Available at

Borison, R. (2014). Meet the Apple Store Specialist who ‘Embodies the Best Characteristics of Apple.’ Business Insider. Visited on 24th September [Online] Available at:

Bradshaw, T., and Platt, E. (2015). Apple Reports Largest Profit in History. Financial Times. Visited on 24th September [Online] Available at:

Clifton, R. (2009). Brands and Branding. Second Edition. Canada: Bloomberg Press.

DeMers, J. (2014). Here’s a Simple Secret to Apple’s Marketing Success. Forbes. Visited on 24th September [Online] Available at:

Elmancy, R. (2014). How Does Apple’s Design Process Work? Designate. Visited on 24th September [Online] Available at:

Gmoser, J. (2014). How Every Square Foot of an Apple Store is designed to make you Spend More Money. Business Insider UK. Visited on 24th September [Online] Available at:

Myslewski, R. (2013). Two Years after Steve Job’s Death, How’s that New CEO Working Out? Visited on 24th September [Online] Available at:

O’Reilly, L. (2014). The 20 Most Valuable Brands in the World. Business Insider UK. Visited on 24th September [Online] Available at:

Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Third Edition. Norwood: Artech House.

Sample Philosophy Essay Paper on Misconceptions about Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co medical school essay help: medical school essay help

Goodyear was legally and ethically obligated to pay Ledbetter equal pay as the other employees in the organization even though the Court ruled in their favor. The Ledbetter ruling was a matter of statutory ruling rather than constitutional ruling (Bader, 2013). Constitutionally, Goodyear was obligated by the law to pay an equal pay to Ledbetter as it did the other employees. Though the court acted reasonably in barring the case because Ledbetter had passed the statute of limitation, it does not mean that her case did not have merit. Every company is obligated to treat all employees and applicants equally according to the Equal Employment and Opportunity Act. The defendant, Goodyear is a multi-national tire manufacturing company that has its headquarters in America. As an America Company, good year exist in the U.S economic system that has elements of planned economic control and free markets. The United States economic system is a mixed economic system because though companies are allowed to own production, they are still regulated by the government. As a rubber manufacturing company, Good year is regulated by several laws ranging from safety laws to environmental laws. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has identified rubber manufacturing companies as sources of air pollutants and as a result, they are expected to comply to the set greenhouse gas emission standards. Apart from complying with environmental regulations, the company is expected to comply with Organizational Health and Safety Act regulations in creating a health and safe working environment. Finally, the company is obligated to treat all employees equally regardless of race, gender, age, or disability according to labor laws such as EEOC.

It is the duty of the government and the employer to ensure that employees are treated properly and equally. According to the duty theory, we are morally obligated to act in according to a certain set of rules and principles regardless of the outcome. This theory emphasizes that our choices should always be guided by what we ought to do regardless of the consequences. In this case, a company is obligated to pay high salaries on merit and ensure that employees safety is prioritize even though performing these duties does not realize a profit. Duty ethics, also known as Deontological ethics emphasize on performing one’s obligation at the expense of consequence. The rules in this case include employment laws and labor laws that a company must conform with. The duty of an employer falls beyond legal obligation. An employer is also morally obligated to create a conducive working environment in which an employee will thrive. On the other hand, it is the duty of the government to protect its citizens through laws like those that prevent discrimination.

A business must act responsible towards its employees to prevent discrimination and because it is the responsible and ethical thing to do. According to Friedman, a company’s CEO is obligated to maximize the company’s profit, while following the set rules (1970). While many might interpret this to mean that a CEO is obligated to prioritize on profit, it means that profit must be maximized but laws and regulations must be followed in doing so. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a non-profit initiative whose efforts are geared towards the society. In the Case of Ledbetter, Goodyear was obligated to pay all its employees equally since CSR is against discrimination. Under CSR, employees are to act responsibly towards the communities they operate in by avoiding overconsumption of raw materials and pollution of the environment. To the government, a company is expected to be responsible in it tax payment and following of laws in its industry.

Treating employees properly trumps any goal to make profit because it is a duty. This is to mean that no employer should gain profits at the expense of the employees. In Ledbetter v. Goodman, Lilly Ledbetter requested to be compensated for the additional pay that the company failed to pay her all those years she was working with them but due to a statutory hitch, Lilly Ledbetter did not win the case (2006). Ethically, the company should was obligated to compensate Ledbetter, not to mention that if the company had been ethical from the beginning, there wouldn’t have been a case. Arguing from the leadership point of view, it is definite that the HR manager of Goodyear was aware of the pay discrepancies and chose not to address them. He must have known that she received a lower pay than other employees in a rank but he did not disclose this information. Like his/her employer, and as a leader, he had the moral responsibility to prevent this form of discrimination from happening.

The government should has a duty create laws that protect employees to prevent discrimination and to prevent unscrupulous employers from getting away with discrimination. According to, the ruling on the Ledbetter v. Goodyear (2006), the law. The further amendment of the Ledbetter Act continues protects employers. Under the new Ledbetter Act, a company can hide its discriminatory practices for 180 days and once the time has elapsed, they can carry on paying discriminatory wages (Bader, 2013). It is evident that women have made positive strides as far as bridging the gender pay gap is concerned. Some women even earn more than men in some cities (Strauss, 2014). However, the fact that women are making positive strides in the work place does not mean that the government should relax in their duty to protect women.

The constitution should protect its citizens and not harm them. The law should not give a leeway or an upper hand to companies that might want to take advantage of women in the work place. It is true that 20% of the pay differences between men and women in the work place are as a result of choices women make (U.S. Department of labor, 2009). Some women chose to work in family friendly environments which in most cases pay less (U.S. Department of labor, 2009). Others choose to work part time in their companies or leave the work force entirely to raise families. It is therefore noteworthy that payment discrepancies in the work place are not always as a result of discrimination (U.S. Department of labor, 2009). However, the law should not be lenient on employers because it undermines the progress that women have made over the years to achieve equality in the work place (Furchtgott-Roth, 2010).

            The duty theory gives a superior analysis because it emphasizes on duty ad not consequentialism. The constitution is obligated to treat its citizens just as an employer is obligated to treat his employees equally. In this case, it is all a matter of duty and not consequences. If consequences are to prioritized, the businesses will continue to make profit at the expense of responsible treatment of employees. Similarly, since the rule in Ledbetter v. Goodyear focused on the consequences of following the statute of limitations, it failed in its duty to protect an employee from discrimination. Therefore, in the case of Ledbetter v. Goodyear paycheck and employers acting decently, duty supersedes consequence.


Bader. H. (2013). Misconceptions about Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. Engage,             13(3), 26-30. Retrieved from    about-ledbetter-v-goodyear-tire-rubber-co

Furchtgott-Roth, D. (2010, September 28). Testimony on the Gender Pay Gap. [Testimony             before the Joint Economic Committee]. Retrieved from       f649-4ad3-a742-268d946962db/furchtgott-roth-testimony.pdf

Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 550 U.S. 618 (2006). Retrieved from    1074.ZO.html

Strauss, Karsten (2014). U.S. Cities Where Women Earn More Than Men. Forbes. Retrieved        from

U.S. Department of Labor. (2009, January 12). An analysis of the reasons for the disparity in         wages between men and women. Retrieved from   

Sample Nursing Research Paper on Healthcare Outcomes for Congestive Heart Failure essay help for free

Healthcare Outcomes for Congestive Heart Failure


Congestive heart failure affects many people across the world every year, with more than 5 million Americans suffering from the heart condition every year. For every individual suffering from CHF, there are others who are affected either directly or indirectly. Huge losses are incurred socially as well as financially in taking care of patients with congestive heart failure either through loss of time with other family members or through loss of financial resources in terms of hospital and/ or home care costs. For this reason, getting greater positive outcomes for patients with CHF in hospital as well as home healthcare settings is an important factor that should be the consideration of every well meaning practitioners and caregivers who work with patients of CHF. The financial burden, which is approximated at nearly $ 30 billion annually can be reduced significantly through improved outcomes and reduced re-hospitalization rates (Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 2017).

Statement of Purpose

            The need for efficient ways for improving healthcare outcomes among CHF patients in hospital and home settings is undeniable. Through various studies in the past, practices such as encouragement of self management education have been established to result in better health outcomes for CHF patients. The present study attempts to highlight the importance of practices that enhance the healthcare outcomes for CHF patients at home and in the hospital settings. The study is founded on past studies conducted in the area and will be instrumental in advancing the healthcare outcomes of CHF patients. Besides contributing to healthcare and heart failure information, the study will also form a point of reference for other scholars who are interested in expanding healthcare with respect to heart diseases.

Theoretical Framework

            Gardetto (2011) discusses the concept of self- management in heart failure and other chronic conditions. According to Gardetto, self management as a theory has been applied in a variety of chronic conditions from which survival is deemed almost impossible. In most cases, self managed people are more capable of achieving personal and communal healthcare outcome objectives. In the contemporary times, self- management is applied in a variety of chronic healthcare settings where the objective is to enhance the treatment outcomes. As a cornerstone of many chronic care models, the concept of self- management in healthcare is widely applied. For instance, self- management, if practiced effectively, results in the improvement of outcomes associated with most chronic healthcare conditions. Individuals who adhere to the self- managed care regimes are more likely to accomplish better healthcare outcomes especially if the condition of the patient originates from chronic heart failure. According to Gardetto (2011), adherence to self management principles is considered a vital step towards the improvement of patient outcomes in chronic conditions, and patients are trained to practice self management as much as possible. Where patients are intended to stay at home following hospitalization, self- management becomes all the more important. In the contemporary times, the concept of self management is taught as involving the progression beyond the patient education to making patients capable of identifying specific markers and challenges related to chronic conditions and subsequently taking actions geared towards problem solving (Grady & Gough, 2014).

Literature review and Summary of Evidence

            The Institute for Healthcare improvement defines congestive heart failure (CHF) as a health condition that manifests through the inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood through to the rest of the patients’ body. Such a condition significantly reduces the quality of life of patients by limiting their participation in various social activities, especially those which involve high energy consumption rates. According to Butler (2012), the prevalence of heart failure across the world is increasing. In America for instance, the present prevalence rate for congestive heart failure stands at about 5.5 million people. The high prevalence rates are occasioned by the growth in the percentage of the population which is elderly. Moreover, the prevalence rates of life style diseases such as diabetes and hypertension has also increase, expanding the risk factors for CHF (Butler, 2012). The institute for Healthcare Improvement (2017) opine that while it may be very challenging to deal with the financial and non- financial outcomes associated with CHF, many healthcare providers are making efforts to improve the quality of outcomes in such ways that result in reduction of the re-hospitalization rates as well as reduce the social costs of looking after CHF patients. Hospitals such as Saint Luke’s have put in place practices that enable practitioners to discharge only those whose outcomes have been confirmed effective. The components of such practices include: enhancement of post- admission assessment practices; enhanced learning for patients and their caregivers; patient and family- centered communications on how to manage CHF and following up on patients after acute care (institute for Healthcare Improvement, 2017).

Butler (2012) reviews some of the causes of CHF. Some of the risk factors for heart failure include co-morbidities, age, the male gender and medications. Such risks are compounded by factors such as lower physical activity rates, diabetes, hypertension and other diseases. Management of risk factors is encouraged among the aged as well as among those who are more vulnerable to the risk factors. In particular, Butler (2012) asserts that in order to reduce the risk of CHF and other chronic heart failures, those at risk should engage in practices such as increased physical activity, lifestyle changes, modification of dietary habits such as through elimination of alcohol consumption, developing target goals when in therapy and focusing on strategies for general risk reduction. While many studies from the past emphasize on lifestyle changes, especially the movement from sedentary towards more active lifestyles, there are clear indications that better self- management practices can improve outcomes in relation to healthcare provision for CHF patients.

Gardetto (2011) opines that whether patients are engaging in risk reduction activities such as physical activity or practicing day – to- day self- care, they are involved in self management. Self- management is thus considered an essential component of chronic disease management practice and a major theme in the management of chronic heart failure. One of the practices common in self- management is to be capable of identifying the symptoms and impacts of chronic diseases and subsequently understanding the need to act in certain chronic disease conditions. According to Grady and Gough (2014), many chronic conditions share common challenges including symptom identification, dealing with complex medication regimens and adjusting to social and psychological demands among others. The objective of self management education therefore would be to enhance the capacity of the patient to address these challenges in the presence of others as well as individually. The role of the self- management on disease treatment outcome in this regard is inevitable. Other authors have also shown that various outcomes associated with self- management in various other chronic conditions. For instance, Grady and Gough (2014) have established that chronic illnesses including various forms of heart failure have continued to present a social and clinical challenge to the society at large. The development of a set of skills, which can be implemented at an individual level allow patients to self- manage their illnesses at various levels, realizing better health outcomes. When such care is community based, the health outcomes in the society are improved collectively.

