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Sample Management Case Study Paper On Chunnel Project Write My Essay Help

1.     Introduction

The Channel Tunnel is currently deliberated as one of the largest and most important private sector infrastructure projects in European history. It is a 50km fixed link transportation system comprising of twin rail tunnels that go under the English Channel linking England (Folkstone) and continental Europe through France (Coquelles, near Calais). The project remains one of the largest and most significant infrastructure projects to have ever been carried out in Europe. After its completion, the Channel Tunnel allowed travelers from both countries to go back and forth within a fraction of the time taken by the ferries or vehicles. Despite the clear benefits of developing the channel, the project faced significant criticism from the planning to the development phases. As indicated by Stannard, various factors such as undervalued financial budget, poor stakeholders’ communications, unwanted government intervention, and other issues have played a primary role in raising questions of the efficiencies as well as the benefits of the project (42). It could be argued that the project was not well thought through thus the resolution to start it was untimely.

2.     The Channel Tunnel Project Integration Management

Project Management aids in the scheduling, organizing, and running of tasks that aid in the accomplishment of defined objectives despite constraints of time or costs. As indicated by Williams, most projects regardless of their size or complexities can be broken into smaller and easier to manage tasks as work progresses; however, for years, this has not been the case for the Channel Tunnel project (269). The prospect of a tunnel linking the UK and continental Europe was first brought to light over two centuries ago. As narrated by Locatelli et al., Albert Mathieu, a renowned French mining engineer, was the first to propose the existence of a tunnel running under the English Channel to France (108). Since then, there have been several suggestions presented on actualizing Mathieu’s engineering visions; however, because of issues such as lack of technology or the perilous relationship between the French and the English, it took 183 years before work began on what came to be called the Channel Tunnel. As indicated by Zhang, the proposal presented by the Channel Tunnel Group/France-Manche (CTG/F-M) in 1985 was accepted particularly because it presented an optional private funding and technological simplicity (694). As straightforward as the project seemed, it stands as an example of a poorly managed project due to unexpected outcomes; for instance, time delays, poor workforce management, and an increase in costs by the time of completion.  

3.     The Scope of the Project

All projects need guidelines that help stakeholders have a clear comprehension of the final objectives. As narrated by Rothengatte, the benefit of a convenient (cost-effective and faster) trade route linking the UK and continental Europe was identified during the dawn of the industrial age, as more commodities needed shipping through the English Channel (215). However, the logistics issues made it hard for both the English and French governments particularly because each entity had its governance policy that conflicted for years. Eventually, the project took off in 1988 and was completed in 1994 under the management of Eurotunnel. Initially, the project was expected to involve 5,000 workers at the peak of construction and had an estimated budget of £5.5 billion (1985 prices). The Preliminary plans showed that the Channel Tunnel would constitute shuttle terminals at Folkestone and Coquelles near Calais and the main aim of constructing such a massive tunnel of 32 (50km) miles length, of which 23.6 (30km) miles are underwater, was to allow people to travel between those countries in an unprecedented travel time of only 35 minutes. Currently, the crossing time is much lesser and cheaper as technological advances such as the use of electric trains have become part of the infrastructure project.  

 Despite the need and the clear benefits underlying the development of the Channel Tunnel, the project was never defined well in the initiation phase. As narrated by Chang and Graham, the project lacked a clear scope particularly because it was one of its kind and seemed long overdue (269). During the drafting of the Channel Tunnel Treaty, it was agreed that both the English and French governments were prohibited from regulating prices apart from potential monopoly situations. The reason behind this clause was that the terms would keep costs low amid possible government economic pressures; however, this was not the case. As narrated by Söderlun, as a privately financed project, the involvement of the governments went beyond their assigned role of an advisory entity as compared to a controlling body (159). For instance, during the development phase, the two nations’ economic interest constituted to additional concerns of the overall design project scope. Additionally, the project ended up costing £9 billion ($21 billion), well over its proposed £5 billion budget. From a Project Management standpoint, the initial scope was not properly defined as the project’s designs were ignored; for instance, issues regarding the air conditioning increased the initial scope cost by an estimated $200 million.

4.     Risk Management Analysis

Risks are part of any project, and over time, the prevailing premise has been that the larger a project is the higher the chances of challenges. The risks involved in its development went beyond the usual technological challenges, credit risks, as well as environmental and social risks. As narrated by Stannard, in 1985, the technology needed to construct a tunnel with the specifications required for the Channel Tunnel untested (51). The Eurotunnel group was faced with the challenge of developing a tunnel that went lower than the soft floor of the English Channel without any incidence of collapsing. The project needed state-of-the-art equipment, which was costly and in the later stage of the product proved unnecessary. Credit risk was the second issue that was in hand as it measures the return on investment for the stockholders. As indicated by Williams, projects with the magnitude of the Channel Tunnel are traditionally funded by governments. Subsequently, this changes the return on investment profile; the private funding on this project presented increased risk on the contractors as well as investors because more of these stakeholders were footing a fraction of their total estimated costs due to delayed funding (270). As presented by Stannard, some of the niggling issues that led to the delay of the Channel Tunnel were a consequence of the credit challenges faced from the initiation phase of the project (54). This inevitably led to many claims and litigations towards the end of the project.

5.     Time Management

As mentioned in the introduction part of the paper, the Channel Tunnel took seven years to complete. As indicated by Chang and Graham, the first locomotive to carry both passengers and trains from England to France on the tunnel did so on 22 December 1994 (396). The initial plans presented indicated that the project would be ready by 15 May 1993. This means that it was completed more than one and a half years after schedule. There are various reasons why the project did not meet its scheduled completion time, the most apparent being the delay in procuring financing. As indicated by Söderlund, the Eurotunnel group did not have as many resources as earlier indicated in time; one month before tunneling the group had only underwritten a portion of what was needed to purchase needed equipment (160). The amount raised by Eurotunnel was set to assure consortium banks in investing their shares. Therefore, the delay led to a subsequent interruption to other purchases and procurement as stakeholders did not have much investment insurance.

6.     Cost Management

As earlier presented, in the initiation phase, the proposal presented by Channel Tunnel Group/France-Manche (CTG/F-M) stated that the Channel Tunnel would be privately funded, a factor that drew the French and English governments into discussions. As narrated by Chang and Graham, it was clear that both governments would not be involved in the financing of the projects, an aspect that was specific to Margaret Thatcher’s, the then British Prime Minister, acceptance to the approval of the Channel Tunnel development (399). The funds were expected to be raised through loans from consortium banks as well as the sale of shares in capital markets. As explained by Locatelli et al., 226 banks were expected to provide loans that would be used in the project (111). However, the Natwest and Midlands banks in the UK, as well as the French banks Credit Lyonnais, Banque Nationale de Paris, Banque Indosuez, were the main banking institutes that raised £4bn in various equity issues. During the development and implementation phases, the poor project scope projections led to over expenditure. By the end of the project in 1994, the initial cost had overrun the initial budget by 80%, as compared to the estimate of £5 billion. As explained by Chang and Graham, the underestimation of rolling stocks, changes in the fixed equipment work and terminals, and the initially poor tunneling process all contributed to the cost overrun (402). The British and French governments continuously interfered with spending to the point of instating the Trans Menace Ltd issue as a third party brought in to offer vendors and subcontractors with fixed-price contracts. As mentioned before, the project scope lacked proper definition thus was subject to significant change in the development phase. For instance, the initial plans used fixed-price contracts and not the accurate a cost plus fixed fee contract, this subsequently led to extra expenditure. The relationship between the contractors and TML became turbulent.

7.     Quality Management

From the information that has been presented, it is clear that the scope of the Channel Tunnel had been poorly managed, thus affecting the cost and timing on the entire project. However, these issues did not affect the quality of the final product. As indicated by Stannard, the Intergovernmental Commission (IGC) and Maître d’Oeuvre (Md’O) were obligated to supervise the work done by the Eurotunnel (50). Their main task was to monitor all activities on the report and present reports on a quarterly, indicating if the projects were being executed per the requirements of the concession and the quality assurance standards established by TML. Additionally, both the French and English governments, as well as the banks, used the reports as updates on progress. According to Williams, to attain the required quality of standards, a grouping scheme was used on the management plane to make the whole process more flexible by assessing and prioritizing the tasks (270). The use of better equipment resulted in a higher quality of work, providing an unexpected benefit.  

8.     Procurement Management

The Channel Tunnel faced a lack of proper funding in its inception phase, a factor that led to rigorous hasty procurement plan and costly contracts. As indicated by Chang and Graham, the borrowing machines bought in 1988 were estimated to be 15% more expensive than the retail price (404). Additionally, the acquisition of rolling stock, as well as much needed equipment, made was not presented as an additional percentage; thus, the initial budget was understated. Development of the cascading effect of poor implementation created 17 months delay.

9.     Human Resources Management

Different workforces significantly contributed to the completion of the project throught its various phase. The magnitude in size, difficulty, and uniqueness of the Channel Tunnel project meant that workers had to be sourced from different parts of the world; 1,500 individuals. However, as explained by Williams, the workforce was demotivated for a majority of the construction process due to the delay and the non-settlement of claims (271).

