Get help from the best in academic writing.

Sample Health Care Essay On Project SHAD Essay Help For Free

Project SHAD

The project of Shipboard Hazard and Defense popularly known as the Project SHAD was a sequence of chemical and biomedical test done by the Department of Defense between late 1960s and early 1970s in order to investigate into the vulnerability of the detection ships on biological and chemical warfare. It occurred after World War two with introduction of biochemical warfare. It was generally a military project even though the expertise involved in the program was more diverse. They carried out each test with a number of separate trials to justify the efficiency of each separate vessel. To make it more advance, they used various agents for one test and at times went on a test with different agents. Such agents used include sarin and VX for warfareagents, pasteurella and coxiella brunette,and zinc cadmium (United States, 2003, p. 54). The test were carried both on air and sea. The land and air test were conducted to verify the vulnerability of the vessels against biochemical warfare. They tested for high and low chemical agent reactions to the vessels.

Even though the tests were alleged to be professional and in line with professional ethics and code of conducts, it never made it to be. There were a number of violation on the ethical codes of conduct that govern a proper biomedical test during the exercise. Such include use of human being for the test, open-air testing of harmful gases, and abuse of professionalism attributes among others. During the test, army officers in command sent 23-year old soldier into the forest to its Edgewood Arsenal Forest chemical test center. They pledge to keep the plan patriotic and hurt no one. They also gave a specific time period for the expedition of the young army officer. More critical is that this plan was kept professional for the soldier and had nothing in link to the biomedical test going round. However, in the aftermath of it, the soldier was secretly planned to be used a specimen in testing the effects of the chemicals on vessel screw and other people. This was a breach of the ethical codes of conduct of any medical test program. Legible test would not use live specimens and above all a human being for biochemical test. They also intended to use strictly medical and chemical professional in the test but ended up using other nonprofessional personnel in the test. Equally open-air test conducted did not meet required test policy. It was a literal abuse to the accepted codes of conduct. Some of this agents and chemicals used very corrosive a harmful to both plant and human life. Therefore, the use of open-air test such as air strikes only opened avenues for harmful violation of professional codes of conduction.

All these action of the forces violated codes of conduct (Page, Young, Crawford, & Institute of Medicine, 2007, p. 68). If anything, a lot of precautions ought to have been taken to improve the conditions upon which such actions were taken. Use of human specimen in the forest test was exclusively improper. They would have used proper biological test of harmful gases. The same would also apply to the open-air strike and making sure that only legible professionals were directly involved in the test. It was military program but purely a professional activity that requires qualified professions.


Page, W. F., Young, H. A., Crawford, H. M., & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2007). Long-term health effects of participation in Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense). Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.

United States. (2003). Health care for veterans of Project 112/Project SHAD Act of 2003: Report (to accompany H.R. 2433). Washington, D.C: U.S. G.P.O.

Social Work and Human Services Sample Paper on Statement of Purpose cbest essay help: cbest essay help

Statement of Purpose

            During my time in High School, I enjoyed participating in group activities and helping people. After I completed my O levels, I had hands-on experience in dealing with people especially within my local community. It is during my interaction with people that I realized my love for people and the community was flowing in me. I enjoyed helping people especially the ones in need and vulnerable, working with communities to eradicate situations such as disease and poverty. As an aspiring social worker, I learnt that my main line of duty was to ensure individuals who were vulnerable were protected from harm (Doel, 2012). I had the experience of working with groups of adults and children especially the ones who were vulnerable to drug addiction and HIV/AIDS. I attained some knowledge in counseling and teaching people about HIV/AIDS.

            My passion for social work was ignited by one of the experiences I had while I was working with young people who were addicted to drugs. With the help of one of the community counselors in our locality, I was able to take one of the young people though a series of therapeutic programs that helped him to get out of this chain of addiction. During this time, I realized that I found it easy to work with young people especially with the Hispanics since there were few social workers who were Hispanic in Mississippi.  I have plans to take up an opportunity as a school social worker in Mississippi, a region where Hispanics are fast growing in numbers. I believe that Our Lady of the Lake University Graduate School of Social Work has the best and conducive environment for my learning needs. It is my best choice since it is geared towards working with Hispanics.


Doel, M. (2012). Social Work: The Basics. London: Routledge.

Sample Engineering Paper on Team work my essay help uk

Team work

Team work is quite essential in doing projects in an organizational set up. In order to build up strong team, it is important to have fundamental components which include; getting a task that needs to be done in a team and building the necessary social factors that influence individual’s participation in that team. Team work is more effective in work organization than individuals or group work. Individuals can be in one group but playing a dormant role, such that the group is not benefiting from the individual.  In a team, every member plays a role in ensuring that the objectives laid down are achieved in time. In order to be able to successfully accomplish an engineering project in a specified time, it is necessary to ensure teamwork in doing the project. Teamwork involves the participation of every member within an association. Every member actively participates in a common activity for the benefit of all. Every individual projects a unique ability which can be harnessed in teamwork to ensure success in a project.

There different types of teams which includes; Formal team, Cross-functional team, and Self management team. Formal team is evident in a formal organizational structure where vertical series of command is working. Cross-functional team involves people with diverse expertise but working together towards a certain objective. An example of cross-functional team is different departments in one organization which may includes; engineering, sells and marketing, finance, human resource, and risk management department among others. All these departments play different roles but objectively ensure that organizational goals are achieved.

In this modern era, there is emergency of new type of teams which include virtual team and global team. In the virtual team, technology is conducting several functions which includes; building relationships, shaping culture, monitoring and rewarding members. Global teams are built on international platform where members belong to different nationalities and operate on cross-border teams. Despite the distance between the member, technology joins them together through internet and other communication platforms.

In order to have successful team work, trust must be built among the members. The members in a team should feel comfortable relating with one another when working together and also in divergent opinions which may become a point of disagreement. In team work every person’s idea is considered to ensure the best way in performing certain task and every member plays his/her role diligently and accountably. In order to be able to lead a team effectively, a leader must portray good leadership characteristic. This include being able to rally people to pursue a certain goal, share power appropriately, be clear in establishing culture and norms of operation, and being able to admit any form of ignorance and strategizing on the best plans to ensure accountability and efficiency. The team leaders should consider social and task roles. Task roles involves; initiating ideas, providing opinions, getting information, summarizing issues and energizing the team. Socioemotional roles include; encouraging, harmonization, absorbing tension, and compromising where necessary.


Globalisation has become a popular term in the modern world. Globalisation is the incorporation of different nations in a manner that allows exchange of ideas, world view, culture and products. There are huge benefits associated the effect of globalization. One of the benefits of globalization is advancement in transportation sector in a manner that leads to increased speed of transactions and delivery of goods and services.The movement of capital, goods and services has become easier due to globalization. This is because globalisation creates better transport and communication network that allows easier movement of trade commodities. Nations with weak economical strength have received necessary boosting through exchange of products with the strong nations.

Engineering has been vital in influencing globalisation agenda through telecommunication infrastructure, transportation and use of internet. Globalisation has led to increased opportunities, better communication and economical interdependence which have empowered nations to a better economy. Globalisation lowers the labour cost significantly and at the same time increasing the level of skills. This ensures better manufacturing and processing of commodities in order to increasing consumer satisfaction. Clothing industries which are labour intensive industries can benefit greatly from cheap labour due to globalisation and therefore making the price of clothing products to be affordable.  

The reason why globalization should be embraced is because of many benefits that come along with it. Freedom of trade between countries helps them benefit from exchange of materials without barriers between them. In order for a country to benefit from globalisation it must position itself in a strategic position, where it can integrate domestic and international processes to ensure maximum benefits. This may include creating strategies and condition at both public and private level to ensure increased productivity, reliability and innovative capacity. Some countries encourage globalisation in the fear of being isolated or left behind. However, many organizations have realized the need of accepting globalization in order to increase opportunities and have greater impact.

Globalisation offers great opportunities for engineers which includes the increased demand for skilled labour and established network that makes communication easier and faster.

Many countries are scared of the dominance that globalisation trend is taking. There is fear of being misused by other countries in a manner that can jeopardize their economical development. Economical leaders like United States of America (USA) may be at risk of jeopardizing their leadership position in technology and military power as a result of globalisation. However, the benefits that come along with globalisation supersede the disadvantages that may result from it.

Labour market

Labour market is place of interaction between employers and workers, where the employers look for the best labour while the workers look for the best job. In labour market, the firm projects a demand for the labour while the workforce provides supply of labour to the firms. Globalisation expands the boundaries for labour market, offering better workers for international firms and better and better jobs for worker. Labour market participation is represented by the number of persons who have attained the working age and are in the labour force.

In New Zealand, the working population is civilian population who are non-institutionalized and 15 years and above. It is important to understand that all employment relationships are dependent on an exchange. The objectives of workers and employers are quite divergent, each seeking to maximize their gain at expense of the other. As a result of this the government comes in and creates a legislation to prevent one party from exploiting the other. Labour simply means the measure of work done people and it is rewarded by income, salaries or wages.

Many organisations are changing their structures tin order to be able to accommodate global standards. These include review of the organizational culture in order to enable different cultures to fit in the organisations. The labour market in the global arena seems to offer better workers who are equipped with better skills. However, there are dynamics in the labour market that compels the firms to adjust to paramount changes. Engineering plays a vital role in building the economy of a nation. As a result of modernization, there are many innovations that have taken place in the engineering field. High level of skills is demanded to run modern industries that make use of computerized programs.

USA has a high level of technology compared to other nation and therefore in order to fit working in the firms there must be high level of skills. Majority of developing nation get better labour for handling technical machineries from developed countries in Europe, America and Asia. Majority of the Asia countries like Qatar and United Arab Emirates are getting cheaper labour from African countries. There are great challenges in the international labour market. The challenge of accommodating different cultures requires the firms to adjust in order to be able to function with a mix culture.

In a country like New Zealand, there have been several death incidences in the mines. One of the reasons why death cases have been rampant in the mines is due to inexperienced miner and overseas miner who are not used to the countries mining conditions. Therefore wise selection is required in the labour market in order to ensure efficiency and reliability in operations. The firms have a great responsibility of ensuring that they train their worker in order to able to tackle all kinds of challenges that are associated with the job.

Consumer guarantee

Consumer guarantee is vital aspect in business processes. A consumer is a person who receives goods and services from suppliers or manufacturers for domestic, household or personal use. Goods and services that are delivered to customers must be in good condition in order to serve the need of the customers as per the expectations. The government protects the consumers through formulation of legislation. The legislation ensures that firms compete effectively, consumers’ confidence is maintained and consumer interests are protected. consumer guarantee is expressed through ensuring a quality or performance of products are in order, supplying spare parts for the good, providing services that may be demanded in relation to the goods.

The consumer is entitled to acceptable quality of goods and services which also includes gas and electricity supply. The acceptable quality considers the safety and the health of the consumer. The good should not affect the health of a consumer negatively or pose a risk to his or her health. Normally, manufacturers and suppliers provide guarantee about the products they sell, lease or hire, and also the services they offer to the consumers. Consumers normally have rights that protect them against fake products from suppliers and manufacturers.

The aspect of ethic must feature in manufacturing process and supply of product. Normally, engineers have great responsibility in the manufacturing processes and therefore they are expected to ensure professionalism in their area of operation and conduct themselves in a socially acceptable manner. If the quality of the products is compromise by the manufacturer or the supplier, consumers have right against such deficiencies. There are agencies that protect consumers from manufacturer and suppliers deficiencies and ensure that consumer’s satisfaction is respected.

English Sample Paper on Cause and effect of Obesity custom essay help: custom essay help

Obesity: Cause and effect essay outline

Hook: Obesity in medical terms is a complex disorder that involves an individual having excess amount of body fat. It has the disadvantage in that it increases the risks of having heart diseases among other physical, economic and social problems. 

Connecting information: Various predisposing factors like genetic makeup of a person, lifestyle and emotions have triggered the onset of obesity, thus leading to physical, social, emotional and psychological effects among others.

Thesis Statement: With the rising cases of obesity especially by the younger generations, it is important to identify the various causes and effects of obesity.

Causes of obesityCause 1: GeneticChildren of obese parents are more likely to become obese as compared to children of lean parentSome other genetic makeups of a person may contribute immensely to an individual becoming overweight.Cause 2: DietThe choice of food that one takes greatly contributes towards obesity.Eating food that is high in carbohydrates and fats may lead to obesity.Water is essential in maintaining a healthy body for the purpose of enabling fat solubility.Cause 3: LifestylesMajority of the town, college and working people nowadays prefer to eat junk foods because they are tasty, cheap, and more readily available.Poor food choices also contributes to obesity Cause 4: Emotional factorsSome psychological problems like depression, anorexia nervosa, anger as well as hopelessness influences a person’s eating habit and may lead to obesity. Cause 5: EducationLack of knowhow and awareness of the effect of obesity may lead to people making wrong food choices, overeating, or bad eating habits.Conclusion

Obesity, though commonly known as overweight has serious effects on the life of an individual as well as the community, and therefore, actions need to be taken to identify the causes of the problems as well as the solution. 

Cause and effect essay on Obesity


At its simplest definition, obesity occurs when the body accumulates excess fat which in turn may have negative impact on the health, economic as well as the social welfare of an individual (Kopelman, Caterson & Dietz, 2010). The history of obesity cannot be well ascertained, but it is assumed that obesity is as old as the human nature (Wolin & Petrelli, 2009). Obesity can trigger the onset of diseases including heart diseases and diabetes among others. Lack of exercise, overeating, and genetic composition of a person as well as the lack of nutritional knowledge are some of the factors that can greatly lead to obesity. These causes may in turn lead to several effects which in broad terms can be categorized as health risks, economic risks, physical and psychological risks. This being the case, this paper will aim at identifying some of the causes of obesity as well as the effect of obesity on an individual in society.

Causes of obesity

Cause 1: Genetic

Science researcher has shown that there is a great relationship between genetics and obesity. A person’s gene may directly cause obesity in certain disorders like Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome (Eckel, 2003 p. 345).  Research done indicates that if the parents are obese, there is a greater chance of one or some of their children being obese. This fact does not lead to the conclusion that obesity is only caused by genetic factors, but other environmental factors also contributes greatly to the onset of obesity

Cause 2: Diet

Diet is a chief cause of obesity. The food that we eat greatly affects the body nutritional components. Failure to eat a balanced diet is likely to cause diseases while at the same time, eating excess of one type of food (fats and carbohydrates) may lead to obesity.  It should be noted that the amount of calories taken by individuals and drinks impacts on their weight. Consuming more than the body can burn leads to excess fat being stored which gradually lead to obesity. At the same time, it should be noted that certain food especially the sugary category and the junk foods has a high fat and sugar contents and when eaten in large quantity or more frequent than normal, may lead to the body storing up fats which in the end leads to obesity (Hu, 2008). Failure of an individual to drink enough water also affects the metabolic processes in the body as the body becomes toxic and unable to get rid of excess fat as calories are burned. The correct nutritional content in the body ensures that the body has the correct amount of nutrients required to maintain a healthy body.

Cause 3: Lifestyles

Lifestyle is another major contributor of obesity especially among the college and young people in the community. Fast food joints offer mostly high calorie foods and drinks that are liked by many young people. Most of the contemporary persons live a sedentary lifestyle characterized by irregular lifestyle with no physical activities (Williams & Frühbeck 2009 p. 368).  Most of the college people and other working class citizens as well as young children are subjected to sugary foods which the body cannot fully utilize. The net effect of this leads to accumulation of fat calories in the body, which in turn lead to overweight. Young people and college guys hate to cook for themselves and prefer to eat at the “junk food” joints that offers low price, high calorie food. The cheaper food that are highly saturated with fat, combined with the sedentary lifestyle, characterized by lack of strenuous physical exercises, lead to obesity (p. 40). It should be noted that lack of physical exercise that helps in burning out fat in the body leads to the same fat being retained in the body (Bouchard, 2000 p. 120).

Cause 4: Emotional factors

In the contemporary society, many people have found ways to eliminate negative emotions like depression, sadness, loneliness and anger through overeating (Murphy, 2012). Studies done indicate that consumption of food rich in high fat and sugar helps in relieving the nerves as well as stress. Though this is on a short term basis, the relieve leads to overeating (46). People suffering from seasonal affective disorders usually eat more and sleep in excess. This is likely to cause excess fat be retained in the body thus leading to obesity.

Cause 5: Education

Parents are unwilling to guide their children on quality nutrition. In turn, they buy candy, chocolates and potato crisps as well as other junk food and drinks that have high fat and sugar contents. The consumers of these products add weight slowly and in the end leads to obesity. This being the case, lack of education on good nutrition, poor education background as well as poor financial standards may lead to non adherence of good diet behaviors (Ács, Lyles & Stanton, 2007 p. 40). At the same time, obese children may not have the knowhow on how to practice good nutritional care, thus consuming the wrong nutritional values that are not beneficial to their bodies. It should be noted that majority of the people around the globe are misinformed on health and nutrition and therefore end up making the wrong food choices that harms their body.

Other causes of obesity include health conditions, whereby some hormonal issues may lead to overweight thus obesity (Freedman, 2009). Some types of medication may lead to body weight increase including antidepressants and seizure medicines. Smoking, pregnancy, age and lack of sleep may also lead to overweight.


Obesity affects all classes of people and it poses great danger once it becomes complicated.  It affects the young and the old and it doesn’t consider geographical location or gender. Lack of proper education, genetic makeup of a person, lifestyle and especially the sedentary lifestyle, emotional factors and diet are some of the main causes of obesity. This being the case, understanding the root causes of obesity may help an individual in formulating strategies that can be used to reduce its impact on the society. Some of these strategies include eating the correct diet, changing one’s lifestyle, avoiding stress related problems. All in all, unless it is genetically oriented, nutritional education as well as physical exercise should be emphasized.


Ács, Z. J., Lyles, A., & Stanton, K. R. (2007). Obesity, business and public policy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Top of Form

Bouchard, C. (2000). Physical activity and obesity. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics.

Eckel, R. H. (2003). Obesity: Mechanisms and clinical management. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Freedman, J. (2009). Understanding obesity: The mental and physical effects of obesity. New York: Rosen Pub

Hu, F. B. (2008). Obesity epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kopelman, P. G., Caterson, I. D., & Dietz, W. H. (2010). Clinical obesity in adults and children. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

Murphy, W. B. (2012). Obesity. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books

Williams, G., & Frühbeck, G. (2009). Obesity: Science to practice. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Wolin, K. Y., & Petrelli, J. M. (2009). Obesity. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press.

Anthropology Essay Sample on Anthropology of Development essay help writing


            Anthropology is the study of human behavior and perception in their environment. Since time immemorial, many people have viewed development from different perspectives, some think of development based on academics, economics, social standards, cultural beliefs and political development. This paper is an analysis of western stage theories of development and the unilinear progress. The paper also discusses the reasons why the World Bank views Lesotho as a country that has not achieved development.

Western stage theories and unilinear progress

            Western stage theories of development refer to the philosophies that were used by people of western culture to define differences in development. A deeper study of these assumptions reveals various notions and ideas concerning development that were held by different individuals in varied generations. Western Stage theories denote a increasing differentiation between nature (the body) from culture (the mind), it also demonstrates a progressive control over nature, which becomes less personified, less objective and, less modified in nature. Thus the theories indicate that there is substantive changes in the light of development as people move from one generation to the next (Rist, 21).

            The proposers of theories of western civilization state that there is unlimited room for growth and that the issue to limitation in available resources can be overcome by controlling natural circumstances. For example, people can manipulate the scarcity in materials by taking part in producing more to avert depletion of the existing resources.  Economic developments are some of the activities that human beings can use controlling nature hence realizing a balance in limited materials (Sahilins, 33). This theory holds the belief that there is so much to be done to meet the economic development that aims at improving human lives

            Western civilization also states that the idea of development tor progress indicates some level of lack on the side of other individuals, the undeveloped. Western stage theory states that lack any developmental theory cannot define the in availability of development. The stages of development are as well noted when individuals own property like housing, finance and infrastructure and other aspect of life such as having the capacity or ability t perform a task (Grabber 23).   Western Stage Theories of development clearly uphold the belief that changes in social organization and conceptions of the person as well as technological changes such as an individual must have a sense of self in order to have a sense of property, and he or she must have property and self, inscribed in law, to have material accumulation under capitalism.

            Unilinear theories of development tend to apply a universally accepted wisdom such as the methods used by humans to achieve values, goals or objectives within the same environment.  The study of anthropology on the other hand does not hold such a notion, but fully relies on the ideas of unilinear progress often, because anthropology is also a product of the Western Enlightenment. Western Stage theories imply that the factor about time is progressive, linear, and abstract the progress also simply gradual rational mastery over the irrational, as well as the material (Rist, 30)

Some of the limitations of the western stage theories of development are that it only thinks of development based on the notion held by a few people.  The aim and nature of development vary from one place to the other and from one region to the next hence development should not be considered as a universally similar factor since what one person or place considers developed is not what the other will consider developed (Ferguson 34). The notion that social and cultural development should be similar is wrong since societies differ in the structure and belief; hence what one society term as developed is not what the other will uphold as developed.

The human race has gone through development in various sectors; the western culture considers development from social, academic, global, economic and employment front. On the other hand, some African countries are considered less developed based on economic, cultural and other life factors that affect their daily being. A country like Lesotho is considered by world bank as being less developed bas on economic factors that the countries has suffered in  the recent past. In this southern country, people suffer many diseases that should not be affecting the live of individual as far and the leaders of the World Bank are concerned. The economic development in this country cannot be admired as well; people lack enough resources to go by Ferguson 44). They scramble and struggles for the little resources found in its environment. most of the these materials, especially those of high quality ends up in the hands of the most privileged in the nation, leaving those who are poor to suffer without anyone to fight for them.

Social and political underdevelopments are some of the main features that can be used to define this southern African nation. Political instability and a hostile environment is the order of daily living in this art of the continent.  The country is ruled by power and wealth hungry individuals who are ready to hold on to such opportunities as long as they live. Democratic development is notable unheard of in the nation too. National decision making is done by those in the ruling party and the rest are expected to abide by them without questioning in anyway

Works Cited

Grabber, D. The first 5,000 years. New York, NY: Melvil House

Fabian, J The and time and the other. Belmont, CA: Cengage Leaning  

Ferguson, R The history of development. New York, NY: Sage

Sahilins, M The original affluent society. New York, NY: McGraw Hill

Rist, R. The history of development. New York, NY: Sage

Sample Essay on Business Studies Organization and Strategy at Millennium my assignment essay help

Organization and Strategy at Millennium

Question 1

The main objective for the Millennium Pharmaceuticals was to come up with treatments of different illnesses before they have spread to wider areas. This was a positive idea that would help consumers and other medical firms, to save on costs and time in covering an area that is affected by a disease. In most firms that were involved with creating treatment of illnesses using traditional methods that was objectively to find chemical compounds that would treat the symptoms of the illnesses. However, the Millennium Pharmaceuticals company, focused on combining biology and technology to come up with treatments for different diseases. Unlike the traditional ways of getting the treatment of a disease by focusing on curing the symptoms, the use of biotechnology by the firm ensured that it identified targets responsible for an illness and create chemical substances that would help prevent and cure different of these diseases. It is therefore through the engaging in biotechnology by the company, that created competition in the industry. Due to this fact, however, most pharmaceutical companies were experiencing losses because of the costly research processes and the competition in the market by a different firm to offer the best and reliable treatment to different diseases. Most in these firms therefore set to work together to come with treatments, in order to spend less and come up with medicinal products that would meet the needs of the ill people.

Question 2

            The vertical integration strategy usually involves a number of channels of distribution for a company’s operations. The Pharmaceutical company will be manufacturing treatments for different illnesses and selling them to intermediaries such as retailers and wholesalers, who will be able to provide them to the final consumer. However, in order for the medical company to ensure this operation strategy is successful, it will need to consider some factors that are associated with the strategy. For instance the costs of the manufactured product to the final consumer should be regulated pharmaceutical company. The company should also ensure that it produces the most reliable treatment for disease in order to be competitive with other pharmaceutical firms. This will help ensure that the company acquires a large number of sales due to the quality of effectiveness of their medication products. However, the company, who are the manufactures of these treatments, should also regulate the prices of their medicines in accordance to the amount spent on researching for a medicine for a disease. Apart from that, all the cost incurred to be fully released to the market for consumption should also be considered when pricing the treatment.