For individuals living with heart failure conditions such as CHF, it is advisable that self- management practices should include frequent medication; symptom management; lifestyle behaviors including smoking cessation, physical activity and dietary adherence among others (Inamdar & Inamdar, 2016). In spite of efforts by patients to practice self management, managing heart failure still remains a challenge and hospital readmission rates are still significantly high. The reasons behind this as mentioned by Gardetto (2011) include: most of the patients are aged, have more than one chronic condition to deal with, lack financial and social support and are symptomatic. Such factors make it difficult for them to put in place strategies for self management or to effectively manage their conditions without help.

While most of the studies on CHF focus on the risk factors and the self- management practices to improve health outcomes, some of the studies do not highlight the progress that has been made in the academia. The combination of multiple risk factors and co-morbidity among CHF patients still remain to be the greatest challenge to self- management among CHF patients. Healthcare facilities still have to continue supporting CHF patients while preparing them for home transition. At the same time, there can never be sufficient assurance that the hospital readmission rates will be low.

Translation to Practice

            The evidence obtained from various pieces of literature indicates that congestive heart failure, just like other forms of heart failure can be linked to various conditions. The information obtained from the literature review also indicates that while many health practitioners focus on the need for self management as a strategy for reducing the impacts of chronic illnesses, it may be challenging to apply where the risk factors are many and/ or various co-morbidities exist to prevent the patients from sufficiently taking care of their needs. Nonetheless, the application of self care strategies still remains one of the ways through which effectiveness can be realized in terms of health outcomes for CHF patients. To ensure that self management succeeds as a strategy for improving outcomes, the first step would be to initiate a communication strategy between the patients and the primary healthcare providers. The patients need to know the risk factors for their conditions as well as the symptoms associated with the condition. Informing patients without mentioning the causes of their conditions might not be the best way to go as this has the potential of resulting in self- stigmatization among the patients.

Once the patients understand their conditions and the risk factors associated with it, they can then be informed of how they can improve their lives through changing their lifestyle practices, resting or engaging in various social activities. Ignoring patient needs on the premise that their sickness is a result of old- age could be one of the ways of discouraging them from self management. The patients and their care givers ought to be aware that while self- management may not be easy to hack due to the challenges posed by the patient condition, efforts made are automatically rewarded through increased activity, better capacity to understand their position in regards to the CHF and being able to recognize that the outer environment also contributes to the disease progression. The patient and their people should all understand that willingness to take a positive step is a crucial step towards the healing process.

Improving healthcare outcomes among patients with CHF can be an effective way towards eliminating the costs of social and financial care to patients. In the social environment, the care accorded to patients with CHF due to their inability to manage their conditions eliminates the time that has to be spent with the patient and allows the care givers time to focus on other aspects of life other than care-giving.  One of the ways through which CHF contributes to economic costs is by reducing productivity among the healthy due to time spent taking care of the sick. Through better self management practices, not only do the sick realize that they can take better care of themselves but also that they have even greater opportunities for taking care of themselves. Additionally, economic costs incurred through re-hospitalization practices are reduced significantly by elimination or reduction of hospital readmission rates. As patients learn about self- management in chronic disease conditions, they are likely to understand their symptoms and thus catch the CHF before escalation to uncontrollable levels. In this way, patients have to go through effective self- management as a key principle of improving health outcomes among CHF patients.


            As a healthcare practitioner, integration of the self care – management training into the individual healthcare plan comes in handy, especially where CHF has to be managed through a transitioning system from hospital based to home based care. The concept of self- management should find applicability both within and without the hospital setting and should thus be aimed at providing a wide perspective to the patient. Within the hospital setting, the best approach towards integration of self- management for better health outcomes can be through assisting patients to recognize vital symptoms associated with the condition. The ability of patients to anticipate certain disease factors can help to identify risks and act accordingly in line with the requirements of medical practice. The objective of integrating self management within the hospital setting would be to encourage patients to learn and adopt practices that would improve their lives and disease management capabilities even once dismissed from the hospitals. The healthcare providers within the hospital setting can play the role of advisors as well as care givers, in giving instructions to patients and giving them the opportunity to monitor their conditions. Once this is accomplished and the patients have learnt to sufficiently monitor and report on their conditions, they would then advance towards preparing their medication regimens, as such is expected even outside the hospital setting.

            Once the patients have understood how to manage basic aspect of CHF within the hospital setting, transition towards the home setting can then be initiated. In the second stage however, the self- management practice should include the care givers who would attend to the patients at home. While the main objective is to see patients taking care of themselves independently, the medical practitioners have to understand that this can only be achieved through the assistance of others in the home setting. To some extent, this plan recognizes the difficulties that are linked to managing CHF independently and the fact that most of those affected are elderly and may need assistance even without suffering from CHF.  Provision of learning materials is one of the ways in which the hospital setting can help develop patients in readiness for home based self- management. Charts and other diagrams act as reminders for the patients to adhere to their medication. Learning about physical activity and lifestyle diseases can also foster self management as a way of improving the health outcomes of CHF treatment in the hospital as well as in the home setting.


Upon implementation of the practices aimed at improving self management among patients, there will be imperative need to evaluate the methods used against set standards for the same. It is expected that once patients have been taught how to self- manage, the health outcomes for those patients who practice it diligently should improve in a short while. As such, the evaluation practices implemented in the exercise would target two aspects. The first is the comprehension and implementation of the practices by the patients while the second is actual improvement in health outcomes. One indicator of better self- management is awareness of the symptoms associated with the condition and the ability to anticipate these symptoms. To evaluate whether this has been accomplished, the most rational measure would be to request patients to feed back information into the healthcare system. Through quantitative questionnaires, patients can rate their level of understanding and practice of various concepts in relation to self-management practices.

On the second measure, the patients’ records from the past would be compared to the records made after passing the information regarding the practice of self management. For each of the patients then, the objective would be to determine the frequency of hospitalization during the period when the patient did not possess knowledge about self-management. This frequency would then be compared to what was realized after training the patients on self- management.  A reduction in the frequency of readmissions indicates adherence to self- management practices and subsequently to better health outcomes.


Any healthcare condition that requires that the patient be taken care of consistently, results in the loss of a lot of social and financial resources. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is one of such conditions. With the high prevalence of CHF occasioned by various risk factors such as old age and lifestyle diseases like hypertension and obesity, there is growing need to find ways of improving the health outcomes of hospital as well as home treatment of the condition. There is evidence that self- management is one of the strategies that can be used to improve the healthcare outcomes of CHF and many other chronic conditions. Through encouraging, integrating and evaluating the effectiveness of self management in the hospital setting for CHF patients, it is expected that better healthcare outcomes will be realized. The objective of the study in providing an approach towards improving healthcare outcomes of CHF patients is therefore realized.


Butler, J. (2012). Primary prevention of heart failure. International Scholarly Research Notices, Cardiology. Retrieved from

Gardetto, N.J. (2011). Self- management in heart failure: Where have we been and where should we go. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 4: 39- 51. Retrieved from

Grady, P.A. and Gough, L.L. (2014). Self- management: a comprehensive approach to management of chronic conditions. American Journal of Public Health, 104(8): e25-e31. Retrieved from

Inamdar, A.A. and Inamdar, A.C. (2016). Heart failure: Diagnosis, management and utilization. Journal of Clinical medicine, 5(7): 62. Retrieved from

Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (2017). Good heart failure care follows patients home. Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Retrieved from

Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Asthma essay help: essay help


What is the issue?

Air pollution from naturally occurring and man-made sources is a leading cause of ill-health.  Air pollution contributes greatly to the global burden of disease, with power generation and traffic being singled out as the leading sources of air pollution in the urban areas (Guarnieri & Balmes, 2014). Asthma is one of the diseases triggered by air pollution.  According to the AAFA (Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America), air pollution could exacerbate asthma symptoms. Asthma affects the lungs, thereby triggering repeated episodes of chest tightness, wheezing, coughing in early morning or nighttime, and breathlessness (National Center for Environmental Health, 2016).

Role of air pollution

Air pollution triggers asthma attacks in several ways. One way is via the role of ozone, an air pollutant. Ozone leads to the development of haze or “smog”, which is quite common in major cities with many cars on the roads. Ozone is also fairly common when there are low winds or more sunlight, such as during summer (AAFA, 2017). Ozone tends to irritate the airways and lungs and in this way, it triggers asthma. There is a correlation between asthma attacks and ozone concentration so that higher concentration of ozone gas in the atmosphere causes more severe asthma attacks. Ozone also makes it harder you one to breathe due to its role in reducing lung function (AAFA, 2017). This trigger asthma attacks.

Asthma attacks could also be triggered by other airborne particles that enter your lungs via your mouth or nose. Should people with asthma breathe in such airborne particles, they stand a higher chance of experiencing asthmatic attacks. Moreover, such airborne particles could also worse your asthma. Exposure to small particles both in the short-term and long-term, could result in such health problems as reduced lung function, thereby triggering additional asthma attacks (AAFA, 2017).

Increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels in the air as emitted from by gasoline and diesel engines are also linked to increase asthma exacerbations, especially in children (Trasande & Thurston, 2005).

Treatment options

Although there is no cure for asthma, it can be controlled with medication. Goal asthma control is essential to maintain sound lung function and to avoid chronic symptoms (NIH, 2014). We have medications to that ensure long-term control of the condition by preventing symptoms and reduce airway inflammation. Examples include inhaled corticosteroids. We also have quick-relief medicines that act by relaxing your airways muscles during a flare up. Examples include short-acting beta2-agonists in the form of an inhaler (NIH, 2014).

Role of the EPA in air pollution

The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) was created as an agency of the United States’ government, charged with the role of protecting the environment and human health. It fulfills this goal by developing and implementing regulations on the environment in line with the laws enacted by Congress (EPA, 2017). Additionally, the EPA also educates and informs health care administrators and providers so that they can in turn mobilize the resources needed to integrate environmental management into standards of care and clinical practices targeting asthma patients (EPA, 2017). Furthermore, EPA works in collaboration with local, state, and federal governments to build their capacity in dealing with asthma, not to mention their role in helping asthma patients realize improve quality of life (EPA, 2017).

Addressing the issue of air pollution as community leaders

Community health leaders have a crucial role to play in safeguarding the heath of individuals. To address the issue of air pollution, community health leaders should be actively involved in creating awareness on the negative consequences of air pollution, such as its role in triggering asthma attacks. Additionally, community health leaders could also collaborate with local government and mobilize resources to conduct campaigns on the need to enforce Lawson air pollution.


Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA) (2017). Air Pollution. Retrieved from

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2017). What is Asthma? Retrieved from

Guarnieri, M., & Balmes, J.R. (2014). Outdoor air pollution and asthma. Lancet, 383(9928),

1581-1592. Retrieved from

National Center for Environmental Health (2016). Air Pollution and Respiratory Health.

Retrieved from

National Institutes of Health (NIH) (2014). How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled? Retrieved


Trasande, L., & Thurston, G.D (2005). The Role of Air Pollution in Asthma and Other Pediatric

Morbidities. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115(4), 689-699.

Retrieved from

Sample Medical Science Essay Paper on Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Treatment college application essay help online: college application essay help online


Numerous techniques have been diagnosed to cure animal spinal cord injury (SCI), but there has been limited success in efficiency of the drugs. Most of the SCI usually occurs at the cervical level, hence, leading to the infirmity of both the upper and lower ends. As such, the life of an individual is reduced which eventually leads to higher costs incurred during treatment of the disease (Iwasaki, Motoyuki, et al. 2617). Moreover, SCI can cause damage and disappearance of neural tissues and eventually leads to the creation of cystic cavities that prevents emerging axons from moving across the injured region. Unreceptive microenvironment considerably affects the conservation and growth of neural tissues (Iwasaki, Motoyuki, et al. 2617) negatively. Therefore, the research discusses the perspective, proposed techniques, and application of the research “Synergetic effects of self-assembling peptide and neural stem/progenitor cells to promote tissue repair and forelimb functional recovery in cervical spinal cord injury.”

Perspective of the Research

Various research has been conducted which has indicated success in restoration of outside cellular matrix to offer a useful scaffold for renewal of cells and axons to facilitate therapeutic effectiveness (Iwasaki, Motoyuki, et al. 2617). There has been development of self-assembling peptides (SAP) that enhance the creation of 3D arrangement of fibers in a biological environment without augmenting an immune reaction. Notably, the injection of K2 (QL) 6K2 (QL6) within 24 hours to the specimen proved vital in protecting histologic tissues by weakening the degree of swelling and astrogliosis of the limbs. Conversantly, this has helped in lowering post-traumatic apoptosis of the neural cells, hence, encouraging axonal growth of the thoracic affected rats (Iwasaki, Motoyuki, et al. 2618). In essence, the research employs the technique in transplanting neural stem cells to acquire the benefits and incorporate the system in a delayed SAP-based therapy. Hence, the investigation emphases on discovering an appropriate system of treating SCI. 