10.  Communications Management

As mentioned earlier the Channel Tunnel project sourced specialized workforce from different locations globally. Therefore, the managers had the challenge of communication. Additionally, the various stakeholders on and outside the worksite caused significant confusion and delays. As indicated by Williams, the project managers in the tunnel project were forced to hire translators and invest in wireless communication devices to maintain flowing communication processes through all sectors involved in the construction of the project (272).  

11. Conclusion

 The Channel Tunnel is a significant infrastructural product that to this date servers a purpose that was envisioned in the early 19th century. However, from the information presented, it can be argued the project was not well managed. Firstly, the costs of the project almost doubled from the projected budget. Secondly, the project ended over a year and a half behind schedule. The Channel Tunnel caused significant project management challenges leading to unhappy investors and stakeholders throughout the project’s life cycle. The Channel Tunnel is a modern engineering marvel and has undoubted public benefit; however, it is an example of a poorly managed project.

Works Cited

Chang, Chen-Yu, and Graham Ive. “The Hold-Up Problem in the Management of Construction Projects: A Case Study of the Channel Tunnel.” International Journal of Project Management25.4 (2007): 394-404.

Locatelli, Giorgio, Diletta Colette Invernizzi, and Naomi J. Brookes. “Project Characteristics and Performance in Europe: An Empirical Analysis for Large Transport Infrastructure Projects.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice98 (2017): 108-122.

Rothengatter, Werner. “11. Innovations in the Planning of Mega-Projects.” Decision-Making on Mega-Projects (2008): 215.

Söderlund, Jonas. “Pluralism in Project Management: Navigating the Crossroads of Specialization and Fragmentation.” International Journal of Management Reviews13.2 (2011): 153-176.

Stannard, Colin J. “Managing a Mega-Project—the Channel Tunnel.” Long Range Planning 23.5 (1990): 49-62.

Williams, Terry M. “The Need for New Paradigms for Complex Projects.” International Journal of Project Management 17.5 (1999): 269-273.

Zhang, Hongliang. “A Redefinition of the Project Risk Process: Using Vulnerability to Open Up the Event-Consequence Link.” International Journal of Project Management 25.7 (2007): 694-701.

Sample Health Care Research Paper on Suicide Bereavement essay help 123

Suicide is a leading cause of death in the world. According to the world health organization it claims about 800,000 people annually. Any suicide discussion about suicide would be incomplete without considering the perspective of the bereaved. The death of a loved one, especially a sibling is one of the most painful experiences that anyone would have to deal with. One feels sad, at a loss, lonely, and hurt when the person you have lived with all your life dies. Those feelings are aggravated when the cause of death is a suicide due to feelings of guilt, rejection, shame, betrayal, anger, and also due to stigma and trauma. The suicide survivors have to cope with serious and sometimes long-lasting psychological effects such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and also complicated grief. Therefore, the bereaved require a strong support system and medication in extreme cases.  Unfortunately, the stigma meted on suicide survivors may prevent them from seeking much-needed support and so they may require unique interventions and supportive measures. Therefore, this research will discuss some effects of suicide bereavement and the interventions that can be given to suicide survivors.


When a loved one dies, no matter the cause of death, bereaved people may experience intense and painful emotions which is a normal grieving process. However, when a person losses a sibling to suicide, the acute grief is extended and the grief may go on to develop into complicated grief. Such a person feels stuck and the intense grief continues. They get depressed and some even get suicidal because they feel like death is the only way out of their grief. In addition to the overwhelming grief, shame, anger, betrayal, guilt, confusion and the need to conceal the cause of death are also common with suicide survivors. Most suicide survivors try to make sense of death, trying to understand why their loved ones chose to kill themselves. When the deceased leaves an explanation, it may help the bereaved understand the cause but without any explanation, the bereaved are left confused. The survivors are also overwhelmed with guilt because they feel that they should have done something to prevent suicide. They replay events leading to their loved one’s death digging for clues and signals that they failed to notice. Another common response to suicide bereavement is shame especially if someone was the elder sibling. Society sometimes places parental responsibility on elder siblings and so they feel responsible for their siblings. So when their siblings commit suicide, they end up blaming themselves for not taking good care of them (Cerel, Jordan & Duberstein, 2008). Feelings of abandonment, rejection, and anger are also common among suicide survivors). They feel like the siblings did not love them enough such that they decide to take their life and leave them behind. They feel angry at their siblings wondering why their love for each other was not enough to prevent them from committing suicide. They also feel angry at themselves and at God and other family members and the whole universe for not preventing suicide. To make it worse, they are also affected by the stigma and trauma surrounding suicide. Society imposes shame on those who commit suicide, and the suicide survivors which prevents them from seeking help and from healing. Due to this, they may suffer from depression, PTSD and even get suicide (Bellini et al., 2018. For these reasons, suicide survivors experience different grieving from grief after other causes of death and so they require special care.

Suicide survivors are at a higher risk of getting complicated grief. Due to the stigma, guilt, and anger that emanates from suicide loss, an informal intervention such as family and friends support is not sufficient to get them through the grief. Their kind of grief sometimes warrants formal intervention such as joining support groups. Support groups unite people going through a similar situation and provide accurate information and also allow each other to grieve by normalizing their reactions and behavior. They offer mutual support to each other and feel understood and that their feelings are acceptable. Since suicide survivors are at a higher risk of developing complicated grief, they may require Complicated grief treatment which entails interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and antidepressants for those who fall into depression.

Suicide survivors face unique challenges that make their grieving process difficult. This puts them at risk of developing complicated grief, falling into depression, PTSD, and getting suicidal. When those conditions are not intervened, the suicide survivors may have to endure life long suffering and negative health outcomes that may even be fatal. More research on suicide bereavement needs to be conducted so as to know the needs of suicide survivors and how to help them overcome the grief.


Bellini, S., Erbuto, D., Andriessen, K., Milelli, M., Innamorati, M., & Lester, D. et al. (2018). Depression, Hopelessness, and Complicated Grief in Survivors of Suicide. Frontiers In Psychology, 9. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00198

Cerel, J., Jordan, J., & Duberstein, P. (2008). The Impact of Suicide on the Family. Crisis, 29(1), 38-44. doi: 10.1027/0227-5910.29.1.38

Sample Education Essay Paper on Student Teaching essay help service: essay help service

Student Teaching

Positive Insights and Experience

Student teaching is an instructional college-based supervised tutoring experience that later leads to a graduate in teacher education and certification. Positive experiences I have encountered include engaging students in the class discussions such that some of them responded well to the lessons taught by asking and answering questions. Additionally, getting positive feedback from the head of the department and other members of the teaching staff throughout my teaching practice helped me improve on various aspects such as enhancing my communication skills (Izadinia et al., 2015). Moreover, being able to encourage learners to work hard in their academics and instilling social skills that would enable them to grow into responsible professionals (Izadinia et al., 2015).

Challenges Faced in Student Teaching

 Newly introduced to the school, I found it challenging to adapt to school programs. Knowing all the students by name was difficult considering their large population. Since the school had introduced digital learning methods, the machines would fail and others we too complicated for me to use thus reducing my productivity at the institution (Bovil et al., 2016). In other instances, I did not know how to deal with parents that were uncomfortable with different school rules or how their children were handled by the management.

Solution to Challenges

Having a contingency plan when the lesson plan failed or changes in the timetable enabled continued teaching with minimal interruptions. Giving rules and regulations to be followed in class and seeking help from the mentor teacher helped me to handle the different characters of students in the school. Creating a calm interactive environment also assisted me to handle parents’ complaints and helping them understand that the rules established are designed to assist their children to achieve the best in life (Lo et al., 2017).


Izadinia, M. (2015). A closer look at the role of mentor teachers in shaping preservice teachers’ professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 52, 1-10.

Bovill, C., Cook-Sather, A., Felten, P., Millard, L., & Moore-Cherry, N. (2016). Addressing potential challenges in co-creating learning and teaching: overcoming resistance, navigating institutional norms and ensuring inclusivity in student–staff partnerships. Higher Education, 71(2), 195-208.

Lo, C. K., & Hew, K. F. (2017). A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: Possible solutions and recommendations for future research. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(1), 4.

Sample Sociology Essay Paper on Social Determinants of Health gp essay help

Social Determinants of Health

Health is a wide term that includes all aspects of the human being: physical, mental, emotional, and psychological. Social determinants of health are the elements that influence health whose origin is in the social construct of a neighborhood. Explicitly, this idea is inclusive of the conditions surrounding an individual’s birth, growth, employment, and maturity. Social mostly refers to the surrounding and its organization. As such, social determinants of health have to do with health determinants that emanate from the surrounding environment; both physical and non-physical. However, social human factors have a more profound impact on health. Social determinants of health include employment conditions, social exclusion, women and gender equity, early child development, globalization, health systems, and urbanization (“About social determinants of health,” 2017).

Employment conditions in this age and time are directly proportional to health conditions. Persons with good jobs are able to afford good healthcare and hence maintain good health conditions. Moreover, most lucrative jobs nowadays even cover the cost of healthcare. Contrastingly, poor employment conditions carry an inherent ripple effect that results in poor health outcomes. Worse still, the threat of unemployment is also existent and can cause adverse health outcomes. The type of jobs also determines health status. Some jobs expose the workers to health threats including terminal illnesses like miners. Social exclusion is the deliberate act of denying someone a chance to participate in an action that is social in nature. Social exclusion has affected mostly women and children. The adverse effects of this social health determinant include limited or no access to affordable education and health facilities. Since knowledge informs health decisions, then an uneducated individual will fall short in some aspect of their health. Social exclusion is often propagated based on income, occupational status, and social networks including race, religion, and gender.