Question 3

            As the CEO of the company, I will consider firstly, undertaking an analysis of the likelihood of a disease to break as well as diseases that are said to be easily contagious. This will therefore help the company to come up with treatments that are required urgently to avoid is spread. This analysis also helps understand the environment of a target market. Secondly, modifying the pharmaceutical company’s objectives and goals will be necessary to help Millennium company successful. Through this, the management and employees will be able to sort coming problems easily. Lastly, implementing the set rules, and regulation on how researches should be undertaken as well as the period a research should be fully completed, is the major priority, since without implementing the set strategies to meet the company’s objectives, will be a waste of time and resources.

English Sample Essay on My Hero: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela homework essay help: homework essay help

My Hero: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela

My hero is one of the greatest men who lived in the twenty first century. His name is Nelson Mandela. Nelson Mandela was born in South Africa on the 18th of July 1918 and passed away on the 5th of December 2013. He was an anti-apartheid icon, a politician and in his old age a philanthropist. Coming from a humble village he rose to be a force to be reckoned with in the fight against apartheid and racial discrimination in South Africa.

My hero was willing to risk his life and even pay the ultimate sacrifice, that is, death for the fight against racial discrimination and inequality. He believed in the equality of all men and women regardless of the color of their skin or race. He was jailed for 27 years (1962 to 1990) in Robben Island for leading the youth wing of the African National Congress (ANC) which opposed the apartheid regime in South Africa. After being released from prison, in 1994 he was elected the president of his beloved country, in essence achieving what he had been fighting for all his life: freedom, equality and dignity for all South Africans.

Instead of choosing revenge for his jailers and oppressors he chose forgiveness and reconciliation. Through this choice he showed all of us that we could live together as brothers and sisters without seeking revenge and make this world a better place for us and future generations.

After retiring from active politics in 1999, he remained steadfast in advocating for peace, equality, and social justice in the world and more importantly the fight to eradicate HIV/AIDS and the stigma that comes with it.

Mandela life exemplified courage, hope, wisdom and the triumph of courage over fear, reconciliation over revenge.

Business Studies Essay Paper on Corporate Social Responsibility free essay help

Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate social responsibility to me would mean the various actions that a specific company would put in place to come up with informed ways of giving back to the society with which they get most of the things from. The response someone should get from a socially responsible company is the focus on the better ways of how to improve the environmental structure of the company. I believe that if a company takes it as its initiative to respond to the various needs and wants of the society, then it would be socially responsible. For example, the installation of the street lights to enhance security would serve a great deal in the delivery of services to such communities.

It should be one of the most fundamental objectives of the various firms to take care of the environment where they do the business. Since the community forms the better part of the organizations it is the obligation of the company to uptake some of the pertinent activities for these individuals as a whole. And therefore, the company should view the activities such as creating shades, offering more jobs to the locals and the like as a privilege they give to the community but is should be viewed as part of the objectives and hence the obligations that they need to accomplish for the society.

Lastly, I strongly believe that the key to building a good rapport and a formidable reputation as a company is through making sure that the social responsibility of the firm is clearly outlined and accomplished in the best way possible. Human beings are quite susceptible to appreciation and for that matter a high sense of value and attention should be given to them as a company since this invariably prompts a social attachment to the community. This can only be tie can only be made if we as a company incorporate imperative social responsibilities in our system. 

Nursing Homework Paper on Alaska Natives custom essay help: custom essay help

Alaska Natives

Alaska is native people of northern America in United States. The Alaska culture consists of several groups which include Irupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tingit, Haida, Tsimshian and Northern Athabaskan cultures. Ancestors of the Alaska Natives are known to have moved in northern America and Arctic area thousands of years ago and genetic studies show that are not closely related to indigenous people of South America since they never migrated to southern areas (Robert, 1984, Pg4).

Demography of Alaska Natives

Alaska is located in the North America continent and is in the northwestern region of United States where it borders the Arctic Ocean waters along with Russia, Sweden, Norway, Greenland and Canada. According to Dennis(2006,pg16-22), almost 8600 Alaska natives lived in this region in 1990 as indicated by United States census records conducted after every 10 years. Dennis further states that average birth rate throughout Alaska in 1990 was approximately 24.4 per 1,000 people. According to United States census Bureau, the population of Alaska natives was 710,231 in 2010. The bureau states that life expectancy at birth for Alaska Natives is 69.4 years compared to 76.7 years for all races in the U.S and 74.7 years for all Alaskans.

Health Care Practices

The Alaska natives advocate for healthy communities. As Dennis(2006,pg15) explains, the Alaska people are affected by several health conditions at higher rate as compared to other Americans and this has made them to develop healthcare facilities and organizations that fund programs that target these conditions. They have put in place preventive measures at community level to reduce diseases, premature deaths and injury. He states that the department of Environmental Health and Engineering provides planning, design, construction and operations support for clean water and sanitation projects.

Risk Behaviors & Susceptibility to Genetically chronic conditions

  According to health surveillance conducted by Denny, Holtzman and Cobb (1997-2000), cigarette smoking was one of most health risk behavior among the Alaska natives and from their study 42% of the adult population is cigarette smokers. Consumption of alcoholic drinks is also another health risk behavior observed among the Alaska native and the prevalence is higher in men than in women. As Dennis (2006) states, heart disease and stroke are among of the common hereditary chronic diseases in the Alaska population and she further explains that the gene which play a role in risk factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure and vascular condition is prevalent in Alaska population.


According to National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey2 (1987-1988),Alaska natives diet consisted of carbohydrates(13%), proteins(39%) ,fat(21%), iron(25%),vitamin A and C and  calcium. From this survey it was observed that they consumed more fish than vegetables and fruits. Food Bank of Alaska in cooperation with Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) have provided a new source of food to rural Alaska which encourage feeding on fruit and vegetable and frequent use of traditional foods in order to maintain good health in the Alaska population.

Religious Practices and Death Rituals

Robert (1984) explains that Alaska natives believed in existence of individual spirits that inhabited natural objects and phenomenons. They also believed in existence of spirits which were not associated with any material. Good relations with spirits were maintained by observing taboos, wearing of amules and by participating in communal ceremonies. In 18th century, some of the Alaska natives converted to Christian as a result of evangelization mission by Swedish missionaries. Life and death were believed to be a continuing cycle through which individuals passed and they used to place personal possessions on the grave for use by the person in life after death.


Ackerman, Robert E. (1984).Prehistory of the Asian Eskimo Zone. In Arctic vol.5 of North American Indians.Washington, DC:Smithsoian Institution, pg1-10

ANCSA Regional Association Report. (2006). Anchorage: Association of ANCSA Regional Corporation Presidents/CEOs, pg37.

Dennis, A. (2006). Introduction to Paleo-Indian. In Environment and Population, vol. 3 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. Douglas H. Ubelaker. Washington, DC:Smithsonian Institution pg16-22

Biology Essay Paper on Laptops Could Cause Male Fertility Problems essay help services: essay help services


The research truly is beneficial to the society because it touches on the matter that affects the male reproductive health. At a time when more and more couples face challenges reproduction and conception, it is high time that every issue that may contribute to male infertility be investigated and proper recommendations published for the good of the society.

In the video clip, Dr. Jeniffer Ashton has reiterated the impact that the heat of the laptop placed on the lap of the user could lead to tremendous increase in the temperatures of the scrotum, which in turn affect sperm production. According to her, 15% of couples face difficulty with conception and between 30-50% of conception problems originate from males.

Though laptops may contribute in some way to low sperm count in males, other factors should not be ignored. Dr Ashton adds that; factors such as overheating, caused by hot baths and saunas, certain medications, alcohol and smoking and stress may aggravate the problem leading to low sperm count in men. Users therefore, need to take precaution to limit the exposure to the heat generated by the laptops. However, the manufacturers’ roles should be to warn customers about the dangers and advise on proper usage of laptops to limit danger

On the other hand, there should not be legislations limiting the usage of laptops, since these gargets have become necessary equipment of daily usage. It is important that users are advised on possible exposure to effect of heating and the reproductive health dangers. The health officials and researchers should work together to create awareness to the publish should there be any risk


1. Sheynkin, Y. (2004), Human Reproduction. News release, MW Communications.

   WebMD, Inc




The following is a list of peer-reviewed resources that aids in the study of the relationship between ACEs and PTSD and various mental health problems. Most of the articles are available in online libraries while a few, such as books were accessed in print. The list included resources from peer-reviewed journal and recently published textbooks. Although it does not exhaust all the materials on the subject matter, the sampled list is a representative of the available resources on ACEs and mental health. The articles were accessed via PubMed, ProQuest and PsycINFO databases. The following inclusion criteria were used

The article must be peer reviewedWritten in English, or its English translation is availableNot older than 10 years, that is published year 2004 onwardsBe a primary study; case studies and article review were excluded

Understanding Adverse Childhood Experiences and their Relation with  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Since the publication of the first ACE study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in collaboration with the  Kaiser Permanente Health Maintenance Organization (KPHM) in 1998, several scholars have shown interest in understanding the various forms of childhood adversities. Several publications that relate the post-traumatic stress with the experience of hostility during childhood have been published.

Finkelhor, David, Anne Shattuck, Heather Turner, and Sherry Hamby. “Improving the adverse childhood experiences study scale.” JAMA pediatrics167, no. 1 (2013): 70-75.

The study of ACEs has captured the attention of several scholars, but has all the possible childhood adversities been identified? Scholars rely on the ACEs study that was conducted in 1998; however, there is need to re-evaluate and redefine the forms of ACEs and their impact on mental health. The study by Finkelhor and others is among the few researches that have been conducted to improve on the distinct instances of childhood maltreatment. In this study, researchers conducted a telephone interview with a sample of 2030 children and youths sampled from different socioeconomic backgrounds. The participants were queried about their lifetime adversities and the present symptoms of any distress. From the data obtained, Finkelhor and the team were able to add some uncommon forms of hostilities in the domain of ACEs while removing some originally classified maltreatment. This study reveals that the society’s understanding of what constitutes adverse experience during childhood is incomplete. In addition, the incompleteness in the understanding of ACEs may hamper the studies of the relationship between ACE and mental wellbeing. Therefore, the scientist should not only focus on identifying deterrence and remediation measures for ACEs, but also on understanding the scope and nature of various childhood adversities.

Moroz, Kathleen J. “The effects of psychological trauma on children and adolescents”. Report, Department of Health (2005).

This article presents an extensive look into psychological trauma, with a bias to the traumatic events experienced at childhood and adolescence. Kathleen Moroz is an assistant professor in the School of Social Work, University of Utah. She has made immerse contribution to the study and understanding of mental health. The relationship between ACEs and mental health requires a deep understanding of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. In this article, Moroz provides a comprehensive definition of the two phrases. The article does not only stretch the impacts of trauma in children, but also discusses the risk factors attributed to trauma. It also provides a statistical overview of the prevalence of trauma in children. Further, Moroz estimates the overall cost of trauma and concludes that immediate measures of arresting it in children is needed. This article is an important piece in the study of impact of ACEs since it is among the works that puts childhood adversities into perspective.

Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Scared sick: the role of childhood trauma in adult disease. New York: Basic Books, 2012. 

Robin Karr-Morse is one of the renowned therapists of her time. Assisted by Meredith Wiley, Morse presents a condensate of information that combines various fields in medicine. The duo authors links human’s psychology, neurology, endocrinology and immunology, to paint a clear picture of how each aspect affects the other. They clearly reveal that none of the disciplines can stand alone since the ill-being of one impact the others. In this comprehensive book, Morse and Wiley illustrates the childhood trauma impacts on their health in adulthood. The book’s vivid coverage of every aspect of childhood trauma makes it a recommendable source in the study of ACEs.

Stein, Martin T. “Adverse Psychosocial Experiences in Childhood Affect Adult Health”. Journal Watch. Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine (Jan 27, 2010). doi:

This article present a crucial research which proves that adverse childhood  psychosocial experiences affects, not just the wellbeing of  children, but also their adulthood. The Journal Watch includes a collection of latest information on medical issues that concerns children and adolescents. In this peer-reviewed article, Stein reports on a longitudinal birth-cohort study carried out on a given community in New Zealand. The study involved 1037 newborns, sampled in such a manner that ensures a full range representation of socioeconomic factors. The analyst kept track of the hostile psychosocial experiences among the participants from age 3 to 32 years. He later assessed their risk of age-related diseases, including various psychiatry disorders at age 32. The results concludes that ACEs affects individual’s psychosocial response to stress.

Swopes, Rachael M., Daniel V. Simonet, Anna E. Jaffe, Robert P. Tett, and Joanne L. Davis. “Adverse childhood experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and emotional intelligence in partner aggression.” Violence and victims 28, no. 3 (2013): 513-530.

Various publications have indicated that hostile environment during childhood affects a person’s mental wellbeing. However, only a few scolars have focused on the the post-traumatic stress disorder that results from the ACEs. In this study, Swopes and her team establishes the link between of post-traumatic stress disorder that originates from hostile childhood experience and partner aggression. The study involved a retrospective analysis of a sample of 108 male Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) offenders. Consistent to other studies, Swopes and others found that ACEs is certainly correlated to partner aggression. Moreover, this study found that PTSD mediates the link between ACEs and partner aggression. The article, therefore, outstands amongst several articles in the study of ACEs and mental health due to the approach of PTSD mediation.

The Association of Adverse Childhood Experience with Various Mental Conditions

Researchers have identified an association between increased exposures to hostile treatments during childhood with almost every mental disorder. Although the link is clearer in some conditions than others, the following is a sample of the studies that have proved a link between one or more ACE with particular mental disorders.

Fisher, H. L., P. B. Jones, P. Fearon, T. K. Craig, P. Dazzan, K. Morgan, G. Hutchinson, et al. “The Varying Impact of Type, Timing and Frequency of Exposure to Childhood Adversity on its Association with Adult Psychotic Disorder”. Psychological Medicine40, no. 12 (12, 2010): 1967-78. doi:

This article addresses the issue of correlation of ACE and psychotic disorder with more specificity to particular characteristics of the childhood maltreatment. Its authors are cherished researchers affiliated with different academic institutions in the United Kingdom. The periodical of Psychological medicine is a principal archive in the field of clinical psychiatry and publish only peer-reviewed researches undertaken around the globe. In this study, Fisher and others extend the findings by others analysts on the clinical correlates of hostile experiences during childhood on psychiatry disorder. Prior to this study, researchers had established that indeed adverse childhood experiences correlates to psychiatric disorder. Conversely, this study elaborates that the association of the adverse experience and psychiatry disorder varies with the nature, timing and the incidence of exposure to childhood adversities. The study involved 182 participants with first-presentation insanity cases and other 246 geologically harmonized control group. The study found that only specific types of ACEs could be associated with psychotic disorders.

Lu, Weili, Kim T. Mueser., Stanley D. Rosenberg and Mary Kay Jankowski.” Correlates of Adverse Childhood Experiences among Adults with Severe Mood Disorders.” Psychiatric Services 59, no. 9 (09, 2008): 1018-26.

This peer-reviewed article encompasses the findings of other studies on the link between ACEs and poor physical and mental health. Its co-author, Dr. Lu is a celebrated psychologist affiliated with a renowned University in New Jersey. The others authors are also well-known scientist from Dartmouth Medical School, New Hampshire.In addition, Psychiatric Services is a peer-reviewed journal by the American Psychiatric Association that features reports on issues related to the betterment of mental health services. In this study, Lu and others inspects the clinical links of childhood adversities among adults with critical mood disorder. The study included a total of 254 participants with acute mood disarray. The participant’s experience of one or more form of adversity during childhood was assessed retrospectively to establish any correlation. The scope of adverse experiences included physical or sexual abuse, loss of parent, divorce, parental separation or domestic violence. In addition to the psychiatric disorders, increased exposure to ACEs was also found to relate to high-risk conducts and substance abuse disorders.

Spinhoven, Philip, Bernet M. Elzinga, Jacqueline GFM Hovens, Karin Roelofs, Frans G. Zitman, Patricia van Oppen, and Brenda WJH Penninx. “The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders.” Journal of affective disorders 126, no. 1 (2010): 103-112.

This scholarly article presents the report of a research that was commissioned by the Institute of Psychology in the Leiden University of Netherlands. The study assesses the impact of adversities experienced at childhood and across life span to affective disorders such as anxiety and depressive disorders. The study incorporated 2288 participants, each of whom had been diagnosed with at least one mood disorder. In order to relate the ACEs to the affective disorders, the researchers analyzed the association of the participant’s childhood adversities history with their diagnosed disorder. They also considered the association of other negative experiences across life span with the mood disorders of the participants. This study established that the negative life experiences such as emotional neglect is differentially related to affective disorders. The study sets a good precedent to the researchers who would wish to identify whether the impact of the negative experience is stronger when the adversity is experienced during childhood.

Tonmyr, Lil, Ellen Jamieson, Leslie S. Mery, and Harriet L. MacMillan. “The Relation between Childhood Adverse Experiences and Disability due to Mental Health Problems in a Community Sample of Women.” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 50, no. 12 (10, 2005): 778-83.

This peer-reviewed article introduces another aspect in the study of ACE and mental health, that is, the disability that can be associated with mental problems. Several articles document the association of ACE with various psychiatry disorders; however, there has been little concern on the link between ACE and mental disabilities. In this study, Tonmyr and others investigates the association between hostilities experienced during childhood and the disabilities as a result of mental health problems in women. The study involves a large sample of 4239 women and girls in the age gap of 15-65 years. The participants were required to respond to a self-administered questionnaire that inquired about their history of child abuse. The data collected was later analyzed using the logistic regression method to identify any association. The study found that even though disability due to mental health was reported among the women with and without abuse history, ACE was a correlate of disability.

The impacts Adverse Childhood on various special groups in the community

Over the year, scientists have proved that some social groups in the community are more prone to certain mental disorders than others. More so, certain conditions predispose one to the post-traumatic stress disorder. Similarly, the correlation of ACE and metal health varies with varying social conditions. Various analysts have studied the impact of particular adversity of future health of the victim. The following samples represents studies that involves ACE attributed to a given condition such as foster parenting, dysfunctional families and so on.

Bruskas, Delilah. “Adverse Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Well-Being of Women Who Were in Foster Care as Children.” The Permanente Journal 17, no. 3 (2013): e131-e141.

This extensive scholarly article addresses an important aspect of todays’ child rearing; the foster care programs. Delilah Bruskas is an eminent philosophical nurse and great champions for foster children. In this study, Burkes undertakes to investigate whether the childhood maltreatments in foster care systems affects the foster children in their adulthood. Often, children are placed under alternative parenting in legally recognized foster care systems; however, are the foster care programs free from childhood adversities? This study evaluates the relationship between ACEs and psychosocial wellbeing of adults who were placed under foster caregivers as children. The study assesses the psychosocial status of a sample of 101 women in the age bracket 18-71, all of whom grew up under the care of a foster parent. The participants were also subjected to an ACE questionnaire to establish which showed that they all experience one or more forms of hostility. In addition, Bruskas found that children raised under the foster care system are at a higher risk of experiencing adversity in childhood. This finding poses a challenge to the advocates of children to ensure that managements of foster care programs provide the children with a friendly environment.

Gjelsvik, Annie, Dumont, Dora., Nunn, Amy, and Rosen, David. “Adverse Childhood Events: Incarceration of Household Members and Health Related Quality of Life in Adulthood.” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 25, no. 3 (08, 2014): 1169-82,

The study of ACEs has attracted the attention of various researchers, many of whom are interested in establishing the impact of ACE on future health. Nevertheless, what constitutes childhood adversity? Most of the analysts study the common forms of childhood hostilities, including sexual and physical abuse, emotional neglect, and dysfunctional family and so on. Most recently, however, Gjelsvik and others focused on incarceration of household member as an adverse childhood even. Even though the impact of incarceration of a family member of a child’s mental health may not be as severe as other forms of ACE, this study finds that it is associated to the child’s wellbeing. Gjelsvik and others found that adults who lived in with an incarcerated family member during childhood were at a higher risk of poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This article is an important resource in the study of ACE since it educates on a less regarded childhood adversity. Incarceration of a family member has, for a long time, been sidelined in the study of ACEs.

Lamers-Winkelman, Francien, Agnes M. Willemen, and Margreet Visser. “Adverse Childhood Experiences of referred children exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Consequences for their wellbeing.” Child abuse & neglect 36, no. 2 (2012): 166-179.

This study explores the impact of childhood maltreatments that are basically experienced by children raised up in abusive relationships. The Child abuse & neglect, an official publication of the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect,is an extensive collection of peer reviewed articles that mainly cover child development and wellbeing. While most studies, evaluates the impacts of childhood adversaries in totality, Lamers-Winkelman and others examines the impacts of adversaries that specifically originates from exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). According to Lamers-Winkelman and her team, children exposed to IPV experiences multiple adversaries, which expose them to the risk of emotional and behavioral problems. Therefore, their study aimed at investigating the relationship between the adverse childhood experiences in children exposed to IPV and the severe behavioral and emotional trauma. Their study sample comprised of 208 children who had been admitted to hospital following reports of IPV in their respective families. Unlike other studies where the sample population is the exclusive respondent, this study extended interview for the children’s caregivers and the teachers. Lamers-Winkelman and others found that children exposed to IPV were at higher risk of experiencing other ACEs. The results of this study are a key resource in the study of negative childhood experiences and its impact on mental health. Given that other studies have proved that modern families are more prone to IPV, Lamers-Winkelman et al.’s findings is a call for the future analysts to establish ways of minimizing adverse childhood experience among the children exposed to IPV.

Saha, Ria, Anjali Giressan, and Sibnath Deb. “Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Mental Health: A Retrospective Study.”Indian Journal of Positive Psychology 5, no. 2 (06, 2014): 183-6,

The study by Saha and others is perhaps, one of the recent publications on the study of on the impact of hostile experiences during childhood on one’s mental health. Their findings are consistent to the previous studies that childhood adversities pre-depose one to various mental disorders. In this study, Saha and others conducts a retrospective examination on 221 female and 189 male undergraduate students. The study aimed at establishing how one’s childhood experiences relate to his/her mental state, particularly their sense of satisfaction with life, self-esteem and suicidal thoughts. The study established a direct link between hostile childhood experiences and the mental well-being of college students. In addition, the study found that female students were more prone to mental disorders that are associated to childhood unpropitious than their male counterpart. These findings reveal that there could be a significant difference in how male and female react to ACEs and PTSD. This finding sets a background for future studies since it creates an implication that childhood experiences may have an impact

Whitfield, Charles L., Shanta R. Dube, Vincent J. Felitti, and Robert F. Anda. “Adverse childhood experiences and hallucinations.” Child abuse & neglect 29, no. 7 (2005): 797-810.

This article presents the study of one of the primary issues in the understanding of mental health; hallucination. Although hallucination is not a pathognomonic for any disorder, it has been found to manifest in various mental disorders such as schizophrenia, dissociative-identity and bipolar disorders. Various studies in the 1990s indicated that hallucination is associated with childhood trauma; however, the studies had not graded the relationship between experiencing multiple forms of adverse events during childhood and any disorder. Therefore, Whitfield and others embarks on a study that aims at establishing the relationship of multiple ACEs and the likelihood of experiencing hallucinations. Their survey included a sample of 17,337 adult respondents. The researchers matched the data obtained in the history of childhood abuse experienced by the participants and the reports of their behaviors in adulthood. They found that histories of childhood traumas are significantly related to the reports of hallucination. According to them, past adverse childhood experience should be looked for when attending to people with a history of hallucination.

What needs to be Done/How to Assess and Address the Impacts of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Finally, the study of the link between ACE and mental health would be incomplete without identifying how to handle clients who presents with psychosocial disorder. Health practitioners should be informed on how to assess the historical cases of child abuse.