Proposed Techniques  

The study develops a rat-based model in which seventy-seven adult Wistar rats weighing 250 grams have been used in the analysis (Iwasaki, Motoyuki, et al. 2618). Additionally, experimental groups and surgical procedures were performed on the specimen such as cervical SCI and neurobehavioral assessments that entailed the use of bar grip strength meter and inclined plane test. Furthermore, both BBB open field locomotors score and catwalk gait analysis are employed to assess hind limbs and forelimbs respectively. SAS stat software (JMP) is integrated into the exploration to aid in data analysis (Iwasaki, Motoyuki, et al. 2618).

Application of the Study

The study is applicable to individuals that suffers from Spinal Cord Injury as it is affirmed that cystic cavity is easily prevented by application of QL6 or through injection of both QL6 and NPCs peptides. Significantly, the treatment helps to safeguard endogenous motor neurons in the affected regions, thus, enhance a quicker healing (Iwasaki, Motoyuki, et al. 2625). In the medical field, health experts can readily apply the findings when diagnosing patients with SCI problems, thus, aids in preventing disabilities that arise from the disease.


In essence, the research is of significant value to the health professionals since it provides success to SCI treatment which has had limited achievements. Moreover, application of the Self-assembling peptides (SAP) lowers the post-traumatic apoptosis of the neural cells, hence, facilitating the development of axonal in the thoracic of affected humans. Therefore, the study is of importance to both the hospital physicians and patients suffering from SCI.

Work Cited

Iwasaki, Motoyuki, et al. “Synergistic effects of self-assembling peptide and neural stem/progenitor cells to promote tissue repair and forelimb functional recovery in cervical spinal cord injury.” Biomaterials 35.9 (2014): 2617-2629.


Sample Literature Essay Paper on Theoretical Perspective of Perception and Ideology aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Part 1.

‘The Allegory of the Cave’ is a philosophical or a mythical reflection of Plato’s intermeshed understanding of a variety of political, ethical, metaphysical, as well as epistemological perceptions. The human culture is always known to feature a variety of notions or perceptions that are not driven by fact but an extrapolation of what individuals identify as a reality. 

Q1.  What does a flatlander see?  What do the people in the cave see? How are they “Trapped within the borders of their vision”?

Plato’s ‘Allegory of the Cave’ presupposes a group of individuals who were been bound by chains in a cave since their childhood. These individuals were strategically bound in a manner that they are not able to look to their sides or even behind them. They could only look straight ahead at a wall in the cave. To the back of the prisoners was a fire and in between the prisoners and the fire was a partial wall. The partial wall was used to suspend figurines that cast a shadow on the cave wall ahead of the prisoners. The prisoners, in this case, could only see the shadows and created a perception of the environment around them from what they saw. In a similar manner, flatlanders were bound to their two-dimensional world. The flatlanders and prisoners have been bound in their position to only see their world as they have been perceived and not as placed in reality. Ideologies and perceptions are the limits that have seen both parties ignorant of their surroundings.       

Source: retrieved from;

2. How does position (perception) limit our understanding?  In what ways are we ideological flatlanders or people in a cave?

Considering that the prisoners are unable to turn, they perceive the shadows as ‘reality’; consequently, in every way, they believe that the truth is nothing other than the shadows of the objects. From an outsider’s view, it is clear that from their position the prisoners have been compelled to believe that the figurines are alive from the flicker or the flame and movement of the shadows. These two factors limit their understanding of reality. In a similar manner, the human or social understanding is hidden from the truth due to the position, in this case, knowledge. Plato’s allegory of the cave is a parable to understand the process of how an individual or a society becomes enlightened. It is inclusive of the positive and the negative influences of ‘natural environment’. In other words, the myth is placed to highlight responses and reactions of a person or a society being freed from their bounds; subsequently, being forced to experience life outside the ‘cave’. 

3. How does our perception/understanding create ideology?

            ‘The allegory of the cave’ is a theory, which is centered on human perception and ideology that can be changed by knowledge. The myth revolves around the truth and a reflection of the truth. Plato stated that knowledge attained from the senses (perception) is no more than opinion. Consequently, the only way to have real knowledge the society has to go through philosophical reasoning.

Part 2.

Politics, religion, morality or ethics, as well as science, are the four major pillars that hold the society together. Despite a difference in race, gender, age, or ethnicity, people from different regions globally are brought together or in this case bound by pre-construed ideologies. Nonetheless, as explained by Nealon and Susan in a sense ideology is defined as ‘false consciousness’ or In other words, “this is the inability to see real conditions because they are, asked by false ideas” (93). The Marxist premise of the nineteenth century states that in its first definition an ideology is false or misleading, murky, vague, metaphysical representation of concrete conditions and specific causes (94). When considering such information there is evidence that firstly an ideology is manifested from a concerted argument; however, the legitimacy of the knowledge presented is put to the test by the ideology. Therefor inventions and inventions may not come to fruition due to ideologies. In this part of the article, three examples of how ideology affects new philosophies will be identified and explained.

Religious societies believe that a supreme being ‘God’ made the world; additionally, man is God’s creation. On the other hand, scientists dispute this notion, as they believe in the ‘big bang’ and evolutionary theories to explain the beginning of life and Earth. After years of discussions, none of the two mentioned groups accept each other premise. The example above represent one way ideologies affect new ways of viewing the world. The parties involved in the discussion between creation and evolution view life in a particular limiting their thinking in the process. In Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott Abbott the characters were somewhat in a similar situation.  When the sphere confronts the square, the latter refuses to accept that there is another world superior to his. The square has for all his life known of a two-dimensional world and the reality of the third dimension does not exist. Religious and scientific societies dispute each other philosophies, in the process, they are always set to either find new critics against each other or improve their own theories. In the process, they turn a blind eye to other philosophies that may be more conclusive or encompassing to both factions. 

            Other than rigidity in reasoning, ideologies tend to compel individuals against acceptance even when the reasons to change their mind is clear. The square in flat land interacts with the sphere and from this point, it is clear that there exists a third-dimensional world. However, he refuses what is in front of him. In order to make the square see reality for what it is the sphere pushes him to the third dimension world; however, even in this state, he states “I looked down below, and with my physical eye all that domestic individuality which I had hitherto merely inferred with the understanding” (Section 18.35). He sees a differentiation from flatland, however, he has a hard time to accept reality for what it is he instead creates a new reality from his two dimension ideology by stating an unspeakable horror seized me” (Section 16.26-18.1). Ideologies make it hard for individuals to accept realities as they are but give rise to individuals or societies forming new ideologies that are related to what they believed in the start. This is seen in day-to-day political lives where the ideologies that prevail have a significant weakness; however, they remain existent. Plato’s ideal society contains the correct functions of politics as well as motives, nonetheless, for as long as the prisoners accept what they are told or led to assume, they will follow believe in the shadows on the wall of the cave and not the objects behind them.

Works Cited

Abbott, Edwin A. Flatland: A romance of many dimensions. OUP Oxford, 2006.

Nealon, Jeffrey T, and Susan S. Giroux. The Theory Toolbox: Critical Concepts for the Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2012. Print.

Plato. Allegory of the Cave. S.l.: Lulu Com, 2017. Print.

Sample Economics Essay Paper on Improving the Savings Behaviour of the Masses medical school essay help: medical school essay help

Saving is a vital necessity especially in an individual’s later years because it supplements the pension payable to the person. If well executed on time, saving has the potential of bypassing pension amounts that workers are liable to receive. The argument for savings, however, suffers significant shortcomings in the form of the psychology and behaviors of income earners. These are additional barriers to the typical demographic issue. Nevertheless, the crucial question remains ‘what is the optimal approach to improve the savings behavior of the masses?’

To begin with, answering this question requires a two-way approach that will address the persona of the masses and the efficiency of the existing savings systems. Saving is a virtue that reaps better results when undertaken early. According to Ghilarducci, for every dollar that is not saved in one’s twenties, you will need to save three to five dollars to make up for the difference (Marte). Saving is, however, a farfetched idea to individuals in their twenties as they are worried about other pressing issues such as reimbursing study loans, starting families, and establishing their careers. Encouraging the development of this virtue would improve savings behaviour, but not all will enroll for savings plans necessitating the involvement of their employers. Employers can create an auto-enrolment in retirement plans from where savings can be implemented. This method has been found to bear fruits as it deals with the issue of procrastination.

Secondly, current savings systems are complicated and even non-existent in some areas making saving a bottleneck to potential savers. Employers who cannot create their own retirement savings plans should be aided by the government through the creation of a retirement marketplace and Individual Retirement Accounts. These should be easy to use and understand to appeal to the masses. Providing an incentive to the masses such as contributing a minimum amount to a savings account that supplements an individual’s Social Security Income could also go a long way in encouraging a savings behavior among the masses.        

Works Cited

Marte, J. (2017, September 15). Why it’s so hard for Americans to save for retirement. Retrieved September 20, 2017, from

Sample Ethics Essay Paper on Music Videos representation of African American Sexuality history essay help


The advent of MTV in 1981 was instrumental in increasing the popularity of music videos. Since then, scholars have undertaken numerous studies to explore the influence of music videos on consumers, especially adolescents (Turner, 2011).  It is no longer a secret that sex is a major selling point for the entertainment industry, and is often used as a revenue stream by way of increasing record sales. While men are prominently featured on music videos, women are often depicted as objects of sexual desire. Music videos propagate love and sex as central themes of humanity, and are also sufficient evidence of existing stereotypes in society on issues of gender, sexuality and race (Stephens & Phillips, 2003).

Since sex sells, the entertainment industry therefore makes music videos available. While MTV does not rely on music videos as their central programming strategy, audiences can still access them via other platforms, such as YouTube and BET.  Moreover, music videos are particular popular with young adults and adolescents, and this could have a bearing on their representation of gender and sexuality (Balaji, 2010). Adolescents are more likely to watch music videos more than any other entertainment genre on television.

Many music videos amplify sex and the physical attributes of Black women (Balaji, 2010). According to Curtis, “Black women are represented as having uncontrollable sexual desires which is exactly how they are represented in nineteenth-century colonial discourse” (2009, p. 72). This is indicative of a dominant historical discourse in as far as the issue of gender and sexuality are concerned. Music videos are an ideal tool for studying the representation of African American sexuality based on social and theoretical contexts. From a social context, the availability of music videos to audiences is determined by demand for the same. From a theoretical context, the construction of music videos revolves around simple and common social themes and events represented in memory. Besides, music videos tend to arouse stimuli, and this increases the likelihood of stimulating the stored representation. For this reason, music videos are a powerful representation for concepts affiliated with sexuality and gender.

While many mainstream artists have no qualms with popularizing the sexualized culture, a few female artists such as Erykah Badu and Queen Latifah have taken to Hip Hop music videos as a tool to uplift and empower women. The sexual content on music videos potray women as submissive and promiscuous. Content analyses of music videos involving African Americans reinforce the female sexual appeal with the Black woman being seen as sex objects whose goal is to please the male spectator (Aubrey & Frisby, 2012).

Turner (2011) undertook two related studies to examine sex role and sexual behaviors as portrayed by music videos in the United States. In the first study, Turner examined some 120 videos recorded from mainstream television stations such as BET, MTV VH-1, and MTV2.  What emerged from this study is that African American women were more likely to be portrayed as being dressed in revealing or provocative dressing compared to white women, confirming the idea that the body of a female African American woman is more likely to be objectified in a sexual context, compared to that of her white counterpart. In the second study, the author reviewed some 20 videos drawn from the program Un:Cut that features on BET. Research findings indicated that the program under review featured sexual acts seven times more than the other leading music video channels (Turner, 2011). These findings underscore the significance of race in examining sexual content and gender roles in music videos.

The link between materialism and sexuality is so evident in hip-hop music videos. Hip-hop culture fuses together sexuality and eroticization of material wealth in the form of cars, jewelry and mansions. Scenes of women trading sexual favors for material things like promotions and financial gains are not unusual, and this seeks to portray the Black woman as a gold digger (Curtis, 2009). In both rap and hip hop videos, women are periodically sexualized, trivialized, and brutalized by men (Battle, Bennett and Lemelle 117). They are further depicted as submissive, weak, easily aroused, and dependent. Men often abuse and demean women in such music videos.  Conversely, men are routinely presented as negative, sexist, distorted and violent. Many of the music videos depict young male artists perceiving their female counterparts who perform minor roles in the videos in a negative light. For example, they often refer to them as “bitches and whores” (Battle et al. 117).

In sum, media is a powerful tool for propagating cultural values. Since music videos stimulate the stored representation, they are hence popular with the youth and young people who need to form a schema about gender and sexuality. Leading African American channels such as MTV and BET transmit sexual images indicates that in the African American culture, women are largely seen as sexual objects to please the male artists featured prominently on such videos that propagate the themes of love and sexuality. They are also meant to please the male viewer. Women are depicted as being submissive, materialistic, and as possessing uncontrollable sexual desires, and hence the use of such derogatory terms as whores and bitches.


Balaji, M. (2010). Vixen resistin’: Redefining black womanhood in hip-hop music

videos. Journal of Black Studies, 41(1), 5-20. Retrieved from

Battle, J.J., Bennett, M., & Lemelle, A.J. (2006). Free at Last?: Black America in the Twenty

First Century. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Curtis, D. (2009). Pleasures and Perils: Girls’ Sexuality in a Caribbean Consumer Culture. New

Jersey: Rutgers University Press.