The issue of women and gender equality has often been considered on an economic basis and seldom on a health basis. Women in some social constructs have to bear with poor health outcomes because they are often denied their right to health. Worse still, some backgrounds even engender health systems and research thus looking out the women. The mental effects of gender inequality also go unrealized yet with very damaging outcomes. A good number of women end up committing suicide because of gender bias and prejudice. Early child development if properly handled can have a lasting positive impact on a babies’ health. Children that are immunized have a higher chance of experiencing better health than those that are not.

The effects of globalization stem from the unequal distribution of resources between the gainers and the losers. This interaction often leaves efficient first-world countries benefiting while their third-world counterparts lose. This loss is often transferred to the countries’ sectors with health being one of the most affected. As such, civilians have to do with lack poorly maintained health institutions lacking vital equipment. Globalization also leads to the dumping of unhealthy medications in the markets of third-world countries. Urbanization, mostly due to the concentration of resources results in the growth of slums with very poor living conditions and hence poor health outcomes.   

Social determinants of health provide a picture of the real causes of poor health outcomes making it easier for policymakers to make informed decisions aimed at alleviating poor health. This idea can also be used to determine the root causes of the homeless population. Since people are social in nature, homelessness also emanates from certain unaddressed social elements. Like poor health, homelessness will result from employment conditions, social exclusion, urbanization, gender inequality, and health conditions. As such, developing a programme aimed to address the homelessness menace should be well informed based on these determinants. The program should consider the following five components: income, inclusion, urbanization, gender, and racial equality, and health.

The primary reason behind homelessness in Seattle is the high cost of housing (Stringfellow & Wagle, n.d.). This means that some income earners are not able to make enough to afford a house. Worse still, landing a job is not that easy in Seattle. As such, only individuals with decent employment are able to afford to house. Tackling employment menace can result in favorable housing outcomes for the homeless. The authorities should strive to encourage the creation of affordable housing by changing zoning laws and increasing density. The proposed head tax that was repelled after two months should also be reinstated since it can help reduce the severity of the housing problem although by a small margin. Seattle should seek to create a source of income to the jobless since this may enable them to even afford a tent to put over their head.

Urbanization is often praised for the developments in infrastructure that it brings. However, history has taught that every urban center gives rise to a slum nearby as the bourgeoisie will require the proletariat. The former often make huge profits and push housing costs up especially in Seattle considering the presence of giant firms like Amazon, Microsoft, Starbucks, and Boeing (Rufo, 2019). The persons unable to even land these proletariat positions have no choice but to turn to beg or illegal activities in an effort to make ends meet. Policymakers should think of a way of dealing with this inherent urbanization problem. The third component of this program would be addressing equality problems, mainly racial inequality. All races must have an equal and fair chance at landing a job. The rationale behind this act would be to ensure that the neglected races, mainly the African Americans and the Hispanics, can get jobs that fit their qualifications. Gender inequality also deserves a closer look. Lastly, health plays a big role in making people homeless not just in Seattle but also in the whole world. The reason being sick people cannot work and thereby become dependents. When their caretakers abscond their duties, the sick have no other alternative but to go to the streets. Some disabled persons have also had to suffer this unfortunate turn of events. Seattle should institute ways of helping the sick and destitute like orphans who cannot fend for themselves.                      

This model is sufficiently effective in mitigating the homelessness problem since it tackles the issue from the root causes. Simply buying houses and giving it to the homeless is not a sustainable solution since it deals with the effects of the problem. The only other action apart from this that can be advantageous is providing cheap and affordable education especially on entrepreneurship and creating a favorable economic environment for businesses to start and grow. This would change people’s perspective from employment and hence ease the pressure on employment. This model will also take a long time before its benefits can be realized as opposed to the quick-fix solution availed by buying houses for the homeless.

Total Word Count 1134


About social determinants of health. (2017, September 25). Retrieved from

Rufo, C. F. (2019, January 03). Seattle under Siege. Retrieved from

Stringfellow, M., & Wagle, D. (n.d.). The economics of homelessness in Seattle and King County. Retrieved from

Sample Religious Studies Essay Paper on “Mission to the Volga”: Islamic Representation devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help


Anthropological research can take different forms, resulting in different levels of understanding of any given culture. In most cases, understanding a culture from an outsider’s perspective can be based on lower levels of information compared to when the same culture is explored from an insider’s perspective. The insider has a deeper understanding of the cultural aspects and is better placed to explain the rationale behind specific cultural beliefs and activities. For instance, in Ibn Fadlan’s Mission to the Volga, the cultural descriptions provided by the author are mostly based on explanations given by specific individuals about their cultures. The book provides emic and etic considerations of cultural practices through the perspective of the author. In particular, the Turk culture is explained from an outsider’s perspective (etic) while the Islamic culture is explained through specific stories, based on an insider’s (emic) perspective. In the ensuing paper, the objective is to explore the extent to which this particular book presents Islamic cultural practices. The emic approach is used to explain how the text represents Islam.

Mission to the Volga

The cultural representation in Ibn Fadlan’s book is quite detailed. However, the extent to which the Islamic culture is represented is lower compared to the representation of the Turk culture. There are several specific mentions of cultural activities attributed to Islam and comparison with similar cultural practices in the Turkish kingdom visited. One of the earliest references to the Islamic culture mentions the four seasons of the year as recognized in the Islamic calendar. These seasons include Rajab, Sha’ban, Ramadan, and Shawwal (Fadlan 11). For a Muslim, these seasons are used to represent specific movements of the moon and are also meant to guide the faithful on the prayer patterns for particular periods. For instance, Ramadan is always a period of great piety, prayer, and fasting. A non-Muslim would probably assume the four seasons to be synonymous with the four seasons in the Western calendar. The seasons also define major Islamic holidays and are set based on historical events in the Islamic religion. This is probably why the mention of the seasons is followed by the mention of prayer impacts in Fadlan (11).

Another significant cultural practice in Islam is represented by Fadlan (12). A Muslim is not supposed to consume any meat obtained from animals that have not been slaughtered using a specific allowable procedure. The ritual slaughter is referred to as Dhabihah, and there are special prayers conducted before the actual slaughter. Moreover, Dhabihah is only acceptable for animals considered halal. Fadlan compares these Islamic ritual practices with the Turkish custom of hitting an animal on the head to death (12). In the Islamic religion, this would not be allowed, and a Muslim is not permitted to partake of such meats. It is, however, allowable for a Muslim to slaughter an animal in a house where he or she is to eat. This example is seen in the book where Fadlan is allowed to slaughter the animal in his friend’s house, most likely due to the awareness that he would not eat anything otherwise slaughtered.

Several other aspects of the Islamic culture are represented in the book, albeit to a small extent. For instance, reading the Quran and adhering to recommended prayer methods are some of the ways through which man is advised to follow the Islamic faith. Fadlan presents some of the elements of the Islamic faith practice with reference to prayers (25). This is done through questions on leading prayers and on how to treat others, particularly the poor. For general Islamic prayers, there is a specific approach that is supposed to be taken, whereby a muezzin from a mosque calls out people for Adhan. The muezzin calls people to line up for the beginning of prayers, which is the Takbir. The question as to whether calling people to prayers once should be considered different from calling people twice is effectively addressed through the assertion that both are permissible. The objective is that people should come for prayers at particular times and any call that does not achieve this would be ineffective and thus the need for the second call. When the first call is effective, there would be no need for the second. Another belief that is represented is that oppression is not permissible. The Islamic teachings prohibit any oppression among the faithful either through unfair charging of debtors or misuse of authority. In this regard, Fadlan’s report showed that any person should not take what is meant for one group of people and give to another group, especially if the first group consists of the poor and the oppressed while the second group consists of the wealthy oppressors (25). Islam prohibits corruption.

Olive explained that the emic perspective is often more relevant in cultural interpretations and understanding cultural experiences within the culture under consideration (par. 3.2). According to Olive, it is difficult to comprehend the specifics of a culture from an outsider’s perspective fully since that perspective is separated from the feelings associated with being part of the culture. This assertion can be clearly explained based on the representation of Islamic versus Turkish cultural funerals. Fadlan presents a side-by-side comparison of the Turkish funeral with the Islamic funeral (31). In the Turkish funeral, the body is washed similar to how the washing is done in the Islamic culture, the men weep instead of the women as in the Islamic culture, and the dead in the Turkish culture are handled differently depending on their statuses in the society. Those of high rank are given a ‘better’ send-off. In the Islamic culture, on the other hand, everyone is buried in the ground in a particular position regardless of their status in society. This practice is also described by Hedayat (1285). From an etic perspective as described by Fadlan, this could be taken as disrespect to the dead (31). For a Muslim, however, the burial is an indication of the inevitable journey of the human being. The body is placed in the grave with the head facing Mecca and prayers are conducted for Allah to forgive the dead and take them into his kingdom. This cannot be easily understood by an outsider.