Waite, Roberta, Gerrity, Patricia, and Roxana Arango. “Assessment for and Response to Adverse Childhood Experiences.” Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services 48, no. 12 (12, 2010): 51-61,

This article documents the most appropriate ways of assisting the victims of ACE when they are admitted to a health institution with different psychiatry disorders. The Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services is among the leading publishers of peer-reviewed articles and other resources for mental health nurses. Though listed as the last article in this annotated appendix, this article is among the primary resource in the study of ACE and mental health. From the above annotated resources, it is apparent that adverse childhood experience impacts on the mental health of an individual. The impact may manifest in childhood or even throughout the person’s lifespan. Nevertheless, how should the medical service provider approach the issue of adverse childhood experience? Waite and others undertook to comprehensively advise the medical practitioner, particularly the nurses on how to approach and assess their client’s trauma history. The article expounds on the necessary screening measures that should be used to identify ACEs. It also deliberates on the ethical responsibilities of the health professional in addressing traumatic experiences. This article is highly recommendable to the present and upcoming health professionals; especially the mental health specialists.

History Essay Paper on the American Civil Wars english essay help: english essay help

The American Civil Wars


The civil war was the deadliest conflict in the American history. Fought between 1861 and 1865, three million Americans participated in the wars that claimed the lives of over six hundred thousand people and chores incapacitated. A large number of people lost properties worth billions of dollars. In total, about two percent of the American population lost their lives during the civil wars. Despite many downfalls recorded in the history of the civil wars, many fruits were borne by it. The end of the war marked the end of slave trade and slavery that was formally prominent in the continent. Moreover, the war also ended the forces of states secession thereby and laid the foundations of the US development. Having seceded earlier before the commencement of the civil wars, the state of Florida faced a lot of military action during the civil wars (Rivers, 2000). Considerable military deprivations and tragedies were experienced in the state of Florida during the civil wars resulting into the death of over 5,000. This was because many of her soldiers fought away from home.

The events surrounding the commencements of the civil wars, the events that took place during the civil wars and the outcome of the same have attracted huge political and economic interest among various people. Among these are researchers, historians, and political scientists. A lot of publication has been made over the events that took center stage during the civil wars. While some people have seen numerous advances resulting due to the existence of the civil wars, other scholars have blamed the occurrence based on facts they cherish the most. Wynne & Robert, (2001) record that, at times, it is hard to understand how an event that has resulted into the loss of many lives would lead to anything good to the resident population. This fact is subject to serious debates considering the manner in which each debater argues. To some, especially proponents of slave abolition, the abolition of the slave trade after the end of the civil wars was a remarkable fact that would not go without mentioning. Still to other statesmen such as politicians and economists who gauge the state of economies by considering the size of the landmasses and the amount of resources housed by the states, the ending of rapid secession of the American states was of key contribution to the economic development of the region.

Moreover, commendable effects often go not without defaulters. Supporters of this idea are human rights activists who see wars as the prime causes of human rights violation, such as, mass killings. Whatever the results may be, the American civil wars were surrounded by both beneficial and retrogressive factors that have conventionally transpired to create the present face of the United States of America (Buker, 1993). Increased power and economic growth that has made America appreciated above all nations of the earth is a fruit borne to her by the civil wars. Indeed, some people have argued that the fruits of the civil wars are more compared to the downfalls associated with it. It is for this reason that the civil war stories have attracted the attention of a huge number of people from all over the globe compared to any other war that has ever occurred over the earth’s surface. In this paper, I have looked at the events encapsulating the American civil wars and the factors that underlie its commencement, sustainability and its ending. I have drawn numerous references to support my position regarding the claims I have raised in this paper making it suitable for informing decision making in various aspects and at various levels.       

Mary, B. M. C. (1965). A Diary From Dixie: Electronic Edition. (D. M. Isabella, & L. A. Myrta, Eds.) New York: D. Appleton and Company.

Mary Chesnut is among the famous American writers whose publications have resonated quite well with the demands of various scholars across specialties. Among these are historians, political analysts, economists among others who find her writings to bear a lot of information on matters relevant to them. Chesnut has described into details the underlying issues surrounding the occurrence of the civil wars in America, from its commencement to the end. Being the wife to one of the most powerful men in America during the period of the civil wars, James Chesnut, Jr, the United States senator of the state of South Carolina, an aide to Jefferson and a Brigadier- General, she was positioned at a place where she could gunner numerous information concerning the events that took place during the civil wars (Mary, 1965). Chesnut’s diary is a landmark document that has sound illustrations of the events that took place during the periods of the civil wars. The accounts given in the diary have informed the works of other historians from the region and abroad.

Comparing the wars in the south and in the north, Chesnut has illustrated the events that took place during the civil wars. Unlike the war-torn south, the north was not subjected to acute destruction owing to abundant resources endowment, economic standards of the people and the government in place during this time. According to Chesnut’s descriptions, the war was more intense in the south compared to the north. It was rather difficult for the south to cease the fight due to the northern continued call for the abolition of slavery. Slavery earned the southerners much income. Discrimination on the southerners by the northern states and acute political differences between the two regions further fueled the wars. As a result of all these, Chesnut records that the southern nations continued to fight as long as they had any remaining soldiers that could fight. Buker, (1993: 45) descriptions hint that it was rather difficult for the civil wars to come to an end in the south compared to the north. Constant wars broke up in the south after quells by the northern states.   

Chestnuts recantations record inflation as the number one effect that made most of the southern states to diminish economically. Both women and men took active parts in the civil wars. The southern farms were left unattended. Food prices rose to unimaginable levels. In fact, Chesnut, in her diary records that there reached a time when a piece of utensil which would go for as low as less than a dollar before the emergence of the civil wars would be purchased for as much as over one thousand dollars. She satirizes this aspect by noting that it reached a time in the south when one would carry his money in a wheelbarrow to the market and come back with his purchase in the pocket. These, amongst other effects such as mass killings, destruction of massive wealth and properties were among the numerous and torturous effects that ensued from the civil wars in America. Many post-war renovations had to be made, both on the countries economies and properties development (Driscoll, 2007: 11).

            Among the key factors that led to the commencement of the civil wars according to the narrations of Chesnut, were differences in political ideologies and the war over slaves and slave trade. The south who was mainly composed of the blacks was supporting the democrats’ party. Their support stemmed from the fact that democratic ideologies favor liberalism. The republicans, on the other hand, were mainly conservatives (Brown, 2000). The ideologies held by the supporters of this school of thought were driven by precepts of racial discrimination and prejudice. They could not bear the face of a black man standing before them compared to the democrats who held a contrary opinion. Throughout, Chesnut’s accounts in her diary, the civil wars were fought due to differences in political ideologies.

            Most of the slaves were settling in the south at a time when most of the Northern slave owners were repatriating their slaves back to their original lands. Contrary to the south, most slave owners did not release their slaves as cotton farming continued to boom in the region following the invention of the cotton gin. Large tracks of farms were cultivated and increasing number of slaves was required to tend them. The northern people had started adopting technological applications on their farms. Besides, a sense of liberality and avoidance of human rights abuse were quickly gaining roots in the north compared to the south. However, political ideologies on the support of the two major parties continued to split the two regions, north and south. Considerable number of advocates for slave abolition rose in the north compelling the southern slave owners to set their slaves free. With the coming of Abraham Lincoln into power on November 8th, 1860, many of the slaves felt they would be freed from slavery. This however did not happen following the assassination of Lincoln on December 27th, 1860 about one month after his election (Revels, 2004: 88). This spectacular occurrence threw America back into the quagmire of wars and murder thus reviving the almost cooling down civil wars in the region.

Chesnut ends his accounts by noting the double tragedies that surrounded the outcome of the civil wars. She describes the ending of the wars by describing the happenings in Bloomsbury, a series of happiness to some groups and sadness to another category. The state of Bloomsbury was plundered by soldiers, looted by fighters and properties destroyed. Economies of the regions were on their knees prompting the people to begin all over again. The Negroes started to escape away from their wounded masters. A route to their liberation was being charted, a path to the freedom of the Negroes in America (Taylor, 1995). The war had ended and to them it was comparable to a wedding banquet in a foreign land. Many of the Negroes who had been enslaved started settling down and owning lands, ready to begin a new phase of their lives. Eventually, the slave trade was abolished and many slave owners were sunken to absolute deprivation. Unable to recollect their lives all over again, two classes of sufferers were created. One comprised of the celebrating Negroes and the other class comprised of the white slave owners, a double tragedy, a wedding amidst a funeral. Finally, the bloodshed did not go all in vain. There was something to celebrate in the end.     

University South Caroliniana Society newsletter. (FALL, 2011). Mary Chesnut’s Illustrated           Diary (Mulberry Edition ed.). University of South Carolina Press.

The accounts of Mary Chesnut, as recounted by the University of South Carolina provide an illustration of the events that took place during the period of the civil wars as witnessed by Mary Chesnut herself. Beginning the write her stories in 1861, after the commencement of the wars to the end of the war in 1965, Mary gives an account of the various events that took center stage at the time. The events have been illustrated using the photographs attained from the museum bearing the picture so of the events that took place during the period of the wars. This happens one hundred and fifty years after the death of Chesnut (University South Caroliniana Society newsletter. (FALL, 2011). Developed from the photographs that were taken during the civil war period, the South Carolina University Museum was able to reconstruct the events that took place during the period of the war. Even though the accounts illustrate here do not specify the prime causes of the wars hovered throughout the American continent, they show valid illustrations of the various atrocities that were committed by the war machineries during the war.

Mass Killings formed the central theme of the narrations developed in this piece. The end results were destruction of large amounts of properties worth billions of dollars, migration of many people, among them slaves and the wounded soldiers who survived the wars was also given utter importance in the piece. Besides, the accounts presented here also give comparative illustrations of the present and former states that were rocked by the wars. The development phases and geopolitical trends illustrated on well referenced geopolitical maps show increasing harmony over time. Migration patterns of the people and commodities ensure a promising development trend over time. The effects of the war as Buker, (1993) records have realigned the political sphere of the regions, which were once in tremendous wars.     

Florida Humanities Council. (2010). The Civil War: When Florida “Opened Up the Gates of Hell.”. The Magazine of the Florida Humanities Council , 34 (1).

This article gives the account on issues behind the eruption of the civil wars in America. The article has investigated the aspects of colonialism, nationality, nationalism and nationism with respect to the occurrence of tensions and even wars in various parts of the world. He defines a nation as a group of people holding same political ideologies, similar religious beliefs as well as cultural orientations. Nationalism, on the other hand, is defined by Florida Humanities Council, (2010: 44) as the owing of personal and regional allegiance to the ruling power in a given region. This only happens when the forces of nationalism are stronger among the nationals than the forces of nationism. In order to distinguish the two aspects and gain a deeper understanding of the underlying issues surrounding the presence of such conditions, Florida Humanities Council, (2010: 42) make an attempt to distinguish between nationism and nationalism. He refers to a nation as a people and the state as the landscape upon which the nations live, the ruling political ideologies and existing policy frameworks that control the operations of all nations residing in the region.

Driscoll, J. K. (2007). The Civil War on Pensacola Bay, 1861-1862 . Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company,Inc.

Driscoll has addressed issues relating to statesmanship, nationalism and nationism according to Driscoll, (2007: 33) have a considerably great influence in the manner in which people conduct their activities in the region. For a state to stand united and speak in one accord, the spirit of nationalism must be stronger than that of the nations from where each individual comes. As Driscoll, (2007: 21) mentions, America, at the time of the civil wars had as many nations as the number of races and tribes that were represented within its landscape. The spirit of nationalism is strengthened when the various nations within the region share same political ideologies as well as religious beliefs. The two factors play a very important role in determining the stability of a nation. Politics, for instance, is a very common divisive factor and a major cause of instability. It is due to differences in political ideologies and well as ideologies on social livelihoods that led to the eruption of the civil wars in America. The differences in political ideologies held by the south and the northern nations as Driscoll, (2007:20) records caused many instabilities in the two regions eventually resulting into the wars experienced in the continent between 1860 and 1865.

Pearce, G. F. (2000). Pensacola During the Civil War: A Thorn in the Side of the Confederacy. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Pearce’s ideas closely relates to those of Driscoll. He looks at how differences in political ideologies influence civil wars. The south being composed of mainly democrats held a different political affiliation from the northern regions, which were mainly composed of republicans. This difference in political affiliations led to the rise in rebellions between the northern states and the southern states eventually leading to the eruption of the civil wars. The differences in political affiliations and social beliefs led to the rise in the spirits of nationism than that of the nationalism among the various races residing the region during the moment (Pearce, 2000). As a result, people listened best to the voices that spoke for their respective nations than the overall voice of the nation. The division caused among the American citizens’ along racial lines was a major contributing factor to the eruption of the civil wars. The democrats believed in liberality compared to the republicans that were majorly conservatives hence the differences in ideological beliefs.

Wynne, L. N., & Robert, A. T. (2001). Florida in the Civil War. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing.

Wynne and Robert have looked at yet another factor that has come out loudly about the eruption of the civil wars. They cite that slavery, which was rapidly gaining root during the time compared to the past periods. The aspect of slavery and its influence on civil wars have been hotly debated by various groups of academicians for decades. Some scholars have argued that slavery was the prime cause of early raptures as well as the present revolutionary movements being experienced between the blacks and the whites. Arguments in support of this idea include those of Wynne & Robert, (2001) who have argued that the enslavement of Africans by the whites was a dire violation of the laws of nature as well as the laws of the states from which the slaves were drawn. These arguments came up at a time when human rights activism had not grown to the stronger levels they are in today. Those who advocated the abolition of the slave trade argued that the act was wrong in principle, socially unacceptable, morally bent and politically unfavorable. In some states especially the southern states, the black were not allowed to even participate in elections on the basis of their slavery.    

Taylor, R. A. (1995). Rebel Storehouse: Florida in the Confederate Economy. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Taylor has focused upon the ideological differences between the political classes as central to the causes of the civil wars. Alexander H. Stephens, reaffirming the position of the republicans based on their ideological and constitutional beliefs brought out the facts very clear on March 21, 1861. He asserted that the US government was founded not on the grounds of liberality and equality but on the exact opposite basis. According Taylor, the cornerstone of the American constitution and government rests upon the foundations of truth, that the Negro is not equal to a white man, and that slavery, an act of subordination to the superior race, is the natural and superior condition that he referred to as the truth upon which their constitution was embedded. Relating to his assertions, Taylor, (1995: 71) notes that slavery was a natural and common condition upon which the white had to subject their inferior Africans. Today, most historians have come to a conclusive agreement with the assertions made by Stephens that slavery was the prime factor that saw America go through the civil wars between 1961 and 1965. The main intention of the northern states behind their going into war was preservation as opposed to emancipation. For the over 200, 000 blacks who fought for the Americans during the civil wars, their main aim was emancipation. The emancipation was not to come easy without shedding of blood and the feeling of pain.

Buker, G. (1993). Blockaders, Refugees & Contrabands: Civil War on Florida’s Gulf Coast, 1861-1865. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Arguments have been developed into the real causes of the civil wars right from historical antiquity. According to Buker (1993: 133), the spirits that influenced the development of the civil wars did not just begin in the 1860s over three centuries before this time. As he notes, the European settlers that ruled most parts of the African continent at around 1500s brought along the practice of slavery to the western hemisphere due to inability to find good and cheap labor in America. They then turned to slaves who were brought from Africa to work their farms in America. At around early 1700, the act of slavery actually meant African slavery and, a fact that only continued to create rifts between the whites and the blacks all over the globe. Most of the southerners utilized slave labor on their farms as they produced large amounts of tobacco, rice and cotton. The northerners, on the other hand, traded on slaves, being the prime source of slaves to their southern counterparts. It was through slave trade that most of the northern merchants generated their fortunes while the southerners were the real recipients and users of the slaves sold into their lands. As a result of this movement, most of the slaves were accumulated in the southern parts of the American continent while the northern parts acted as through ways along which they found their ways into the southern states.

Despite the existence of slavery in all the thirteen American colonies up to the beginning of the American Revolution in 1775, most Americans, especially those with the African origins found a discord in the declaration of independence in the region amidst the existence of slavery and slave trade. In a reaction to this upcoming realization of the discord in the declaration of American independence, the northerners decided to call an end to slavery without the interest of the southerners, who were the main beneficiaries of the slaves’ labor (Buker, 1993: 131). The northern states felt that their call for the abolition of slavery within the continent without taking into consideration the interest of the main beneficiaries of slavery, the southerners would result into the withdrawal of most southern states from the American union.

Revels, T. J. (2004). Grander in Her Daughters: Florida’s Women During the Civil War. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

Revels has looked at yet an additional factor that another factor falling among the key drivers to the existence of the American civil wars of the tax regimes and trends that were somehow unbalanced between the south and the northern states. The interests of the southerners were, therefore, catered for during the making of the American constitution in 1787. This implementation led to the creation of the 3/5 clause warranting the southern nations to maintain their interests in slavery and continue to accrue the benefits they gained from slavery. Still the agreements on the state of slaves and slavery did not resonate well with both the southerners and the northerners plunging them into war. The application of the state of Missouri to be recognized as a slave state at a time when the number of slave states and Free states was 11 each Revels, (2004: 43). This would unbalance the power in the senate with the slave states having the majority. Most of the northern states were not comfortable with this move which consequently led to the rebellion of the southern states. Most of the northern abolitionists felt the southern rebellion was unjust and needed to be taught a lesson hence the civil wars

The tax, called tariffs, levied on all the goods imported into the country from foreign nations (Florida Humanities Council, 2010). Most of the southern businessmen and merchants felt that the tariffs were unfair and meant only to favor the northerners while imposing huge burdens on the southern traders. Arguing along this line, the southerners felt that the tariffs were targeted primarily at them since they imported a wider variety of goods compared to the northerners. As a result, they consequently played huge amounts of money on taxation when compared to their northern counterparts. 

Winsboro, I. D. (2007). Florida’s Civil War: Explorations into Conflict, Interpretations and Memory. Cocoa, FL: The Florida Historical Society Press.

Winsboro, (2007: 245) investigations into the causes of the American civil wars addresses tax issues in relation to slavery and disagreements on power representation between the northern and southern states. According to Winsboro (2007: 244), the tax issues could be seen as one of the fueling factors for the uprising against the slavery agreements. While most southerners were, at this time, chiefly importing their slaves from the northern states, who were at the same time rapidly joining the abolitionists’ movements, most of the southern merchants felt that their chief sources of livelihood, slave labor would be interfered with. The flow of slaves into the southern states would be halted by these abolitionists’ movements from the north. This argument as Winsboro, (2007: 240) argues was deeply engrossed on certain hidden tussles on tax remittances from the south. Most of the southerners felt it nonsensical to remit the highest tariffs, hence having the highest contributions to the region’s income levels, while at the same time blocked by their northern dependants from actualizing their livelihood dreams. Based on Revels, (2004: 234) arguments above, the arguments on tariff levies were not purely genuine but rather pegged upon certain hidden bitter feelings of biases that the southern merchants had upon their northern counterparts.

Rivers, L. E. (2000). Slavery in Florida: Territorial Days to Emancipation. Gainesville, FL:           University Press of Florida

Rivers looks at the effects taxation on imported goods as the capital cause of the civil wars in America. According to Him, besides the huge taxes imposed on the southern imported goods, many of their exports were also heavily taxed. The southern states were producing and exporting a wide array of commodities, mainly agricultural products, compared to the northerners. The taxes on their goods, therefore, had to be higher than that of their northern counterparts. Based on the fact that the northerners only imported and exported few commodities from and to the outside market, the southerners felt that they were remitting much to the government than their northern counterparts. The rebellion of the southern nations, therefore, started as a result of these disagreements and ill feelings. They felt that the huge chunk of the trade tariffs was imposed on them at the expense of the northern states and therefore felt the need to retrogress in tax remittance to the government. It is during this time that many southern nations threatened to secede from the American union (Rivers, 2000: 77).

The quests for secession by the southern states did not resonate well with the northerners, especially the government of Abraham Lincoln. Calls for reunion could not be attained hence the resultant civil wars, mainly between the southerners and the northerners. Powerful figures, such as Abraham Lincoln were noted as the key figures that played a very great role in the liberation of the slaves and the American states while at the same time maintaining the union of the American kingdom under his leadership. He insisted during his inaugural speech that Americans need not be enemies. He calls for the end to secessions was exact and stern until his death, a few months after his election. Most of the southern statesmen and merchants were not pleased with his ruling mechanisms and the call for the abolition of slavery within the American continent. It is for these reasons that people like Abraham Lincoln and Douglas are considered true statesmen with the spirit of the state in their minds. 

Brown, C. J. (2000). Tampa in Civil War and Reconstruction. Tampa, FL: University of Tampa     Press

Brown has greatly detailed the various effects on the aftermath of the civil wars. He records that numerous effects were felt at the end of the civil wars in America. Despite the phenomenon taking place only for five years, the results were devastating. Economic ruin is considered central to the existence of the civil wars. Both the southern, as well as the northern economies, were brought to their knees. A lot of the historical literature has addressed the economic impact of the American civil wars as the central effect. Specifically, the effects of the wars on industrialization and wealth distribution in the American regions have been debated far and wide including the writings of Brown, (2000:42) and Driscoll, 2007: 37). Even though, it has been very difficult to measure the source of any war, some scholars have tried to estimate the overall economic loss on the war on the American states. Brown (2000: 36), notes that if a war involves an economy only to an extent of providing men and machines, then the effects can be easily estimated. Besides, if the war goes further to involve the destruction of the productive capital bases, creating political instability and even changing the composition of the labor force, then, further complications have to be incorporated in the estimation procedures.

Huge loss can be addressed concerning the impacts of economic impacts of the American civil wars. Not only, the existing capital bases were destroyed, but also the potential sources of capital in both the north as well as the southern states. Many of the American soldiers in combat during the civil wars were the resident African slaves. The slaves, as Driscoll, (2007: 27) records were a huge capital not only to the southerners, who used them directly on their farms, but also to the northerners, who traded them as chief commodities. A huge group of slave soldiers were anguished at the Sunken Road, also known as the Blood Lane by the end of the civil wars. Most of the southern farms were left unattended to as the slaves were used in the battles. The death of the slave soldiers further resulted into the southern masters incurring huge loses. Beginning from purchasing new slaves, farms and machines, they incurred a lot of losses from the civil wars. Chesnut recorded in her diaries that it reached a time when a piece of utensil would cost as much as a thousand dollars from less than a dollar before the outbreak of the civil wars.       


In conclusion, a number of factors have been found to be responsible for the eruption of the American civil wars. Among these are the calls for the abolition of slavery in the continent and unbalanced trade agreements between the south and the northern states. Political ideologies, which differed considerably between the south and the northern states, also escalated the two regions to go to the civil wars. The effects of these wars were far reaching and had tremendous effects on the economies of both the northern as well as the southern states. The abolition of slavery in the continent formed the major achievement in the aftermath of the civil wars.


Brown, C. J. (2000). Tampa in Civil War and Reconstruction. Tampa, FL: University of Tampa Press.

Buker, G. (1993). Blockaders, Refugees & Contrabands: Civil War on Florida’s Gulf Coast, 1861-1865. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Driscoll, J. K. (2007). The Civil War on Pensacola Bay, 1861-1862. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.

Florida Humanities Council. (2010). The Civil War: When Florida “Opened Up the Gates of Hell.”. The Magazine of the Florida Humanities Council, 34 (1).

Mary, B. M. C. (1965). A Diary From Dixie: Electronic Edition. (D. M. Isabella, & L. A. Myrta,   Eds.) New York: D. Appleton and Company

Pearce, G. F. (2000). Pensacola During the Civil War: A Thorn in the Side of the Confederacy. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Revels, T. J. (2004). Grander in Her Daughters: Florida’s Women During the Civil War. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

Rivers, L. E. (2000). Slavery in Florida: Territorial Days to Emancipation. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Taylor, R. A. (1995). Rebel Storehouse: Florida in the Confederate Economy. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

University South Caroliniana Society newsletter. (FALL, 2011). Mary Chesnut’s Illustrated           Diary (Mulberry Edition ed.). University of South Carolina Press.