Frisby, C.M., & Aubrey, J.S. (2012). Race and Genre in the Use of Sexual Objectification in

Female Artists’ Music Videos. Howard Journal of Communications, 23(1), 66-87.

Retrieved from


Stephens, D.P., & Phillips, L.D. (2003). Freaks, gold diggers, divas, and dykes: The

sociohistorical development of adolescent African American women’s sexual scripts.

Sexuality and Culture, 7(1), 3-49. Retrieved from

Turner, J. (2011). Sex and the spectacle of music videos: An examination of the portrayal of race

and sexuality in music videos. Sex Roles, 64(3/4), 173-191. Retrieved from

Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Essentials of public health management essay help

Discussion Board 3

Question One

The legislation on human resource management that I find important is the Civil Rights Act 1991. I think it is essential because it allows the victims of sexual harassment at the workplace to have jury trials and claim compensation in the cases whereby the employer is either reckless, acts in malice or is indifferent to the violation of their rights.This legislation is important to job seekers in the present because it assures them of the protection of their rights at the workplace. Additionally, it directs the employers regarding the policies that should be put in place to ensure that all workers are protected from harassment, of any kind, in the workplace.

Comments on A Peer Response

            It is interesting to learn that the most important legislation to you affects you personally. The pregnancy discrimination act of 1978, was a great step in ensuring that there is gender equality in the workplace. It has been useful in protecting the rights of women in childbearing age at the workplace. However, I would advise against making it apparent that your family is more important than job to the employers. It is best to keep it discreet, even if it is true.

Question Two

The ‘principle duties performed’ is vital for the applicants, as it informs them of the tasks that will be expected of them once they are hired for a job position (Fallon and Zgodzinski, 2012). It offers the applicant a chance to compare their competencies with the list’s and decide whether they qualify for a job.The career opportunity that I picked is Assistant Health Program Coordinator.I am interested in this position, as it is in line with my degree, and the experience requirements are not as limiting as those of the other positions.I would not qualify for this job after graduation, apart from requiring one to have a Bachelor’s degree it also two years’ experience.

Question Three

The type of interview that I would prefer is a behavioral interview. I would opt for it because the process would offer insight into my past successes and help in overcoming any deficit I may have regarding experience (Fallon and Zgodzinski, 2012).

Question Four

The indirect compensation elements that I would be most concerned about are benefits plans and overtime allowances (Taras, 2012). The reason for the need for indirect compensation is to gain value for time and dedication that I intend to grant this job. I am also concerned about future career growth because it would help me enhance skills, which would be of benefit to the enterprise.


Fallon, L. and Zgodzinski, E. (2012). Essentials of public health management. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Taras, V. (2012). Direct Versus Indirect Compensation. Compensation & Benefits Review, 44(1), pp.24-28.

Sample Management Essay Paper on Agency Theory And Corporate Governance essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Agency Theory and Corporate Governance

            Corporate governance is an important pillar of success in enterprises. It defines how a corporation is controlled. It also provides guidelines on the strategic relationships between a corporation and its stakeholders with the view of improving operational and financial performance. Organizations are increasingly under pressure to establish a competitive edge in the market by their stakeholders. With a functional corporate governance system, they are better placed when it comes to affirming their credibility in a highly sensitive and globalized business environment than without (Argüden 2010). Credibility is an essential competitive tool, especially when it is entrenched in the governance structure of a company as a strategic, operational approach.

High corporate governance standards streamline operations significantly and reduce firm’s risks, which can translate into increased financial performance, which ultimately boosts investor confidence (Todorović 2013, 47). The firm stands to benefit from the resulting increased flow of investment funds. Over the past few decades, the United Kingdom has distinguished itself globally as one of the economies with a functioning corporate governance code. The publication of the Cadbury Report in 1992 marked a new chapter in the management of publicly traded companies as it introduces the position of outside directors to serve on the boards of these companies (Foley 2017). Additionally, various countries have followed suit in publishing similar corporate governance principles, codes, and guidelines. However, measuring their impact on company performance requires a suitable method that factors in all the variables affecting performance.

Models of Measuring the Impact of Corporate Governance

The indicators used for measuring corporate governance are varied depending on various factors including geopolitical region because different countries have different rules, regulations, and cultural factors that govern their corporate sectors and economy in general. The variations are also common between firms. Several countries around the world have published corporate governance guidelines, which firms can use to hinge their strategic management and performance. Similarly, firms within the same jurisdiction may implement different systems depending on their objectives, leadership structures, and nature among other factors. Furthermore, the point of departure between these systems is organizational control and ownership. That is the type of shareholder who has a controlling stake in the firm and the degree of their control (Hoi and Robin 2010, 125).

Power and responsibilities are distributed and shared between the shareholders differently depending on the system of corporate governance adopted by a firm (Maher and Andersson 1999, 4). Consequently, countries such as the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (U.S.) have a corporate governance system marked by strong corporate managers and weak shareholders. In countries such as Japan and most of Europe wherein outsider, corporate governance system is predominant; the shareholders exert a greater degree of organizational control and ownership than when it is not. Regarding power, the managers in various firms across these regions are weak.

Both systems require balancing of the conflicting interests of managers and shareholders with the view of improving corporate performance. Studies have shown that the level of credibility and high performance as a result of effective corporate governance system attract investors. This preferential treatment by investors gives such firms a competitive edge in a marketplace that is increasingly becoming competitive. Such firms stand to benefit from the increased financial base, which is critical in actualizing a firm’s growth and development objective (Maher and Andersson 1999, 4-5). 

There are two primary models for gauging the impact of corporate governance on corporate performance: stakeholder and shareholder models. The main difference between these models is the perceived objective of the firm. Under the shareholder model, a firm’s primary objective is to advance the financial interests of the shareholders in the most efficient way. Such a profit maximization-oriented approach gauges the impact of corporate governance on the firm by looking at its market value. All productive efforts are channeled towards increasing shareholder value. This model outlines the duties and responsibilities of a firm’s senior management towards shareholders. The managers have no ownership rights but have objectives such as salary maximization that may conflict with the interests of the shareholders (Maher and Andersson 1999, 5-9).

On the other hand, a stakeholder model takes a broader view of the concept of a firm. The firm is made up of a network of relationships that extend beyond shareholders. Therefore, it should be managed in the best interest of all parties involved in the firm or whose lives are affected by its operations. Therefore, performance is measured according to the long-term impact that the firm has on the public and shareholders. Success is measured on the long basis and covers a broad range of performance metrics including social responsibilities, financial success and the strength of informal and formal relations with the stakeholders. However, the focus of this model can be narrowed down to those stakeholders who have a closer relationship with the firm such as customers and employees. Others include suppliers and other players in the company’s supply chain (Maher and Andersson 1999, 5-9).

Methods of Measuring the Impact of Corporate Governance

            Good corporate governance is marked by social legitimacy or credibility of a firm’s management and management approaches and financial efficiency. It revolves around helping the firm attain its strategic goals. Dahya and McConnell’s (2007) study established that companies complying with the guidelines and recommendations of the Cadbury Report or the Cadbury Code registered significant improvements in their operations especially when their return on assets (ROA) was gauged. In essence, the Cadbury Code particularly recommends a significant change in the management and control of publicly traded companies. The recommendation to include outside directors into the management structure of a firm potentially affects decision making, investor confidence, and firm credibility (Todorović 2013, 47). Undoubtedly, these factors combine to impact the financial and operational performance of any firm. The following two key methods were used in gauging the impact of corporate governance system on the performance of the firms.

Measuring Operating Performance

The implementation of a corporate governance system such as the Cadbury Code or the OECD Principles on Corporate Governance changes key operational areas. To statistically deduce these changes in the organizational operations, it is imperative that key areas that would be affected be identified. One such area is the return on assets (ROA) which is a component of a firm’s accounting earnings. The impact of corporate governance system can be measured by establishing the correlation between the number of outside directors and value of the company’s assets and equity (Gompers et al. 2003, 110). Additionally, such data is collected over a period and compared with those obtained from companies that do not use a definite corporate governance system over the same period. When broken down to its constituent indicators, measurement of ROA factors in the cost of goods sold by the firm, the sales volume, company expenses and the firm’s assets (Larcker, Richardson, and Tuna 2009, 970).

Studies have shown that companies that comply or implement the Cadbury Code show a significant improvement in their asset and equity values. Moreover, such companies record a significant growth in their sales and asset base. However, their expenses reduce significantly. The growth in ROA metrics such as equity and company value is as a result of improved investor confidence and preference (Todorović 2013, 47; Leuz, Lins, and Warnock 2009, 3246). More investors are willing to invest in such companies as they are perceived as well managed. This is further reinforced by the favorable perception investors have of such firms when it comes to credibility metric. The reduction in expenses is due to the streamlining of operations, which includes tighter measures to reduce overhead costs and management of payroll (Dahya and McConnell 2007, 552). These indicators point to a shareholder model whereby the primary objective of the senior management of these firms is to maximize profits and increase the shareholder value. However, measuring operating performance is also stakeholder-based model with characteristics of a shareholder model. It not only focuses on the shareholder; but also focuses on other factors that influence the operations of the firms. Furthermore, it factors in the contribution of customers and employees of these firms. Effective payroll management resulting from corporate management practices also benefits the employees. The increased sales and cost of goods sold are reflective of the firms’ improved relationship with the clients.    

Measuring Stock Prices   

The announcement of new inside and outside directors usually impacts the stock prices of companies whose shares are listed on the stock markets. Measuring the changes in stock value is a shareholder model that provides useful insights on how a corporate governance code applied by a firm can impact their stock prices (Aoki and Jackson 2008, 3). The appointment of additional outside directors improves the stock value of the firm. The study shows that firms that announce the election of at least three external directors records high levels of stock value growth compared to firms which appoint less than three outside directors. Additionally, companies which appoint inside directors typically register low growth in their stock value. This trend is indicative of investor confidence due to the perceived credibility of the firm (Todorović 2013, 47). While these methods provided definitive and statistically significant data to gauge how implementing a functional corporate governance code can affect a firm’s operations and stock value, some of the ways were ineffective. One such method is the measurement of the impact separating the chief executive officer, and chairman of the board would have on a firm’s return on assets and stock value. The power separation, as suggested by the Cadbury Code, has a statistically insignificant effect on these metrics for measuring organizational performance. Despite their failure, they point to a growing literature that supports the bundles approach to measuring how such codes affect performance.

The Bundles Approach  

According to Schnyder (2012), there are “four central claims or insights” that can be used to summarize this approach. These claims include the “degrees of implementation, equifinality, configurational, and contingency claims” (p. 11). The ‘degrees of implementation claim’ is founded on the view that corporate governance mechanisms and practices are implemented differently across various organizations. As such, firms can mix these systems differently and with varying intensity. In some cases, firms may configure their corporate governance mechanisms to tackle specific challenges prevailing within the firm at a specific time or to align the firm’s operations with the business environment. This configuration is the contingency claim of the bundle’s approach. The equifinality claim contextualizes the firm’s decision to substitute a specific corporate governance practice bundle with an option that will result in similar performance outcome. This functional equivalence of bundles allows for firms to choose the most efficient way of meeting the wealth needs of the shareholders. In the case of the stakeholder model, it allows the senior management to attain long-term growth and development in a socially responsible way. The configurational claim of corporate governance is founded on the substitutability and complimentary functioning of practices (Schnyder 2012, 12). Therefore, such mechanisms are only effective in positively impacting a company’s performance when combined. Additionally, finding the most effective combination of the practices can be achieved through substitution (Aguilera and Desender et al. 2012, 382; Aguilera et al. 2008, 476).

Problems in Undertaking the Studies

One of the greatest challenges in measuring the impact of corporate governance codes on organizational performance is the lack of a universally accepted code. Countries and firms implement these codes various combinations depending on various contingencies, rules, and cultural factors (Bebchuk and Hamdani 2009, 1264). This makes it relatively difficult to discern with certainty whether any particular guideline contained in the codes are effective or not. Additionally, it may be difficult to measure the cause and cost of non-compliance with these codes because they are variables that are affected by several factors that extend beyond compliance with these codes (Coles, Daniel, and Naveen 2007, 2). In his study of the bundles’ approaches, Schnyder (2012) acknowledges that proper an understanding of how corporate governance codes affect organizational operations requires a sophisticated methodology because of the intricate interconnection of factors that affect a firm’s performance. However, such a deep approach also requires factoring in of many factors that will eventually make such studies nonviable. It will increase the likelihood of adding numerous variables which are not correlated and hence their impact on an organization cannot be ascertained with accuracy.