Understanding cultural practices can be a challenge when working from an etic perspective. However, the emic perspective gives a clearer view of why cultural practices are the way they are. Anthropological researchers have to be incorporated into a particular culture for them to understand all its nuances fully. The book Mission to the Volga provides various narrations of specific Islamic cultural practices in comparison to Turkish practices. Through the mentioned representations, one gets a clearer perspective of what Islamic practices would involve in particular contexts.

Works Cited

Fadlan, Ibn. Mission to the Volga. Translated by Montgomery, James E. New York University Press.

Hedayat, Kamyar. When the spirit leaves: Childhood death, grieving and bereavement in Islam. Journal of Palliative Medicine, vol. 9, no. 6, (2007), pp. 1282-1291. Accessed 7 March 2019.

Olive, James L. Reflecting on the tensions between emic and etic perspectives in life history research: Lessons learned. Qualitative Social Research Forum, vol. 15, no. 2, (2014). Accessed 6 March 2019.

Sample Essay Paper on White Collar Crimes medical school essay help: medical school essay help

White Collar Crimes


White-collar crimes refer to non-violent crimes committed by individuals in high-end respectable positions or a high-level society social status. It ranges from fraud, embezzlement, tax evasion, and money laundering. Notably, factors such as attitude in perception, limitation of jurisdiction, and leniency are some of the contemporary problems facing the fight against this unethical activity while solutions may include changing perception, the imposition of substantial penalties, and developing proper jurisdiction of operation.

Attitudes in Perceptions

 According to Michel et al. (2016), white-collar crime can be termed as a violation of the morals and ethics of the society, desecration of trust or just disrespecting corporate regulations. The difference in the points of view has made it difficult to precisely define these non-violent crimes as no sufficient opinion is acceptable by society. Additionally, offenders of these crimes have the belief that they are immune from different laws and authorities in place and regard their victims to perceive them with respect and courtesy rather than fear (Dearden et al., 2017).

Limit of Jurisdiction

Various law enforcers have been faced with the dilemma of lack of clear boundaries of their operations. Agencies may have adequate resources to stop frauds, bribery, freeze assets and provide redress to the aggrieved parties but their authority can be limited to one state or region thereby cannot investigate trans-border crimes (Mugellini et al., 2017). Lack of clear jurisdiction has led to misunderstandings and confusion in implementing rules or performing persecution procedures when persecuting white collar criminals


Lawmaking bodies and judicial sectors have given low penalty punishments to white-collar crime offenders compared to the crimes committed due to tolerance. Low penalties given such as probation sentences, several warning, and low-cost bonds and fines leaves the white-collar criminals to harvest the spoils of others other than teaching the offenders that crime does not pay (Mugellini et al., 2017). Additionally, Laws made by the government have often left a gap in clearly defining the rules to deal with white collar crimes enabling the individuals to exploit this situation to commit their crimes.


Changing Perceptions

Educating the society about the dangers of white collar crimes as it is a vice and not acceptable in society at all costs. The community should have a broad view of the extent of damages caused by these crimes such as depleting the economy of its valuable resources. Perception change will include reporting of cases such as fraud, embezzlement and money laundering situations (Gottschalk et al., 2017). The lawmaking agencies should work hand in hand with the members of the society, employees and corporate organizations to address issues regarding white collar crimes.

Proper Jurisdictions of Operations

Correctly assigning different responsibilities and roles to specific law enforcement agencies will ensure every department knows their roles in curbing the white collar crimes. Clear functions and jurisdiction will reduce overlapping and confusion of duties to perform in apprehending criminals and investigating cases of committed offenses. Every department will be responsible for carrying out its duties thereby reduce chances of white collar crimes being committed (Gottschalk et al., 2017).

Heavy Punishments

Strict punishment of white-collar crime offenders by the courts will reduce cases of financial misuse or embezzlement thereby reducing occurrences of the crimes committed. Payment of heavy fines, long jail terms, recovering public assets and freezing of both corporate and individual assets are some measures to put in place to punish the offenders. Leniency to such offenders will reduce such cases and thereby help to promote accountability at work (Henning et al., 2015).


Dearden, T. E. (2017). An assessment of adults’ views on white-collar crime. Journal of Financial Crime, 24(2), 309-321.

Henning, P. J. (2015). Is deterrence relevant in sentencing white-collar criminals. Wayne L. Rev., 61, 27. Gottschalk, P. (2017). Convenience in white-collar crime: Introducing a core concept. Deviant Behavior, 38(5), 605-619.

Michel, C., Cochran, J. K., & Heide, K. M. (2016). Public knowledge about white-collar crime: an exploratory study. Crime, law and social change, 65(1-2), 67-91.

Mugellini, G., Isenring, G. L., & Killias, M. (2017). Employee offences: What strategy of prevention for what business? Security journal, 30(3), 825-843.

Sample Nursing Research Paper on Critique my assignment essay help london



Quantitative research studies are essential in nursing practice, as they help to construe phenomena and depict affiliations that may exist among variables, and this helps to get useful answers for nursing professionals. The relationship between various factors is described by quantitative research. The purpose of this paper is to critique the study done by Donna Cole and Kathleen Neville titled “The relationships among health promotional behaviors, compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in nurses practicing in a community medical center” (Neville & Cole, 2016). This paper focuses on the relationships among the various factors that exist in the study such as compassion fatigue, satisfaction, burnout, and health promotional behaviors and how they affect performance at the workplace and the general wellness of the nurses at Hunterdon Medical Center.


            The research study’s purpose was clearly stated and it was relevant, especially in nursing practice. The research is imperative in the practice of nursing as the primary variables, which include burnout, compassion, and health promotion behaviors, are essential issues that nurses encounter in their duties. Due to the tremendous burden of caring for the sick, nurses are emotionally and physically drained while ensuring that the patients’ families are satisfied with the care their loved ones receive.

Ethical Aspect of the Study

The work was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IBR). However, the article did not mention whether the participants were informed at the initial stage about the nature of the study.

Frame of Reference

            The study followed a conventional design approach. It was organized in the following format: abstract, background, experimental methods, findings, and conclusion.

Research Question/Hypothesis

            The study used a hypothesis instead of a research question. There was a clear statement on the theory and the information was presented in the literature review. The variables were also described properly. Health promotional activities were the independent variables while fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and less burnout were the dependent variables.

Research Design

            Neville and Cole used descriptive, correlational, and non-experimental design in their research. A framework was also provided to aid in guiding the research work. The participants used in the study were selected randomly, thus the researchers had control over the research study. The topic to be examined was also made clear. Manipulation of variables was eliminated because they used a non-experimental research design. There was consistency in the control measures used with the type of research design. The work also purposed to find the correlation between different variables used in sampling, which are the dependent and independent variables. The descriptive design also focused on the examination of subjects without necessarily interceding. There was an alignment of the sample size with the features of a detailed descriptive study.


            Neville and Cole stated the sample population. The population consisted of part-time and full time clinical nurse leaders and nurse practitioners in inpatient and outpatient settings at Hunterdon Medical Center. However, the contracted nurses were excluded from the samples. The study exceeded the sample size required through uses of power analysis as the research used 223 subjects as compared to the minimum sample size of 85 (Polit & Beck, 2018). Nevertheless, the use of a larger sample leads to minimal errors in a research. The sample used was a non-probability sample.

Data Collection

            It took over two months to complete the data collection procedure during which they regularly notified the nursing staff of the upcoming study. The ProQOL-R-V and HPLP-II were the scales used by the researchers in data collection. The tools seemed reliable, as the researchers explained how they work. The explanation was paramount to assist the patients to understand the working of the test score. The HPLP-II scale is broadly used in research, hence is reliable.

Statistical/Data Analysis

            The study used descriptive statistics. The researchers also discussed all the data analysis methods. The statistical tests were the most appropriate for this study because of the nature of the samples used and according to the assessment done by the researchers. The ProQOL-R-V established the relationship between the primary variables (Knapp, 2018). Hence, the statistical test used was appropriate for the study and it was aligned with the hypothesis given. In the research work, a high percentage of the targeted population participated in the study; 56% out of the required standard of 50% (Hoskins& Mariano, 2015).  The Pearson Product-Moment Coefficient statistical test was used to determine the correlation between compassion fatigue and health promotional behaviors. Therefore, the statistical methods used were appropriate.


            The findings from the research authenticate what is presented in the literature review; nurses experience compassion fatigue. As indicated from the hypothesis, health promotional activities reduce fatigue among the nurses, the finding also corroborated with the hypothesis. The Pearson Product-Moment Coefficients indicated an inverse relation in the promotional behaviors and fatigue. The use of a table to bridge the results also helped in amplifying the results presentation.

The findings show that physical activities had no correlation with burnout, compassion satisfaction, and compassion fatigue. Hence, the results did not match the initial researchers’ theory on how physical activities may influence compassion fatigue. The hidden significant increase in the level of compassion fatigue was also a limitation in this study.

Clinical Practice

            The researchers also discuss the implication of the study in nursing practice. The study implies that health promotional behaviors can influence nurses by increasing compassion satisfaction and lowering burnout. The researchers also highlight the significance of carrying out more studies to find out supplementary subjects that may prohibit compassion fatigue. Cole and Neville further recommend that more research should be done to ascertain how the behavior of nurses may affect compassion fatigue, and this is grounded in the study evidence.