Winsboro, I. D. (2007). Florida’s Civil War: Explorations into Conflict, Interpretations and Memory. Cocoa, FL: The Florida Historical Society Press.

Wynne, L. N., & Robert, A. T. (2001). Florida in the Civil War. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing.

History Essay Paper on Congress does not Declare U.S Independent research essay help

Congress do not Declare U.S Independent.

Congress men, there is a total misrepresentation of facts which are ignorant of the true state of Great Britain. I refute the calls for armed force to resist Great Britain and ultimately to achieve independence for the following factors:

Exclusive of foreigners and other people who are against arms, the number of men will greatly reduce. Britons have an added advantage of locality, it extends some great distance to the ocean. This will lead us to dividing our troops to which will definitely create a weakness in our troops.

Britain has a history coverage of victories in the whole globe. They saved us from France hence the more they will put more effort to retain us. If for example the other European powers are of the opinion of our continent to be a free port, Britain cannot let go America. Instead it will convince the rest of Europe to assist it in retaining America as a free port.

 With the utmost respect my Congress, I do not see the flare of getting help from foreign powers. France and Spain are wretched politicians and can we really expect aid from them?

Trade ties and relations with Europe will be broken. Trade is a backbone of economy and when it is blocked it leads to misery and horror. Tax is paid to the government so that it can be able to give better services to the citizens. Tax should not be rejected since all share the benefit of the government.

Congress men forgiving and reconciliation is the best way forward to air and clear the differences we have with Britain. There should be no more bloodshed for the fight of independence, let’s look for ways to make our continent better.


Chalmers, T. (1776). Plain Truth: The Loyalist Response to Common Sense. Maryland. Retrieved from

Locke, J. (1680). Second Treaties of Civil Government. United States.

Physical Essay Paper on History of Microwave Development english essay help

History of Microwave Development

       A microwave is an electromagnetic radiation with a wave length of 1mm to 30cm. It is an appliance used in the kitchen to heat food. The history of a microwave oven dates back to 1946 during the Second World War. It came about as a result of a vacuum containing tube called magnetron that could produce microwave radiations. It was first discovered at radar technology by Dr Percy Le Baron Spencer who was working with a candy bar in his pocket and later realized that the radiations of microwave had melted the candy. He then found out after several experiments that microwaves could quickly cook food. In 1954, Raytheon Corporation decided to make the first microwave oven, which was big and expensive. It contained like 1600 watts of power and it was named Radarange 1161.This was a commercial type but a domestic one was first made by Amana in 1967. Microwaves are good in warming already cooked food because they heat up food unevenly hence not recommended for uncooked food (Smith 2013). Microwaves were important during the war period in making radar because that could locate planes and ships belonging to enemies. Radar was used to locate smaller targets as well.

     Microwaves work by producing microwave radiations that come into contact with food. The food contains water and other substances like fats that are able to absorb energy produced by microwaves. Water molecules are charged positively on one side and negatively on the other side. Microwave radiation when applied causes these molecules to have a lot of energy than before. The waves have both magnetic and electrical fields that interchange at a speed of two point four five billion times per second. Water in the food will definitely move along with the electric field of the radiation (Smith 2013). The interchanging field bombards the water

molecules backward to forward and friction between the molecules in this commotion generates heat as the motion causes disruption in the hydrogen bonds between molecules of the water. The heat generated is as a result of both potential and kinetic energy.

      Microwave design comprises of analog circuits in hundreds of megahertz (MHZ) to gigahertz (GHZ) range. Analog signals in microwaves can operate at any current and voltage level at a given time like in their minimum and maximum. Analog signals that are standard are usually between direct current and very few megahertz. The signals of a microwave are either one frequency or many frequencies put on a high carrier of frequency (Lill 2009). The circuits of a microwave are made such that they can take in signals of required band and leave energy that is out of the desired range. The band of signals can be either wide or narrow in size. Narrow circuit bands usually pass bands of less than one megahertz while broader circuit bands pass up to 10 megahertz. When microwaves exist in the same space as digital, the circuit bands of the microwave fall due to the nature of its design out of the range in which digital signals exist. The design of the microwave PC is in accordance with physics laws. Signals of microwave being sensitive, they have to be handled with care. Microwaves too need to have a line for transmitting energy from one point to another. The wires are of certain controlled sizes and operate in a dielectric that is controlled as well in order to produce impedance that is controlled. Loop functioning of signals and the path of return determines inductance while signal spacing to return path causes capacitance (Manning, 2009). This is for example where small spacing causes high capacitance and low impedance. When low impedance does not provide the path of return for microwave signals, they tend to look for their own alternative way.

       The design process had associated problems one of which is a lot of research involved that is tiresome and time wasting. A lot of time is also used when modeling important parts. Design challenges are in micro strip antennas, microwave filters, a micro strip-via and also some high power, critical components like RF-window and tapers. This then means employment of designs that are different for these applications. The choice of type of package, the way components are placed and other structures during assembly will help in determination of the performance of the system in general. Other problems with the design include the weight, and occupation of a lot of space. Frequencies of microwaves also present problems like generation and transmission. Increase in counts of substrate layer, complex technologies of packaging, and closer proximities in design make the microwave design challenging. Integrated circuit that are seamless and tools of EM simulation that move from entry to verification and production have as well caused challenges to the design of microwaves. New innovations in technology in quest to improve accuracy have caused speed reduction (Manning, 2009).

      There are different ideas on microwave design especially with an aim of saving space as well as making it look uniquely special. This consists of microwaves built in with a trim kit or in cabinets and on counter tops as well as below cooking areas. Much exposure to the rays produced by microwaves can cause harm to one’s health. Diseases like cataracts can emanate from too much exposure as well as burns. These can be from leakages of radiations hence it is crucial that one knows how to test for these leakages. They do not need special gadgets or skills to check. An example is unplugging from the socket and not switching off .Check for leakages and returns the plug into the socket.

      Using the microwave involves a few steps like placing food that is to be cooked into the microwave after plugging into the socket. After that, set the time by either turning the knob clockwise to the time required or if it has tabs, just type the required minutes and press cook or start. The microwave will automatically stop once the set time is over. It is not advisable to cook food with little water for more than a minute using a microwave (Manning, 2009). Microwaves are known to cook food throughout at a go as opposed to cooking inside out. Avoid overloading microwaves in order to prevent them from wearing out. The invention of microwaves and their design has played a major role in transformation. Many households can now afford purchasing and enjoying faster cooking of their food due to many players who have since come in the manufacturing industries. This is due to high supply in the market as opposed to initial times when few manufacturers were available and took advantage of raising prices.


Lill, J, (2009). Microwave Assisted Proteomics. Royal Society of Chemistry. UK. Web. 25 Oct 2014.

Manning, T. Microwave Radio Transmission Design Guide. Artech House: Norwood. Web. 25 Oct 2014.

Smith, A. (2013). Eating History: Thirty Turning Points in the Making of American Cuisine. Columbia University Press. USA. Web. 25 Oct 2014.

Education Essay Paper on The positive effects of being bilingual on an international student easy essay help: easy essay help

 The positive effects of being bilingual on an international student


            Globalization has drastically changed the traditional education pattern all around the world. The course of latest inventions and innovations has also re-shaped the role and importance of higher studies in the life of international students. Apart from regular students, the terms, issues, concepts in the life of International Students are quite different. Bilingualism is also one of those concerns which occupy large space in the life of international students. 21st century has opened new horizons of higher studies aboard however still there are some issues or concerns on the part of international student which is needed to be addressed. The positive effects of being bilingual on an international student are largely dependent on their natural ability and cognitive behavior towards the learning of multiple languages.

Statement of Problem

“Bilingualism can be helpful in the process of increasing the creativity of the people and the cognitive abilities that can be associated with a person”

Thesis Statement

Have the ability to learning multiple languages.   

Research Question

What are the positive effects of being bilingual on an international student? 

Body of paper

            This research paper critically revolves around the large scale positive effects of being Bilingual for an international student. Before starting the discussion it is important first to define the term. Bilingualism is a unique term which is specifically used for pointing out the ability of an individual to effectively communicate in two entirely different languages. The term associated with Bilingualism is, Bilingual Education which is widely used in teaching two different languages according to the class room instruction. In broader context, being bilingual is somehow or other very much important or even compulsory in order to successfully complete his or she studies in a foreign country. (, 2014)

            The term of Bilingualism has widely being used in different contexts however for this research paper it is restricted to the description of International Students. There are large concerns in the learning of a new language specifically in a foreign country which have entirely different social, economic and even religious set up than one’s own native land. (Green, March 1986)

            For an international student, it becomes compulsory to adopt  n effective learning behavior towards the foreign culture he or she has selected for higher studies. In this regard it becomes the first step to get familiar with the language being spoken in that country. For instance, United States of America is a multi-cultural society with immensely diversified groups of people belonging to different countries, regions, ethnic groups and even demographics. Therefore it is not possible for an international student to know all the languages or terms in the society. To get familiar with the basic concepts or patterns of living in a forego country it is best for the students to have considerable access over the common language being spoken in that cultural set-up. (, 2014)

            There are large scale- benefits of being bilingual for an international student who not only wanted to successfully complete their studies but also to enjoy their stay at that country. However, the positive effects of being bilingual are greatly dependent or influenced by large number of features. Apparently these features seem to be secondary in importance but practically they do have impact on the learning and development pattern of international students. In simple words, to enjoy the significant rather positive effects of being bilingual, each student have to adopt certain behaviors or aptitude towards the learning of second langue. Following is a brief but purposeful description of all those features which enables international students to have the positive effects of being Bilingual. (Kalkan, 10.09.2014)

            The first and foremost feature which play key role in the learning a foreign second language is the natural ability of learning which largely varies from an individual to another. Accordingly, the natural modes of flexibility towards the learning of new or foreign language  by every student pave the way towards successful learning of a new language. Generally, those students who show more passion, excitement or enthusiasm towards learning easily get access over the basic rules or principle or foreign language. The second vital feature also belongs to the natural abilities which are said to be God-Gifted and it is the Cognitive behavior of an international student. To learn another language pr the term of Bilingualism is but that simple phenomenon as it seems to be. To successfully learn another language ultimately requires or demands much more careful and critical planning and learning. (, 2014)

            The positive effects or benefits of being Bilingual in the 21st century are dynamic for the international students. The super ability of speaking or having access over more than one language is not just a social advantage rather it is attached with many other practical advantages as well. At one hand it enhances their access over the basic linguistic concepts while living in a foreign country. Large number of research work has been done in this regard to critically analyze the positive effects of being bilingual for an international student. There are very few which represent credible information and access over the subject matter. (Kalkan, 10.09.2014)

            According to the research study published in “Science Direct”, there is a direct relationship or interaction between the positive effects of bilingualism and reserving in the working of memory tasks. Accordingly the Bilingualism largely enhances the working memory of an individual in  sequence. This study also highlights the fact that the higher levels of bilingual proficiencies are directly attached with the advanced verbal working memory performance and presentation as well. This research based article authentically represent significant relationship between being Bilingual and the efficient working memory performance of any individual including an international student. (Aylin C. Küntaya, 2014)

            The emerging trend of multiculturalism all around the globe, requires international students to have access over the basic concepts and terminology of the second language not only to successfully complete their course of studies but also to fully enjoy and get facilitated by their stay in a foreign country. Apart from the general benefits discussed for the international students for learning two languages, there are some particular as one which are needed to be discussed here. According to the research conducted by the “” the bilingual brain or those having natural abilities of learning new language ultimately have better attention and the remarkable task-switching capacities as compared to the monolingual brains. Therefore it can be said that the positive effects of being bilingual for an international student is not limited to their educational field but it also critically includes several healthy, positive and social effects as well. (Viorica Marian, October 31, 2012)

            The positive effects of being bilingual on an international student are largely dependent on their natural ability and cognitive behavior towards the learning of multiple languages. In a nut shell it can be said that no factor adds into the learning or development pattern of and second language for an international student other than his or her own natural abilities along with the cognitive behaviors. Therefore to enjoy the large scale positive benefits of being bilingual it is compulsory for every international student to first get good command over the basic concepts, definitions and terminology of a foreign country. It will not only ease their studies but also will enable them to have positive, effective and successful communication and interaction in his or her surroundings.


            In the research study for this assignment, international students were accessed who have an access over two languages at a time. They were asked questions or surveyed inside their university campus. Before handling them the questionnaires to be answered they were briefly informed about the nature and purpose of the issue selected for this research study. In order to convince the students for an active and efficient response, convincing sampling was used as a measure. Total fifty students were accessed to participate in the research survey however only forty among them agreed to fully participate in the research study.

Research Problem

The prepared questionnaires were purposefully typed in the English language. The mode of questions by interviewer and the response of participants were also in English language. To get their responses confirmed, interviewer person carefully encircled the right options and finally note down the response of all the participants once after confirming their responses.

Theoretical Framework

An important feature to specify here was the fact that informed consent of the questionnaire surveys were mainly obtained by the interviewer. The general purpose of the research study in real time was to examine the response of participants as the survey was completed by the interviewer. There was no such need of any follow-up as the participants actively engaged in the research and their responses were also recorded in the real time. Only 40 participants were agreed to participate

Type of Design

The Researcher will do case study with international students who is the significant aim for this research as a small group of participants, or a group as a whole


Role of the Researcher Including Qualifications

The Researcher is going to be the interviewer. His name is Hani Alghamdi who is a teacher and he is part of education in Saudi Arabia.  Also, he is studying her Master’s degree in Adult Education at UIW University.

Communication Essay Paper on Hall, Stuart. Encoding/ Decoding persuasive essay help


Hall, Stuart. Encoding/ Decoding

‘Encoding/ Decoding’ is an article written by Stuart Hall. This article majorly covers information about the circuit that entails consumption and production. Since the article was written in the earlier days, during the establishment of Marxism, it covers the conditions, which are political-economic. These conditions, which include the ideology, ownership as well as production largely, determine the shape of stories and ideas that shape up TV programmes. According to Stuart, the TV programme is quite meaningful during its audience reception. The audiences receive a set of meaningful chains, also reffred to as syntagm that come with signs, which are called the semiotic bits (pg 52).

            Stuart’s article poses a challenge to the common view that the meanings offered by programme makers were not criticized in any way by the audience. He refers to this model as the syringe, hypodermic or the propaganda model. This model expressed that there was an assumption that meanings were deliberately imparted to the audiences by programme producers Stuart goes on to emphasize that audiences are ‘unconscious’ of their routine activities (pg 58).

            In his work, Stuart Hall disagrees with the Marxists, who in their own level concluded that media as a factor that determined the ideas of its audience. He argues that its true TV has huge influence on the beliefs and knowledge of the audience, however, it does not force anyone to accept the messages brought about by it. in conclusion, Hall believes that not every audience believes and accept the core intention of the producers (pg 54). This text resonates with me since I do not accept all the information I receive from the TV. I am a selective individual with regard to what I watch daily.

Kinefuchi, E. & Orbi, M. (2008). Situating Oneself in a Racialized World: Understanding Student Reactions to Crash through Standpoint Theory and Context-Positionality Frames. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication. Vol 1, No. 1, pp 70-90.

Orbi and Kinefuchi (2008) is an article that discusses about the understanding of the racial world in the present moment. This article brings out the theme of misunderstanding on the subject of race between the whites and the colored people (pg 71). The writers go on to study the different ways in which students interpret the fiction movie Crash, which addresses the debates found between the whites and blacks.

According to the study conducted on 136 students for about eight months, it was evident that different individuals had different perceptions and interpretations of the movie. Most of these students were enrolled in a class of communication, which basically focused on intercultural and interracial. Different students reacted differently to the movie. Some were hurt, others felt the sense of discrimination, injustice, while others were able to relate personally with the characters. From the analysis of the results, there was a huge difference between the views of the African Americans and the European Americans. The European Americans expected the African Americans to reflect fear as their reaction towards the film.

In conclusion, race is still a major issue in the world today. A lot needs to be done in terms of bringing different races together to get rid of racism and favoritism based on the tribe of individuals. The reaction of students towards Crash is a clear indication of the level of racism in the world especially among the Whites and the Colored people (pg 85). The text resonates with me in some way since in our everyday activities, there is still the issue of feeling insecure, fearful and selective about the race I interact with. As much as I may have friends from a different race, there is still a clear barrier of racism between us.

HR Management Essay on Interviewee Information essay help 123: essay help 123

Your Name:  Interviewee InformationName of Interviewee  Susan WojcickiContact Information (phone number and/or email address) (Please note that we may contact your interviewee to confirm the interview.)  +1 650 253 0000Company  Google Inc.Position   Senior Vice President, YouTube

Question #1: What does your job entail?  Response: my typical day starts with a meeting for 15 minutes to get a report on the state of the company and emerging issues that have ensued. I then go to my office where I will look at mails and also the internet and see whether the customers are satisfied with You Tube. After checking that I attend series with the top officials of the company and have a scope on the direction of the company. Basically my day is always extra busy without any formal break sometimes.Question #2: how did you get started with this job and what interested you in the job?  Response: back then before the introduction of YouTubesharing of videos between people who are very far apart was a very difficult thing since sending a soft copy would really take a lot of memory and also costs would be very high. This gave me an idea about having a site where individuals could upload a video and they could be seen by anyone from whichever place they were. After getting the idea I put it in practice and came up with the company. The logistics of formation I will share with you next time. What interested me in this job was the adventure entailed with it and also adaptability with changing times that should be followed.Question #3: What are the various jobs in this organization?  Response: You Tube at first is owned by Google Inc. The jobs available range from the CEO which is the position I hold to an internship.  The company has positions for engineers who are charged with the maintenance of the servers of You Tube to financial advisers and also IT specialists who change the face of the company with the ever rapid changing current times and also deal with dealing with breakdowns of the site.Question #4: How does your establishmentcontrast from others?  Response: The first aspect where we are different from the rest is the embracing of change that happens rapidly. Another aspect is our employees do not have any specific way of dressing or carrying out themselves. As long as they deliver then the rest to us the management team is not relevant. This kind of freedom is not allowed in other companies and they actually have strict rules about being in formal wear anytime they are in the work place.Question #5: What does your company do to contribute to its employee’s professional development?  Response: The company organizes for seminars several times a year. This helps in the interaction of the employees with renowned people in various sectors like the IT sector and even engineering: this develops the professional development of the employees. The company also has a performance appraisal system where employees are awarded based on the quality of their input. This increases competition and development among the employeesQuestion #6: How has your job affected your lifestyle?  Response: First thing my social life went a long time because of the job. The extra-long working hours and also the trips to the many countries in the world to give speeches has made it so difficult in creating time for my old friends and people I knew. The little free time I get is spent with my family. Fun like going for horse races and even watching baseball all now went due to my tight schedule.Question #7: What creates most stress about this job?  Response: Companies who are always ready to sue when their videos are uploaded against their consent. This can cause a very big legal battle even if the video was there for an hour or so. So we have people standby that block immediately videos that are not authorized. Another problem is always addressing the underage issue where it can put the morals of the company in doubt.Question #8: Does your work relate to what you did in university?  Response: Yes they do relate greatly.Question #9: What special advice do you have for a student pursuing to meet the requirements for employment in this organization?  Response: He/she should be open minded and must always think outside the box on many things. This is a demanding company that requires innovations and inventions on a daily basis.Question #10: Finally, why do you think You Tube is a very popular company?  Response: Our simplicity is our strength and power due to the fact that it’s our utmost sophistication. We make things very easy for our customers and this really makes them happy and like our services.Google Inc. is a big company whose market is worldwide and the You Tube which is owned by the Google Inc. is a trending service that has really captured the attention and minds of the people. From the CEO Susan, it is clear that determination and also creativity brought her to the realization of her dreams and that she never just start it up with one day. The culture of the company is very friendly due to the freedom accorded to the employees and the motivations they get to continue growing higher and higher. Thinking outside the box is an important skill that I should really need for me to make it in the current world and also creativity is something I should learn to have for being different from others and make it in some careers.  

Engineering Article Review Paper on Article critique college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

Article critique

The article seems insightful on the ability of the Toyota Prius to be a car that is not as ‘green’ as many environmentalists think. However, from the onset, the author fails to draw concrete and consistent linkages between his article’s headlines and the article’s subject content. Instead of following a comparative procedure, which assesses how each car contributes to environmental damage, he only deals with the Prius’ problems. Therefore, the author seems to consider how the Prius is made, but shows no link on how the Hummer is made so that the audience can form their own thoughts and assessments. Therefore, it seems that the author could be biased in his assessment.

Additionally, the author fails in some cases to define key terms that could help the audience understand his analogy. For instance, he assumes that all his audience is conversant with key terminology such as EPA and combined energy. However, in spite of these shortfalls, the author has been able to show how clearly the Prius could be environmentally damaging through the production process and transportation of nickel. However, despite the concrete research being performed, he fails to consider that Toyota Prius is not the only consumer of nickel produced, as other manufacturers in the electronics are also big consumers of the product. Therefore, assuming that the manufacture of Toyota Prius is the main polluter based on nickel produced is a farfetched ideology. Finally, the author’s conclusion does not entirely relate to his headline since he does not end with a summary of the subject content, but rather proceeds to add other car models that were not in the subject content of the article. Once again, he assumes that his intended has all the facts he possesses and therefore, can be able to make the same conclusions that the Prius is a lesser car as compared to models as the Scion or Chevy Aveo.

Nursing Research Paper on Prostate Cancer Risk Factors college admission essay help houston tx

Prostate Cancer Risk Factors


Prostate cancer is presently the most widespread non-skin cancer and a primary cause of cancer death among men across the world (Parsons, Eifler & Han, 2014, p. 130). Prostate cancer incidence varies across demographic groups, with the most common risk factors for the disease being age, race and/or ethnicity, and family history. Furthermore, it is among the most controversial of all the solid malignancies. Therefore, this paper identifies and discusses age, race/ethnicity, and family history as the established or more proven prostate cancer risk factors. It explains why and how prostate cancer incidence varies across age, whereby men are faced with greater risk of developing it. Second, it discusses why prostate cancer incidence varies between racial and ethnic population, in which it has identified genetic factors, environmental exposure risk factors, and factors related to health-seeking behaviors as the leading causes. Finally, the paper discusses how family history regarding prostate cancer increases an individual’s risk in developing the disease, and explains how such a history has been useful in encouraging greater use of screening and investigative procedures at an earlier point in men with prostate cancer history.        

Prostate Cancer Risk Factors


            Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in a man’s prostate- a gland responsible for the production of seminal fluid that protects, nourishes, and transports sperm cells. Prostate cancer normally develops slowly and at first remains confined mainly to the prostate glands, in which it cannot cause any serious harm. Although some type of prostate cancer may require minimal or no treatment at all because of their slow growth rate, there exist more aggressive types that can spread quickly, thus call urgent comprehensive treatment as they can cause serious harm. Prostate cancer can be treated successfully if detected early, particularly when it is still enclosed within the prostate gland. Prostate cancer has been found to be the most widespread non-skin cancer and the second major cause of cancer mortality in men across the world, after lung cancer (Na et al., 2013, p. 1). Prostate cancer screening rates have been increasing over the years, with results showing that the disease is more prevalent than it was previously thought. Most importantly, there is a clear indication of varying prevalence of the disease across various demographic groups. For example, prostate cancer prevalence in men has been found to vary with age, race/ethnicity, and family history. Although diet is increasingly being considered a risk factor, much of the research investigating its connection to prostate cancer is, at present largely inconclusive. This implies that at present, it is only age, race/ethnicity, and family history that have been proven beyond reasonable doubt to be the leading prostate cancer risk factors (Bolla & Poppel, 2012). This paper seeks to explore why and how age, race/ethnicity and family history are the most common risk factors for prostate cancer across the world. Age, race/ethnicity, and family history are the established and most common prostate cancer risk factors.