Assumptions of the Study

The study conducted by Dahya and McConnell in 2007 made two fundamental assumptions that acted as the guiding pillars of the study. Like in previous literature, the study assumed that firms with more outsider directors on their board enjoy the better performance as they are bound to benefit from better decision making by the boards. Therefore, instead of testing whether there is a correlation between better decision making and outside directors, the researchers set to determine how such directors affect operational performance and stock values of firms. Additionally, the researchers assumed that changes made to the boards of the firms they sampled during the study period were not entirely endogenous (Dahya and McConnell 2007, 556).     


Since the publishing of the first Cadbury Report in 1992, there has been a growing push for corporations and countries to publish corporate governance guidelines that would set operational standards for management. Over the years, various countries have followed in the footsteps of the United States and the United Kingdom and published these codes. However, they vary between countries and firms due to economic and cultural issues. Rules, regulations, and laws in various geopolitical regions also lead to variations in the stipulations of these codes. Even between firms operating within the same geopolitical region, the codes can vary due to the lack of a universally accepted standard for corporate governance approach. As a result, corporations apply these codes in a variety of combinations that are reflective their preexisting challenges. Additionally, whether temporal, organizational or environmentally induced, the combinations of these codes have far-reaching effects on the operational performance of an organization. Moreover, with no universally applicable code and a plethora of factors that affect the performance of any organization, measuring the impact of these codes can be challenging.

            The Cadbury Code or its variants is widely used corporate governance code in territories beyond the United Kingdom. Its primary stipulation is that publicly held companies are mandated to include outside directors on their boards, which is informed by the assumption that such directors can potentially improve decision-making processes and consequently lead to improved corporate performance. Such an assumption primarily uses a shareholder model of measuring performance. It narrows down the concept of a firm and confines a firm’s primary objective as profit maximization. Therefore, performance within the context of such a code is primarily based on operating performance of the firm and growth of its stock value.

            The operating performance of a firm applying the Cadbury Code can be gauged by measuring the firm’s return on assets, and it includes measuring the market value of the firm’s equity and market value. Firms that have incorporated the code into their management practice usually enjoy greater investor confidence, which translates into improved operating performance. Optionally, firms can also measure the effect stipulations of the codes such as the number of outside directors appointed to the board on stock value. Despite the numerous factors that can affect such metrics, there is a positive correlation between implementing corporate governance systems and improved performance across key areas.


Aguilera, RV and Desender, KA et al., 2012. A Bundle Perspective to Comparative Corporate Governance. The Sage Handbook of Corporate Governance. London: Sage Publications.

Aguilera, RV et al., 2008. An organizational approach to comparative corporate governance: Costs, contingencies and complementarities. Organization Science 19(3), pp. 475-492.

Aoki, M and Jackson, G, 2008. Understanding an emerging diversity of corporate governance and organizational architecture: An essentially based analysis. Industrial and Corporate Change 17(1), pp. 1-27.

Argüden, Y, 2010. Measuring the effectiveness of corporate governance. INSEAD Knowledge. [Online] (Updated 16 April 2010). Available at: <> [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017].

Bebchuk, LA and Hamdani, A 2009. The elusive quest for global governance standards. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 157(5), pp. 1263-1317.

Coles, J, Daniel, ND, and Naveen, L, 2007. Board: Does one size fit all? Journal of Financial Economics.

Dahya, J and McConnell, JJ, 2007. “Board Composition, Corporate Performance, and the Cadbury Committee Recommendation.” The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 42(3), pp. 535-564.

Foley, S, 2017. “The battle of the US corporate governance codes. Financial Times. [Online] (Updated 5 Feb. 2017). Available at: <> [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017].

Gompers, PA et al., 2003. Corporate governance and equity prices. Quarterly Journal of Economics 118(1), pp. 107-155.

Hoi, C-K and Robin, A, 2010. Agency conflicts, controlling owner proximity, and firm value: An analysis of dual-class firms in the US. Corporate Governance: An International Review 18(2), pp. 124-135.

Larcker, DF, Richardson, SA, and Tuna, I, 2007. Corporate governance, accounting outcomes, and organization performance. Accounting Review 82(4), pp. 963-1008.

Leuz, C, Lins, KV and Warnock, F, 2009. Do foreigners invest less in poorly governed firms? Review of Financial Studies, 22(8), pp. 3245-3285.

Todorović, I, 2013. Impact of corporate governance on the performance of companies. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 9(2), pp. 47-53.

Maher, M and Andersson, T, 1999. Corporate governance: Effects on firm performance and economic growth. OECD.

Schnyder, G, 2012. Measuring corporate governance: Lessons from the ‘bundles approach.’ Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge. Working Paper No. 438, 2012.

Sample Geography Essay Paper on Bizarre Water Law cbest essay help

Water laws date back to the earliest human civilization. These laws were created to enhancing water management through conservation of water resources and environmental protection. Water governance can be considered as a multi-level control where state establishments from the local level up to the global level have a say about how water should be administered. The diversity of climatic conditions experienced in the state of California where some areas are characterized by deserts while others are associated with lush green farmlands has led the state to restructure and come up with suitable ways to supply water. After a five-year drought period, California experienced heavy rains that rapidly led to flooding, landslides and infrastructural damage (Miller 22).  In order to mitigate the negative effects of heavy rains, the state government formulated its own laws that controlled how the residents used the available water. One law that had since caused a stur among the general public was that which required the recycling of used car wash water. This law requires all car wash locations to install systems that recycle at least 60% of the water used in running its operations per day (Gaffney 16). This ensures the conservation of water through recycling. The newly passed law also set up new limits on the amount of water that could be used on landscapes surrounding newly constructed buildings. Thus, a vast majority of institutions such as residential houses, businesses and schools were strictly required to adhere to the set amount of water usage.

By passing the Assembly bill which requires all car wash businesses to install a recycling system, the state of California has come up with a suitable way of conserving water and regulating its use. This bill is ideal in that it reduces water wastage by almost 60%  through recycling (Pellican 65). Using a recycling system, the already used water undergoes several purification processes and is then used for the sole purpose of washing cars.This water management law is one of the most unusual that I have encountered. Considering the diverse environment that would require vehicles to be washed from time to time, the increase in the number of cars and the car wash stations, it is prudent that a more significant proportion of water is saved. It was therefore compulsory for car wash businessmen to put up more measures on reducing water wastage. Some of these stringent measures entailed major processes such as recycling and reusing significant percentage of the total quantity of water used (Pellican 71). The state of California has identified how to manage water use by adopting this strange law.This is a step forward in responsible water usage. To have a steady, stable supply of water, appropriate measures should be taken to keep water clean and minimize wastage. Also, the public was restricted from growing grass on specific landscapes surrounding newly constructed commercial or industrial buildings. This regulation is expected to moderate the use of water in new homes by about 20% or about 12,000 gallons a year (Miller 42). The newly ammended law requires home owners to only grow grass within a quarter of the entire courtyard.  Water use on new commercial landscapes will be cut by about 35% as a consequence to those who opt to launch substantial face-lifts of outdoor areas with more than 2,500 square feet of landscaping.This is another major step towards responsible water use as it will enable people to think more critically on how to best utilize the limited open space surrounding their buildings. The lawn will continue to shrink as the idea of nice little green grass getting lots of water every day will be a thing of the past.

Works Cited

Gaffney, Mason. Diseconomies inherent in western water laws: a California case study. 1961.

Miller, Gordon R. “Shaping California Water Law, 1781 to 1928.” Southern California Quarterly 55.1 (1973): 9-42.

Pelican Water.”California’s Weird Water Laws.” (May 11, 2017).

Sample Management Research Paper on Lean Manufacturing/Lean Systems for Apple free essay help: free essay help

Manufacturing has undergone tremendous change over the past few years. Many in the manufacturing industry have been working to create manufacturing processes that save on manufacturing cost and time, while at the same time improving the factory floor environment. One of the manufacturing processes that have been receiving accolades is the lean manufacturing system hailed for its improvements in productivity and reduction of costs in the manufacturing process (Campion 14). Overall, lean manufacturing and systems are a collection of principles and practices aimed at improving corporate performance and credited to the Toyota manufacturing process (Piercy and Rich 286). Although it is highly a Toyota association, other companies have taken up the processes, infusing them within their production systems to achieve improved efficiency, saving on costs, as well as improving manufacturing to market times in unprecedented ways. Apple is one of the companies that have taken advantage of this process. Although the company does not claim to be lean, it has some characteristic of the lean manufacturing processes and systems. In looking at lean manufacturing and systems, it is essential to consider Apple’s lean manufacturing and systems in comparison with Toyota’s processes. Indeed, apple has taken advantage of this process in its effort to reduce waste and streamline processes at Apple, and whether the process is eco-friendly.  

Toyota is one of the world’s biggest car manufacturers with global manufacturing and operations. The Japanese car manufacturer introduced the lean manufacturing system through its Toyota Production System. The system’s genesis came from circumstances that surrounded the company from as far as 1902 at the establishment of the company (Art of Lean 3). Additionally, in introducing the Toyota Production System (TPS), it was the view of the company that the system would allow the company achieves four goals. One of the goals was to provide excellent quality and service to the customer; this meant putting the customers’ needs first in the production process at all times (Art of Lean 5). TPS also aims to develop the employee’s potential, basic the development on mutual respect, cooperation among the employees and between the employer and employee, and through trust. It also looks to reduce cost by eliminating waste, while ensuring maximum profit in the process. Finally, the last goal of TPS is the development of flexible production standards that would be able to respond effectively to market demand.

As one of the most admired and innovative companies in the world, Apple explicitly follows a lean production (Pressman). The company was founded in 1976, and over the years has transformed itself from a computer technology company to an electronics and innovation behemoth. As well, the Apple designs and manufactures a wide range of consumer electronic such as the iPhone, MacBook, iMac, iPods, Apple TV and most recently wearable technology in Apple Watch. Further, the company has an in-house software designing and creation in addition to providing a plethora of services to its customers across the world. Fundamentally, Apple’s distinction from the rest of computer manufacturing companies is the closed-system. Through the system, the company maintains oversight in the production and designing of its products, making its products stand out from the rest in build and customer experience. Apple’s stance as an excellent company also hinges on its manufacturing and supply chain management process, which is not only effective but also cost-effective, ideally bordering on the lean manufacturing and systems principles.

While it does not explicitly claim to be lean, Apple is one of the company’s with lean characteristics in its production. Knowing the challenge of integrating sustainability into lean operations and supply chains (Piercy and Rich 282), the enterprise has been keen on developing its lean systems. Regarding lean systems integration, Campion states, “Manufacturers must look for flexible systems that are easily modified and that also improve the process, save time, and reduce errors” (14). Lean manufacturing and systems integration proffer advantages to companies that adopt them. Among the advantages is that such integrations are that through them “System integration not only complements lean manufacturingprinciples, but propels the manufacturer towards continuous improvement for the benefit of the company as a whole and the main objective of minimizing waste” (Campion 14). At the center of lean manufacturing and systems, therefore, is the elimination of waste, while increasing production and lead times to customers.

Apple’s approach to lean manufacturing and systems, like the company’s philosophy was (and still is) in “thinking differently.” In minimization of wastes, Apple’s approach was in the design of its products and use of technology. Most Apple’s products (iPhone, iPod, iPad) have only five buttons, and at the launch of the iPhone, most of the smartphones at the time had full physical QWERTY keyboards. Indeed, Apple’s design minimized wastes by having only five buttons and a touchscreen- features that were missing in most phones at the time of the introduction of the feature (Kerr 7).  Additionally, most of its competitors had bloated operating systems, such as Windows Phone from Microsoft that was the full-blown desktop operating system crumped into the phone. In contrast, Apple’ iPhone and the rest of its products had (and have) an intuitive and simplistic user interface, coupled with the sleek design, which endears the company’s products to its customers.

Among the principles of TPS (Toyota Production System) and the lean manufacturing and system are Just in Time (JIT). The aim of the principle is “to produce and deliver the right parts, in the right amount, at the right time using the minimum necessary resources” (Art of Lean 6). The idea of running such a system is to reduce inventory in addition to prevention of early and overproduction. Moreover, using JIT companies can identify problems and find solutions for the problems fast, in addition to making improvements (Art of Lean 6). In essence, Apple uses a similar model, although the enterprise outsources its production while using third party shipment. Apple’s supply chain is designed to enable customers to order custom-built phones or computers and deliver them to their doorsteps in a matter of days at most. Moreover, Apple keeps a tight watch on its inventory regardless of the fact that it does not do its manufacturing in-house. Such a lean system means that the company can make changes on the products in case of problems.

The efficiency of JIT was especially evident for Apple in 2010, in what became famously known as the ‘Antennagate.’ For this incident, the iPhone 4 lost signal when held by the lower-left corner—the point where the iPhone’s antenna sat (Chamary). Only the first batch of iPhone 4s experienced the problem, as the company corrected the mistake with the subsequent batch of iPhone 4s that came from the production line. Besides, Apple gave its customers free bumper cases to the first batch of customers who had complained of the phones losing signal (Chamary). The fact that Apple managed to produce so many bumper cases at such short notice, and the fact that subsequent iPhone 4s did not have similar problems attest to the fact that like Toyota, Apple uses the JIT principle as part of its lean approach to supply chain and production.