            Neglecting the few limitations evident in the research work conducted by Cole and Neville, the study is comprehensive and significant to the nursing practice. The analytical view of the research work is outstanding and presents the hypothesis of the study professionally. Various bodies have approved the source, and thus the work is reliable. The researchers did a satisfactory work on analysis, design, collection of data, and choosing of statistical methods. The approach used by Cole and Neville can also be used for future reference because of its detailed nature.


Hoskins, C. N., & Mariano, C. (2015). Research in nursing and health: Understanding and using quantitative and qualitative methods. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.

Knapp, T. R. (2018). Quantitative nursing research. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.

Neville, K., & Cole, D. A. (2016, June). The relationships among health promotion behaviors, compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in nurses practicing in a community medical center. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 43(6), 348-354. Retrieved March 08, 2019.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2018). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice.

Sample Education Article Review Paper on Starting Off Strong: The Importance of Early Learning gp essay help: gp essay help

Article Review

Author: Chrys Dougherty

Title of Article: Starting Off Strong: The Importance of Early Learning

Publication: American Educator

Publication Date: Summer 2014.

            Dougherty argues that students from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to fail ACTs at a higher rate because of poor early learning. The disadvantaged students are mostly from the low-income homes. The financial difficulties faced by the parents of theses student make it hard for them to get the required early education. They either miss out or are put through less than ideal early learning making them ill prepared to learn later on in life. The impact of poor foundation in academics is the inability to meet the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks in English, Reading, Mathematics and Science.

            The author postulates that the education sector is still far from achieving the goal of having all students graduating from high school ready for college and other post-secondary institutions. The cause of this is the poor early education that is afforded the disadvantaged students in the society (Dougherty, 2014). Students that hail from low income household are introduced to learning later than their counterparts from well to do families. He further suggests that the educators in early learning should not fear exposing the young learners to more content in the lower grades, as that will help in building interest in some of the subjects that tend to challenge them in middle school and high school. It takes a long time to attain competence in some areas of education, given that most of it is cumulative. Having the students exposed to broader content at an early age makes it easier for them to catch up and improve their grades in high school.

            The strengths of this article include the fact that the author is a seasoned educator who has been exposed to the various factors affecting the education sector. Data has been used to illustrate how inadequate early learning is impacting the disadvantaged students by denying them a chance to get a college education. The author has made use of information from various sources inclusive of peer reviewed journal articles, reports, books, among others. The use of these numerous sources has helped in ensuring that the content of the article is objective and considers the issue using different perspectives. The only discernible weakness of this article is solely blaming inadequate early learning for the dismal rates of success in the ACTs countrywide (Dougherty, 2014). The writer has not considered other causes for the poor performance of high school students from disadvantaged backgrounds. It is understandable that poor early education plays a significant role, but other causes should also have been considered.

            The sentiments of the author regarding how early education affects the rate of transition from high school to college are valid. This is proven by the fact that the knowledge and problem-solving skills needed to pass the ACTs are cumulative (Dougherty, 2014). If early education is poor or inadequate, then the student will not be in a position to make sense of what is taught in middle school. The education is cumulative and takes time to master. The time wasted on inadequate early learning means that the student has no chance to recover or catch up. Once the student has knowledge and skills gap, passing all the subjects in the ACT is not possible. They are, therefore, deemed not fit for college. This line of thought by the author is similar to that of many other scholars who feel that socioeconomic position of a person has a bearing on the quality of education received. Children growing up in poor neighborhoods are not exposed to knowledge and experiences that would make them excel in academics (Luo et al, 2016). This is coupled with schools that have limited resources and instructors (Thien, 2016). While the children of the affluent start schooling earlier, the children of the poor stay at home a little longer and are mostly influenced to have interests in other things apart from education.

            The United States Education Department is interested in having all students graduating from high school ready for college. However, this goal is unattainable due to the failure rates of the students in their ACT tests. This article plays the role of revealing one of the major reasons why students from needy backgrounds are not scoring well in their ACT tests. Poor early education is blamed for the poor performance of the disadvantaged student. In addition to identifying the problem, the author has gone ahead and dissected its nature and how it is perpetuated by the teachers and the system as a whole. Having identified the problem, a prescription for resolving it is suggested together with the barriers that are likely to be encountered by a person interested in resolving the problem (Dougherty, 2014). the author does indicate the importance of the information passed on by the article by expounding on how it affects the education sector in America.

            This article is helpful to the educators. It will guide them in recognizing how they might be failing at delivering quality early learning to their students. Furthermore, the suggestions given in the article can be used to streamline and improve on the content given to the young students. The educators are encouraged to not limit themselves when passing on skills and knowledge in early learning (Dougherty, 2014). It can also help the educators avoid the limitations and barriers that are making early learning unhelpful for the disadvantaged students as they progress in their education. The philosophy of education that is woven throughout this article is essentialism. This philosophy emphasizes on having a common core of knowledge that is passed on to the students in a systematic manner. This philosophy also allows for a change in the common core knowledge should the environment demand it. These two qualities of essentialism make it the most identifiable education philosophy in the article. The information in this article is most applicable in the low-income parts of New York City such as Harlem schools.

            Dougherty has identified early learning as the main reason for the poor transition of disadvantaged students from high school to colleges and other post-secondary options. Early education is supposed to prepare the student to better grasp concepts in middle school and high school. However, students from poor communities either delay early education or are not given the right content. This makes them become challenged later on in their academic journey preventing their entry into colleges (Dougherty, 2014). Conclusively, he is critical of the approach used by most early education educators in public schools. They try to avoid too much content in the fear of making the students bored. This has the ripple effect of wasting time that would be used in laying good academic foundation and at the same time denies the students essential skills needed to make it to college.


Dougherty, C. (2014). STARTING OFF STRONG: The importance of early learning. The American Educator, 80, 12-18. 

Luo, Y., Wang, Z., Zhang, H., & Chen, A. (2016). The influence of family socio-economic status on learning burnout in adolescents: Mediating and moderating effects. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(7), 2111-2119. 

Thien, L. M. (2016). Malaysian students’ performance in mathematics literacy in PISA from gender and socioeconomic status perspectives. The Asia – Pacific Education Researcher, 25(4), 657-666.

Sample Management Essay Paper on Capital Budgeting law essay help

The Net Present Value (NPV) method of evaluating a long-term capital project involves obtaining the project’s net cash flows. To get this value, the project’s future expected cash inflows are discounted by an appropriate discounting rate then summed together. The project’s cash outflows are then subtracted from the sum total of cash inflows. A positive result, NPV, insinuates a viable project while a negative NPV insinuates an inviable project (Gallo n.p.). As such, the corporation should undertake the long-term capital project if the NPV is greater than zero. It is recommendable to use the NPV method in conjunction with other methods such as the payback period especially when one is interested in identifying the viability of the project and the break-even period.  

The payback period approach of evaluating a project determines the amount of time it would take to recover the capital outlay for the project in years. The payback period is based on a pre-set acceptable period. The criteria to be followed under this approach is to accept the project if its calculated payback period is less than the pre-set acceptable period (Ehrhardt, Michael & Eugene 337). If the calculated period happens to be more than the set acceptable period then the project is rejected. The payback period has two serious flaws: it ignores the time value of money and the cash inflows that will be realized after the period of consideration. As such, using this method in isolation may lead to poor decisions. It is highly recommendable that analysts supplement the payback period with the NPV approach. The reason being the latter considers all cash inflows until the project is rendered obsolete. Secondly, the NPV method considers the time value of money by discounting the cash inflows by a suitable discounting factor.      

Works Cited.

Ehrhardt, Michael C., and Eugene F. Brigham. Corporate finance: A focused approach. Cengage Learning, 2016.

Gallo, Amy. “A Refresher on Net Present Value.” Harvard Business Review, 6 Dec. 2017,

Sample Medicine Coursework Paper on Medical Marijuana scholarship essay help

Medical Marijuana

Thesis: The use of marijuana should not be allowed for medicinal purposes as it is highly addictive, can result in the use of harder drugs, and has the potential to decimate lives.

The medical effects of marijuana were discovered in the early 1800s.The medical effects were discovered when an Irish doctor, Sir William Brooke O’Shaughnessy, found that extracts of marijuana could help ease vomiting and stomach pain in cholera patients (Volkow, 2014).In the late 1800s, marijuana extracts were marketed to doctors’ offices and pharmacies across the United States and Europe to treat Stomach pains, along with other ailments (Volkow, 2014).It was later found that THC was the reason for the plant’s medicinal properties and mind-altering impactMarijuana is federally classified as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act.In recent years there has been increasing debate over whether marijuana should be not only taken off this list, but legalized for medicinal purposes.Users claim that it can treat a variety of ailments ranging from anxiety to cancer. However, the science to back up these claims is lacking while other studies have shown that it can actually cause more harm than good.

High Blood Pressure

Thesis: High blood pressure caused by stress can be managed by the stimulus-based model because it interprets stress as a stimulus, group situation or life event that may induce normal psychological responses, which may enhance the susceptibility of a person to that condition

A: By using the stimulus-based model, one can either use emotion-centered coping or problem-focused coping to manage stress.