Age has been established to be among the most common prostate cancer risk factors. In fact, a man of any age can possibly get prostate cancer. However, the chances of getting the disease have been found to increase rapidly once a man attains age 40, and begins to decline when men reach their eighties (Held-Warmkessel, 2006, p. 8-9). The reduced prostate cancer rates of acceleration after age 80 is attributed to the reduced tissue renewal and cell division in the later stages of the life cycle. This observation has been widely supported by numerous research studies and documented incidences, which show that men that are of age 65 and above constitute over 65% of all prostate cancers diagnosed in men. For example, in the United States (U.S.), the mean age for prostate cancer diagnosis is 69 years for whites and 66 years for African Americans (Held-Warmkessel, 2006, p. 8-9). This situation is not quite different in Europe, as its mean age for diagnosis lies just above 70 years of age (Bolla & Poppel, 2012, p. 8).

 Age also appears to influence the treatment of prostate cancer. The perception that it is a disease mostly affecting the older men has made younger men more reluctant to undergo cancer screening. Therefore, in most incidences of prostate cancer are detected when the affected men are in their old age. At worse, some even die unaware that they actually had prostate cancer. This fact is supported by statistics from both the US and Europe. For example, the mean age at its diagnosis in the US has been established to be 69, while that of Europe lie just above 70 years of age (Bolla & Poppel, 2012, p. 8). Such facts have resulted in the greatest dilemmas in the prostate cancer diagnostics in the modern times, as it is evident that most men having prostate cancer will die with prostate cancer, and not from it (Bolla & Poppel, 2012, p. 8). Therefore, the perception among males that prostate cancer develops during old age has hampered the treatment of cancer at early stage of development among younger males. Low levels of prostate cancer screening among younger males would significantly increase their chances of developing prostate cancer.   

It is evident that older a man gets, the greater the chances that he will get prostate cancer. Several attempts have been made to establish the scientific explanation of this observable fact. The most convincing explanation is that the higher rates of androgenic stimulation of the prostate among adults in their middle and late stages of life is the major cause of prostate cancer among them (Chung, Isaacs & Simons, 2007. p. 366). As the androgenicity level heightens with age, they tend to directly influence a pool of quite aggressive androgen-drive prostate cancers at its onset in early adulthood. However, prostate cancer’s high incidence in the later years of life is less drive by androgenicity, but more by pathologic processes, for instance, oxidative insults, all in which androgens play a permissive role (Chung, Isaacs & Simons, 2007. p. 364).  


The prostate cancer prevalence has also been found to vary across various racial/ethnic groups. This observation has been widely supported by research studies indicating its higher incidence among some racial and ethnic groups than others. For instance, in the US, the number of African Americans males having prostate cancer is estimated to be more than twice as that of their white Caucasian male counterparts (Nargund, Raghavan, & Sandler, 2007, p. 52). Conversely, men of the Asian descent have been found to have the lowest prostate cancer incidence between ethnic populations (Bolla & Poppel, 2012, p. 9). The variation of prostate cancer incidences across racial and ethnic populations is attributed to the combination of genetic factors, exposure to environmental risk factors, and the factors related to health seeking behavior (Bolla & Poppel, 2012, p. 9).

The varying levels of androgen across racial and ethnic groups are considered as the most possible explanation for the variation of prostate cancer incidence among men of different racial and ethnic backgrounds. This possible genetic cause has been supported by several studies, which have revealed that African American males tend to have higher levels of hormone testosterone than their white male counterparts. According to Nixon and Gomez (2007), the testosterone level in African Americans is approximately 15% higher than those of their white male counterparts (p. 303). More specifically, the excess risk of developing the disease among the African American is attributed to their higher androgen receptor gene CAG repeat length (Held-Warmkessel, 2006, p. 11).

The different environmental exposures that racial groups are subjected to are also believed to contribute to the varying prostate cancer incidence among the various racial and ethnic groups (Schottenfeld & Fraumeni, 2006, p. 1130). For example, while men of Asian descent that are residing in the Asian continent have been found to have the lowest prostate cancer incidence between the racial/ethnic populations, their prostate cancer incidence have been found to increase remarkably once they migrate to foreign lands, such as the US (Bolla & Poppel, 2012, p. 9). This is an indication that environmental variation under which different racial and ethnic groups reside partly contributes to their levels of prostate cancer vulnerability.

Finally, the variations in prostate cancer incidences between racial and ethnic groups can be attributed to their unique health-seeking behaviors (Fitzpatrick et al., 2004, p. 86). For instance, the higher prevalence rates of the disease in African American males have been closely related to their reluctance in undertaking regularly medical check-ups to monitor or assess their health conditions (Mydlo & Godec, 2003, p. 137). Unlike African American men, the Caucasian males have been found to undergo regular medical examinations, whereby prostate cancer’s early signs can be detected. This early detection thereby encourages early intervention measures in managing the disease, which can eventually result in low prostate cancer incidences amongst the white Caucasian men. Conversely, the African American males have a higher prostate cancer incidence because they have not deeply embraced health-seeking behavior. Such a behavior becomes an obstacle to the detection of prostate cancer during its stage of development, thereby reducing the possibilities of successful early intervention (Mydlo & Godec, 2003, p. 137). These failures in early prostate cancer intervention among black males significantly contribute to the higher prostate cancer prevalence rates among black males. However, blacks diagnosed with later stage prostate cancer disease have been found to have lower survival rates even after undergoing corrective measures as compared with whites faced with similar situation (Nargund, Raghavan, & Sandler, 2007, p. 52). This is a clear indication that blacks have a rather more aggressive prostate cancer phenotype.

Family History

Apart from age and race/ethnicity, family history of prostate cancer is another strongest epidemiologic prostate cancer risk factor. Although studies have for years identified numerous incidences of familial clustering of prostate cancer, it has been established that familial clustering alone does not cause inherited genetic susceptibility as environmental and cultural influences do also aggregate in families (Held-Warmkessel, 2006, p. 11). It has been established that the chances that first-degree relatives of an affected man would be diagnosed with the disease themselves have two to three times higher than distant relatives or those with no family history (Thomas et al., 2012, p. 87-88; Madersbacher, 2011, p. 717). This implies that a man having a father or brother that has been diagnosed with prostate cancer is more than twice likely to get prostate cancer himself (Simon, 2004, p. 349). Such a risk further increases if the cancer was detected in family members at an earlier stage in life, for instance, below 50 years, or if it had affected three or more family members (Simon, 2004, p. 349). Although a family history of the disease increases the risks that first-degree relatively would eventually develop the disease, such a history has proved useful in encouraging greater use of screening and investigative procedures in men with prostate family history (Madersbacher, 2011, p. 718). This has partly contributed to the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer at an earlier point in the natural history, thus such early detection of prostate cancer among close family members can be regarded as a potential source of the biasness in the estimation of familial risk.


It is evident that age, race/ethnicity, and family history are the most common prostate cancer risk factors. Men are faced with greater risks of developing prostate cancer as they grow older. The varying prostate cancer incidence between racial and ethnic populations is attributed to the combination of genetic factors, exposure to environmental risk factors, and the factors related to health seeking behavior. Its prevalence is highest among black men and lowest among men of Asian descent. Finally, family history is also among the most common prostate cancer risk factors. Men with a first-degree relative that has been diagnosed with prostate cancer have two to three times likelihood of getting the disease themselves. However, the family history of prostate cancer has proved useful in encouraging greater use of screening and investigative procedures at an earlier point in men with prostate cancer history.            


Bolla, M., & Poppel, H. (2012). Management of prostate cancer: A multidisciplinary approach. Berlin: Springer.

Chung, L. W. K., Isaacs, W. B., & Simons, J. W. (2007). Prostate Cancer: Biology, Genetics, and the New Therapeutics. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Fitzpatrick, J. J., Villarruel, A. M., Porter, C. P., & ebrary, Inc. (2004). Eliminating Health Disparities among Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States. New York: Springer Publishing Company, Incorporated.

Held-Warmkessel, J. (2006). Contemporary issues in prostate cancer: A nursing perspective. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Madersbacher, S., Alcaraz, A., Emberton, M., Hammerer, P., Ponholzer, A., Schröder, F. H., & Tubaro, A. (2011). The influence of family history on prostate cancer risk: implications for clinical management. BJU International, 107(5), 716-721. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.10024.x

Mydlo, J. H., & Godec, C. J. (2003). Prostate cancer: Science and clinical practice. Amsterdam: Academic Press.

Na, R., Wu, Y., Xu, J., Jiang, H., & Ding, Q. (2013). Age-Specific Prostate Specific Antigen Cutoffs for Guiding Biopsy Decision in Chinese Population. Plos ONE, 8(6), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067585

Nargund, V. H., Raghavan, D., & Sandler, H. M. (2007). Urological oncology. London: Springer. 

Nixon, D & Gomez, M. (2007). The prostate health program: a guide to preventing and controlling prostate cancer. New York: Simon & Schuster.   

Schottenfeld, D., & Fraumeni, J. F. (2006). Cancer epidemiology and prevention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Simon, H.B. (2004). The harvard medical school guide to men’s health: Lessons from the harvard men’s health Studies. New York: Simon & Schuster.  

Thomas, J. A., Gerber, L. L., Moreira, D. M., Hamilton, R. J., Bañez, L. L., Castro-Santamaria, R. R., & … Freedland, S. J. (2012). Prostate cancer risk in men with prostate and breast cancer family history: results from the REDUCE study (R1). Journal Of Internal Medicine, 272(1), 85-92. 

Health Care Essay Paper on Overview of Risk and Quality Management in Health Care Worksheet my essay help uk: my essay help uk

QuestionRisk ManagementQuality ManagementHow does the leadership and governance of a health care organization influence the development and implementation of risk-management and quality-management policies?Risk identification – The leadership is vigilant in pointing out risks.Risk control- Leadership enforces the measure of handling the risk (Carroll 175).Mandatory event reporting- The leaderships and governance ensure reporting of events is done regularlyStrategic planning- The leadership and governance draws the strategic plan (Carroll 177).    conducting improvement projects Handling Patient complains – Leadership and governance ensures patients complain are handled with satisfaction (Risk Management Handbook 13).education and training of staff- The leadership and governance is responsible for educating and training its staffEducating the patients- The patience education is part of leadership engagement program.  How do the philosophy and culture of the risk-management and quality-management policies influences organizational performance?Quick reaction to emergency – the culture in the organization provides a good background quick response to emergencies.Help in identification of hazards – It is within the philosophy and organizational culture that ensures sensitivity to hazards and ensures proper handling of hazards in order to prevents possible accidents.Ensure patients safety – Good organizational culture provides a conducive environment for the patience care (Morgan 80).Ensures strategic planning- This plan is within ensures that proper allocation of resources required for managing risk are allocated    Sensitivity in handling patients – Good culture ensures careful handling of patients.Ensure professionalism is maintained- Philosophy and culture ensures best standards are always maintained Ensures continuous improvement- The culture of improvement ensures progress and development in an organization.It prevents unnecessary spending as a result of legal actions against poor quality.How do the risk-management and quality-management policies affect stakeholders?Risk financing- Stakeholders are encouraged to offer financial support.Influence government action – Government is compelled to offer assistance to these policies.Patient’s relations and disclosure- There is respect and confidentiality on patient’s information.Ensures employees satisfaction    ensure patience satisfaction – Patients being stakeholders appreciates quality management policies (Byrns 67) Demonstrates Competence- The policies demonstrate reliability to the stakeholders.Give the stakeholders confidence with the organizationInfluences government action- Policies can influence government support.  

Work Cited

“Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations, 4th Ed.” Scitech Book News 06 2004ProQuest. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.

Byrns, George. “The Handbook of Patient Safety Compliance: A Practical Guide for Health Care Organizations.” Professional safety 50.6 (2005): 67-8. ProQuest. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.

Carroll, Roberta. Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009.

Morgan, Victoria. “Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations.” Healthcare Financial Management 52.5 (1998): 80. ProQuest. Web. 23 Oct. 2014

IT/Web Article Summary common app essay help

IT/Web Article Summary


            In the article, Arvidsson, Holmstrom and Lyytinen have endeavored to examine the use of information systems within organizations as a strategy practice by focusing on PaperMill, a Swedish paper mill as a case study.  The researcher relies on longitudinal study design of the organization whereby they use interviews, observation techniques and a review of such documents of the organization as project documentation and internal reports to gather the relevant data. In April 2011, PaperMill started installed a mill execution-system (MES) and although the implementation was regarded as a success at the mill, nonetheless, the mill, operates, by and large, as it did before the MES was installed.  Thus, this longitudinal case study was aimed at enabling the researchers to examine how the execution of the new production system at PaperMill had been impacted on by interrelated, fixed practices and cognitive inadaptability of crucial actors at the firm.

            Arvidsson et al. (46) have also identified fundamental dynamics and elements that gives a more entrenched multi-dimensional perspective of the alignment process of the information system (IS) strategy. Specifically, they indentify three striking elements that play a key role in strategy blindness-flexibility of IT the unit, mistranslation of intenet, as well as cognitive entrenchment.  This indicates an evolutionary departure in the conceptualization of IS strategy. The researchers have provided two explanations to explain this departure. To start with, they identify a conflict between the developing viewpoint of “strategy-as-practice” with IS strategy proper. According to Arvidsson et al. (55), this requires us to start viewing IS strategy from a multi-dimensional context. The study by Arvidsson et al also points at a rich opportunity in the field of IS for future research, especially carrying out longitudinal studies that seek to explore the IS “strategy-as-practice”.  


            The article in question makes a huge contribution in the field of IS by demonstrating how an organization can optimize its production through production process support. This includes offering such functionalities as production execution, production planning, warehousing, shipping, quality management, as well as process monitoring. According to Pearlson and Saunders (136), IS is crucial in simplifying organizational processes and activities. Effective use of IS also give an organization a competitive advantage over its rivals in the industry.  

Illustrations provided by Arvidsson et al in their article would also be of immense help to researchers in the field of IS strategy in developing interesting and novel insights on the integration of IS with business operations to optimize production.  Also, the authors have made a huge contribution to IS strategy practice through the categorization of IS strategy into multi-dimensional elements, in addition to providing valuable suggestions on how organizations ought to take into account all dimensions while implementing the IS strategy.


            The article under review here has deftly tackled important issues relevant to the course material on the management and application of Information Systems (IS). Specifically, the article utilizes a longitudinal case study design of PaperMill to reveal how the application of information system as strategy practice in a firm can enable it to optimize its production.


            Arvidsson et al have done well to develop a concept of the fundamental challenges often encountered by organizations when implementing strategic IS.  They have also proposed a multi-dimensional assessment of the IS strategy as applied in IS strategy process evaluation.  The article is well written with strong arguments that the authors have backed with diverse credible sources. However, the researchers of the article have not reported on the reliability and validity of their measures, two parameters that Henson (18) claims are crucial for the credibility of a research study.  We are also not told of the ethical issues that the researchers considered while conducting interviews with employees and staff of PaperMill. According to the American Psychiatric Association’s Task Force on Research Ethics (553), any research that involves human subjects must consider the ethics of including them in the study.


            One of the key lessons learned from this article is that whereas we expect the use of IS strategy practice in the organization to always succeed, this may not always be the case due to the strategy blindness outcome. Another lesson learnt is that in order to achieve the desired results of an IS use in practice, the system should be used creatively in such a manner as to facilitate the desired new strategic intent (Robey, Ross and Boudreau 37). Otherwise, an organization might find it extremely difficult to adapt to the strategic change. 

Why are some successful and othersnot?

            Some of the lessons learnt from this article are successful while others are not because different organizations are government by different organization structure. This structure, along with the existing policies and practices will play a key role when it comes to the implementation of IS strategy within the organizations.  For organization with a risk-averse culture ingrain in their DNA, it may prove especially hard to execute a strategy that calls for changes in the organizations, coherent and interdependent processes, thereby resulting in strategy blindness and eventually, failure.

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association’s Task Force on Research Ethics.  Ethical Principles and

Practices for Research Involving Human Participants With Mental Illness. Psychiatric

Services, 57.4 (2006):552-7.

Arvidsson, Victor, Jonny, Holmstrom and Kalle, Lyytinen. Information systems use as strategy

practice: a multidimensional view of strategic information system implementation and

use. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 23.1 (2014): 43-61.

Henson, Robin. Understanding internal consistency reliability estimates: a conceptual primers on

coefficient alpha. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development,

34(2001): 177-188.

Robey, Daniel, Jeanne, Ross and Marie-Claude, Boudreau.  Learning to implement enterprise

systems: an exploratory study of the dialectics of change. J. Manage. Inform.

 Syst., 19.1(2002):17-46.

Biology Essay Paper on Effects of Evolution on the Modern Man admission college essay help

Effects of Evolution on the Modern Man

Human evolution has been described as a lengthy process that commenced over five million ago with man having originated from apelike beings. Evolution of human beings still remains to be an integral and intriguing subject in the field of paleoanthropology. This is due to the fact that a vast majority of human beings had thought that the human evolution was at a standstill.  According to the erudite paleoanthropologists, man is believed to have evolved through four vital events. These are categorized as the origin of terrestriality, followed by bipedality, encephalization and the last category being the evolution of culture.

            According to professional scientists, the main reason as to why man continues to evolve lies on the hereditary factor which are the genes. Genes are described as the building blocks of heredity which determines human behavior and their phenotypic traits. Scientists have used the human genes to elucidate an overwhelming evidence of man having evolved and diverged from the African primates. Through evolutionary genetics, man has been able to study how genome of human beings reveals the evolutionary process and relationships between man and the common ancestors of all organisms. Although genetic evolution has been regarded as being a slow process, this usually results to changes in the DNA sequence which eventually results in new phenotype traits. For example, the evolutionary genetics has enabled man to adapt easily to the current environment and thus being fit not to be selected out by natural selection which had been an issue in the heydays. Natural selection had been one of Darwinian theories where an unfit organism was naturally selected out through survival for the fittest process. Biologically, modern evolution has seen more reproductive success and thus high human survival rates.

Man continues to evolve culturally by acquiring a myriad of attitudes, beliefs, customs, preferences, norms and skills. Human beings have evolved culturally through social learning processes which include teaching and imitation. Today’s culture has changed overtime due tothe fast paced development of technology which continues to influence the existing culture. Amid an array of technological development, human beings have adapted to the new way of life. The modern man has today gained the skills and knowledge of using the technological devices whilst also having altered some of the past practices such as fashion and some cultural practices which were considered to be vital in the past. In the modern world, man uses his technological expertise to easily carry out duties such as cooking, construction of houses among other duties. Besides this, the modern man has embraced equality in such a way that culture no longer influences man or a woman to be restricted in performing certain specific duties.

The human evolution has also seen the modern man experience tremendous changes in terms of behavior. The behavior of a person is usually related to the predominant existing culture and traditions. Man has evolved to be a more social creature with high cognitive recognition. The modern man is today more proficient in playing a game of social manipulation and status acquisition. In addition, the modern man has the capacity to think, imagine, create and learn from past experiences. This has seen the modern man involved in several innovations that have improved lives and made work much easier. An example of man’s behavioral change was when man invented the mobile phones which have further helped in promoting the social nature of human beings through a technologically advanced way of communication.

Evolution of man has seen today’s man being able to easily adapt and survive to the ever changing environmental conditions. According to Darwin’s theory, the environment is known to naturally selecting the organisms possessing some of the best traits matching with the environment. The modern man is able to survive in the current environment due to the genetic evolution which has biologically influenced man to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. Through genetic evolution, man has developed resistance to a plethora of diseases thus enabling man to survive in some environments. Besides this, behavioral changes have influenced man’s innovation capabilities. It is with this profound reason that the current modern man can develop various technologies that protect man from harsh environmental conditions thus enabling man to survive in most environments. For instance, man has developed dams which act as reservoirs for rain water. This has more so been built in areas of high rainfalls thus protecting man from flooding effects. In conclusion, man’s response environmental stress remains to be a vital determinant of heredity of genes from one generation to another thus having an influence on the evolution.

Marketing Research Proposal Essay Paper on Confusion in Marketing college essay help: college essay help

Confusion in Marketing


Consumers have encountered an unparalleled expansion of alternatives with respect to products, brands, and lifestyle to mention a few in the past two decades. This expansion encompasses such things as countless television stations and ever mounting brands of soda. The rising freedom of choice is normally linked to a higher living standard. Consumers are attaining power and this fashionable improvement is referred to as consumer democracy (Shukla, Banerjee, & Adidam, 2010). Psychological theory and study has repeatedly illustrated a correlation between the stipulation of variety and growing intrinsic driving force, higher recognized control, improved task execution, and better life pleasure. Retailers do not establish what consumers purchase any more since consumers do it themselves. However, most consumers have turned out to be terrible selectors. Since the freedom of choice is attached to ditching traditions and behaviours, consumers are obliged to get concerned with the single offers in a mounting variety pool. For instance, buying a Coke in the past was not a challenge but currently, consumers have to select among different varieties such as Pepsi, Mountain Dew, and Sprite. The tyranny of choice, the occurrence of ever-increasing varieties and freedom of choice, has led to consumer confusion and consumers are not in a position of choosing competently anymore.                   

Problem Statement

The growing alternatives are not the only sources of consumer confusion but every stimuli created by marketing tools. The lack of quality references, common price alterations, or intricate signs of product constitutions are store environment stimuli that could bring about consumer confusion. Certainly, consumers are capable of adapting to any surroundings but retailers are thus faced with negative outcomes. Consumers have challenges managing intricate varieties. As numerous varieties turn pleasing, consumers endure conflict and confusion. To manage, consumers turn to reduction policies that endeavor to simplify choices significantly. They can consist of the making of choice through just a few decisive factors, depending on judgment heuristics like inclination, taking fewer options into account, selecting the cheapest items, designating the variety and gathering more information. In worse occurrences, the difficulty of selection could make consumers reschedule the whole purchase decision, or in the worst occurrences, ditch the purchase in total.

Justification of the Study

            There is an evident need for research on consumer confusion in that while the design of pleasant retail environment is certainly a pertinent marketing objective, it could be as well helpful to learn the bad side of the marketing experience and attempt to discover the environmental factors that create negative consumer sentiments in the course of shopping. This study will seek to pursue the direction for future research. Anchored in a qualitative study, the analysis of consumer confusion will be done. This study will act as a foundation for future study by examining interrelations between dissimilar kinds of consumers or different products and giving manufacturers and retailers the knowledge that could be used to study present triggers of consumer confusion. Through the identification of the critical factors, manufacturers and retailers acquire direction for their policy development and accordingly for profiling their products and stores and consumers will be careful in their shopping.

Research Questions

What are the factors that lead to consumer confusion?What is the effect of confusion on behavioural constructs like satisfaction and purchase choice?

Literature Review

            The internationalization inclination is supplemented by a reinforced individualization drift. On this note, consumers become progressively demanding, preferring not just a broader variety of products, but as well enhanced convenience. Such an occurrence is consistent with the microeconomic theory that postulates that the provision of variety permits the maximization of substitute. The postulation is in as well anchored in the rational action theory that affirms that consumers hold stable, priority-based inclinations, which are regardless of contextual aspects. Rational action theory asserts that customers get through existence with every one of their choices displayed ahead of them, as though on a buffet table (Walsh, Hennig-Thurau, & Mitchell, 2007). Herewith, consumers have adequate information concerning the costs and advantages of every alternative and compare each on a single scale of inclination, worth, or utility. If such were the reality then, under constant terms of extent of trade, rational judgment makers, who are faced with selection of different product options, will enhance their utility through the selection of the alternative that best suits their predetermined tastes. Therefore, it could be ascertained that customer wellbeing rises with the level of alternative conditions and the degree of different choices available.

The trimming down of the available choices is interested with the decrease of selection options and qualities well thought-out with the purpose of decreasing information burden (Clancy & Trout, 2002). The Cognitive Miser Theory indicates the reality that the principal aim of a consumer is to decrease the consideration period, or the cognitive working ability, essential to create decisions. Consequently, careful consideration is a significant component in the reduction of stimuli to a controllable set with the aim of meeting the restrictions of people’s limited consideration period. One means of doing this is giving up the attempts to compare choices and in its place make an unprompted purchase (DeRosia, Lee, & Christensen, 2011). Moreover, consumers employ selective decision criteria, for instance, brand name, cost, labels, or cachets to shorten the exploration and assessment procedure.