Jidoka (build quality) is another of Toyota’s pillars of lean manufacturing under the TPS model. Jidoka stresses on build quality during the process of manufacturing and offers a distinction between humans and machines in the working environment (Art of Lean 6). The principle aims at not only the minimization of wastes but also the automation of the production process. Ideally, as part of TPS, jidoka “aspires for processes that are capable of making intelligent decisions and shutting down automatically at the first sign of an abnormal condition such as a defect, or other problem” (Art of Lean 6). The argument for this is that “it is better to stop a machine at the first sign of trouble than to keep on producing the problem which only generates more waste” (Art of Lean 6).

Apple follows a similar approach, whereby it not only produces high quality, highly innovative products but also employ automation in their production processes. It collaborates with Foxconn, a Taiwanese manufacturer responsible for the production of most of the company’s (Apple) products (Dou). In the production line, Foxconn also uses automation on its assembly lines, although given the abundance and cheapness of labor in China, where most of its production factories are located, the company employs human labor. However, even in deploying human labor, Foxconn has line arrangement and short cycles, which then reduce the need for communication and training among the workers. The approach highly reduces the cost of production, and stoppage of any problems within the assembly line is easy, much like it is the case in TPS. Moreover, using such a system not only minimizes wastes but also streamlines the production process.

The purpose of lean manufacturing and systems is to reduce the cost of production for the company, and in so doing increase profitability while reducing waste. On the other hand, the green initiative aims at the sustainable use of resources and care for the environment, especially in the reduction of pollution and emission of greenhouse gases from the manufacturing process (Hartini and Ciptomulyono 40). Often, there is an assumption that lean manufacturing is green. While some of the elements of lean manufacturing and systems support green initiatives and objectives, it does not necessarily mean green. However, lean manufacturing processes provide a framework and platform towards environmental sustainability. In fact, research studies show that implementation of lean manufacturing methods leads to waste and pollution reduction, especially emissions (Hartini and Ciptomulyono 40). Similarly, an awareness of environmental factors and issues can also be a precursor to the adoption of lean manufacturing models. Especially important is the idea that “focus on environmental improvement may create a more system-focused approach to management generally” (Hartini and Ciptomulyono 40). Evident in this case is the fact that the two (lean and green) mutually inform on one another in that lean inadvertently leads to sustainability through the undertaking of sustainable use and management of resources, as well as the adoption of sustainable processes.

Part of the reason for a lot of attention on lean manufacturing processes is the impact that manufacturing has had on the environment. Most multinational corporations are including sustainability and environmental aspects into their overall business strategies, especially given that more consumers than before are not only concerned about the end product, but the processes the products undergo in their production. Consumers demand environmentally sustainable processes and raw materials, with some threatening to boycott products that are not environmentally friendly. Furthermore, as a company operating in the consumer electronics industry, there have been concerns over the industry’s impact on the environment. Part of the reason for the concern of the consumer electronics industry on the environment is its booming at the start of the 21st century and their lack of consideration for the environment for the better part of their operations. Additionally, concerns have followed what most environmentalists regard as “negative impact on the environment during manufacturing, usage, and disposal of consumer electronic devices related to the consumption of a large amount of energy, the use of toxic and hazardous materials and the scrapping of outdated consumer electronics” (Lock and Yao 3).

Aside from the impact of the industry on the environment, Apple had previously been on the receiving end on its lacks of environmental sustainability. Woody explains that the company (Apple) continuously had bad reviews especially from Greenpeace that accused the company of not releasing any details of its carbon footprint in the manufacture of its products. However, in the recent years, the corporation has been keen on its environmental impact, and many have hailed it as one of the leaders in environmental sustainability. Apple’s environmental sustainability initiatives are visible through its “Environmental Sustainability Strategy” that looks to reduce its carbon footprint while contributing to the restoration of the environment. 

The first of the strategy is the reduction of climate change through it manufacturing process as well as the usage of its products. It is especially evident that as a consumer electronics company, the manufacturing process accounts for a large portion of the company’s carbon footprint. Indeed, Apple’s manufacturing processes account for 72 percent of the company’s total carbon footprint (Lock and Yao 3). Although the business does not own its manufacturing and supply chain facilities, opting to outsource the processes instead, it has worked closely with its partners to reduce the carbon footprint. Therefore, in the reduction of its environmental impact, Apple “improved its efficiency by reducing the carbon intensity linked to manufacturing and product use” (Lock and Yao 3). Additionally, given that it designs both the software and hardware of its products, Apple collaborated with its business partners in generating higher energy efficiency in its products through the efficient power supply, efficient hardware as well as including efficient power management in its software.

Apple’s environmental sustainability strategy also includes the use of renewable resources. The company is looking to use 100% renewable energy in its facilities and has so far done so in its retail stores in the U.S. The company plans to have its stores worldwide run on 100% renewable energy. Additionally, it built a 20-megawatt photovoltaic array to supply energy to its billion-dollar data center, in addition to a five-megawatt biogas-powered farm to supply electricity to it iDataCenter (Woody). Apple’s use of renewable resources has also included the use of sustainable virgin fiber and small packaging for its products. Through the specification for it virgin fiber, the company has been able to strike a balance between virgin fiber and recycled fibers for making the packaging for its products (Lock and Yao 3).

Apple’s environmental strategy also includes the use of recyclable resources. Its manufacturing process reuses and recycles some of the resources within the process such as water (Lock and Yao 4). Furthermore, the company has changed its design process, making thinner, smaller, lighter and energy efficient products. The products then require less material but last longer. A specific example is the company’s notebook batteries, which continue to serve the consumer five years from their purchase, in addition to the ability of the company’s old products to install and run latest software and application. Such abilities on the products mean that consumers do not need to buy new products to enjoy the latest software and application offers from the company.

Implementing the strategy has had a great impact on the company’s carbon footprint. Between 2010 and 2015, Apple’s carbon footprint has reduced tremendously (by 64 percent). Further, the company has moved from one of the “least green,” to one that champions sustainability in operations. While the manufacturing process still has one of the highest carbon footprints, the company has become almost sustainable, with the bulk of its operations in the U.S. running on renewable energy. Even more is that Apple’s approach to sustainability has challenged other tech companies to follow suit, with companies such as Google running on renewable energy, as well as investing in wind farms for the production of renewable energy for its worldwide operations.

Indeed, manufacturing has evolved significantly. Currently, companies are after manufacturing processes that reduce the cost and period of production. One of the manufacturing processes that have been largely hailed is the lean manufacturing system. The system is praised for its improvements in productivity and reduction of costs in the manufacturing process. Although the process is largely associated with Toyota, other companies have taken it up and fused it with other processes of manufacturing. One such company is Apple. Although there have been pitfalls regarding the corporation’s use of the technology, the process has largely influenced the business positively.

Work cited

Art of Lean.Toyota Production System: Basic Handbook.Art of Lean, 2016.

Campion, Shawn. “System Integration Meets Lean Manufacturing.” Quality, 2017, pp. 2-14VS,15VS, ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. Accessed from

Chamary, J., V. “Apple didn’t learn from the iPhone Antennagate scandal.” Forbes, October 31, 2016. Accessed from

Clark, Don. “HP Goes Lean to Draw Premium Buyers; PC Maker Wants to Polish its Image as Innovator, as Sales Shrink.”Wall Street Journal (Online), Apr 03, 2016, US Newsstream. Accessed from

Dou, Eva. “How the iPhone Built a City in China; Zhengzhou, Once Dominated by Farmland, Now has 250,000 People Working to Assemble Apple’s Smartphone.”Wall Street Journal (Online), Jul 03, 2017, US Newsstream. Accessed from

Hartini, Sri, and Ciptomulyono, Udisubakti. “The relationship between lean and sustainable manufacturing on performance: literature review.”Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 4, pp. 38-45.

Kerr, John. Apple Inc. (AAPL). Henry Fund, 2015. Accessed from

Lck, Fiona, and Yao, Yihong.Apple’s Environmental Sustainability Strategy: Considering Innovation for Everything.Centennial College, 2015, Accessed from

Piercy, Niall, and Nick Rich.”The Relationship between Lean Operations and Sustainable Operations.” International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 35, no. 2, 2015, pp. 282-315.

Pressman, Aaron. “Business lessons from the iPhone’s first decade.” Fortune, January 9, 2017. Accessed from

Woody, Todd. “How Apple went from environmental laggard to leader.” Forbes, February 22, 2012. Accessed from

Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Legal and Ethical Issues in Self-Referrals history essay help: history essay help

Legal and Ethical Issues in Self-Referrals


In the medical industry, regulatory frameworks are crucial in ensuring that the healthcare providers comply with the prescribed legal and ethical standards to ensure that the patients receive high-quality services and avoiding malpractices. Medical practitioners have a responsibility of maintaining high levels of ethical standards in their practice to avoid litigations and harming their patients. The number of privately owned hospitals and other health facilities continues to increase in the United States due to the limited number of bed spaces and equipment in publicly owned facilities as well as the enactment of the Affordable Care Act that has increased the affordability of health services (Bazzoli, Brewster, Liu, & Kuo, 2003; Anderson, 2014). The increasing demand for bed spaces and specialized services has also created an opportunity for physicians to invest in offering private health services to the American consumers. Most of the privately owned hospitals and physician-owned hospitals are renowned for maintaining high levels of satisfaction ratings among patients and high quality healthcare services. Additionally, such facilities have the benefit of providing an opportunity to the investors and physicians to have increased control on clinical practices in their facilities (Perry, 2012).

The supporters of physician and privately owned hospitals argue that such facilities provide the competitive force needed to improve the quality of healthcare services and increase the patients’ choices in the United States (Kusserow, 1989). However, serious concerns over the model of allowing physicians to operate private healthcare facilities rise due to the conflict of interests from the issue of self-referrals. Self-referral occurs when a medical practitioner refers his or her patient for diagnosis or treatment to a medical center where the physician has direct or indirect financial interests. In this case, the medical practitioner may share profits or revenue at the referred medical facility without directly offering services to the patient. The primary concern is that the caregivers may refer the patient to their medical facilities although the patients could receive better or cheaper services in alternative facilities. The ambiguous nature of the American healthcare system allows the medical practitioners to invest in the sector and make profits. Nonetheless, several laws exist to discourage any forms of malpractices related to the issue of self-referrals despite the latitude offered to for-profit organizations in the healthcare industry. Additionally, the medical practitioners must avoid contravening the standard of care adopted in the industry to prevent litigations. The current paper analyzes the legal and ethical issues that arise in self-referral issues presented in a case study on Dr. Birch through the IRAC framework.

Legal Issues in Self-Referrals


Does the issue of self-regulation increase the risk of overutilization of private healthcare services in medical facilities where the doctors have financial interests and increase the cost of healthcare services? Such are some of the main concerns that arise when the medical practitioners have some financial incentives to send patients to private healthcare facilities for medical services. As patients’ expectations continue to increase in healthcare, there is an urgent need to improve the quality of healthcare services as well as reducing liabilities (Lateef, 2011). Although private medical facilities offer high quality medical services, the commercial interests have increased the cost of healthcare services and raised the risks of physicians engaging in questionable practices. The legal question that arises from Dr. Birch’s case is whether violated the current regulations by forming a partnership with the Imaging Resources, Inc. directors. While the company offered diagnostic services through its advanced equipment, the issue of engaging Dr. Birch as a shareholder in the company raises the issue of conflict of interest because he was known as one of the leading medical practitioners who referred patients to various hospitals. The increasing number of physician and privately owned hospitals forced the Department of Health and Human Services to investigate their practices during the late 1980s, and the main concern was the issue of illegal practices such as the issuance of kickbacks in the healthcare sector.

The increasing number of self-referrals prompted the HHS department to make inquiries on the systemic problems associated with self-referrals in physician-owned hospitals and the physicians’ practice (Kusserow, 1989). The main concern was that the competing interests increased the risks of patient harm and medical malpractices where the physicians would seek to profit from the patients’ illnesses. Jonathan Birch had offered his private services at reasonable prices for a long time, and this demonstrates his good intentions in serving his community. However, the increasing costs of operating advanced diagnostic equipment such as the computed tomography scans and MRI forced the doctor to refer his patients to the local hospital where the patients were billed directly and this reduced Dr. Birch’s income. Although the doctor operated a private facility that offered diagnostic services, an important issue that rises in the current case is that he charged his services at costs that were moderate enough to repay the purchases he made on his equipment. As such, Dr. Birch’s facility was almost operating as a not-for-profit organization.

However, his association with Imaging Resources, Inc. raises serious concerns because the company is for-profit and offered attractive conditions meant to lure Dr. Birch through loans and profits as well as partial ownership opportunities. Additionally, this could influence the doctor’s decisions when making referrals because he knew that he could benefit from the referrals. The doctor agreed to the offer presented to him because he believed that it would enable him to recoup the losses he made when referred patients to the local hospital for diagnostic services. Nonetheless, referring the patients to Imaging Resources, Inc. would increase the costs of diagnostic services on the patients because the company had to make profits, and this makes Dr. Birch’s decision to involve himself with the company directly raise legal issues.