When an encountered with a challenge a person mainly assesses the challenge as threatening or non-threatening, and also in regards to whether he/she has the capability to cope or react to the challenge effectively.If the person does not believe that he/she has the aptitude to react to the challenge, he/she will use an emotion-centered coping reaction like wishful thinking, emphasizing the positive, or distancing (Cohen, Gianaros, & Manuck, 2016).If the individual has the ability to manage the challenge, he/she will typically develop a problem-centered coping reaction like examination of the situation to understand it better (Cohen, Gianaros, & Manuck, 2016).Overall, the stimulus-based model can help one avoid high blood pressure through proper management of stress.  

Sleep Apnea

Thesis: Sleep apnea leads to sleep related disorders because it affects the quality of sleep

At the start of sleep, the function of the HPA axis is constantly suppressed.As sleep progresses, the secretory activity of the HPA is enhanced to take it closer to the optimum circadian rhythm as soon as one wakes up, and the key activity of the sympathetic nervous system affects the overall quantity of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) (Winbush et al, 585).As such, the increase of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) after waking up is the pivotal control factor managing the end of sleep (Winbush et al, 585).The fact that the start and end of sleep include activity in the HPS axis and the close temporal association between sleep and the axis highlights the impact of stress on sleep.

Anxiety Disorder

Thesis: Anxiety disorder in teenagers is directly associated with psychiatric issues and parental pressures while anxiety related o examination is also directly related to psychiatric issues.

A: There are numerous studies that investigate anxiety disorders in teenagers.

A study conducted in China found that rural school location, poor academic grades, low school satisfaction, older age, conflicts with peers and teachers, and female gender were strongly correlated to anxiety levels among teenagers.Another study revealed that anxiety was related with reduced self-acceptance and enhanced psychological distress among teenagers.Higher levels of psychological distress were then related to substance use and delinquent behaviors.


Cohen, S., Gianaros, P. J., & Manuck, S. B. (2016). A stage model of stress and disease. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(4), 456-463.

Volkow, N. (2014). “Adverse health effects of marijuana use.” New England Journal of Medicine 370.23: 2219-2227.

Winbush, Nicole Y., et al. (2007). “The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on sleep disturbance: a systematic review.” Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing 3.6: 585-591.

Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Career Spectrum Scavenger Hunt narrative essay help: narrative essay help

Part 1

CareerDescriptionDifferencesQuality Improvement CoordinatorThe job entails managing and coordinating a healthcare team and as well as taking administrative duties in a healthcare facilityThe salary range of the position is $49,000 to $88,000 per year.Healthcare risk management managerThe job involves overseeing and mitigating errors, accidents, and other things that can lead to a malpractice suit.The salary range of the position is $42,000 to 1$03,000 per year.Certified diabetes educatorThe person is responsible for educating diabetic patients on diet, barriers, and general health.The salary range for the position is $42,000 to $80,000 per year.Clinical educatorThe clinical educator is responsible for educating individuals on how to manage diseases by engaging in healthy habitsThe salary range for the position is $51,000 to $93,000 per year.Informatics nurseThe person is responsible for examining healthcare facilities’ need for clinical IT application and deploying technology.The salary range for the position is $52,000 to 89,000 per year

Part 2

The careers that I best fit into are healthcare risk management manager and informatics nurse. The role of a healthcare risk manager suits me because I have a strong comprehension of health processes and policies that help to reduce liabilities and risk. I love the role since it will enable me to organize and implement training to ensure patient care and safety process are understood and met. The job will give me a proactive role in the healthcare system in the quest to help people. The job will help me have a meaningful impact in people’s lives. I am also interested in the role since part of it requires one to field the concerns from patients about their care and enable the institution to comply with federal and state requirements (Rubbio, Bruccoleri, & Perrone, 2016). I will need to have a bachelor’s degree in nursing to become a healthcare risk management manager.

Informatics nurse is also an attractive career option for me. The role is especially relevant in this age of fast technological advancements. As an informatics nurse, I will educate and train staff on how to use novel technology and systems in the healthcare facility. I love new innovations; thus the role will suit my passion. Another part of this job will to entail working with suppliers, staff, and IT to ensure each person is using technology in an effectively and efficiently (Yen et al, 2017). The role will enable me to play a key role in the health system by introducing meaningful technology to the facility that will help staff attend to the needs of patients effectively. I believe that technology can make a health system standout. I will use my role to ensure my facility is a leader in technology and innovations. Overall, I believe that these two roles fit my ambition and will enable me to have a steady career path. I will work hard to ensure that I can fit well in either of these roles.  

Part 3

EmployerDescriptionEmployment or internship opportunitiesParkland Health and Hospital SystemIt is a large hospital districtHealthcare risk manager.Medical City HealthcareIt is a system that features 14 hospitalsHealthcare risk manager.Lifecare Health PartnersIt is a private hospital systemHealthcare risk manager.Texas Children HospitalIt is a large hospital systemInformatics nurse   


Rubbio, I., Bruccoleri, M., & Perrone, G. (2016). Introducing “healthcare resilience” in clinical risk management. In Proceedings of the 23rd EurOMa Conference.

Yen, P. Y., Phillips, A., Kennedy, M. K., & Collins, S. (2017). Nursing informatics competency assessment for the nurse leader: instrument refinement, validation, and psychometric analysis. Journal of Nursing Administration, 47(5), 271-277.

Sample Business Studies Essay Paper on civil Liberties get essay help

Assignment Questions

Assignment Questions

Assignment 1- Civil Liberties

Civil liberties are defined as the basic rights that are guaranteed either explicitly through statements in the international bill of rights or in the constitution, or implicitly through interpretation of either of the sources of rights and freedoms. Civil liberties differ from civil rights in that the latter refers specifically to the right not to be discriminated against due to individual characteristics such as race, religion, and gender among others. Any form of discrimination is a violation of civil rights.The three-pronged test is used to determine whether the government has violated the First Amendment, which protected religious factions against sponsorship, active involvement, or financial support by the government. For the 1971 case of Lemon v. Kurtzman, the court used the 3 parts of the test namely, 1.) whether the government had a secular rationale for its action; 2.) whether the government’s actions neither advanced nor prohibited religion; and 3.) whether the action by the government resulted in excessive religious involvement.Defamation can be either through libel or through slander. When defining defamation, a consideration of the medium used is made. Any defamation activity that involves the spread of untrue and/ or malicious information through writing is defined as libel while where the same information is spread orally, the activity would be described as slander. Any digital writings are considered libel.In the case of NAACP v. Alabama in 1958, it was established through the Supreme Court that the NAACP had the right to defend the rights of its members and to represent the same in a court of law. Contrary to the lower courts’ decision to stop the organization’s operations in the state, the Supreme Court decided that any demand for the membership list for the organization was a violation of the members’ rights of association; that the lower courts had not provided sufficient evidence that their rationale for requesting for the membership list superseded the members’ rights of association; and that the courts had been able to show the extent to which having the membership list of the organization would deter the members from enjoying their right to association (Ho, 2012).

Assignment 2- The Judiciary

The principle of stare decisis is described as a situation in which the court, during a ruling, refers to a similar issue that had been brought to the court previously, and on which a ruling had already been issued. This principle is used to promote consistency in the development of legal principles, to enhance predictability in court decisions and to promote evenhandedness (Kozel, 2010). The Supreme Court particularly defers to its previous decisions even where the decision’s soundness had been in doubt. This contributes in part to the perceived judicial system integrity.A statute is defined as a law enacted by a legislature. For instance, a federal legislature such as the Congress or a state legislature can enact laws for the country and the state respectively. This implies that in addition to the federal statutes, each state also has its own state statutes.The Chief Justice is the head of the Supreme Court and thus the head of the judicial arm of the government. The Chief Justice can also act as the administrator of the government where the head of the government is unavailable; he can speak on behalf of the judiciary as its head and also provide explanations of its roles; he also has the responsibility of a Supreme Court judge and sits in on its rulings.While judicial activism describes rulings made based on personal opinion rather than existing laws, textualism or originalism describes rulings made in consideration of existing laws. Judicial activism is also referred to as an antonym to judicial restraint in which existing laws regulate decision-making in the judiciary.

Assignment 3

Term limits play an essential role in curbing position monopolies. In presidential and semi-presidential positions, there is a probability that elected persons would desire to be in those positions for life, for example ‘president for life’ roles. However, there are certain positions in which term limits do not necessarily serve the intended purpose. For instance, lower elective positions should not necessarily have term limits. They can however have age limits, which can help to avoid monopoly. Through the age limits, it would be possible for the citizens to monitor development projects and the performance of the specific position holders. Where the position holder is a performer, citizens can give them other chances to continue serving the communities.

Assignment 4 – Video Summary

In the video by Kathleen Murphy, any person that desires to learn about investing and to begin on the journey can learn a lot. One of the key lessons from the video is that one can start at any given time in life. Saving for a lifetime may not be helpful in that a lifetime may not be complete. People should think more about making their finances last beyond a lifetime. Some of the essential practices to keep in mind are to plan, to always have a budget and a debt management plan; to diversify investments; and to focus on one’s dreams no matter how long it takes. Above all, Murphy emphasizes the importance of not letting anything get in one’s way of investing. She suggests that there should be no opportunity for fear, intimidation or lack of confidence to prevent one from achieving what they want.

The lessons learned from this video are applicable in any given career context. Everybody, including me, enters a career with the intention to grow in that career. Being aware of the challenges in that career and overcoming them is one of the motivating factors behind career growth. At the same time, many people do not think about financial management in the context of their respective careers or during the career growth path. As an individual, I believe this video has given me an eye-opening experience that will enable me plan my financial life alongside my career growth. I understand that it may be challenging but I will not let any challenge bar me from my dreams. Most significantly, I will make an effort to live within my means.


Ho, D.E. (2012). NAAC v. Alabama and false symmetry in the disclosure debate. Legislation and Public Policy, 15, 405-442. Retrieved from

Kozel, R.J. (2010). Stare Decisis as  judicial doctrine. Notre Dame Law School. Retrieved from

Murphy, K. (2013, December 6). Get serious! Get smart! Get going! YouTube Video. Retrieved from

Sample Nursing Essay Paper on Informatics in the Clinical Setting essay help services: essay help services

Informatics in the Clinical Setting


The increasing role of health informatics in any healthcare and/ or clinical setting has resulted in increased recognition of informatics professionals in the healthcare industry. In every facility, informatics professionals are involved in a variety of roles whose objective is to improve healthcare safety and service quality through information technology. One of the positions associated with these roles is the health informatics coordinator job. An interview was conducted with A.A., a health informatics coordinator at a renowned city hospital, with the objective of understanding the roles associated with the job and the challenges he experiences within the clinical setting in which he works. The ensuing paper presents a description of some of the information obtained about the health informatics coordinator job.

Role Description and Education Level

A health informatics coordinator within a clinical setting or in the healthcare industry is also referred to as a health information manager. The role entails working at facilities such as nursing homes, clinics, hospitals or any other facility in which healthcare service delivery is the objective. The health informatics coordinator role involves ensuring the accuracy and security of biomedical information databases in the facility. Those in this position use advanced coding systems and informatics tools to achieve their objectives in accordance with the principles of information technology management. Additionally, the health informatics coordinator also supervises the activities of technicians tasked with maintaining health informatics databases and with running analyses for insurance reimbursement objectives. These technicians are also responsible for assessing database qualities and they do this with the help of the health informatics coordinator. The health informatics coordinator should therefore stay abreast with all the latest trends in biomedical information technology. This is to ensure that the healthcare organization where they offer their services uses cutting-edge technological techniques to minimize confidentiality concerns in data management.

The education requirements for a job as a health informatics coordinator include a bachelor’s degree in an informatics-related field. However, clinical facilities prefer to hire candidates with a Master’s degree. Additionally, most healthcare facilities give preference to candidates with experience as health information technicians. These understand the clinical information environment and are capable of optimizing the available technologies, analytical techniques, and database management processes for optimum outcomes. Candidates for the role need to understand and have expertise in information technology as well as healthcare administration. For this reason, undergraduate and graduate courses may include subjects like biomedical science, biomedical management, and computer science among others.

The roles of the health informatics coordinator affect patient safety and quality of care in several ways. The most important aspect of healthcare service delivery is information sharing and accuracy. In an age where electronic health recording has become increasingly important, patient safety and healthcare quality both depend on the credibility of information shared concerning patients. Inaccurate patient information can result in negative patient safety outcomes such as medication errors, prescription errors, and misdiagnosis among others. As such, the health informatics coordinator plays an essential role in ensuring there is data accuracy in the use of electronic health records and subsequently in the delivery of quality and safe healthcare services.

Human Factors Affecting the Role

The health informatics coordinator job can be challenging as it demands attention to detail across the entire healthcare organization. Various human factors affect the performance and perspective of the healthcare informatics coordinator. Human factors affect the safety and usability of health information technologies through influences on systems, services and applications for healthcare information technology. According to Ulrich and Kear (2014), some of the human factors that affect the roles of the health informatics coordinator include management/ leadership support, communication, fatigue, stress in the workplace, the work environment, and the team structures among others. In explaining leadership support, Kushniruk et al. (2016), posit that effective leadership support not only promotes job satisfaction for the coordinator but also ensures that requisite resources are available for effective job performance. The interview with A.A also showed that outcomes such as stress and fatigue can negatively affect the performance of the health informatics coordinator. When under stress and/ or fatigue, the decision making capacity of the health informatics coordinator can be impaired, resulting in slower action, reactive rather than proactive action and poorer quality of decisions. These outcomes can have detrimental effects on patient safety and the quality of care delivery due to their impacts on the quality of information shared via healthcare facility databases.

In addition to the aforementioned factors, A.A also reported resistance to change as a probable challenge to his role as a health informatics coordinator. In his experience, he has faced challenges pushing through suitable technology changes due to resistance from various healthcare practitioners. This can however be addressed by involving key healthcare practitioners such as nurse leaders, throughout the change process to enable them understand the rationale behind change and to support the recommended change. The team structures also affect practices such as communication, which can either enhance or limit the effectiveness of the health informatics coordinator in his role.

External Influences on the Clinical Setting

The Joint Commission Patient Safety Goals and the Patient Safety Indicators developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) have provided an effective framework for healthcare facilities to focus on patient safety and improve the quality of healthcare services delivered. In a typical clinical setting, the Patient Safety Goals direct the focus of healthcare facilities on promoting surgical safety; eliminating or reducing the major causes of patient harm; preventing in-hospital infections, falls and pressure ulcers. For clinical facilities focusing on these goals, it is mandatory to maintain preventive measures against and keep records on protocols that prevent in-patient suicide; to continuously conduct and record patient safety risk assessments; screen patients for behavioral characteristics that portray suicide risk and to monitor high risk patients for harm prevention Kushniruk, Nohr and Borycki (2016). The patient safety indicators by the AHRQ help clinical facilities to monitor progress towards improving healthcare outcomes based on specific high risk practices such as pressure ulcer rates, retained surgical equipment prevalence rates, and post-operative hip fracture rates. These indicators are tied to the patient safety goals given by the Joint Commission. Through their mandatory regulations, the AHRQ and the Joint commission have continued to impact on healthcare delivery safety and quality. Healthcare facilities have to adhere to the provided stipulations in order to be fully compliant for third party financing (Medicare and Medicaid).

Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform (TIGER)

The Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform (TIGER) initiative was developed to foster inter-professional development in education reform among communities. Its other objective is to develop a global workforce that maximizes technology and informatics integration into clinical practice, education and development of research resources. Within the clinical setting, TIGER is most applicable in healthcare research and education. TIGER utilizes different technologies in different clinical settings to enhance education management and information sharing. For instance, one of the common resource sharing interfaces used by TIGER is the TIGER initiative website, which provides several educational resources for both nursing education and seamless practice integration (Schlak & Troseth, 2013). Its objective in sharing this information is to enable inter-professional healthcare colleagues to deliver effective, patient-centered and safe healthcare services.


Kushniruk, A., Nohr, C., & Borycki, E. (2016). Human factors for more usable and safer health information technology: Where are we and where do we go from here? Yearbook of Medical Informatics, 1, 120-125. Retrieved from

Schlak, S.E., & Troseth, M. (2013). TIGER initiative: Advancing health. Nursing Management, 44(1), 19-20. Retrieved from

Ulrich, B., & Kear, T. (2014). Patient safety and patient safety culture: Foundations of excellent healthcare delivery. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 41(5), 447-456, 505. Retrieved from

Sample Marketing Essay Paper on Analysis of Tesla popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Tesla is an American multinational company that focuses on the segment of electric automobiles. It is considered one of the best builders of electric cars. The company’s source of revenue is facing a significant threat from increasing competition (MacDuffie 482). One of the company’s main challenges comes from the mass exodus of consumers to the emerging producers of electric cars (Chen and Perez 55). The movement, according to Gilson and Abbott (72) has discouraged people from buying Tesla’s vehicles due to its poor public relations management. To that end, it is clear that the company’s revenue is dwindling largely due to poor PR.

It is clear that Tesla should be focused on sociological research to attract young clients. The research should be focused on establishing the norms and the culture of human interactions. It is critical to note the sanctions and norms of the Millennials and Generation Z. The research will be qualitative as it seeks to establish the social characteristics of young customers. It means that the data source will be from primary sources as it will entail filed observations and the use of questionnaires. The greatest strength of this research is that it will enable Tesla to come up with original findings that will enable it to develop its generic plan. On the other hand, the weakness lies in the fact that it is time-consuming to conduct this research and its interpretations may be subjective thus not reflecting an accurate picture.

It is clear that young people are the suitable audience for its products and services. It means that the company needs to come up with a public relations strategy that (1) creates brand awareness and this includes an understanding of what fair trade coffee is (2) increase the business at its local-stores in college towns. To achieve this, the company needs to engage in a social research to determine how it can appeal to the young generation.

Works Cited

Chen, Yurong, and Yannick Perez. “Business model design: lessons learned from Tesla Motors.” Towards a Sustainable Economy. Springer, Cham, 2018. 53-69.

Gilson, Stuart C., and Sarah Abbott. “Tesla Motors (A): Financing Growth.” (2018).

MacDuffie, John Paul. “Response to Perkins and Murmann: Pay Attention to What Is and Isn’t Unique about Tesla.” Management and Organization Review 14.3 (2018): 481-489.

Sample HR Management Essay Paper on Telehealth college essay help



 Telehealth is a broad term that involves use of audio and video technology to provide   health services to patients where barriers exist. The four types of telehealth used by medical professionals are Remote Patient Monitor (RPM), mobile health (mHealth), asynchronous video and live video-conferencing. In light with this, the research will examine Remote Patient Monitoring in telehealth, its advantages and disadvantages, how to prevent fraud in remote patient monitoring and whether to participate in telehealth as a patient or a provider and why or why not.

Question 1

Remote patient monitoring is technology used to monitor patient’s health outside the traditional healthcare settings. Remote Patient Devices such as pulse oximeter, glucometer and high blood pressure cuffs have wireless sensors and a centralized repository that can measure and transmit patient’s psychological parameters data to healthcare providers (Malasinghe et al 2019). Remote patient monitoring has advantages as patients have easy access to healthcare from the comfort of their places or in the remote areas reducing the commuter stress of distance and time (Anasonye et al., 2018). Additionally, patients are assured of their comfort as they are sure there is someone watching over them and making them comfortable. Healthcare providers can also better manage their time as workload and time are balanced. However, remote patient monitoring has disadvantages as it requires broadband connectivity which cannot be available in small healthcare or rural hospitals (Anasonye et el., 2019). Additionally, cases of malfunction of remote patient monitoring devices have led to transmission of wrong information thereby lead to wrong diagnosis.

Question 2

Fraud cases of improper billing can be prevented when   laws on billing processes are reviewed on telehealth payment and the system of payment is updated on any arising changes. Additionally, health professionals should be properly trained and adequately reimbursed to prevent cases of kickback requests (Balestra et al., 2018). Patients should also be adequately informed on the charges of the health care and cases of exploitation to be strictly dealt with.

Question 3

I would participate in telehealth as a medical provider so as to provide patient care to people where barriers such as distance exist. Additionally, by providing care to patients, there is increased professional value to healthcare.


Anasonye, N. (2019). Nurse’s Role in Applying Telemedicine in the Management of Heart failure in Elderly.

Balestra, M. (2018). Telehealth and Legal Implications for Nurse Practitioners. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 14(1).

 Malasinghe, L. P., Ramzan, N., & Dahal, K. (2019). Remote patient monitoring: a comprehensive study. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 10(1).

Sample Health Care Case Studies Paper on William Beaumont Hospital and Jeri Antilla case free college essay help: free college essay help

William Beaumont Hospital and Jeri Antilla Case

The William Beaumont hospital and Jeri Antilla case is about two employees who sued the hospital for wrongful termination. According to the hospital, after investigation, it determined that the two workers were guilty of misconduct, including abusive language and bullying, at the work place thus terminated their employment. Additionally, they violated the code of conduct by being condescending and sarcastic towards other members of the staff, especially the newer nurses. I agree with the decision made by the hospital because during hiring, the nurses must have been made aware of the rules and regulations of the establishment, inclusive of the code of conduct (Burns, 2016). The National Labor Relations Board amended the complaint to reveal the fact that the code of conduct in question allowed the hospital to discourage section 7 of under the NLRA (Deakins). This section includes engaging in concerted activities involving mutual aid whereby the nurses were not accused of any specific violation. I also agree with this decision because, the NLRA is supposed to protect employees such as the two nurses thus the importance of calling out the hospital on their code.

The Administrative Law Judge determined that the code of conduct addressed by the hospital was ambiguous and exaggerated after analyzing the code, which covered specific concerns regarding two work rules that prohibited physical or verbal gestures that surpassed the confines of fair criticism (Burns, 2016). The rules violated section 8 of the NLRA because the rules could be interpreted as limiting lawful discussions and complaints that are protected under section 7 of the Act. By issuing a direct order to the employees not to discuss an investigation with the co-workers in an event involving a patient in the hospital, the facility violated section 8 of the labor Act (Dekins). However, I do not agree with this decision because it sent a mixed message to employees. It simply says that the NLRB pays more attention to policy and handbook provisions that relate to personal interaction among employees. The attention does not define a conclusion in which intimidating and bullying behavior is prohibited by the NLRA thus a confusing message to the employees.

The hospital could have handled the situation differently by anticipating the actions of the nurses in question. Indeed, the prohibitions and violations of section 8 should have been properly reviewed before putting the hospital through many legal procedures. It should have sought the legal guidance of a lawyer in the proceedings to close all the loopholes that could come back to affect them in the future. Even though the nurses were not offered their jobs back due to unrelated issues, the hospital could have faced negative consequences had it only charged them with the violations stipulated in their policy hand book. That is, there was some wide range avenues for exploration that could have caused the establishment a lot of liability yet the situation could have been avoided.

If I were the supervisor, I would take my time to build a solid case because if they went against some of the hospital rules, it is highly likely that they violated others. Indeed, I would pursue the matter with caution to ensure I leave no room for mistakes. When employer policies and work rules are not clearly evaluated, employers are left to figure out the constituents of a lawful work rule. As such, employers should consult labor lawyers, which is what I would have done as the supervisor. The lawyers would have helped me go through the narrowly tailored work rules thus avoid mistakes that would cause the hospital problems.


Burns. M. (April,26,2016) NLRB comes down hard on Beaumont hospital; one board member dissents strongly. AS Online. Retrieved from

Deakins O. NLRB finds policy against certain “verbal comments or physical gestures” may restrict concerted activity. Employment Law Matters. Retrieved from

Sample Logistics Essay Paper on The Correlation between Mobile Security and Human Behavior buy essay help

Question 1

Surveillance is the systematic, routine, and focused attention to personal information for security purposes (Lyon 2). Digital scrutiny is the “new surveillance” system that has become increasingly popular among many countries in the world. This strategy has its origin in the advancement of technology, the evolution of phones, and increased access to the internet. Consequently, there are rapid changes in geographical relations of proximity, social and spatial diffusion, advancement of electronic commerce, and availability of massive personal data in the hands of second parties (Lyon 2). A collateral consequence of this is the increased threat to the public and state security, which prompts the government to embark on manipulative digital surveillance systems.

Edward Snowden, a former National Agency Security Contractor in the United States, revealed to Americans about the government’s illegal digital surveillance in 2013 (Lyon 2).  In order to collect the huge amounts of data that the private companies possess, the government has extended its surveillance network and partnered with search engines, manufacturers of communication gadgets, and mobile service providers (Scott n.p). Operating Systems in phones and computers and third parties internet services (APIs) can be exploited to provide spy information to the state or third parties (Ndibwile 1). For instance, an alleged intrusive device was installed in computer network to monitor emails in California at Berkeley’s College of Natural Resources (Scott n.p). Furthermore, digital surveillance is a common practice in totalitarian regimes as such rulers are in constant fear of emancipatory power of the internet. 

Security agencies are using different strategies to implement this surveillance system. First, it is alleged that government-sponsored hackers intrude search companies’ databases to collect massive information. For instance, in April 2015, cyber-hackers collected information from four million employees and political appointees. Secondly, the government has initiated laws and policies that legitimize “illegal” access of the state to personal data in emails and phone recordings. An example for this is the Patriots Act that was enacted after the 9/11 attack; this law allowed FBI to access telecommunication as well as financial and credit reports without an individual’s consent or court order. Similarly, Mark Klein, a whistleblower and a former employee of AT&T, disclosed in 2004 that the National Security Agency established a secret room in San Francisco facility where they monitored email and phone communication by enrooting all incoming emails and phone traffics (Altheide 4). These claims were supported by Thomas Tamm, a Justice Department Attorney, who confirmed that the government had interception points for emails and phone calls across America (Altheide 3). Lastly, the administration utilizes the gap in consent terms in privacy and confidentiality in Operating Systems (OS) and other software. In most cases, the wordings of the ‘terms and conditions’ are  technical and the public and internet users do not read them carefully; this creates a viable ground for data sharing to the third parties.

Question 2

I believe that the government has fundamental responsibility to maintain balance between public trust and security. However, this cannot be achieved through manipulation of telecommunication services and illegal digital monitoring. Even though surveillance is fundamental in promoting State security, intruding on email and phone communication without consent or court order is not only illegal but also unethical, a breach of privacy and confidentiality, and a threat to freedom of expression. The judiciary should be firm to protect our liberty; it should remain vigilant to identify any breach of human rights. Moreover, public should also demand clear explanation from the government on how they plan to guard us from criminals and terrorists. People should not surrender their liberties by agreeing to government’s corporate-run digital surveillance.

Considerably, to avoid intrusion of public privacy, security agencies should adhere to two recommendations. First, security oversight authority should be established to monitor State surveillance activities to ensure strict adherence to the existing legal framework. Secondly, there should be increased citizen participation in matters of security as an alternative to indiscriminate surveillance strategies. Citizen’s inclusion in security matters promotes public trust, government transparency, and allays fear of intrusion of the right to privacy.

Works Cited

Altheide, David L. “The Triumph of Fear: Connecting the Dots about Whistleblowers and Surveillance.” International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism (IJCWT) 4.1 (2014): 1-7.

Lyon, David. “Surveillance, Snowden, and Big Data: Capacities, Consequences, Critique.” Big Data & Society 1.2 (2014): 2053951714541861.

Ndibwile, Jema David, et al. “Smart4Gap: Factors that Influence Smartphone Security Decisions in Developing and Developed Countries.” Proceedings of the 2018 10th International Conference on Information Management and Engineering. ACM, 2018.

Scott Jaschik. “U of California Faculty Members Object to New Email Monitoring.” U of California Faculty Members Object to New Email Monitoring, 1 Feb. 2016, Accessed on 19 March 2019.

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