            Consumer confusion as an occurrence of its own is yet to be considered in well-established consumer behavior studies. However, consumer confusion triggers have formed discussions in the marketing text for an extremely lengthy period, though either in a different concern or in an exceedingly segregated way (Wang & Shukla, 2013). Violation of brand name called for research endeavors regarding the physical likeness of original product and imitated brands. Since consumers reassign qualities (for instance functionality, value) from the original product to imitational brands when likeness is offered, producers of original brands have a powerful interest to restrict imitators (Balabanis & Craven, 1997). The protection of rights facilitates the settlement of disputes between producers in the court of law (Wang & Shukla, 2013). Such imitations lead to brand confusion (Mitchell & Kearney, 2002). Whilst studies on brand confusion entirely centers on the physical resemblance of brands, studies on consumer confusion diversify this study concern through seizing the store location multi-dimensionality. Whereas brand confusion predominantly pertains to legal matters between producers, consumer confusion starts at the store and entails the behavior of retailers in addition to that of consumers.

            With the recognition that a store location does not have a significant impact on shopping (and particularly preference) behavior, there is a need to center on consumer confusion triggers instead of only brand appearance (Matzler, Stieger, & Füller, 2011). Consequently, in retail administration, researchers handle amid other aspects the impact of fragrance, music, light, and colors. There is inadequate comprehension of which component in the retail field is the most salient to consumers when generating an approach-prevention assessment. Nonetheless, in the creation of triumphant marketing actions, it is vital to comprehend what (grouping of) factors lead to an orienting or confusing environment that consequently brings about an approach or prevention behavior. Moreover, consumers do not recognize an environmental aspect (for instance, fragrance) in a secluded manner while getting into a store (Howard, Kerin, & Gengler, 2000). The discernment is influenced by resourceful interrelating elements.  To successfully examine the possibility of a store to confuse consumers, concentration has to be placed on the environment (encompassing apprehensible pointers of every marketing tool).

            Researchers have found a holistic reflection of consumer confusion by broadening the research concern from the rather tight perspective of brand name violation to a more holistic argument encompassing further triggers of consumer confusion in a store setting (Srivastava, 2011). On this note, the researchers talk of brand, promotional confusion, and price. The aspects stimuli likeness, stimuli burden, and stimuli uncertainty highlight just the appearance of confusion because of attributes of recognized variety in a store (for instance, resemblance or diversity of brands). Thus, according to Brécard (2014), a conceptual and practical examination of every possible consumer confusion trigger in a store setting is yet to be carried out. This affirmation appears in particular vital since the rising level of competition has made many retailers and manufacturers to strengthen their marketing endeavors devoid of comprehending its (possibly negative) effect on consumers (for example, because of irregularity or unreliability of the endeavors). For example, the majority of retailers in the UK attempted to satisfy the emerging consumer demand for environment friendly brands. To offer orientation to consumers, the retailers initiated new brand tags. Certainly, labeling the brands improves psychological convenience but because every retailer used many similar labels for dissimilar brands employing even dissimilar evaluation standards, the marketing endeavor lost integrity and led to consumer confusion.

            The emphasis on consumer confusion experience is meant to sensitize the retail sector to choose marketing efforts wisely and according to their policy. In this regard, retailers require excellent comprehension of consumer confusion to facilitate the examination of the influence of (newly initiated) marketing efforts. To build on the knowledge of consumer confusion, the occurrence is described on account of surpassing a personal capability threshold for engaging and working on environment stimuli. Consistent with Smithers (2011), consumer confusion is the psychological condition that makes it hard for consumers to choose and construe stimuli. The lack of suitable knowledge brings about lesser selection quality or effectiveness. Taking into consideration the optimal stimulation level theory, consumers progressively loose direction the moment a person’s critical threshold (through stimuli force) is surpassed. Since the threshold is personal and fairly stable, consumers become confused at dissimilar rates of stimuli force.

            Up to the maximum stimulation intensity, consumers are essentially in the hunt for unforeseen or dynamic stimuli (for instance, promotions or new brands) (Langer, Eisend, & KuB, 2008). With the surpassing of critical threshold, consumers become increasingly confused. The specification of the stimuli that triggers the rate consumer confusion assists in the development of the knowledge necessary to control the stimuli strength in a retail setting. The evaluation of stimuli is vital considering that consumers recognize confusion as an unconstructive psychological condition. Nevertheless, via particular behavior frameworks (for instance, selective discernment), consumers are capable of regaining a favorable stimulation intensity. Nevertheless, this involves a cringing consumer reserve (because of a mounting loss of stimulation to face strange stimuli), which is evident in stagnating or decreasing sales. To be precise, stimulation is positive up to a given level. Past that level, the identified stimulation rate turns consecutively into consumer confusion and signs of consumption weariness.          


Though studies have been carried out with respect to consumer confusion, none has encompassed all environmental stimuli. Most studies have focused on brands (for instance, similarity or overselection) and information concerning brands but consumer confusion triggers emanating from other marketing tools (for instance, price) are frequently not taken into consideration. This study will seek to discover specific triggers of consumer confusion in retail environment. To portray the intricacy of consumer confusion occurrence, the study will achieve a conceptual examination.           

Research Design and Variables

            This study will employ the primary method of data collection where the data will be acquired from consumers at Wegmans Food Markets, Inc. The research design will be qualitative, ethnographic research; this is since the research design will collect extensive narrative data founded on dissimilar variables in a natural condition within a particular structure. The dependent variable will be consumer confusion while the independent variable will be environment stimuli (confusion triggers), and the demographic variables will be family size, age, and gender. A survey will be utilized to present the provision of a thorough knowledge of the occurrences backing the study.

Sampling and Participants

The non-random sampling system that will be utilized in this study is convenience sampling as it will purely entail contributors that are the mostly available and simply selected to participate in the study. The population for the study will be the customers of Wegmans Food Markets, Inc. A written appeal for collection of data via questionnaires and interviews will initially be sent to the management of Wegmans Food Markets, Inc. To begin with, the data for this study will be gathered through unofficial talks with staff of Wegmans Food Markets, Inc. prior to seeking to interview some consumers. Unofficial talks will also be carried out with the consumers at large. The mode of getting linked to suitable participants will be hashed out with the management who will then launch a request of participation by the participants while ascertaining a representative sample of the consumers.

The participants will be selected with respect to consumer demographics (attained through analysis of the loyalty card data base of Wegmans Food Markets, Inc., more than eighty percent of the sales volume is made through loyalty cards) of the regional supermarket chain with respect to family size, age, and gender. The ultimate sample will encompass 12 female and 6 male consumers, ranging from 20 to 65 years of age. 9 consumers will be selected from family households, 5 from single households, and 4 from cohousing communities. In general, it could be assumed that most of the participants in age between 20 and 30 are either student, people that have obtained a university degree, or employed. Overrepresentation in the demographic distribution will possibly lead to limitations of the study with regard to the generalization of the outcomes.

Data Collection and Materials

After the choice of the contributors, open-ended survey questions will be utilized since they will draw out responses that the interviewer cannot anticipate and are usually lengthier with a description of the occurrence of concern in a summed up and brief nature. This will let the interviewees act in response to the questions in an essay arrangement thus presenting a lot of information devoid of any constraint. The survey means of data collection will be triumphant since essential concerns regarding consumer confusion experiences will be talked about. Prior to every interview, the researcher will present an enlightenment on the basis of the interview, the type of the questions, the discretion of the collective information, the freedom to contribute, and then permit the participants to make inquiries concerning where they will require further explanation prior to embarking on responding to the questions.

The questions of the survey will have dissimilar kinds of enquiries for the independent variable, dependent variable, as well as demographic variables; at least three different questions for every variable. The period of every interview will be about an hour. Approval will be requested from every participant for the use of a tape recorder to increase the accuracy of data and ensure an enduring record. The data captured in the tape recorder will be transcribed after the study to create a reliable source for reference and substantiation. To enhance a successful response rate along with the convenience sampling technique, a raffle will be offered to the participants who will give their email address with a chance to win 40 US dollars. The approach acted as a motivation to begin and successfully complete the questionnaire.    


             As the mediator of the interviews between the researcher and the participants, an open-ended questionnaire will be employed. Initially, the participants will be given a concise introduction to the research questions and objectives. To give them a hint before embarking on answering the questions, the participants will be told to mull over sources of consumer confusion in a retail setting. Participants were consequently asked to recollect their shopping experiences. The researcher will then choose to ask follow-up questions to make sure that possible confusion triggers will be recognized unequivocally and all interviews will be recorded and transcribed. Consequently, every participant will be requested to answer the open-ended questions of the questionnaire, which were the same for all the participants. A total of 10 questions will be issued, examining the most important effects of the model (dependent variable) in addition to the controlling aspects (independent and demographic variables).

            Every question in the questionnaire was compulsory since it was advisable to answer a given question before progressing to the next. At the start of the questionnaire, the participants were requested to give their electronic mail addresses if they would wish to take part in the 40 US dollars lottery. After submitting the questionnaire, the participants will be thanked and offered any other information that they will ask or will be deemed fit. The Appendix shows the entire questions of the questionnaire. The initial section of the questionnaire will consist of evaluation of consumer confusion. Other questions will inquire the participants’ satisfaction with their selection, their degree of interest with the grocery products, and their grocery products purchase rate. Consequently, the participants will be asked concerning their psychological experience in the course of their choice judgment and a number of questions to evaluate their favorable stimulation intensity. The final section will be about the demographics of the participants, especially their age and gender.                  


            Though this study will offer significant insights, it will not be devoid of its limitations. To start with, the research will be carried out with the use of convenience sampling. Although this ought not to compromise the internal validness of the outcomes, generalizing the outcomes to other sections of the population requires being carried out with care. This is supported by the fact that participants of the different income classes and education levels may not be evenly distributed across the selected sample. Wealthy, young, and educated consumers might be evidently overrepresented. It is evident that such types of consumers are more probable of finding it easy to handle high levels of stimuli and, hence, they rarely suffer confusion (Brengman, Geuens, & Pelsmacker, 2001). Such uneven distribution in the sample could lead to biased outcomes so that no direct or reasonable influence of personal attributes could be confirmed.          

It will be an ethical matter for the researcher to inquire from the participants that feel a great loss after their shopping experiences concerning consumer confusion occurrences. This is due to the fear that such questions from the researcher will generate a recollection of such painful experiences in the course of the early stages of recovery and arouse the failure to successfully respond or answer the questions with the aim of trying to ignore such memories. It will also appear disreputable questioning consumers concerning their confusion, how it has affected them, and steps to take among other related issues as it could appear as overindulgence. On the other hand, the failure to determine consumer confusion from the sample could lead to ineffective outcomes of the study. Hence, the researcher will center on past and present consumer confusion as a habitual part of history-taking for the participants.

Results, Findings, and Data Analysis

The data analysis method relies on the research technique and kind of data employed and a qualitative technique of data analysis will be used for this study. The qualitative analysis of the nominal data for the study will be descriptive and will play a key role in the comprehension of consumer confusion and its impact on choice satisfaction with the intention of offering knowledge that will enhance positive orientation, sentiments and choice satisfaction.


Consumers have difficulties managing complicated varieties. As many varieties turn pleasing, consumers suffer conflict and confusion. Through the recognition of the critical aspects, this study will help manufacturers and retailers get direction for their policy development and consequently for profiling their products and stores and consumers will be cautious in their purchase.


Balabanis, G., & Craven, S. (1997). Consumer confusion from own brand lookalikes: an exploratory investigation. Journal of Marketing Management, 13(4), 299-313.

Brécard, D. (2014). Consumer confusion over the profusion of eco-labels: lessons from a double differentiation model. Resource and Energy Economics, 37(1), 64-84.

Brengman, M., Geuens, M., & Pelsmacker, P. D. (2001). The impact of consumer characteristics and campaign related factors on brand confusion in print advertising. Journal of Marketing Communications, 7(4), 231-243.

Clancy, K. J., & Trout, J. (2002). Brand confusion. Harvard Business Review, 80(3), 22-34.

DeRosia, E., Lee, T., & Christensen, G. (2011). Sophisticated but confused. Psychology & Marketing, 28, 457-78.

Howard, D., Kerin, R., &Gengler, C. (2000). The effects of brand name similarity on brand source confusion. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 19, 250-64.

Langer, A., Eisend, M., & KuB, A. (2008). The impact of eco-labels on consumers: Less information, more confusion. European Advances in Consumer Research, 8, 338-339.

Matzler, K., Stieger, D., & Füller, J. (2011). Consumer confusion in internet-based mass customization: Testing a network of antecedents and consequences. Journal of Consumer Policy, 34(2), 231-247.

Mitchell, V. & Kearney, I. (2002). A critique of legal measures of brand confusion. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 11, 357-77.

Shukla, P., Banerjee, M., & Adidam, P. T. (2010). Antecedents and consequences of consumer confusion: Analysis of the financial services industry. Advances in Consumer Research, 39, 292-297.

Smithers, R. (2011). Supermarkets ‘confuse’ consumers with product pricing. Retrieved from

Srivastava, R. (2011). Understanding brand identity confusion. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 29, 340-52.

Walsh, G., Hennig-Thurau, T., & Mitchell, V. W. (2007). Consumer confusion proneness: scale development, validation, and application. Journal of Marketing Management, 23(7-8), 697-721.

Wang, Q., & Shukla, P. (2013). Linking sources of consumer confusion to decision satisfaction: The role of choice goals. Psychology & Marketing, 30(4), 295-304.



Dear Participant,

This questionnaire is meant for a research based on consumer confusion (consumer’s shopping behaviour). For the success of this research, I rely on your support and your personal view matters. The information you give will be treated with great confidentiality and the choice to start or complete this questionnaire is anchored in your freewill. The completion of the questionnaire will take 20-30 minutes. Kindly give your email address at the end of the questionnaire for a chance to win 40 US dollars.

Personal details

Your age…….

Your gender……

Section 1

According to your shopping experience at Wegmans Food Markets, Inc., explain some of the factors that create consumer confusion.Are you at all times satisfied with your choice of products at Wegmans Food Markets, Inc.? Explain why or why not.Give some instances where you have been a victim of consumer confusion? What advice would you give to the management of Wegmans Food Markets, Inc., other retailers, and consumers concerning consumer confusion with the purpose of avoiding negative effects of confusion?

Section 2

Explain your stand concerning new products at Wegmans Food Markets, Inc. and their impact on consumer confusion.How are promotions of some products able to cause consumer confusion?Explain how the prices of similar products could create consumer confusion?

Section 3

Explain which gender you think falls victim of consumer confusion mostly.Does age influence consumer confusion? DiscussHow often are you a victim of consumer confusion at Wegmans Food Markets, Inc.?

Your e-mail address…………………

Thank you for your participation and great support!

History Sample Essay on The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) essay help cheap

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)

The Palestinian refugee problem

This problem is unique in its own ways because among all other problems that have been witnessed in all the corners of the world, it is the only one that has faced the problem of inaccessibility to a solution that will last for long. Most of the peace organizations in the world as well as the government of Palestine, where the refugees are have been ignoring the issue due to some reasons. To begin with, the rest of the people together with the government in the country have not accepted the refugees thus, it has become a hard nut to crack. This is because the government has not even considered the issue, thus sitting down to discuss it by other organizations would be going against the government’s wish. Means to implement a solution have been in vain due to the international protection being denied both severely and persistently by global organizations concerned. They have been forced to keep the matter pending and have advised the government officials to consider it fast before any further steps are taken.

The government would be in the best position to provide a solution since the refugees inhabit the land under its control and management. There has been little guarantees on protection in regards to this problem, unlike to other areas and camps inhabited by other refugees. Brokers of power in the country’s government have ignored any negotiations, which would solve the problem. The problem has been excluded and disregarded but it has been on the other hand requiring urgent attention. This is what mainly has attracted discourse of the public to attend to the Palestinians, who have been denied their rights as well as freedom. It is inhuman for the government to ignore the helpless refugees, some of them living in poor conditions, and the worse being that they have no place they call home and the country where they have been living rejects them. This has attracted views from other people from other areas but the government has turned to have deaf ears to secure the political power and gains of the country.

The issue started back for the power interest of countries in Middle East after the World War II and in the midst of the inter-war. Some of the people were displaced and were left without homes due to the severe destruction they experienced on their properties (Munayer & Loden, 2012). This made them migrate to the neighboring countries to look for help and support. Some landed in Palestine; something that up to date has erupted to a social problem that no one in the land is willing to attend to.  Many of them were Jews and thus a program would later be developed to establish a Jewish Homeland in the land of the Palestinians. The problem began when Israeli failed to recognize those refugees, as they believed that it would impute a right to the Palestinians to return.

This means that recognizing them would prevent them from returning to their original homeland. They have continued to reject them to instill pressure on them to go back to where they lived, forgetting that due to the wars that were there, their property was destroyed and thus they have been in dilemmas of whether to go or stay. They have finally decided to stay, as they do not have the ability to get back to their homeland. The Partition Resolution, which was later formed, confirmed that Israel had the right of maintenance of state without incorporating the Jews. The Zionist Movement was later formed the develop a home for the Jews in Palestine, which led to Palestine becoming a national residence for the refugees, though they have not literally been accepted by the citizens, thus bringing about conflicts (Morris, 2004).

The rise, goals and actions of the PLO

The organization was started and was supported by Nasser, the president of Egypt and was formed due to two different processes. Self-assertion as well as new trends of revolution among the refugees of Palestine have been rampant. In addition to this, circumstances among Arabs, also led to its rise. The main goal of the organization has been to find a solution for the Palestinian refugee problem, which has been disserted by all personnels involved in the appropriate negotiations that would give a solution.  There have been frustrations in attempts to come up with a solution, which have not been successful. It aims at looking at those attempts to get a go ahead. Some of the actions that the organization has undertaken include military involvement in fighting those rivals that gang up to deter any implementation of durable solutions to the problem. The main wars that have been on Israeli, which is the main hindrance of the solution to the problem (Usher, 2009). The organization has also advocated for inter- tribal leadership in the region. For instance, it has advocate for power sharing among the Jews and the Arabs. This will ensure that there will be leaders from all sides and this will help in getting a solution because the leaders will sit down and bring the matter to be table as a united people.


Morris, B. (2004). The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Munayer, S., & Loden, L. (2012). The land cries out: Theology of the land in the Israeli-Palestinian context. Eugene, Or: CASCADE Books.

Usher, G. (2009). Dispatches from Palestine: The rise and goals of the PLO. London: Pluto.

Sample Essay Paper on Latin America assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Latin America

Q 1: Race, gender, as well as religion provide a sense of individual as well as collective identity. Describe how socio-economic factors and racial perceptions have shaped the development of “Indo-Latin America.”

            Socio-economic factors and racial perceptions have influenced the development of “Indo-Latin America” identity in several ways. Firstly, the patriarchy system has enabled the males to dominate both the public and private spheres. This has contributed to the region’s increasing levels of violence against women, which is also understood as form of male domination. Religion is another important factor that has shaped the development of Indo-Latin America identity. For example, 93 percent of the region’s population consider themselves as Christians, with 80 percent of them being Roman Catholics. Furthermore, about 28 percent of the world’s Catholics live in Latin America, with Brazil having the largest number of baptized Roman Catholics worldwide. Racial perceptions have also contributed to the development of Indo-Latin America’s identity. The perceptions that mixed-race was socially and religiously unacceptable made marriage among mixed-race far less common. Marriage was also less common among the poor people as weddings were very expensive, hence were not documented. The church considered children from such marriages as illegitimate; hence it mainly served the interests of the upper class individuals and their families. The spread of commercial agriculture has affected gender roles. Most men take part in paid labor, while many women have continued to work in the domestic sphere where they are rarely paid for their labor.      

Q 2: How has identity in “Afro-Latin America” been socially constructed in countries like Brazil?

            The identity in Afro-Latin America has been socially constructed through interracial marriages, cultural festivals, and development of new religions that uphold both the traditional African and Latin America traditional practices. For instance, the descendants of African slaves who were taken to Latin America to work as slaves during the past centuries have continued to disappear into the mainstream population due to high levels of interracial and mixed-race marriages. For instance, in Brazil, a significant part of the population has a skin tone that can be associated with people from both the African and Latin America regions. The blending of Catholicism and traditional African religions resulted in the emergence of new religions such as Candomble, which largely identify Catholic saints with African deities. Cultural festivals, such as Brazil’s Samba carnival tradition is another important socially constructed Afro-Latin America identity. The samba tradition evolved from the fusion of the former slave’s dance and music with that of the Latin American people. It has developed to become part of Brazil’s national identity.             

Q 3: In what ways, have gender roles in Latin America affected the lives of women in the region?

            Gender roles in Latin America have affected the lives of women in the region through limiting their decision-making authority in both private and public spheres of life. For instance, the gender-based division of labor has forced most Latin American women to work in the informal sector, where they earn little or nothing at all. The Latin America society largely believes that a woman should work within the homestead. Since domestic activities are mostly not paid for, these women have continued experience income inequalities and have continued to depend on men for support. The males’ gender role as the protector of the society has worked to put women under men’s control. This has also kept women away from political positions associated with protection roles, such as formulation and passing of legislations, thereby leaving most women out of women empowerment efforts. This has encouraged increase in gender inequalities and injustices against women.       

Q 4: How have race and gender been reflected in Latin America’s religious landscape?

            Race and gender have been reflected in Latin America’s religious landscape. For example, the extensive spread of Catholicism and the value they place on Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus, have significantly influenced the gender roles played by the Latin American women. Most of these women constantly try to emulate the virtues and qualities that were exhibited by Virgin Mary. As a result of this, these women have become obedient to the fathers and men heading households, as they strive to heighten their womanhood. Race has been reflected in Latin America’s religious landscape through the blending of Christianity practices with the traditional African religious practices. The Candomble is a good example of a religion that resulted from such blending. Latin American people practicing this religion have been identifying catholic saints with African deities. Furthermore, while the majority of Latin Americans consider themselves Christians, some have emphasized they are Roman Catholics. Others simply reject the word “Roman” and simply call themselves Catholics.   

HR Management Book Review Paper on What is Culture college essay help service: college essay help service

What is Culture?

This paper examines culture and its characteristics. To answer this question, the paper reviews two videos. The first video by Mark Allen Peterson (24:12minutes) examines culture in general while the second video (Indian culture, 19.55 minutes) examines how a specific culture brings out the characteristics of culture as elaborated in the first video. I will first briefly review the two videos and then offer an assessment of them.

The main theme of the first video is culture. The lecture is concerned with the features of culture. The video explains that all human beings act from ideas learnt from others, which are then embedded in the social and material networks in which they live. These are then reproduced, habitualized, and passed on to new members of the society unless circumstances encourage change. What is Culture? Culture is learned systems of meaning that are shared by particular people. Therefore, people act out of human need for meaning and how we act is not from a vacuum but from how others have acted that were before us. Meaning gives us values and strategies to pursue those values and act in the world effectively. For example, almost all animals mate but it is only humans that marry with elaborate rituals and ceremonies, with sets of rights and responsibilities, with legal contracts and sacred myths that are invoked.

Culture is symbolic, and communicative; a shared system of knowledge that defines people and generated through encounters with others. Additionally, culture is adaptive as it continuously borrow from other sources or cultures and shifts in context from time to time due to economic, social, environmental, and political conditions.

The importance of this video is that it clearly achieves what it stated it was dealing with. It is well organized and it gives concrete examples as it tackles the different aspects of culture. It is thought provoking and adds to my understanding of what culture is.

The second video concretizes the characteristics of culture: presents an aspect over culture, which is the ability to adapt as it comes into contact with other cultures.

The video presents India as a huge country with many diversities exemplified in food habits, mode of dressing, and dances. However, with all these diversities, there is an underlying unity, which holds the Indian nation together. The mixing of people has been taking place in India over centuries, which leads to composite and dynamic culture. Despite changes, the Indian culture has endured over history. There is continuity and change in the Indian culture. An example of the change is the different forms of dance and music that have evolved over time, including the numerous festivals and customs. However, the basic spirit of the culture has endured.