Although Dr. Birch may have acted without ulterior motives, his situation may have contravened some of the regulations guiding the practice of physicians. Some of the pertinent laws that relate to Dr. Birch’s issue include the Anti-Kickback Statute and the Stark Law. The Anti-Kickback statute governs the financial relationships between physicians and hospitals to prevent hospitals associated with the physicians from benefitting from payments through questionable referrals (Winger & Shufeldt, 2014). The Anti-Kickback Statute, U.S.C. § 1320a-7b, establishes fines to parties engaged in prohibited transactions that go against the law, and guilty persons or entities are liable to mandatory exclusion from engaging in healthcare programs as well as five years imprisonment and a fine of $25,000 or both (United States Congress House, 2009). Nonetheless, statute U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b)(3) excludes some of the transactions from penalties and grants safe harbor to medical practitioners who engage in private businesses in the healthcare sector. Some of such exclusions include specified types of investments, equipment or space rentals, employment arrangements, management contracts, and personal services among others (United States Congress House, 2009). While the law allows people to engage in diverse business transactions, the medical practitioners are expected to reveal their interests in the facilities where they refer their patients (Rodwin, 2011).

The second legislation contravened in the Dr. Birch’s case is the Stark Law that prohibits doctors who make referrals from profiting inappropriately from their actions when they refer patients to other healthcare facilities as established by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (Kazmier, 2008). According to Goldstein (1996), the Stark Law stipulates the acceptable conditions for physicians engaged in group practice. The Stark Law is highly complex, and it requires hospitals to observe caution on issues regarding compensation arrangements. The statute also species some of the acceptable terms that determine the validity of agreements between physicians and various hospitals. Olson, Stanley, & Coker Group (2007) notes that such agreements must be written, cover identifiable services, indicate specified times, last for less than one year, and have advanced compensation conditions among others to be valid. The medical practitioners are also expected to duly fill the self-referral disclosure protocol provided by Medicare.


Although the laws governing business transactions and practice in the healthcare sector allow physicians to operate, co-own, or invest in private medical facilities, Dr. Birch’s actions are illegal. Dr. Birch understood that the Imaging Resources, Inc. company was focused on making profits by forming partnerships with leading referring physicians, and as one of the leading referring doctors would give the company undue advantage over other businesses offering similar services. Moreover, the company offered him favorable terms to become one of the shareholders in exchange for his referrals, and this is tantamount to bribing which is illegal in the American laws. The introduction of new laws represents the need for new interactions in handling self-referral issues.


In conclusions, the relationship between Dr. Birch and the referred hospital represents the challenges in determining the complexity in determining the validity of self-referrals in the Medicare industry. Dr. Birch’s case highlights the need of some programmed attention on the relationship between physicians and patients on the safety of interpersonal relationships between employees in the servitude industry and healthcare sector. Additionally, the interactions between the doctor and patient reflects some conflict of interest in attending to patient’ needs.

Ethical Issues in Self-Referrals


The main ethical issue highlighted presented in the case is whether Dr. Birch contravened ethical standards, or standards of care in the United States. Although Dr. Birch agreed to accept the investment opportunity presented by Imaging Resources, Inc., the main question that arises from his actions is whether he contravened any of the available legislations or rules by engaging with Imaging Resources Inc. The standards of care legislation oppose the involvement of medical practitioner.


Cole, C. M. (2013). Physician-owned hospitals and self-referrals. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 15(2), 150-155.

Litman, M. (2004). Self-referral and kickbacks: fiduciary law and the regulation of “trafficking in patients”. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 170(7), 1119-1120.

Perry, J. E. (2012). Physician‐Owned Specialty Hospitals and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Health Care Reform at the Intersection of Law and Ethics. American Business Law Journal, 49(2), 369-417.

Anderson, A. (2014). The impact of the Affordable Care Act on the health care workforce. Backgrounder, (2887).

Kazmier, J. L. (2008). Health care law. Cengage Learning.

Winger, A., & Shufeldt, J. (2014). Textbook of urgent care management: Chapter 21, employment contracts and compensation. Cork: BookBaby.

Bazzoli, G. J., Brewster, L. R., Liu, G., & Kuo, S. (2003). Does US hospital capacity need to be expanded? Health Affairs, 22(6), 40-54.

United States Congress House. (2009). America’s Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009: Report of the Committee on Energy and Commerce on H.R. 3200 together with dissenting views. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

Olson, E. E., Stanley, K., & Coker Group. (2007). Physician recruitment and employment: A complete reference guide. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Goldstein, D. E. (1996). Building and managing effective physician organizations under capitation. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers.

Lateef, F. (2011). Patient expectations and the paradigm shift of care in emergency medicine. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock, 4(2), 163.

Rodwin, M. A. (2011). Conflicts of interest and the future of medicine: The United States, France, and Japan. Oxford [England: Oxford University Press.

Kusserow, R. P. (1989). Financial arrangements between physicians and health care businesses: Perspectives of healthcare professionals. Retrieved from

Sample Sociology Research Paper on Growing up Gay, Bi, or Transgender college application essay help online

Growing up Gay, Bi, or Transgender

            Transgender, gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGBT) people represent a marginalized lot in the society who suffer lack of continuity in their identity. They also suffer unwanted distinctiveness, low self-esteem, and injustice in many instances.  They face discrimination in social places such as the work place, schools, and even in recreational facilities such as parks. In previous centuries, sociology and the society at large ignored the subject of LGBT hence the label of social taboos which were considered criminal acts both legally and socially. Gay people for example faced serious conviction and alienation since homosexuality was associated with mental illness. Because of this, most people within this group fear detection or coming out and live in fear that their mannerisms and ways of expression might give them away. Gay and lesbians are the most common in this group. The transgender group might not be new but was given a name recently. Growing up as an LGBT could prove very difficult due to the alienation, oppression, and discrimination that comes along with it.

            People are mostly categorized as male or female. Other people who express characteristics that would ordinarily be attributed to the other gender face discrimination and stigmatization and are often seen as social deviants. They violate the conformity of gender expectations making them easy targets of social and economic discrimination. Gay men have been known to be stereotyped with labels such as submissive, weak, and emotional. Gay people struggle with identity and some of them (non-identified gays) perceive themselves as heterosexuals while others try to hide hence confusion. Masculine gays are more accepted in the society as compared to feminine ones. This leads to gay men giving in to that kind of stereotyping and strive to come out as masculine gays to increase their chances of being liked. The Cass model of gay identity brings out six stages that help people to progress through a series of several developmental changes that mark a common experience (Nardi &Schnider, 2013). Each of these stages might be distinguished by predominant occurrence of particular cognitions, behaviors, and emotions. Identity is associated with coming out of homosexuals which symbolizes the pursuit of self-identification and individual rights.

            Identity confusion is the first stage where gay people label themselves homosexuals with the perception thoughts, behaviors and feelings. At this point, they might have doubts about their sexuality, hence identifying themselves as heterosexuals rather than gays. The second stage is called identity comparison which marks acceptance (Nardi &Schnider, 2013). A person begins to accept the possibility of a predominant gay or lesbian orientation, hence a development from confusion towards addressing social alienation that comes with being gay or lesbian.  Identity tolerance marks the third stage whereby a person admits to himself on the probability of being gay. This helps one to deal with identity confusion hence a relief that allows him or her to pursue their own social, emotional and sexual needs. This is where the person relates or keeps contact with other gay or lesbian people in the community while increasing the chances of meeting possible role models.  With positive contacts, the person will be able to accept the gay or lesbian identity more (Nardi &Schnider, 2013).

            The fourth stage marks identity acceptance whereby; an individual interacts more with the gay community as this person accepts their identity (Nardi &Schnider, 2013). This is also perceived in the interactionist perspective of sociology which reviews identification. Alienation might continue due to lack of acceptance from the heterosexual community at this stage.  Although the society has become more acceptable to gays, some still report social discrimination such as rejection from family and being the subject of jokes. At this point, some would be able to interact well with the gay and straight world. This strategy works for some people while to others; it attracts alienation and discrimination especially from the straight world (Nardi &Schnider, 2013) .

            Fitting into the society leads to identity pride which is the fifth stage that works against strategies aimed towards hiding identity. Here, stages of activism and fighting perceived oppression such as the fight for gay rights develop (Nardi &Schnider, 2013). Interactions with heterosexual friends in this stage determine whether or not a person graduates to the last stage. Negative comments tend to discourage one from moving towards the next stage especially if they lack self-esteem.  45% of Americans believe that gay and lesbianism are sins which go against their religious beliefs. This means that a large number might not perceive it with positivity. The last stage is identity synthesis would take away the mentality of “us” and “them” leading to the creation of a different view. One comes to realize that the dichotomy between the gay and straight world might not be as clear as previously perceived. Sexual identity becomes less important as public and personal views become synthesized.

            To avoid negative comments and contacts from family and society, young gay men and lesbians hide their sexuality from family and friends. They use different concealing methods to hide their identity. These include, inhibiting interests and social behaviors associated with homosexuality, avoiding homosexuality information exposure, pretending to be anti-gay, and establishing straight (heterosexual) relationship (Clinard, 2016). Some even join straight people in taunting homosexuals in an effort to hide their identity. This means living in a classic homophobic closet and could lead to social limiting habits such as drugs and substance abuse in an effort to deal with it. Some of the young LGBTs who come out to family members risk alienation and physical violence from family members as try to force them into being heterosexuals.

            The LGBT community undergoes different fundamental problems which are mostly brought about by discrimination. Education is considered a fundamental human right which expands the prospects of human beings. However, this community does not get an equal opportunity or a safe environment to pursue education. Transgender for example face violence and discrimination in schools hence a large number of transgender school dropouts.  Employment is also another fundamental right that is tampered with because of sexual conformity. Some LGBT people are denied employment opportunities while others face discrimination and oppression at their places of work (Kollen, 2016). Work places are categorized by hetero normative climates that lead to the assumption that everyone is heterosexual. This therefore, leads to LGBT employees being treated with open homophobia by their colleagues and the management and could be a hindrance to promotion or could even lead to termination. This might lead to lower productivity due to depression hence losing the job (Kollen, 2016).

            The risk of hostility and violence from both family members and the outside community are also high since they become targets after coming out. At this point, they develop double lives trying to fit into both sides of the community (Clinard, 2016). They engage in self-loathing regretting their existence. In worse cases, they develop self-harming habits like drug abuse and in extreme cases, some commit suicide. They live in fear of homophobic and Trans phobic family and community members not knowing when they will strike next. In extreme cases, some are thrown out of their homes, leading to homelessness, especially when they retaliate both verbally and physically. Religious institutions also tend to be unfriendly and aggressive towards them because it is perceived as a sin (Kollen, 2016). The Muslim and catholic religions prove to be the most unfriendly towards the LGBT. This is a big block towards the acceptance of LGBT group since religion seems to influence their stand on the issue. When asked, most say that such behavior contradicts with their religious beliefs.

            Even though there are isolated cases of acceptance, discrimination continues on different levels. This is because it is believed that the LGBT community represents a sin hence an abomination. Heterosexuals hold an advantage in all aspects of life hence, making them more privileged in the society (Dillon, 2010). This is because heterosexism looks at heterosexuality as the norm thus, encouraging discrimination among the LGBT. This is according to the conflict and feminism perspective of sociology. A married heterosexual couple for example receives more that 1000benefits from the government while homosexuals are not even allowed to marry in some states.

            Heterosexuality is bias on social welfare policies which impacts the LGBT family in three ways. These include policies that; target them as abnormal or deviant individuals, assuming all families are heterosexual, and those that overlook LGBT social needs and poverty because of influence stereotypes among these families (Dillon, 2010). The heterosexual bias also undermines LGBT family structure since even the legislature defines a family in such a way that it privileges heterosexual families over LGBT. However, gay rights have gained a lot of audience and support leading to more LGBT marriages and couples who end up bringing up LGBT families. Through adoption, they have been allowed to care for and bring up children.

            In conclusion, it is important to note with concern that the LGBT group faces a lot to problems as they grow up. This comes from both the family and society at large. For the LGBT group like gays to come out, they need social and institutional support from family, friends and the society at large. Living everyday with fear because of sexual orientation should be discouraged and hate crimes against sexuality should be punishable in court. In some states, hate crimes are punishable in court while in others; gay rights are not recognized (Kimmel, 2006). They need to be empowered with cultural, social, and financial equity with heterosexuals who are considered superior. Also, counseling should be encouraged in schools to create awareness because adolescents bullying could lead to suicidal extremes. Even though public attitudes have changed overtime, it becomes more difficult for an adult to come out and identify with his or her sexual orientation (Kimmel, 2006). This is due to fear of what the public may perceive of them such that they end up being married and having children while hiding in a heterosexual relationship. The younger generation is not affected as much as the older generation. Today, LGBT has somehow become a norm and should be encouraged in an effort to improve personality and help them grow. LGBT is a sexuality identity just like heterosexuality hence no need for discrimination.


Clinard, M. B. (2016). Sociology of deviant behavior.

Dillon, M. (2010). Introduction to sociological theory: Theorists, concepts, and their applicability to the twenty-first century. Chichester, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell.

Köllen, T. (2016). Sexual orientation and transgender issues in organizations: Global perspectives on LGBT workforce diversity.

Kimmel, D. C., Rose, T., & David, S. (2006). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender aging: Research and clinical perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press.

Nardi, P. M., & Schneider, B. E. (Eds.). (2013). Social perspectives in lesbian and gay studies: A reader. Routledge.

Sample Criminal Justice Essay Paper on The Internet college essay help: college essay help

The Internet

The Internet allows one to access information stored in a computer from anywhere in the world. Through a connection provided by an Internet Service Provider (ISP) a user can access information store in a computer in Australia, when the user is in Canada. As a connection, therefore, the Internet has so far moved from connecting not only computers, but also smartphones and other Internet-enabled devices. Today online streaming of videos, conference calls, updating one’s status and posting pictures on social media, chatting with friends, searching information through search engines such as Google, Bing and other information data bases is only possible when one has an Internet connection (Leiner et al., 2009). In essence, while this information was available before the invention of the Internet, it (Internet) provided the missing link, allowing people to access the information from the comfort of their desks, palms and laps through different Internet-enabled devices. To provide the link, the Internet uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) as the standard linking system of computers in the world. The Internet, thus, is a network of networks, and comprises of government, academic, business, private and public networks that have wide ranges from local to global scale (Leiner et al., 2009). The information carried and accessed online today such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, and file sharing all rely on the Internet for their passage and access by users across the world.

The Internet as it is known today began in the late 1960s as part of the US government military network APRAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency network). The purpose of APRAnet at its conception was the provision of a secure and robust communications network serving organizations involved in defense-related research. APRAnet’s system became the model on which government agencies and universities based their internal networks, the most important of which was the National Science Foundation (NSF). Within APRAnet’s model were protocols for sharing and communication of information, which are still in use today (NSF, 2003).

While many other agencies developed their systems for sharing information, NSF intended to make available the high-end computing resources of its supercomputer centers. NSF intended that scientists and engineers around the country could get access to the computing resources, and therefore launched the NSFNET, which had a speed of 56,000 bits per second at the time (NSF, 2003). The speeds were later upgraded to 1.5 megabits per second as more networks were connected to NSFNET network, extending its reach throughout the country (United States).

The development of NSFNET coincided with the rise of personal computers, which were becoming more popular. At the same time, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) based in Geneva, Switzerland and headed by Tim Berners-Lee was developing the World Wide Web (Leiner et al., 2009). NSFNET worked in the development of the first web browser, Mosaic, which became the progenitor of other web browsers widely used today. The World Wide Web as developed at CERN allows the positioning and viewing of multimedia-based documents of any conceivable subject with the help of an Internet connection and a web browser (NSF, 2003).

The invention of the Internet is perhaps one of the greatest in the recent times. The invention comes with many advantages, most of whose realization would have been impossible with the non-existence of the Internet. At its invention, NSF intended that the Internet be a tool allowing researcher to get information with no cost to the researcher or the institution (NSF, 2003). The Internet is still a free information resource that allows people to access information and knowledge at no cost. Butler, Butler and Rich (2008) inform that the Internet has sharply reduced the real cost of sharing and accessing information. Indeed, while it took purchase of books (most of which were in paperbacks and expensive) or membership (also by monthly or annual subscription fees) to libraries to access books, the Internet has made it especially easy for people to access knowledge and information at free to minimal cost. Some online information repositories are free for access by individuals across the world, thanks to the Internet, and even those that charge some fee, the fees are increasingly pocket friendly, and give access to a wide range of resources covering an even wider range of topics (Butler, Butler & Rich, 2008).

In relation to information and knowledge sharing, the Internet takes credit for increased collaboration among researchers and scientists across the world. Butler, Butler and Rich (2008) inform that apart from reducing the cost of accessing information and knowledge, the Internet has positively impacted collaboration between faculty of different departments and universities. Further, Butler, Butler and Rich (2008) enthuse that there has been increased (85 percent) collaboration between Internet-connected universities. With the Internet, therefore, physical presence of researcher is less import. The instantaneous nature of Internet communication with tools such as email, instant messaging, teleconferencing and video chats absolve the necessity of physical presence for collaboration between researchers (Butler, Butler & Rich, 2008). Through the Internet and using the communication tools, it is possible to not only collaborate on research but also projects through virtual teams, in addition to conducting business from anywhere in the world. The Internet, therefore, essentially encourages collaboration and business, without necessarily leaving one’s physical location.

Perhaps one of the most significant advantages of the Internet is its ease of communication between people from around the world. Through the Internet, distances between places have increasingly thinned with innovations such as email, instant messages (IM), video chats and teleconferencing significantly reducing the distance between places and people. Tejedor and Pulido (2012) posit that such innovations rely on the Internet as their very base. Social media, one of the latest innovations that rely on the Internet, has been at the forefront of reducing the distance between people, enabling them to share pictures, videos as well as stories of their lives. With more than a billion users, Facebook alone enables people to communicate daily, in addition to enabling people make friends and reconnect with long-lost friends, relatives and colleagues (Tejedor & Pulido, 2012).

While the ease that the Internet brings cuts across both the social and economic lives, a singularly economic advantage of the Internet is its provision of a global customer base to businesses. Through company websites, business can advertise to individuals across the world irrespective of the location of the business’ headquarters. Through the Internet, therefore, customers can learn of the history of the company, its products and services, as well as get reviews of the company’s products and services from other users. Through this, the company and the individual are able to gain new customers as well as gauge the suitability and quality of the company’s products respectively. Moreover, business with online stores can make sales over the Internet and delivery the products regardless of the location of the customer. Even more is that such stores offer the businesses 24/7 presence across the world.

The cost effective nature of the Internet is true not only to researchers (Tejedor & Pulido, 2012) and customers, but to businesses as well. Traditional advertising in newspapers, magazines and radios are significantly more costly than Internet advertising. Further, while there may be fears on the reach of Internet ads, recent statistic indicate that there are 3.7 billion Internet users globally, the bulk of them being mobile Internet users. The recent proliferation of smartphones has increased Internet traffic, particularly on these gadgets. Businesses, therefore, have a larger audience for their ads. Even more is that Internet ads are largely targeted, which means that ads only reach people with interest in the item the business is advertising as well as those most likely to purchase, giving the business higher chances of making sales.

Although the Internet presents numerous advantages, it has a number of disadvantages. One of the downsides of the Internet is individual inactivity, which has the potential of causing lifestyle diseases such as overweight and obesity. Tejedor and Pulido (2012) observe that 70 percent of minors in developed countries have access to a computer and Internet, with 52 percent spending a minimum of 5 hours surfing the Internet. Access to the Internet is even greater among adults, especially those who live sedentary lifestyles. Such inactivity presents health problems to both the minors and adults.

Worse, however, is the danger that lurks on the Internet. With more people having access to the Internet through their mobile phones and computers, posting personal information and pictures on social media, there is danger of people taking advantage of the information to blackmail and steal identity among other vices. Minors are especially exposed, as the Internet can be the point of introduction to drugs, cults, bullying and other forms of crimes (Tejedor & Pulido, 2012). Pedophiles have extensively used the Internet to lure their victims, and the possibility of anonymity over the Internet has made it increasingly difficult to arrest such criminals and bring them to book. Indeed, the Internet has become a hub of crimes including money laundering, identity theft, fraud, as well as the point of contact for recruitment to cults and terrorist groups. More of criminal groups are using the Internet to meet, plan, and execute their attacks, most of which cost human lives and economic downturn.

While the Internet has ease communication between people, it is slowly replacing face-to-face communication and drawing people away. It is more and more common to see people huddled over their phones in the virtual world giving little or no attention to the physical world. Consequently, it is becoming increasingly difficult to have any meaningful conversation with people, particularly the youth as they are drawn to the non-existent virtual world created by games and social media supported by the Internet.

The Internet is indeed one of the greatest technological innovations of the 20th and 21st centuries.  The reliance on the Internet today for communication, business and commerce, research and collaboration indeed gives impetus to the Internet as the greatest technological invention in the recent times.  While smartphones and computers provide platforms for work, the Internet provides the missing link between people and products, students and teachers, machines and humans, as well as providing a platform of interconnectedness across the world a feat no recent innovation can achieve.


Butler, D. M., Butler, R. J., & Rich, J. T. (2008). The equalizing effect of the internet on access to research expertise in political science and economics. Political Science & Politics, 41(3), 579-584. Retrieved from

Leiner, B., M. et al. (2009). A brief history of the internet. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 39(5), 22-31. Retrieved from

NSF (2003). A Brief History of NSF and the Internet. NSF. Retrieved from

Tejedor, S., & Pulido, C. (2012). Challenges and risks of internet use by children. how to empower minors?/Retos y riesgos del uso de internet por parte de los menores. ¿Cómo empoderarlos? Comunicar, 20(39), 65-72. Retrieved from

Sample Art Essay Paper on Works of Art on Display personal essay help

Majority of museums across the world holds several pieces of art some of which are displayed everyday while others on special occasions. However, the small fractions of the artwork that are open to be viewed on specific occasions are considered as masterpieces. The following are some of the works of art that are on display on museums across the world.

The Bedroom (1889)

“The Bedroom” is about a drawing of a “studio in the south” which Vincent van Gogh had embodied in his house. He used color to create the harmonious feeling which he wanted to achieve with this particular drawing. The color yellow brings out the harmonious effect which Gogh had envisioned of having like-minded artists working together in one place to create a future art. However, the main challenge that an audience may have when looking at the image is identifying the harmonious effect in the image.

I also want to learn more about this drawing because of the perfect balance in intelligence that the painter used to compose the portrait. It is clear that only a good artist can be able to read the mind of Gogh through this drawing; to an ordinary person, it appears like a common bedroom but there is much to it that can be learnt.

At the same time, I would like to learn more about self-imagination as an aspect that an artist can use to read the mind of another artist through their work. It is because when you look at this particular drawing, Gogh used different colors on the wall, bed, and floor meaning that it is possible to draw different meaning from the painting.

Foliage-Oak Tree and Fruit Seller (1918)

“Foliage-Oak Tree and Fruit Seller” is about a painting done by Edouard Vuillard. The image includes riot of branches together with foliage eclipses that creates a scene on the street with a high number of women and children. At the same time, there is a female fruit seller with a cart which is placed at the middle of the ground on her left side. By viewing this art piece, it is evident that Vuillard used various tones to diffuse and obscure the subject creating an effect that looks like a tapestry.

I would like to learn more about the distemper technique that is used in this painting to diffuse the meaning. It is because the distemper medium has created a thick surface that makes it difficult for the audience to point out the images of people in the picture. Though the distemper technique makes the painting look attractive, one can easily miss identifying the basic characters in it thus failing to point out its true meaning.

On the other hand, I would love to learn more about the aspects of illusion that are presented in the image. It is because the distemper technique brought out a range of tones which makes the image of the children not very visible. It takes a keen person to identify some of the effects that have been used in this painting making it special.

Nighthawks (1942)

“Nighthawks” is a painting by Edward Hopper which is mainly inspired by a restaurant setting in New York City. The painting is carefully constructed by the use of bright color to bring meaning to it. There are four individuals in the picture but their relationship has been left ambiguous for the audience to deduce meaning based on their imagination. Through the use of dark color, a person can assume that it is dark outside and the two individuals talking to be the receptionist in the restaurant have come to seek some shelter for the night.

I intend to learn more about the melodrama aspects that is presented in this modern piece of art because of the use of various colors to bring the message home to the audience. Hopper has interplayed with several objects like the hotel, the people and different colors to draw the attention of the audience to understand its meaning.

I would like to learn ways in which an artists like me can use various chains of command to create style in an artwork. It is because I believe that style speaks a lot when it comes to the beauty and value of a piece of art. 

Khee II (1978)

“Khee II” is a painting by Jack Whitten which appears more like a photograph or a moment that has been recorded. These photography effects in this particular painting make it unique and more modern than the other paintings which were made in the 1900s.  The painting is about different shaped objects which have been laid on top of a canvas. Whitten used tools such as combs or sticks to create the hand-rigged mechanisms. There is a striated surface which appears bright from within.

I would like to learn the ways in which this particular painting represents modernity in the world of art. It is because Whitten used special effects that make the painting appear more like a photograph making it unique. By exploring abstraction possibility, Whitten brought about special features in painting that I did not know existed.

I would also like to learn more about the true meaning of this painting and what inspired the artists to create it. It is because the painting requires a lot of imagination to drive out its true meaning. On the other hand, the freeze and catch aspects used on the objects in the painting can be evaluated different when trying to deduce meaning.

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