The adaptability and richness of culture in India is exemplified by the many diverse racial groups who have inhabited India, such as the mongoloids and proto-Australoids. Moreover, different ethnic groups have also settled and mingled with the local population. Adaptability of culture is shown by the example of India as different people came to India with their cultural habits, ideas, and thoughts, which have been amalgamated into the existing culture. The Indian cultures also show a remarkable capacity for assimilating ideas, which gives credence to the first video’s claim that culture is generated through encounter with others.

The video explains that although different people in India have their distinct culture and this supports the explanation given in the first video, culture is a learned system of meaning shared by a particular people.

This video although it helps in giving concrete ideas on how culture is diverse and particular, it is not well organized in terms of its flow of ideas and it is very repetitive. Therefore, it still adds to my understanding and knowledge of what culture is.


Indian Culture. (2013, June 30). Indian Culture for IAS Mains Online Coaching

             Video [Part 1]. Indian Culture. Video retrieved from

Peterson, Allen M. (2014, September 6). People of the World at Miami University

            [Lectures in Anthropology 175].WhatisCulture? Video retrieved from

Research Paper Help on Cambodia english essay help



The Kingdom of Cambodia, popularly referred to as Khmer Empire, is located in Southern East Asia. This state consists of a landmass that is approximately 181,035 kilometers square. It is located on south west of Thailand Gulf, northwest of Thailand, east of Vietnam and northeast of Laos. Cambodia has a population of 14.8 million hence rated as 69th among the highest occupied nation in the globe.

In Cambodia, Theravada Buddhism is the official religion that incorporates 95 percent of population practicing it. The state entails groups that are considered to be minor and they include Chams, Vietnamese, hill tribes, and the Chinese. Its capital city is situated in Phnom Penh and it acts as the key center for cultural, political, and economic activities. As a constitutional monarchy, Norodom Sihamoni is selected by Royal Throne Council that also happens to be the head of state to represent the kingdom. HunSen leads the government and at the moment, he has served as a non-royal head for a long duration in South East Asia. In addition, in a period of 25 years, HunSen has also been the leader of Cambodia.

Historical Background

Initially, ancient Cambodia was referred to as “Kambuja” whereby in 802 AD, Jayavarman II became the king who launched the Khmer Empire (Craig, 2006). This kingdom prospered for about six hundred years in which successive leaders or kings got a chance to govern a wide region of Southeast Asia. As a result, these leaders accumulated available riches and massive power of the domain. They proceeded and constructed monumental temples, which incorporated the Angkor Wat that is currently known to be the World Heritage Site. The Indianized sovereignty contributed to spread of pioneer Hinduism that was followed by Buddhism and became practiced in most places of Southeast Asia. In 15th century, Angkor Empire collapsed and paved way for Ayutthaya leading to changes in the region. For instance, Cambodia was governed as a vassal in border of its neighbors.

In 1863, Cambodia became France Protectorate and later attained its independence in 1953. During the period when the Vietnam War was in progress, it spread to Cambodia affecting the kingdom. As a result, Phnom Penh was replaced by Khmer Rouge in 1975 creating a Cambodian Genocide that ended in 1979. In the course of the battle, they were overthrown by Vietnam. The Paris Peace Accords of 1991, made the United Nations mission to lead Cambodia briefly from 1992 to 1993. The United Nations stepped back from leadership after carrying out elections that convinced 90 percent of voters to participate in the process. HunSen who was responsible for prime minister Position took over leadership after being selected by 1997 coup. This was to represent the Party of Cambodian Citizens and maintain power up to 2014.

Cambodia’s Economy

Cambodia is noted to have the best records of a well performing economy across Asia. This is clear when its average in economic progress maintained the 6 percent position for last ten years. In this state, sectors that are strong include tourism, agriculture, international trade, garments, foreign investments, textiles and construction. Cambodia is also rich from natural gas and oil deposits that are available beneath its territorial waters (Fuller, 2010). However, in 2005, these resources remain untapped when they took part in territorial disputes with their border Thailand neighbors.

Economically, China is the biggest contributor of foreign direct investment in Cambodia. This is evident when it plans to spend $8 billion dollars in approximately 360 projects. As the largest foreign aid source, China offered Cambodia about $600 million in 2008. This financial aid led to launch of credit Bureau in Cambodia, which was directly regulated by national bank. This Bureau played a vital role in society by increasing stability and transparency in all banks across the country.

Culture in Cambodia

There are various aspects that relate with culture of this country and one of them is the availability of fine arts and traditions ministry. This stands for development of customs in Cambodia by incorporating majority of low land ethnics and rest of hill tribes. Cambodians based in rural regions put on karma scarf to reflect a unique mode of dressing in the country. Sampeah depicts a traditional manner in which locals exchange greetings and symbolizes respect to other people (Harris, 2008). The culture of Khmer was initiated in the empire to show architecture, distinguished forms of dancing and sculpture. Cambodians have made it a habit to exchange their cultural values with neighbors such as Laos in their entire history.

According to traditions of the state, Khmer natives are known to keep their details on Tra leaves. This book maintains records that revolve around legends of this society. Furthermore, it records information concerning origin of prayer books including Buddhism and Ramayana. Cambodians take care of these vital records by covering them using a cloth to safeguard them from harsh climatic conditions.

In addition, people from this region embrace boat-racing festival annually, which is attended by a large population who adore this form of a tradition. It takes place during the end of rainy time in a year when river Mekong returns to normal level. During the occasion, individuals participate in games, race boats, watch fireworks and give gratitude to the moon. For instance, games that are popularly played include footbag, cockfighting and football (Hines, 2013).           

Human Rights in Cambodia

Reports from the United States unit indicate that the party that represent citizens and Hun Sen forces contributed frequently to large scale abuses that affected people. This is clear when the country experienced extrajudicial murders, impunity and torture. In Cambodia, Amnesty International has also raised the issue of impunity as a main concern. This involved human rights perpetrators and lack of independence in judiciary, which posed serious challenges to Cambodian citizens. It is also noted that Australia pays huge amount of cash to the government to hide illegal immigrants in the country. The move of accepting refugees in a non-lawful way contradicts with human rights because it increases poverty to the society and make people to suffer. Acting against humanity in Cambodian society has raised speculations among different human rights activists who put blames upon bad governance.

Challenges Facing Cambodia

This state is ranked as the poorest among various nations in the world with approximately two million citizens living in poverty conditions (Julia, 2013). This pathetic situation is contributed by prevalent corruption that has become part of the government and poor records that depict absence of human rights. Statistics further indicate that one third of citizens in Cambodia survive on less than a dollar on daily basis. The situation in this country is even worse when forty percent of kids are malnourished chronically. In ten ASEAN states, Cambodia is considered the last because of their poor living habits. This implies that in this state, the gap between the rich and the poor is too wide. Accessing basic services has also become a struggle because citizens in this place strive a lot to receive treatment in public health centers that are always overwhelmed. In terms of income, majority of residents survive with 2.60 dollars in a day or earn only 950 dollars in a year (Hines, 2012).  

 Cambodian citizens experience settlement issues that involve the government. For instance, leaders who happen to be businesspersons and members of security forces evict them by force from their lands. Due to their poor condition, they have no option but face harassment from these senior officials. These cases have become common in the country and subject the poor people to suffer a lot. Lands that belong to thousands of Cambodians have been grabbed in a decade because greedy people are after power and enriching themselves fast.

This country is known to be a free market that is indistinctly communist characterized by authoritarian alliance. This form of coalition reflect ruling over a democracy that is superficial, additionally this state incurs various challenges both politically and socially. This makes the country to lag behind when it comes to development leading to exploitation of its occupants. Statistics of 2013 reflects Cambodia as a highly corrupt state after it was ranked position 160 out of 175 countries. This was a worse observation as Cambodia became the most corrupt nation in the world. It is further noted that in terms of corruption, Cambodia is ranked the second state after North Korea in Asia.

According to reports from Freedom House, Cambodia appears at 5.5 out of 7 depicting that it is not completely a free country. Furthermore, reports from the Human Development Index ranks Cambodia as the lowest in aspects that concern human development. This implies that access of the state to any medium is also low leading to its poor development rates to date. Cambodia’s economy experiences low income subjecting it to a situation where its citizens earn the lowest globally (Innis, 2009). It is evident that in Cambodia, agricultural sector dominates the economy then service and lastly the industrial segments. The condition of the state grows to worse as the Global Hunger Index rates it as the 32nd   starving state in the globe. This report incorporates 56 countries with extreme conditions of hunger where it falls into this category.

Bad Politics

The root of all these problems is bad politics hence depict the state to be the most corrupt and poorest in the world. To proof this point, leaders in Cambodia embezzle funds from foreign sources by diverting into their pockets. The elected people who are responsible to govern the state in a transparent way have chosen to follow the contrary (Mam, 2014). Leaders have embraced greed and marked as the most corrupt with greatest urge to satisfy themselves at expense of ordinary citizens. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor has increased leading to pathetic lifestyles for low earners. Conversely, those who are well off live in luxury but this situation can be improved when heads of the state reduces corruption. Aside from negativity, Cambodia is a good state to invest in because of its natural resources and beautiful culture of the occupants.


Craig, E. (2006). The Kingdom of Cambodia. Washington: University Press.

Fuller, T. (2010). Khmer Empire. London: Sage Publications.

Harris, M. (2008). Challenges Facing Cambodia.  New York: NY, Random House.

Hines, L. (2013).  Politics and Leadership. Washington: University Press.

Hunt, L. (2012). Cambodian Culture.  London: Sage Publications.

Innis, M. (2009). Agriculture Contribution to Economy. Washington: Express Publications.

Julia, W. (2013). Cambodia Express News. Southeast Asian Press

Mam, K.  (2014). The Cambodia Daily News. Southeast Asian Press.

International Relations Essay on MULTICULTURALISM: WHAT KINDS OF SOCIETIES EXIST TODAY? essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu



Space does not allow the following the significance and setting of the vast majority of these ideas, however, later in the paper, the terms ‘combination’, ‘absorption’, “multiculturalism” and the “multicultural” society will be examined. Specifically, the thought of the “mix” of foreigners is an idea that is suitable both as a premise for examination and as a theme for level headed discussion with political bodies, the media and the overall population. This paper will first take a gander at the idea of mix in a general sense, and after that inspect it all the more nearly as a general sociological idea. It will likewise take an integral, chronicled methodology: what phrasing did the early sociological investigation of relocation utilization to conceptualize the entry and incorporation of non-natives? An alternate key idea in social science when examining this field is that of ‘osmosis’, an idea at present picking up more noteworthy conspicuousness. Multiculturalism is an alternate term that has picked up noticeable quality in the civil argument on movement, being regularly alluded to as an approach. Nonetheless, the expressions “multiculturalism” and ‘multicultural society’ are regularly utilized loosely and may serve just to confound. This paper will mean to develop new implications for the terms.

Multiculturalism: What Kinds Of Societies Exist Today?


Social and ethnic differences is not another wonder and, for sure, social scholars have created numerous blueprint outlining distinctive contact circumstances and/or clarifications for the vicinity or unlucky deficiency of clash between diverse ethnic gatherings (Banton 1967). Multiculturalism in less than three decades has turned into a statement promptly perceived by approach creators, social reporters, scholastics and the overall population in specific nations. The term however does not so much delight in such quick distinguishers in all parts of the world and moreover, even where it is remembered, its meanings are not so much imparted. The explanations behind the differential distinguishers and understanding of the term are discriminating to the endeavour to evaluate the importance, operation and eventual fate of “multiculturalism”. This paper looks at multiculturalism as an authority arrangement reaction to adapting to assorted qualities and how that is shaping the societal norms and values that exists today.

Relocation to a nation or a city changes the size and the piece of the nation or society that gets the transients. Besides, the newcomers need to adjust to the indigenous populace (and their establishments), and the other way around. Social science, in its investigation of this sensation, has instituted diverse terms for it: assimilation, adjustment, race relations cycle, digestion, cultural assimilation, incorporation, joining and, obviously, “mix” (Heckmann 1992).

Western Canadians contrived the term multiculturalism to dissent proceeding with hegemonic aspiration by the Anglophones and Francophones of Central Canada. The resulting national government approach of multiculturalism and authority bilingualism built in Canada set off too many years of political change, prompting another Constitution, a sanction of rights and a submission on division (Foster & Stockley 1989).Extensively talking, national methodologies to the administration of social or ethnic differing qualities can be assembled into three classifications, which themselves have variations in the models they contain.

Theoretical Framework on Multiculturalism

A first approach is generally outlined by France which, calling upon Article 2 of its Constitution (which makes no reference to social personality), stays away from to perceive the presence of national or phonetic minorities inside its fringes. This methodology is portrayed by nationality focused around jus soli and a community idea of citizenship. French subjects, whatever their ethnic starting point, delight in equivalent city, social and phonetic rights as people, however not all in all, as minority gatherings. This integrationist reaction to assorted qualities expects that the non-distinguisher of minority gatherings is a method for safeguarding State solidarity and societal attachment. It is likewise a model focused around the strict detachment of the private from people in general space (Castles & Miller 1993). This division is legitimately expounded through the Law of 1901 concerning affiliations (Giordan, 2002) which affirms relationship as a vehicle allowing nationals (paying little mind to their beginning) to arrange the improvement of the minority societies and dialects to which they are joined.

This law is continuously every now and again utilized by minority bunches as a part of France, however the institutional structures ensuring the genuine practice of this perceived right are needing. In any case, France has been incorporating effectively its settler populaces. Nevertheless, at present, with expanding migrant populaces, a sizeable number of who acquire French nationality (around 100,000 a year) the French Republic is attempting to adapt justly to assorted qualities. The instructive framework has turned into a noticeable stadium for these challenges with rehashed decisions against young women wearing the Islamic scarf in government-funded schools. An alternate current quandary confronting State powers is the appeal for allowing Jewish understudies in state funded schools a specific status for the Shabbat.

Rather than the individualistic French approach, the model delineated by Germany, Japan or Singapore is established upon the standard of jus sanguine, instead of jus soli. Citizenship in these nations is focused around “blood”or ethnic cause. Solidly, this implies, for instance, that German citizenship must be conceded to those people of German family. Thus, this avoids, for instance, the third era Turks conceived in Germany and whose local dialect is German, from acquiring the nationality, though a German from the previous Soviet Union, who has never been in Germany previously and barely talks German can rapidly acquire a German international ID. A comparative origination of citizenship in Japan bars from Japanese citizenship Japanese-conceived Koreans and other ethnic minorities who have long been existing in the nation (Pierson 1986).

Finally, a third classification, of which Australia and Canada are the preeminent samples, is accommodation of identity claims through the selection of a model of multiculturalism as an authority approach reaction. In spite of the fact that Australia and Canada have received this methodology, it is imperative to bring up that not all gatherings in the two social orders were good to this choice (Pierson 2000). Moreover, a significant distinction between them, which influences the development of multiculturalism, is that Australia is made out of one indigenous populace – the Aborigines – one establishing populace – English – and was later populated by waves of outsider populaces. Canada, on the other hand, has a few indigenous or First Nation populaces and two “establishing populaces”: one English, one French (with the French having landed around 100 prior years the English). This part between the French populace, moved in Quebec and the English populace, scattered among alternate territories, has had huge political ramifications in the talk on multiculturalism in Canada. Specifically, the expression multiculturalism was seen in the late 1960s and 1970s by the French-talking populace as an English lion’s share strategy for lessening the ” establishing status ” of the French to the same political noteworthiness as that recently outsider pilgrim populaces, for example, the Ukrainian pioneers(Freeman n.d.).

Interfaced to these three methodologies are three interrelated, yet by the by different, referents of “multiculturalism” and its connected descriptive word “multicultural”: the demographic-enlightening, the ideological-regulating and the automatic political.

Political and managerial levels of mix approaches

The social mix of settlers into the host society dependably has a solid nearby and especially urban measurement. Urban communities truly developed and keep on growing because of the combination of newcomers. Regardless of the social awkward nature have frequently went hand in hand with this procedure, urban areas still worked as ‘incorporation machines’. It can accordingly be expressed that ‘the joining of foreigners happens at the neighbourhood level’, an announcement regularly heard in general society political and exploratory talk on mix (Freeman n.d.).

While the announcement is valid as a portrayal of how measures and approaches are acknowledged, it does not say anything in regards to the scope of activity that regions have in this arrangement territory. Districts might only execute national or government powers’ approaches; they might, then again, have critical independence, assets and approach alternatives. Both between and inside European countries, there is a wide level of variety between these two extremes.

The capacity of regions to act as to incorporation depends, above all else, on the general level of political, legitimate and budgetary self-rule they revel in inside national established structures. A few nations have a solid convention of civil self-governance; different states are more unified. Besides, both between and inside nations, there is generous variety in the level of self-sufficiency that regions have in the approach range of migrant mix. While incorporation happens at the nearby level, neighbourhood techniques and structures are affected by the area or elected state, the national government and – progressively – the European Union. (The relative impact of each of these shifts from nation to nation.) Reconciliation of outsiders has just as of late showed up on the European political motivation (contrasted and the Treaty of Amsterdam’s foundation of a motivation for a typical relocation strategy in 1997).

The Council of the European Union’s 2004 presentation in The Hague on standards of a reconciliation strategy is a historic point. In a more extensive sense, then again, especially as far as defining a hostile to separation methodology, the EU and European Parliament have been dynamic since the early 1990s. In 1996, the Council received a joint activity to battle bigotry and xenophobia, which prompted the foundation of the European Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia in Vienna in 1997. Two vital mandates from 2000, managing separation, have been or are to be transposed into national enactment. Moreover, the money related backing from the European Social Fund for some tasks managingincorporation has turned into an imperative component of joining measures as a rule. To say that this constitutes a reliable and successful political project or strategy would, then again, be untimely (Banton  1967).

European states change an extraordinary arrangement regarding the state’s capabilities and exercises in the region of joining. States have distinctive degrees of centralisation or local self-sufficiency, take after diverse sorts of welfare administrations and have, obviously, accomplished distinctive histories – both by and large and regarding migration. The same holds valid for a country’s government states or provincial powers. As a result, it is unrealistic to issue any speculations about the pretended by the country state in combination on anEuropean scale. The diagnostic report will take a gander at the importance of these levels for chose individual states.

Districts and nearby organizations must execute EU mandates, national and government state laws and regulations. In these, there is space for translation. Therefore, the demeanor and practices of a civil board – especially its organization – have a generous impact upon the procedure of reconciliation.

One critical part of the usage of mix strategy is a region’s meaning of its movement circumstance. How the urban movement process if surrounded will shape the district’s understanding of its reconciliation approach and the need it provides for it. On the off chance that combination is given a low need, it can be normal that managerial structures in charge of this approach territory will be feeble or non-existent. In the event that it is given a high need, a few regulatory structures are conceivable and have been actualized in diverse regions (Hansen 2002).

The relative viability of these structures has not been explored. Notwithstanding, any region can consider its part as a boss important and give careful consideration to its recruitment arrangements as they influence the outsider populace, without victimizing locals. Such a methodology will likewise open up civil organizations and empower them to better serve the needs of the immigrant population.

The Mexican-American War and Mexican Immigration to the United States

The Mexican government at first advanced American settlement in parts of the domain now known as Texas in the 1820s to support the territorial economy. As the extent of North American pilgrims in these grounds increased, then again, they started to demand more prominent neighbourhood self-sufficiency, dreaded the likelihood that Mexico may prohibit servitude, and detested the inconvenience of expenses from the administration in Mexico City. Sporadic uprisings happened after another president, General Antonio López de Santa Anna, forced prohibitive controls on trade between the Anglos living on Mexican area and the United States, and these uprisings hastened an outfitted reaction by the Mexican armed force. Santa Clause Anna seized the Alamo in San Antonio however was later vanquished in the Battle of San Jacinto. Santa Clause Anna later consented to the Velasco Arrangement in Washington D.c., which formally perceived the autonomy of present-day Texas. In the wake of coming back to Mexico, on the other hand, he was brisk to join other military pioneers who rejected the accord (Appleyard 2001).

Relations between the United States and Mexico stayed strained, best-case scenario, amid the late 1830s and early 1840s. The Lone Star Republic was admitted to the Union as the State of Texas in 1845; in a matter of seconds from there on the recurrence of outskirt engagements between the two nations expanded. US strengths reacted to these conflicts by moving into New Mexico and California in 1846, and southward into Mexico. The catch of Mexico City was the last critical equipped clash.

War in the middle of Mexico and the United States finished with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 in which Mexico surrendered 890,000 square miles, near one-a large portion of its region. After six years, to complete development of a transcontinental track, the United States bought an extra 30,000 square miles of Mexican area for $10 million. This securing was made last through the Gadsden Treaty of 1854.

More or less 80,000 Mexicans dwelled in the domain exchanged to the United States at the finish of the Mexican-American War, the best quantities of whom were spotted in present-day New Mexico and California. Just a little extent of the aggregate, marginally in excess of 2,000, chose to come back to their nation of cause after the marking of the settlement. The individuals who stayed north of the outskirt were ensured citizenship following two years, alongside different benefits and obligations identified with this status (Hansen 2002).

Immigration Waves

A mix of variables helped consecutive proclaimed climbs in Mexican movement to the United States amid the initial three many years of the twentieth century. The Reclamation Act of 1902, which extended land for cultivating through new watering system undertakings, impelled the requirement for more horticultural workers. The Mexican Revolution of 1910 and the consequence of political flimsiness and social viciousness created numerous to escape northward over the outskirt for their security, and the development of the US economy in the 1920s pulled in extra quantities of foreigners. In spite of the fact that the wages got by most Mexican vagrants in these decades were low, they were extensively higher than the pay rates paid for practically identical work in Mexico. Above all, the quantity of employments for outside workers appeared boundless, particularly amid World War I and on into the early 1920s (Hansen 2002).

Just 31,000 Mexicans relocated to the United States in the first decade of the twentieth century, yet the following two ten-year periods showed uniquely higher numbers, particularly from 1920 to 1929, when very nearly 500,000 individuals of Mexican set of relatives entered the nation. In any case, since the boondocks was for all intents and purpose open to anybody wishing to cross it until the making of the Border Patrol in 1924, migration figures for a considerable length of time preceding this date are of questionable authenticity. The real number may be obviously higher. Country regions of California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Texas pulled in a greater part of these transients, however amid the years of World War I, mounting quantities of newcomers moved to the upper Midwestern states, principally to the area around Chicago. They were pulled in by occupations in industry, railroads, steel mills, and meat-pressing (Pierson 2000).

In these beginning times of overwhelming movement, it was most normal for Mexican people to cross the outskirt for work and come back to Mexico intermittently with whatever benefits they found themselves able to aggregate over a few months. Then again, they stayed in the United States for a more extended term and sent cash southward to relatives; somewhere around 1917 and 1929, Mexican vagrants to the United States sent over $10 million to relatives in their nation of origin.

Multiculturalism in Japan

Numerous onlookers inside and outside of Japan accept that it is an especially bigot and xenophobic culture. Very frequently, this has been thought to be sufficient clarification of Japan’s decisions in regards to who to permit into the nation and under what conditions. There are a few issues with this sort of argumentation. To begin with, there is no proof that Japan has to be more supremacist and xenophobic after the loss of WWII than it was amid the war years. Yet Japan has had huge contrasts in its passage control strategies since the Meiji Restoration, going from a famously shut society toward the start of the Meiji time, to facilitating remote understudies and specialists, to turning into a work merchant on a gigantic scale amid its supreme year to getting to be by and by relatively shut after the war (Pierson, 2000).          Second, it can barely be said that different nations that do import work and permit movement of different sorts are not bigot. Offering relative cases on racial disposition and strategies is a gigantic examination extend that I cannot seek after here; regardless, understudies of global movement have admittance to many people fine investigations of how race has been ensnared in passage control arrangements (Penninx, 2009). The record appears to be clear that policymakers over the world have much as frequently been ready to endeavour parts of racially different, unliked gatherings as to reject them.

Decolonization as a wellspring of relocation administration

Why did Japanese policymakers never turn to guestworker strategies amid the years of quick financial development? I have indicated over that not one or the other of the feasible clarifications convincingly clarify Japanese exceptionalism. The answer is rather to be found in approaches set up together as Japan transitioned from an extending majestic state managing over an assorted populace, to a forcibly democratized country state. The reply, that is, rests in the Japanese knowledge of decolonization. Realms by definition envelop numerous people groups. The Japanese realm was the same. In 1895, Japan picked up its first abroad state, Taiwan. The second, southern Sakhalin Island, came in 1905. In 1910, Korea was affixed (Mitchell 2003). The lawful arrangements contrasted in each one case, yet the individuals living in these domains were characterized as Japanese natives. Open scholarly people and policymakers overwhelmingly wrangled about how to deal with the relationship in the middle of them and the magnificent Japanese state in excess of thirty years. All through numerous wanders aimlessly in that open deliberation, the supposition was that these people groups would be absorbed into the Japanese country.

Grant has concentrated all the more on the mistreatments Taiwanese and Koreans persevered under supreme Japanese standard than it has on the verbal confrontations about building an aggregate character including all subjects. Give the cruel nature of that mistreatment, this attention is consummately sensible. Indeed thus, we ought not to overlook that the political first class envisioned a Japanese realm that enveloped various people groups. The talk of the family-state utilized patriarchical pictures of the Emperor to tie all together, throwing frontier subjects in the part of poorer, extension line relatives.

At the point when Japan lost WWII, the successful Allies followed up on the wartime declarations of the Cairo and Potsdam Declarations, and separated the four principle Japanese islands from the colonized domains. In excess of two million persons from those domains existed in Japan toward the end of the war. The undertaking of sorting out where these individuals had a place made a discriminating point: a minute of political openness where numerous choices were considered. The choices about how to deal with the 113colonial subjects of Korean and Taiwanese beginning were standardized as Japan’s national movement (Hansen 2002).

The Future of Multiculturalism

In spite of the fact that multiculturalism as a portrayal of demographic differences is a worldwide phenomena, it has prompted the presence of automatic political multiculturalism at the national or sub-national levels just in a couple of nations. There is no inexorable connection in the middle of depiction and political reaction. The flow of ethnic differences is more critical in the Asia-Pacific district than anyplace else on the planet. The connections between ethnic relations strategy, national character and social attachment in States of this locale anticipates further detail, however certain linkages between national personality and multiculturalism unmistakably are perceptible.

The few countries in the locale, which have national personality focused around homogeneity, for example, Japan and Korea, have adequately barred ethnic assorted qualities from attention and arrangement activities. In Japan the social assorted qualities upheld is the one connected with outer nations and social orders, as opposed to inner differences as interfaced to ethnic minorities. Commonality and joining of outside societies has been a sign of Japanese society since well before the Meiji rebuilding, and the present arrangement agrees with this custom of particular acquiring. This is altogether different from the acknowledgement of inside differences (Freeman n.d.).

The larger part of previous frontier states looking to fabricate national solidarity out of the assorted qualities coming about because of pioneer experience have needed to specifically deliver and try to oversee ethnic differences, regularly in an exceptionally conflictual structure. Their arrangements in key ranges, for example, instruction have frequently needed to make procurement for assorted qualities while additionally creating a bringing together set of social images, including particularly, dialect. While differences is regularly a critical piece of their national philosophies, the goal of insignificant osmosis to key qualities exists together with an example of frequently impressive structural and institutional pluralism. To view clashes springing from these extreme ethnic partitions as proof of the certain disappointment of multicultural arrangements is to befuddle demographic-enlightening multiculturalism with the automatic political structure. Surely, it is more exact to view such clashes as an impression of strategies which have sought after an ethnic gathering model over a long period and in which a certain level of social homogeneity cloak far reaching structural pluralism and separation. Change is surely conceivable in examples of ethnic relations as the changed circumstance of Chinese groups in numerous nations shows, yet the components helping this have been mind boggling and are regularly just in a roundabout way the consequence of particular strategies tending to issues of differences(Penninx 2009).

The knowledge of Australia and New Zealand are, once more, distinctive and obviously a result of a circumstance where national personality has been recently developed, in spite of the fact that not under the prompt risk of disintegration so unmistakable somewhere else in the Asia-Pacific area. In the Australian case the prior definition of the Australian personality was halfway created as a response against the apparent insufficiencies of the European social orders from which the pilgrims came (but spotted on an overwhelming British semantic and institutional establishment, which likewise had a solid master European bigot component).

The latest reexamination of national character has been the outcome of prior activities in automatic political multiculturalism. The undertaking of changing the national personality is surely challenged, at the same time, at a level altogether different to that experienced somewhere else. This partially is a direct result of the moderately feeble manifestation of Australian patriotism (Castles et al 1988) which had as one of its institutional components a dismissal of the solid patriotism apparent in nineteenth century Europe a general public which a lot of people early pilgrims had left to look for a superior life.

Given the importance of recorded variables in ethnic relations, Australian multiculturalism ought to be seen as sort of one of a kind. Surely, there are contrasts when contrasted and Canada. This highlights the need to consider the transferability of arrangements to oversee social differing qualities starting with one state then onto the next. While there is dependably the likelihood of exchanging particular practices or projects starting with one public then onto the next, the conclusions in the new area may vary from that in their home surroundings, not slightest due to the imperativeness of the socio-political setting in forming the public (Castles & Miller 1993).

All things considered, the Mexican case is educational in light of the fact that it does counter a large number of the now basic scrutinizes of ideological-regulating multiculturalism. These scrutinizes have a tendency to stress the instability and nonsensicalness of the governmental issues of personality which the faultfinders partner multiculturalism. They likewise highlight the inescapability of political contrasts coming about not from the pluralism which has underlain much of liberal equitable social hypothesis however, rather, from the clash which Furnivall (1939) anticipated would happen in the pilgrim plural social orders on the flight of the frontier organization. In doing in this way, they neglect how these divisions in plural society were not just social yet were additionally focused around profound situated contrasts in monetary structures. The distinctions accordingly, substantially all the more nearly speak to the prior manifestations of ethnic clash where “class” components and force contrasts cover with social contrasts (Foster & Stockley 1989).

Affirmations by such creators as Schlesinger (1992), who condemn certain embellishments of the philosophy of multiculturalism in the USA and claim that it is prompting the dividing of America, have disregarded both the stamped nonappearance of automatic political multiculturalism in USA and much of Europe, and the vicinity of unequivocally ethnic based manifestations of political representation, inside which wrangle about has happened. The circumstances which pundits case is the aftereffect of the progressions included in multiculturalism is noticeably the consequence of sort of diverse methods of overseeing ethnic differences, which focus on policies.




Appleyard, R., 2001. International Migration Policies :1950-2000. International Migration Review, 39(6), pp. 7-20.

Banton, M., 1967. Race Relations. London: Tavistock.

Castles, S. & Miller, M., 1993. The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. London: Macmillan.

Foster, L. & Stockley, D., 1989. Australian Multiculturalism: A Documentatry History and Critique. s.l.:Clevendon.

Freeman, G., n.d. Modes of immigration politics in liberal democratic states. International, 29(4), pp. 881-902.

Giordan, H., 2002. Les minorités en Europe. Kime ed. s.l.:s.n.

Hansen, R., 2002. Globalization, Embedded Realism, and Path Dependence: The Other Immigrants to Europe. Comparative Political Studies, 35(3), pp. 259-283.

Mitchell, B. R., 2003. International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania :1750-2000. 4th edition ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Penninx, R., 2009. International Migration in Western Europe since 1973 : Developments, Mechanisms and Controls. International Migration Review, pp. 251-268.

Pierson, P., 1986. International Migration in Western Europe since 1973: Developments, Mechanisms and Controls. International Migration Review, 20(4), pp. 951-972.

Pierson, P., 2000. Not Just What, but When : Timing and Sequenve in Political Processes. Studies in Americam Political Development, 14(1), pp. 72-92.

Pierson, P., 2000. Not Just What, but When: Timing and Sequence in Political Processes. Studies in American Political Development, 14(2), pp. 28-53.

Sports Term Paper Sample on Cardiovascular and Nutrition Program free essay help online

Cardiovascular and Nutrition Program


Benefits of cardiovascular Training:

            Cardio workouts are fundamental to a viable preparing program and general great wellbeing. By definition, cardio workouts can be any activity running, jogging, biking, swimming, curved machine, stairs, actually bouncing rope—that raises and keeps up your heart rate over a foreordained measure of time. Thus, you fortify your heart and lungs and bring down your resting heart rate, which implies that about whether the same exertion that created a 10-moment mile will create a 9-moment mile. Cardiovascular exercises burn excess fat. Furthermore, cardio wellness is the thing that provides for you perseverance and the capacity to hold on in games and in life (Rehnqvist et al., 1995).

            Normal activity enhances the cardiovascular wellbeing of people who have these conditions through different components. These components incorporate enhancements in endothelial vasodilator function, left ventricular diastolic capacity, blood vessel solidness, orderly irritation, and decreasing left ventricular mass. Activity training additionally lessens aggregate and stomach fat, which intercede enhancements in insulin affectability and pulse, and conceivably, endothelial capacity. Persons who are in a pre-diabetic stage or the individuals who have the metabolic disorder may have the capacity to anticipate or postponement the movement to plain diabetes by embracing a healthier way of life, of which expanding ongoing levels of physical action is a basic segment. Most persons who have diabetes and hypertension or are at danger for these conditions ought to have the capacity to launch an activity program securely after proper therapeutic screening and the foundation of an individualized activity solution. Regardless of the expanding measure of confirmation, that demonstrates the profits of activity preparing; this modality of anticipation and treatment keeps on being underused. Despite the fact, that patients’ absence of information of the profits of activity or absence of inspiration helps this underuse, an absence of clear and particular rules from health awareness experts additionally is an essential element (McGibney et al., 2003).

Benefits of adhering to a good Healthy diet:

            A solid eating regimen may help to keep certain long term (constant) illnesses, for example, coronary illness, stroke and diabetes. It might likewise help to decrease your danger of creating a few tumors and help you to keep a sound weight.

            Albeit after an adjusted eating regimen can help you reduce weight or maintain a solid weight, this is stand out benefit. The individuals who take after a solid, generally adjusted eating regimen diminish their danger of interminable illnesses, for example, diabetes, coronary illness, and diseases. Plan to adapt an eating regimen rich in grown foods, vegetables, entire grains and unsaturated fats.

Key Features of cardiovascular and Food program:

            The key characteristics of my cardiovascular and food system are:

solid motivations;top-down administration help;mates included;Nonstop assessment/change.Parts of the system include: both interest reduction and conduct change segments; ease private wellbeing evaluation; customized wellbeing training messages; stratification: low/high hazard, occasional appraisal focused around danger; individualized intercessions, focused to wellbeing dangers and availability to-change; concentrated high hazard/endless condition mediations, including illness administration telephone directing; serial following, progressing checking/alteration of mediations; coordination with related intercessions (on location classes, referral to group programs, and so on.); care toward oneself book and quarterly pamphlets; without toll wellbeing data line and sound library; Internet site with connections to destinations with logically approved data; and continuous assessment of cases, wellbeing evaluations; correspondence of synopsis results to workersI predict that the Healthy Balance Program will prompt long haul funds of $700 million by 2015. To date, the cardiovascular training programs have reduced the total wellbeing risk score by 6% for the “okay” populace and 14% for “high-hazard” subjects. This decrease in total danger represents change in significant danger variables: physical action, cigarette smoking, push, fat and fiber utilization, and so on. Members who finished the high-hazard system lessened their specialist office visits by 17%, and clinic days by 28%.

Explanation of why these key features were emphasized:

            Regardless of developing confirmation that cardiovascular training projects bring about enhanced wellbeing results, opportunities exist to enhance the viability of these mediations. A Cardiovascular training program normally is a heap of administrations, intended to enhance the consideration conveyed and agreeability with proposed medicines and practices. Because of the multi-pronged methodology, it is trying to unravel the estimation of every part piece of an ailment administration program.

Cardiovascular Training Program Tables


            Not all cardiovascular workouts need to be serious. Particularly on days where you are taking a shot at sore and/or tired muscles from an especially hard HIIT or Strength Training standard, having a lower sway routine is essential. A less extraordinary cardio routine will permit you to still get your workout in, without saddling your body to the point where you re-harm officially sore, recuperating muscle tissue.

            A typical slip-up for a hefty portion of those new to work out, or returning after a long break, is to drive themselves too hard for a long time. At the point when first getting goes into a routine it can be not difficult to persuade yourself to push through muscle soreness wanting to get to your objectives sooner. Yet not permitting yourself to rest by either taking a three-day weekend or in any event by doing low power workouts on “rest days” can without much of a stretch wear your body down to the point of harm. Regarding your wellness objectives, make sure to take a gander at them as a long lasting decision as opposed to a brisk fix.

            This routine is particularly made for apprentices and the individuals who need to work out yet have sore muscles that they have to be simple on. With this feature, you can pick your level of power by how rapidly you move and the amount exertion you put into every development. This permits even the novice to modify the force to match their needs and permitting the veteran exerciser to still get in a decent sweat without overburdening recouping muscles.

            In spite of the fact that this routine is intended to be lower force it still makes a decent showing smoldering calories. In light of the aggregate body movements consolidated into this system, you can hope to blaze anywhere in the range of 6 calories for every moment on the low end, to 11 calories for every moment on the top of the line.

Beginner Cardiovascular Workout

Barring your warm up and chill off, begin with four days a week for 25-30 minutes of your cardiovascular activity of choice.

Cardio ProgramExercise NameDays Per WeekPeriod in MinutesIntensityAny Dynamic Activity325-30ModerateExample:Workout NameDays During the  WeekPeriod in MinutesIntensityModerate WalkingMonday, Wednesday, FridayIndicated AboveIndicated Above

Intermediate Cardiovascular Workout (1 to 6 weeks)

Barring your warm up and chill off, begin with four days a week for 30-35 minutes of your cardiovascular activity.

Cardiovascular Training ProgramExercise NameDays Per WeekDuration in MinutesIntensityAny Self-motivated Activity430-35Moderate
Example:Workout NameDays During the WeekIntervals in MinutesIntensityModerate RunningTuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, SundaySee AboveSee Above

Advanced Cardiovascular Training Workout (1 to 6 weeks)

Barring your warm up and chill off, begin with four days a week for 45-60 minutes of your activity.

Cardiovascular Training ProgramExercise NameDays Per WeekDuration in MinutesIntensityAny Dynamic Activity345-60 minutes of any activity or cardiovascular machine that you revel in (I.e. treadmill, circular, paddling machine, strolling, jogging)Interval Training: Focus on short blasts of vitality for interims of 3 minutes like clockwork. Illustration; if running stroll for 7 minutes took after by running for 3 minutes and afterward rehash cycle until finishing.Example:Exercise NameDays in the WeekDuration in MinutesIntensityRunning BreaksTuesday, Thursday, SaturdaySee AboveSee Above

Progressed Conditioning Training Routine (1 to 6 Weeks)

Barring your warm up and chill off, begin with four days a week for 45-60 minutes of your picked oxygen consuming activity. Cardiovascular ProgramWorkout NameDays Per WeekDuration in MinutesConcentrationAny Energetic Exercise445-60Interim Training: Focus on short blasts of vitality for interims of 3 minutes at regular intervals. Illustration; if running stroll for 3 minutes emulated by running for 3 minutes and after that rehash cycle until consummation.
Example:Workout NameDays in the WeekPeriod in MinutesConcentrationRunning Loose BreaksMonday, Wednesday, Friday, SundayCheck AboveSee Above

Explanation of tables

How the exercise physiology principle of progression was implemented:

            The principle of progression expresses that the preparation program needs to take into consideration additionally difficult workouts about whether and in every specific segment of wellness (i.e., bulky quality and perseverance, cardio respiratory persistence, body arrangement, and adaptability). The guideline was actualized in the preparation program by bit by bit changing the activities for beginners, intermediates, and progressed trainees. For beginners, an 8–10 week project began with wimple activities like strolling, and then moved to walk/run mixes, lastly, to running. On the off chance that movement is excessively quick, it could prompt harm, disappointment to fulfill objectives, and a loss of inspiration. Taking a gander at the progression incorporated into the system, it is evident that the project considers a consistent, reasonable chance to develop to the following level (Vasudevan & Garber, 2006).

How the exercise physiology principle of specificity was implemented:  

            The Specificity Principle expresses that practicing a certain body part or segment of the body fundamentally creates that part. The Principle of Specificity suggests that, to end up better at a specific activity or ability, you must perform that practice or expertise. A runner ought to prepare by running, a swimmer by swimming, and a cyclist by cycling. While it is useful to have a decent base of wellness and to do general molding schedules, on the off chance that you need to be better at your game, you have to prepare particularly for that game.

The project executed this standard as follows:

Performing oxygen consuming (with oxygen) exercises for no less than fifteen minutes without creating and oxygen obligation.aerobic exercises incorporate, however are not restricted to energetic strolling, running, bicycling, and swimming

How the exercise physiology principle of rest and recovery was implemented:

            While the program can regularly occur consistently (however participants may need to rest after extremely exceptional workouts), the system have in any event a day of rest between quality preparing workouts. It verifies that members do not work the same muscles two days consecutively to give the body the time it needs to rest and recoup.

Likelihood of subsequently implementing the exercise physiology principle of permanency at the end of the 16-week program:

At the end of the 16-week program, I am likely to implement the principle of permanency because through the program, trust among family members would have been built through consistent care, love, and meeting of their needs. The bonds will be stronger and all members would want to continue that way for the rest of their lives.

Nutrition Table 1: Hypothetical Day 1’s Meal Plan

Food/beverage consumed in one dayQuantity consumed  Total CaloriesCarbohydrateFatProtein Fiber  (grams) Servings  of  vegetables  and fruit(grams)(calories)(grams)(calories)(grams)(calories)Corn Flakes1.0 ounce41566.0396.08.576.519   Peace Juice Light1.026.65.0 0.0 0.5   Apple, large raw1.0104.027.6 0.30.3 0.5   Chicken Curry 387.667.1 2.1 28.9   Cheese Sandwich 69.311.0 1.0 4.2   Grilled Chicken 137.18.7 0.8 23.6   Cuscus 252.953.8 0.6 9.7   Weetabix 356.049.5 8.7 19.9                  TOTAL:  1748.5__ calories202.4 ____ grams  1214.4____ calories202.4 _____ grams809.4 _____ calories202.4 ____ grams  __809.4__ calories  _45.0__ grams  ___7_ servings

Servings of Vegetables     =                         _____                       Servings of Fruit   =          _____

Grams:Calories:% Calories:Carbohydrate288.71154.8143t22.088.049%Protein106.4425.653%TOTAL417.11668.0 

Nutrition Table 2: Hypothetical Day 2’s Meal Plan

Food/beverage consumed in one dayQuantity consumed  Total CaloriesCarbohydrateFatProtein Servings  of  vegetables  and fruit(grams)(calories)(grams)(calories)(grams)(calories)Yam3 oz11828 0 2  Blueberries½ cup399.5 0.5 0.5  Whole Wheat bread1 slice8018 00832 Apple sauce1 cup5012 0 0  Green beans½ can351.75 0 7                TOTAL:1538.9__ calories  191.75 grams  _____ calories  27.25 grams  _____ calories135.75_ grams  ____ calories  _6___ servings

Servings of Vegetables     =                         _____                       Servings of Fruit   =          _____

Grams:Calories:% Calories:Carbohydrate191.75767.049.84t27.25109.015.94%Protein135.75543.035.28%TOTAL1538.96155.6 

Nutrition Table 3: Hypothetical Day 3’s Meal Plan

Nutrition Table 1: Hypothetical Day 1’s Meal Plan

Food/beverage consumed in one dayQuantity consumed  Total CaloriesCarbohydrateFatProtein Fiber  (grams) Servings  of  vegetables  and fruit(grams)(calories)(grams)(calories)(grams)(calories)Corn Flakes1.0 ounce41566.0396.08.576.51976 1Peace Juice Light1. 3Apple, large raw1.0104.027.687.530.3103.00.52.0 1Chicken Curry 387.667.1120. 1Cheese Sandwich 69.311. 1Grilled Chicken 137.18.734. 1Cuscus 252.953.8201. 1Weetabix 356.049.5172.78.739.019.976.9 1               TOTAL:  1748.5__ calories202.4 ____ grams  1214.4____ calories202.4 _____ grams809.4 _____ calories202.4 ____ grams  __809.4__ caloric  _45.0__ grams  ___7_ servings

Servings of Vegetables     =                         _4___                       Servings of Fruit   =          _4____

Grams:Calories:% Calories:Carbohydrate288.71154.8143t22.088.049%Protein106.4425.653%TOTAL417.11668.0 

Type these instrumental values in order of their importance to YOU as guiding principles in YOUR life:

Ambitious                                                                               Imaginative

Broadminded                                                                         Independent

Capable                                                                                  Intellectual

Cheerful                                                                                 Logical

Clean                                                                                      Loving

Courageous                                                                            Obedient

Forgiving                                                                                Polite

Helpful                                                                                   Responsible

Honest                                                                                    Self-controlled

FirstIndependent(MOST important guiding principle for your life)SecondResponsible ThirdAmbitious FourthSelf-Controlled FifthLoving SixthBroadminded SeventhCheerful EighthForgiving NinthHelpful TenthHonest EleventhLogical TwelfthPolite ThirteenthClean FourteenthCapable FifteenthImaginative SixteenthObedient SeventeenthCourageous EighteenthIntellectual(LEAST important guiding principle for your life)

Question 1:

Why did you rate the value you placed as the First “MOST important guiding principle for your life” higher than your Second highest value?

Being independent is heavenly to me. All the opportunity I need to do what I like and when I feel like is splendid. I know there is a ton of weight on ladies and young ladies to be all requiring for somebody to love and a man (or lady or both or one or the other, contingent upon how you roll… Independence also enables me help my loved ones, financially and emotionally.  

Question 2:

Why did you rate the value you placed as the Seventeenth (17th) “MOST important guiding principle for your life” higher than your Eighteenth (18th) value?

Courage comes before intelligence because alternate ideals that everybody needs to see in effective individuals -trustworthiness, respectability, and so on, all stream from courage. Furthermore, on the off chance that you do not have courage, in times of anxiety, genuineness, respectability, and different excellences can rapidly pass by the wayside.  

Question 3:

Do you think the priorisation of your values is related to your belief about the likelihood of you actually implementing your cardiovascular and nutrition program? Explain your answer with one or two sentences. Answers with just “yes” or “no” will receive zero marks.

YES. This is because human values enables us to do what we intend to accomplish our plans. They instill in us focus, discipline, and determination.  

Question 4:

Do you think the priorisation of your values is related to your belief about the likelihood of you implementing the exercise physiology principle of permanency at the end of the program? Explain your answer with one or two sentences. Do not just answer “yes” or “no.”

YES. Prioritization of my values relates to my intention to implement the psychological principle of permanency because no matter what may come my way, I will stick to my objectives and ensure the program becomes a reality.  


Jasmin, G., & Proschek, L. (January 01, 1996). Prevention by Cromakalim of Spontaneously

Occurring Cardiac Necroses in Polymyopathic Hamsters. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 10, 5, 587.

Kuritzky, L., & Michaudet, C. (January 01, 2011). The champagne of cadiovascular risk

reduction. Journal of Clinical Hypertension (greenwich, Conn.), 13, 1, 5-7.

McGibney, D., Singleton, W., Silke, B., & Taylor, S. H. (January 01, 2003). Observations on the

mechanism underlying the differences in exercise and isoprenaline tachycardia after cardioselective and non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 15, 1, 15-19.

Rehnqvist, N., Hjemdahl, P., Bjorkander, I., Eriksson, S. V., Forslund, L., Held, C., Wallen, H.,

… Billing, E. (January 01, 1995). Primary Prevention in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: The APSIS Study. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 9, 3, 493.

Vasudevan, A. R., & Garber, A. J. (January 01, 2006). Diabetic dyslipidemia and the heart.

Heart Failure Clinics, 2, 1, 37-52.

%d bloggers like this: