Ethics in healthcare
In Matthew 15: 21-28, a woman, whose daughter was oppressed by demons, approached Jesus and requested him to heal her daughter. Jesus healed the woman’s daughter without considering the fact that she was not an Israelite. Similarly, in healthcare facilities, healthcare professionals or practitioners have the responsibility of providing patient care without considering the tribe, race, or socioeconomic background of patients. There are state and federal guidelines and statutes that require all health care facilities to maintain a set of standards to ensure the safety and comfort of its patients. One way of enforcing these guidelines and statutes is to ensure that stakeholders prioritize the welfare of patients without discriminating them based on tribe, race, or socioeconomic background (McTeigue & Lee, 2015).
Other than providing indiscriminative patient care, healthcare professionals and practitioners have the responsibility of avoiding ethical problems in health care facilities. Ethical problems in healthcare facilities arise in the case of poor relationships between healthcare providers and patients, and this is often attributed to unethical practices such as discriminating patients based on their tribes or racial backgrounds. The failure to uphold ethics by treating patients equally and not based on tribes or racial backgrounds has adverse impacts such as the possible imprisonment of healthcare providers, termination of their employment, or loss of license (McTeigue & Lee, 2015).
As is the case in Matthew 15: 21-28, stakeholders in healthcare facilities have the responsibility of adhering to the workplace standards in place. In the chapter, Jesus adhered to specific standards such as meeting the expectations of the woman. From the chapter, it is clear that Jesus was aware of the consequences of his actions such as facing rejection in the Israelite community. In line with this, it is expected that people, especially employees in healthcare facilities, should be aware of the possible consequences of their actions in everyday life.
McTeigue, J., & Lee, C. (2015). Legal and ethical issues for health professions. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Sample Aviation Essay Paper on Managing Time college admission essay help: college admission essay help
1-Briefly discuss the strategies you can use to manage your time better. Elaborate on if you are using these strategies now or are these strategies you plan to implement in the future. Provide examples of how you plan to implement these strategies.
Managing time should be a key priority managers and employees alike, and yet most of us find it very challenging. Proper time management enables us to control the content and timing of what we do and also accommodate the demands to our available time. Some of the strategies that one can use to manage their time better include:
Time audit: this entails identifying how you use your time that is, establishing where your time goes. It involves keeping a daily log of your daily activities such as phone calls, breaks, and time spent reading e-mails.
Setting goals and prioritizing: This involves giving preference to the most important activities so that you allocate more time to these. Failure to have goals means that you could end up partaking in activities without a defined purpose. This could lead to time wastage. I can honestly say that I rarely implement these strategies to manage my time. Consequently, I end up spending more of my time on less-productive activities, something that could have been solved by having time audits and prioritizing on important activities. I Plan on developing a daily time log where I will account for all my activities. This way, I can prioritize important activities and reduce time spent on less important activities.
2-Define Emotional Intelligence (EQ) and discuss why this concept is important in management and leadership. Also discuss in detail your own level of EQ; do you have a high or low level, how would you go about improving your EQ?
Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to control, express, and be aware of one’s emotions, and to deal with interpersonal relationships empathetically and judiciously. Effective managers and leaders are noted to possess a high level of emotional intelligence. Leaders or managers with high levels of emotional intelligence are self-aware and hence acknowledge emotions as they happen. This enables them to get a better understanding of their weaknesses and strengths. Emotional intelligence also enables leaders to manage their emotions, which is crucial in decision making. Besides, they can also communicate effectively with other individuals owing to their emotional awareness. Upon taking an IQ test, I recorded an IQ level of 120, which is high. I plan on improving my EQ by being honest in assessing how I respond to various emotional situations. I also intend to enhance my listening skills so that I can empathize with the situation facing others.
3-Briefly discuss a number of ways in which you can develop a positive self-image. Elaborate and provide examples of your ideas.
Developing a positive self-image is vital for our improved happiness and satisfaction with life. One way of developing elf-image is by through positive thinking. One should learn to change negative self-criticism and negative thoughts to more positive and realistic thoughts. This can be done by avoiding exaggerations in our internal voice, accentuating the positive and accepting imperfections. More it is also important that we learn not to feel guilty about matters that are not within our control.
Sample Education Capstone Project Paper on Philosophy of Education essay help services
Philosophy of Education
Introduction – Culture and Diversity
In the creation of a profound educational structure of learning, there is need to understand the various aspects of the culture of various students as they get their education. The amalgamations, the culture and the whole context of diversity is vital in the inception of a profound educational strategy and learning style. Even as we the administration institute various curricula, it is deemed fit to inculcate some of the aspects of cultural diversity which indeed serves as a blueprint for structuring a proper learning program. The culture from which a student emanates is very critical in helping them understand the various aspects of learning progress (Zahra, Ireland & Hitt, 2000). The culture entails the language development and profound construction of various sounds that indeed affect both the understandability of the learning precepts by a student. It also affects the effectiveness of the whole learning progress which provides the grounds for creating equality in learning. Cultural diversity in learning is a tool that is vital for implementation of a profound educational structure (Gutiérrez & Rogoff, 2003). It is through this course that learning process of the whole student fraternity is enhanced. An effective educational program therefore utilizes cultural diversity in trying to understand various learning aspects of the students and the best way in which the grasping of the knowledge could be enhanced (Hand, 2006). The enhancement is enclosed in the precepts that the basic learning point for any child is mastery of their culture. The schools designed in this research has taken keen concern of the immense contribution of culture and diversity in enhancing learning (Ang & Van Dyne, 2015).
School Vision and Mission
The main vision of this school is to create a well-coordinated and convenient platform for learning and educational development with keen concern on the inculcation of the deep culture and diversity. This vision is with a view to exploiting the talents and resources of the various stakeholders in creating a school of excellence. The structures put in place would be geared towards provision of required education and enhancement of the student’s learning progress. This notion is strengthened by the fact that the culture that is to be inculcated in this school are those that have a been tried, tested and proven to be quite successful in creating a good learning environment (Lee & Kramer, 2016).
The main mission of this school is to be the best learning center in providing quality education and with appropriate guidance towards the whole learning process. This mission is tied to the vision through the creation of excellence inlearning activities in school. The fact that the mission mentions the notion of provision of quality education necessitates the inclusion of high profile teachers with good professional qualifications (Zeng, Shenkar, Lee & Song, 2013). The provision of quality education is based on the mission outlined above since it creates a culture of excellence and hard work within the school.
Governance and Decision Making Structure
It is important to note that decision making within any organization is very essential for its development. The efficiency and effectiveness in decision making determines the efficiency in the growth of any organization. The decision making structure is usually connected to the management structure. The school in question adopts the slice diagonal type of management style (Hollins, 2015). This style entails reaching a profound decision after consultation with both the subordinates and the middle level managers. It should be noted that those who implement these decisions should form part of the decision making process. In this prospects, the contribution of the other stakeholders is very vital for the final decision made (Peretz, Levi & Fried, 2015). The subordinates and middles level managers who are deemed to give their propositions would therefore feel part and parcel of the institution. Every staff therefore is deemed to be bound by the various stipulations of the decision since they were part of the decision made. In order to enhance high level of corporate governance within the institution, the management would ensure that there is high level of directors’ independence in terms of decision making across the board (Hein, Reich & Grigorenko, 2015). This move also entails the reduction of management ownership. From time immemorial, research shows that there is a negative correlation between the management ownership and the performance of the institution itself. To this effect, governance would be enhanced on the account that the management has no interest in the shares of the institution. Agency problems within the institution would therefore be reduced. The reduction is based on the fact there would be lesser conflict of interest within the organization (Buckingham, 2013).
Curriculum Organization and Instructional Methods
The school in question is a secondary school. The curriculum is organized into various fields for which the students here are expected to undergo. It should be noted here that the curriculum that one undergoes usually formed the basis for learning in all stances of education. The effectiveness of the design gives the school it high level of excellence in its delivery of service. Notably, the curriculum for the school is categorized in to four sets of designs (Williams, Brien & LeBlanc, 2012). The first one is the designation in terms of the discipline for which the students are expected to take. Examples of disciplines that are consistently available for this school include humanities, mathematics, sciences, languages and sciences (Silins, Zarins & Mulford, 2002). This design has helped the institution in creation of well-structured department with respects to the type of disciple the student is to fall into. Another pertinent curriculum design is the categorization in terms of fields. These fields include, design, civic, social studies, home economics and art among others. This categorization is very critical in defining the various fields of interest that are deemed to be considered important for this course of action by the various parties concerned (Barnes, 2011).
Lastly, the curriculum has been structured in accordance with the organizational centers within the institution. these entails the modules, the activities, mini-courses, projects processes, competencies and tasks. The last categorization is very vital as it outlines the various facets of the organizational structure. The modules for examples are very vital in bringing on board the advent of mastery of the course content and understanding the whole discipline in question. The mini-course are critical in streamlining the course content as it forms the factions of the whole discipline (Song, 2012). Some of the core designs that have been used in this school for the curriculum are the interdisciplinary field and the disciplinary design. The main reason for this factions is due to the level of school and the administration needed for its efficiency. The other categories are aligned to the cultural connotations of the theoretical family designs (Clark, 2008).
Organization of Staff and School Schedule
In trying to create value for education, the institution has ensured that it employs qualified staff who are deemed talented in teaching and also good time managers. Most of the staff are categorized into the specialization they have on the disciples they teach. For example, for those teachers qualified to teach humanities and languages will be put into the humanities and languages department. The institution is arranged into various departments in accordance to the disciplines (Hamzah, Yakop, Nordin & Rahman, 2011).
In this prospect, each department has a departmental head who is responsible for the whole operations of the department. The qualification for being a departmental head is the fact that the staff must have has a five-year experience in a management position in the department in question. Additionally, the department assumes a top down management structure. The subordinates have their middle level managers whom they report (Hill, 2011). The authority is decentralized as the various subordinates are responsible for the various activities they carry out. Every teacher is responsible for the maintenance of high level of discipline and respect among the students. This notion is strengthened by the fact that most of the employees are deemed to interact with the students hence they are ata good position to spearhead respect and discipline across the institution (Barnes, 2011). On the account of schedule of the school, the opening time for the school is 7:30 in the morning and the students are expected to have 7 hours a day of learning and 3 hours for doing extra curricula activities. The number of days of engagement with the students is stipulated to learn is 5 days in a week. A whole semester is expected to go for three months after which the students are expected to go for a one-month holiday before they resume their normal studies (Crain, 2010).
Monitoring Student Progress
One of the ways in which the student progress would be monitored would be through continuous assessment exams which they will be taking to connote their performance. Additionally, the participation rates of these students in class is very vital as a measure of progress in class. The progress in term of respect and discipline would be monitored in terms of the time management and the relationship the students have with their teachers and various stakeholders of the institution (Bajunid, 2015).
Teacher Selection, Teacher Supervision, And Staff Development
Staff development and matters pertaining to teachers will be critical in the effective performance of the institution. A series of measures will therefore be put in place to ensure that matters that concerns staff performance is properly managed. Firstly, every teacher being selected to be part of the staff must undergo a professional selection process. The major role of this selection process is to ascertain that every teacher has the required qualification and experience. It is worth noting that the selection process to be carried out will be solely based on educational qualifications and relevant skills. Ability to impact extra curriculum and general life skills on learners will also be keenly be considered (Clark, 2008). The selection process will commence with official announcement of the teaching positions that will then open application window for all the interested parties. Thereafter, short listing of the qualified persons will be based on added advantage possessed in the event that all the applicants are qualified for the positions available. Oral interview will then be held that will help in ascertaining the personal attributes of persons (Baldasaro, 2013). Ability to express ideas in the desired manner will also examined in the course of the oral interview. Proceeding the oral interview will be a written contest based on values and goals of the institution. Candidates will be tested on their mastery of the institution and their ability to drive the school from one success level to the other. The last stage of the selection process will be listing of the qualified persons and inducting them into the institution. During the induction ceremony, objectives of the institution on learners and other stakeholders will be articulated. Placing will then be carried out on the basis of skills and gap within the school (Galloway & Ishimaru, 2015).
In order to ensure that both short and long term goals of the institution are met, regular teacher supervision will be carried out. Supervision will be carried out on the basis of achievement of individual and departmental set objectives. The general curriculum for every learning level will also be examined in course of teacher supervision. In order to promote curriculum development and accomplishment of set targets, various forms of reinforcement will be considered. Positive reinforcement measures like issue of rewards will adopted to promote goal attainment. On the other hand, non-performing staff will be issued with warnings and even possible demotion in order to encourage strives by every staff member to ensure curriculum development (Williams, Brien & LeBlanc, 2012).
The relation that the institution establishes with the neighboring community will be critical in achieving the objectives set. A conducive learning environment begins from the immediate community hence will play central role in molding of learners holistically. So as to achieve good relations with the community, employment opportunities for semi-skilled positions will be outsourced from the immediate community (Foster, Wright, & McRae, 2008). Through this, the community will feel part in activities of the school hence collaboration when necessary. In addition, the institution will endeavor to participate in various development projects that seek to empower the immediate community. In terms of social involvement, the institution targets to get actively involved in a number of sensitization programs on pertinent issues in the society. This will entail matters like, disease sensitization and matters of various concerns (Barnes, 2011).
Supervision and Management of Classified Staff
Supervision will be carried out by both internal officers and external officers from certified curriculum development entities. During the supervision process, every teacher will be examined for individual lesson plans and schemes of work. Teaching standards and general managerial standards for governance will be explicitly elucidated during the supervisions. Audit of the whole institution systems is another facet that must be monitored by the supervisors. Remuneration will be another important factor in managing staff and their general supervision (Hollins, 2015). Remuneration will be used as a major motivation factor. This will be done on the basis of performance. However, before designing the remuneration plan to be adopted, comparison will be carried out with reference to remuneration plans adopted by other learning institutions. In adopting the remuneration plans for classified staff, collaboration with other stakeholders is to be considered (Crain, 2010).
Co-curriculum Activities, Recognition, Programs,
The institution design is to encourage skill development and barely rot learning centered on curriculum completion. In promoting holistic development, curriculum activities will be central. Co-curriculum development will begin from talent identification. This involves identification of talent possessed by individual learners. Talent experts will closely be involved in this process of identification (Gordon, 2011). This will then be followed by grouping individuals with similar talents for the purpose of talent development. Close supervision will be exercised to allow for proper development of these identified talents. The institution will formulate and organize for forums and talent search which would include activities central to exploiting the best in the students. For instance, forming a drama or choir groups that can help the students show case their best. From the performances, the institution will gauge the level of best performances that will produce the finest piece (Barnes, 2011).
Student Conducts and School Safety Plan
It is a basic requirement that all students obey and follow all the rules governing the institution in cases such as while on transit to and from the institution, within the institution, during all the events, field trips, functions, and educational activities. During all the times, all the students are expected to be under the direction and control of the staff members, and teachers as assigned by the institution head. As a matter of fact, the school safely plans first falls within the conduct of the students. Students are subject to the institutions disciplinary actions in situations they commit or behave in a manner that goes against the institutions disciplinary policies. The institution looks into developing a code of conduct and policy guide that is reviewed yearly by the institutions administrators, parents, teachers, and staff. Additionally, the students would be advised that cases of violating the code of conduct and outlined policies may also be a violation of the State Laws (Peretz, Levi & Fried, 2015).
The Institutions safely plan would be attached to a program evaluation arrangement that would enable the institution to aggressively focus on offering a conducive environment for both the students and the members of staff. As a matter of priority, the evaluation program would entail measures that aim at offering the best strategies for handling indiscipline cases, safety procedures, and the wellbeing of the students and the institution at large. Additionally, the evaluation program would focus more on offering the best relationship amongst the students themselves. The program aims at determining the effectiveness of the code of conduct and the safety measures put in place by the institution, help provide necessary feedback on the need of the program, and any upcoming challenges with the outlined plan (Peretz, Levi, & Fried, 2015).
The evaluation program will entail:
How to plan for the evaluation in which data is collected, assessing the situation within the institution, and formulating the baseline for the institution as stipulated by the management.How to choose on the evaluation method to apply: In this section, the evaluation would embark on working on a given sample size and offering guidance for the evaluation exercise. The sample size, and guidance all through the program would focus on addressing the most pertinent issues such as the student welfare and the relationship between the administration, staff, and the students that can help formulate a better working environment (Lee, & Kramer, 2016). Feedback and dissemination. In this section, the institution looks into ways of how to get the results work for the interested parties within the institution such as the staff, teaching fraternity, students and the administrations.
Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (2015). Handbook of cultural intelligence. Routledge.
Bajunid, I. (2015). The educational administrator as a cultural leaders. Journal of the Malaysian Educational Manager, 1(1), 16-29.
Baldasaro, T. (2013). Selling our value as teachers.
Barnes, J. K. (2011). Leadership styles of principals in successful middle schools in Tennessee. Lincoln Memorial University.
Buckingham, D. (2013). Beyond technology: Children’s learning in the age of digital culture. John Wiley & Sons.
Buckingham, D. (2013). Media education: Literacy, learning and contemporary culture. John Wiley & Sons.
Casillas, J. C., & Moreno-Menéndez, A. M. (2014). Speed of the internationalization process: The role of diversity and depth in experiential learning. Journal of International Business Studies, 45(1), 85-101.
Clark, M. L. (2008). An examination or the relationship between leadership autonomy and student learning.
Crain, F. S. (2010). The Effect of Leadership Style on Student Achievement in Title I Elementary Schools. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
Ding, K. (2003). Peer support and evaluation: the new force in renewal of teaching. Curriculum and Teaching, 6(2), 1-10.
Foster, R., Wright, L., & McRae, P. (2008). Leading and sustaining school improvement initiatives: A review of site-based research from AISI cycles 1, 2, and 3. Alberta Education, Edmonton.
Galloway, M. K., & Ishimaru, A. M. (2015). Radical Recentering Equity in Educational Leadership Standards. Educational Administration Quarterly, 51(3), 372-408.
Gordon, P. J. (2011). Achievement spirals: Understanding academic achievement differences in an urban school (Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University-Graduate School-Newark).
Gutiérrez, K. D., & Rogoff, B. (2003). Cultural ways of learning: Individual traits or repertoires of practice. Educational researcher, 32(5), 19-25.
Hamzah, M., Yakop, F. M., Nordin, N. M., & Rahman, S. (2011). School as Learning Organisation: The Role of Principal’s Transformational Leadership in Promoting Teacher Engagement. World Applied Sciences, 14, 58-63.
Hand, V. M. (2006). Exploring sociocultural perspectives on race, culture, and learning. Review of Educational Research, 76(4), 449-475.
Hein, S., Reich, J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2015). Cultural manifestation of intelligence in formal and informal learning environments during childhood. In The Oxford Handbook of Human Development and Culture.
Higgins, M., Ishimaru, A., Holcombe, R., & Fowler, A. (2012). Examining organizational learning in schools: The role of psychological safety, experimentation, and leadership that reinforces learning. Journal of Educational Change, 13(1), 67-94.
Hill, A. (2011). The Impact of Leadership Practices on the Academic Achievement of Elementary Students in Satisfactory Schools and Unsatisfactory Schools in Georgia. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
Hollins, E. R. (2015). Culture in school learning: Revealing the deep meaning. Routledge.
Is, W. I., & Learning, H. I. I. P. (2006). Successful School Leadership.
Lee, Y., & Kramer, A. (2016). The role of purposeful diversity and inclusion strategy (PDIS) and cultural tightness/looseness in the relationship between national culture and organizational culture. Human Resource Management Review, 26(3), 198-208.
Lourenço, P. R., Dimas, I. D., & Rebelo, T. (2014). Effective workgroups: The role of diversity and culture. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 30(3), 123-132.
Martoo, G. V. (2006). Reculturing a school as a learning organisation: Investigative narratives in two Queensland schools.
Peretz, H., Levi, A., & Fried, Y. (2015). Organizational diversity programs across cultures: effects on absenteeism, turnover, performance and innovation. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(6), 875-903.
Reynolds, A. J., Stringfield, S., & Muijs, D. Results for the High Reliability Schools Project. Unpublished manuscript.
Silins, H., Zarins, S., & Mulford, W. R. (2002). What characteristics and processes define a school as a learning organisation? Is this a useful concept to apply to schools?.
Song, H. (2012). The role of teachers’ professional learning communities in the context of curriculum reform in high schools. Chinese Education & Society, 45(4), 81-95.
Williams, R. B., Brien, K., & LeBlanc, J. (2012). Transforming Schools into Learning Organizations: Supports and Barriers to Educational Reform. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy.
Zahra, S. A., Ireland, R. D., &Hitt, M. A. (2000). International expansion by new venture firms: International diversity, mode of market entry, technological learning, and performance. Academy of Management journal, 43(5), 925-950.
Zeng, Y., Shenkar, O., Lee, S. H., & Song, S. (2013). Cultural differences, MNE learning abilities, and the effect of experience on subsidiary mortality in a dissimilar culture: Evidence from Korean MNEs. Journal of International Business Studies, 44(1), 42-65.
Sample Technology Research Proposal on 10 best Smartphones in the US cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help
10 best Smartphones in the US
The report is a recommendation of a smartphone as a hand-held electronic device for a conservative audience with no technological skills on its application. The report investigates and reports its significant features in relation to market standards. The report further evaluates on two leading contenders, Samsung Galaxy and Microsoft Lumia as phones for entrepreneurs, and compares these contenders in relation to their ability, cost, user friendliness, size, and accessories. To conduct effective research, the web is used as the major source of information concerning the device.
The main objective of this report is to introduce the significance of a smartphone to conservative audience with the desire to venture into business.
Smartphones are presently highly useful devices for business enterprises and for socialization. From the wide choice of mobile smartphones, Microsoft Lumia and Samsung galaxy S6 tops the list in terms of their features, and significance. Both phones have high optical image stabilization features, autofocus, and back-illuminated sensors. Software features comprise of the touch to focus, a feature that increases their usability, self-timer, digital zoom, and face detection feature for accurate photo capture and video recording, that enable the devices to record audio messages for at least 50 hours and video recording for more than ten hours without replacing the batteries. Geotagging is another useful feature that automatically defines the region the user may be in (Villas-Boas, Para 4).
From the study conducted by Ungureanu (Para 3), the size of the Lumia device is much better than that of Samsung. This is because Lumia supports the broadest displays with its 2560 x 1440 pixel QHD resolution. Samsung dominates the processing power of the smartphones with its fast chip. Lumia 950 series bears liquid cooling, a technology that enables it to perform faster and steadier performances for longer periods of time. In terms of storage, Lumia 950 offers more actual and potential storage space. It has a 32GB internal storage with a space to slot in SD card to a ability of 2TB (Ungureanu, Para 5). Galaxy on the other hand has a 32GB internal storage but lacks space for external storage. Both devices have a fingerprint sensor technology, which offers ultimate security in mobile payments and in unlocking the device (Ungureanu, Para 7).
Microsoft Lumia 950 is light in weight, has a wider frame, which is sufficient for browsing, among other necessities. With windows as the operating system, executives can easily operate it with many devices using Microsoft applications (Swider, Para 7). The presence of a keyboard, a mouse, and monitor are further useful to work with the device as a computer. Other features of this device include screen resolution which is 2560 x 1440 pixels, a 3 GB RAM, with a 32 GB battery for more storage. The battery size is 3000mAh, which is quite big for huge loads of work. The rear camera is 20 MP while the front camera is 5 MP, which makes it a smart camera.
Microsoft Lumia 950 is the most recent among the Windows mobile with the up-to-the-minute mobile operating system, which offers the seamless experience, across numerous applications and displays (Swider, Para 2). The added features of the device enable it to connect readily to a Microsoft HD-500. This added advantage further transforms it to a powerful desktop PC for enterprise configuration. Just like the Samsung Galaxy series, this device has volume buttons and power button situated on the left hand to side for easier positioning and control in business conferences and seminars. The brilliant screen technology in the device is useful in capturing images of the products sold and even sharing information with customers. The Super AMOLED display is useful in offering clear crisp whites over the backs to display perfectly dark scenes (Villas-Boas, Para 7).
Samsung Galaxy S6 is a device that is highly commendable for business users due to its cutting edge. There is an inclusion of a Microsoft Office together with Android applications apart from the container solution offered by the Samsung management. Features added to this device include a military grade, multi-layered mobile security, and work partitioning containers for workspace. High screen resolution is essential for giving the sharpest display of images in the market. This implies that the users can easily separate personal life from work in a seamless approach.
The device is designed with a more premium design than the preceding types in the past; adding an entire metal band to the strong glass case, further adds luxury to the device. The 5.1-inch screen makes it easier to handle, its dimension is compact, yet elegant, making it not feel like the most expensive device on the market. Plastic strips, which allow the antenna, slit metallic band around the sides and other radios connect and improve phone signal. This makes it further useful in operating in areas where network signals may be a challenge.
A smartphone is a hand-held electronic device for a conservative audience with no technological skills on its application. From the leading contenders, Samsung Galaxy and Microsoft Lumia smartphones are highly useful devices for business enterprises and for socialization. Microsoft Lumia and Samsung galaxy S6 tops the list in terms of their features, and significance. Both phones have high optical image stabilization features, Software features that enable the devices to record audio messages and video recording.
I would recommend Microsoft Lumia 950 since it is the latest among the Windows mobile with the latest mobile operating system, which offers the seamless experience. It is light in weight, among other necessities. The battery size is 3000mAh, which is quite big for huge loads of work. Samsung, on the other hand, is the best smartphone that is close to perfection for the business executives. It is great for media, has a super sharp screen and an amazing camera useful in businesses. However, its high price and unreliable battery are disadvantageous. I recommend both devices due to the high technical applications and user rating they have.
Swider Matt. “ 10 best Smartphones in the US.” Tech Radar. June 28, 2016
Ungureanu Horia. “Microsoft Lumia 950 vs. Samsung Galaxy S6 vs. iPhone 6s: Specs
Comparison.” TechTimes. October 2015.
Villas-Boas Antonio. “The 20 best Smartphones in the World.” Tech Insider. July 3, 2016
Mt. Oaks Communications
Montgomery County College
322 DeKalb Pike
Blue Bell, PA 19422
17th September 2016
Dr. Anne H. Colvin,
Arts and Humanities Division,
Montgomery County Community College,
340 DeKalb Pike,
Blue Bell, PA 19422.
Dear Dr. Colvin:
Re: RECOMMENDATION FOR THE BEST SMARTPHONES FOR BUSINESS
Attached is the report on the recommendation of hand-held Samsung Galaxy and Microsoft Lumia smartphones for entrepreneurship and socialization. I have reviewed the features in relation to their cost, user friendliness, size, and accessories. Microsoft Lumia and Samsung galaxy S6 tops the list in terms of their features, and significance. Microsoft Lumia 950 is the latest among the Windows mobile with the latest mobile operating system. It is light in weight, among other necessities. The battery size is quite big for huge loads of work. Samsung, on the other hand, is the best smartphone that is close to perfection for the business executives. It is great for media, and an amazingly useful in businesses.
Sample Aviation Creative Writing Paper on The Role of Ted Stevens Anchorage Airport to the Community essay help 123
The Role of Ted Stevens Anchorage Airport to the Community
Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport is one of the unique airports in the United States. The airport serves as a significant transportation link to Alaska as well as a crucial cargo link between Asia and North America. It is the largest airport in Alaska State, hence, a significant source of revenue to the state government and the local community. The airport is ranked fifth across the globe for landed cargo weight handling, rated at more than five million per annum. Furthermore, due to the State’s limited ground transport infrastructure, the airport serves as an important facility to the residents of Alaska and visitors. Annually, Ted Stevens Anchorage is estimated to serve more than five million passengers (Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, 2013).
Ted Stevens is a significant facility to the community around Alaska. It is the home to Lake Wood, which is the largest and busiest sea plane and an important hub for the community. The Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities operates the airport. The airport is one of the major sources of revenue to the community and the state. It is located in the west Anchorage in close proximity to residential neighborhoods of Turn again, Spenard and Sand Lake.
The airport is a dynamic center of employment opportunities for the locals, which has led to increased employment opportunities (Aviation Pros, 2005). The public and private projects launched in the facility are anticipated to create more job. Besides employing crewmembers from the community, the airport is a home to a massive assortment of businesses ranging from international air cargo and airlines to restaurants and retailers. The airport provides employment to approximately 9,800 people from the community around. This employment rate is set to increase as the airport continues to expand and become one of the largest international hub for air cargo. The airport offers these economic benefits to the local community, which improve the standard of life.
The airport serves as a vibrant tourist avenue for the community in Alaska travelling globally. Local businesspersons also benefit from the facility, which enhances their international deals. In line with expanding the local business, the airport has also linked the local community to the rest of the world, particularly the East because it is the leading Asia-North American route for both commercial and cargo transportation. This has enabled the facility to partner with organizations like FedEx in providing more services and development opportunities to the local communities around. Establishing this airport as a regional hubs impacted FedEx’s collaboration strategies (Appold & Kasarda, 2011).
Ted Stevens Anchorage Airport is also a conserve of the environment, which is of great importance to the local community around (Ogle, 2015). The growth of technology and industries in the world is aimed at making more profits without considering the environmental factor. However, the expansion of Ted Stevens Anchorage Airport was undertaken with positive environmental conditions that despite being beneficial to the operation of the airport, especially during winter, they also benefit the local community. The environmental elements incorporated during the expansion project included air quality, noise reduction, waste handling and wildlife protection. The airport has also introduced effective measures to the weather conditions concerns, particularly winter, which affects its operations. The airport has developed effective snow clearing teams to help it continue operating during the winter period. The teams provide more opportunities for the locals and ensure the continuity of life and businesses at the airport and within its environments. This practice enhances the life of the community.
Ted Stevens Anchorage Airport is the largest transportation hub in the region, providing a gateway to Alaska. The South Terminal hosts domestic flights that serve the local communities. Due to its development, the airport has also attracted construction of other infrastructures that connect the local people, thus, providing effective transport facilities. For instance, the construction of the railway operated by the local Alaskan Railway Corporation was as a result of the benefits of the airport to the local community
Other facilities that support the airport include cargo warehouses and special roads for truck transport. These facilities support the airport and benefit the local community in Alaska. Therefore, the growth of the airport has enhanced a spillover effect on the city by increasing the activity levels of the community. This implies that an active society is a productive society.
Despite being an important international airport on the global scale, Anchorage airport is a crucial facility to the community of Alaska. The community has benefitted from its expansion through increased revenue, supportive infrastructures, and employment opportunities. The underlying factor is that the airport has enhanced the activity levels of the community by providing employment and business opportunities (Stimpfle, 2012). This has reduced levels of poverty that are associated with vices like robbery and substance use. Therefore, the community needs to support all projects and services initiated by the airport to promote its growth and development.
Appold, S. J., & Kasarda, J. D. (2011). The change in reign: as Hong Kong international becomes the world’s top air cargo airport, challenges lie ahead. Global Airport Cities, 5(1), 24-26.
Aviation Pros (2005). Anchorage Airport’s Job Growth Soars. Retrieved From http://www.aviationpros.com/news/10431855/anchorage-airports-job-growth-soars
Ogle, T. (2015). Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport: air crossroads of the cargo world. Airways (Sandpoint, Idaho).
Stimpfle Erik (2012). The Air Transportation Industry. Flights play a bigger role in Alaska. Retrieved from
Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport (2013). Master Plan Update Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport. Communications Plan.
Sample Anthropology Essay Paper on The Epic as a Literary Genre: The Iliad of Homer and the Aeneid of Virgil write essay help
Aeon, Art, and Virgil. Revealing Dream of Vergil. , 2014. Print.
In spite of Morris’ carelessness about proofreading, consciousness of the text as physical object was not absent from his hand the roman minuscule of the Aeneid represents the culmination of his research and work on the translation. In addition to the ordinary copies, there was a limited run on folio-sized handmade paper, one copy of which he promised to Murray, writing to him in March to report that he was shifting from the manuscript to the translation.
Faber, Riemer. “Vergil’s `Shield Of Aeneas’ (Aeneid 8. 617-731) And The Shield Of Heracles.” Mnemosyne 53.1 (2000): 49. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.
The article discusses ekphrasis in the description of shields in the epic poem “Aeneid” by the Roman poet Vergil, and examines its sources in the epic poem “Iliad” by the Greek poet Homer and “Shield of Heracles” by Pseudo-Hesiod. The symbolic importance of shields is explored, and the literary style of “Aeneid” is commented on.
Farrell, Joseph. “The Virgilian Intertext.” The Cambridge Companion to Virgil (1997): 222-38
With a primary focus on the character of the Chantyman, this essay traces a system of allusion to Virgil’s Aeneid in Eugene O’Neill’s adaptation of the Oresteia, Mourning Becomes Electra. O’Neill’s drunken and enigmatic sailor has no corresponding character in Aeschylus’ Oresteia, nor in its subsequent classical iterations. Moreover, the use of this epic archetype serves to promote O’Neill’s mechanism of predetermined causality, both by means of its thematic implications and structural position within the narrative of Aeneid 6. The allusion recalls the Virgilian unveiling of Aeneas’ familial destiny and thereby underscores the broader and inevitable consequences of Brant’s death upon the House of Mannon.
Felperin, Professor O. E. H. Virgil’s Aeneid in Modern Verse. Place of publication not identified: Authorhouse, 2013. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=70l3AgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjU8tno_OTPAhUE5xoKHXMJC8k4ChC7BQg3MAQ#v=onepage&q=TheIliadofHomerandTheAeneidofVirgil&f=false
Morris wrote out the text and was responsible for the overall design, including non-figurative capitals and decoration; he and Burne-Jones discussed the figurative illuminations during their Sunday meetings, and Burne-Jones’ drawings were then turned over to Murray for completion in the manuscript pages.
Gransden, Karl W, and S J. Harrison. Vergil, the Aeneid: A Student Guide. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=jdzi_WSmFx8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwis3NrY_OTPAhXFWBoKHUEYCLoQuwUIUzAI#v=onepage&q=TheIliadofHomerandTheAeneidofVirgil&f=false
The author examines the arguments presented in order to vindicate Aeneas’ acts, and argues that the sources cited in defense of Aeneas cannot be called upon to give a clear verdict. Instead of employing contemporary sources in a bid to exculpate Aeneas, the author uses them to explain why Vergil decided to make his hero merciless. He submits that Vergil has deliberately, and in accordance with his view of contemporary political events, created a merciless hero for his epic. his strategy of historical layering is paralleled in Morris’ other Aeneid project of the early 1870s, an original illuminated vellum codex of the poem in Latin, which also telescopes the historical trajectory of the source text by the layering of historical styles and details.
Graziosi, Barbara. Inventing Homer: The Early Reception of Epic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=vCHsh9QWzLYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Inventing+Homer:+the+early+reception+of+epic.&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=InventingHomertheearlyreceptionofepic.&f=false
Explores the ancient reception of the Homeric poems and its relation to modern approaches.
Hardie, Philip R. The Last Trojan Hero. London: Tauris, 2012. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=kewKAwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjU8tno_OTPAhUE5xoKHXMJC8k4ChC7BQgxMAM#v=onepage&q=TheIliadofHomerandTheAeneidofVirgil&f=false
This title explores the many remarkable afterlives – ancient, medieval and modern – of the Aeneid in literature, music, politics, the visual arts and film. Rather than seeing Virgil as being influenced by a vague and ill-defined religious movement called “Orphic-Pythagorean”, this paper will further argue that his description of Aeneas’ descent is better understood as a product of both ancient literary and mythological texts such as Homer and Plato combined with elements from Virgil’s own religious and political context.
Henriksen, Line. Ambition and Anxiety: Ezra Pound’s Cantos and Derek Walcott’s Omeros As Twentieth-Century Epics. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=5NXCc04fw3cC&pg=PA7&dq=The+epic+as+a+literary+genre:+The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=TheepicasaliterarygenreTheIliadofHomerandTheAeneidofVirgil&f=false
With variations and reversals, the tradition of rewriting the Homeric epics that begins with Virgil’s Aeneid repeats passages of establishing intertextual genealogy, affiliating himself with Homer, and the Aeneid with the Iliad and the Odyssey. Innumerable attempts have been made to define the epic as a literary genre.
Martindale, Charles. “The Last Trojan Hero: A Cultural History Of Virgil’s ‘Aeneid’. By Philip Hardie. Pp. Xi + 249. London: I. B. Tauris, 2014. Hb. £25. The Classical Tradition: Art, Literature, Thought. By Michael Silk, Ingo Gildenhard, And Rosemary Barrow. Pp. Xiii + 516. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014. Hb. £90.” Translation & Literature 24.2 (2015): 219-227. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.
The Latin-language that is in Aeneid’s manuscript and English-language Aeneid translation complement one another. when a text’s physical presentation is more easily manipulable than in Morris’ time, digital editions provide new opportunities to weave textual history into the reader’s or viewer’s experience of a translated classic; the results might not impose themselves like a freshly illuminated manuscript of the Aeneid, a discrete and tangible object the very weight and richness of which earns it a place in the tradition of its classic text.
Mitchell, Jack. “William Morris’ Synthetic Aeneids: Virgil As Physical Object.” Translation & Literature 24.1 (2015): 1-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.
William Morris’ Aeneid translation of 1875 ( The Aeneids of Virgil) is today criticized for its archaism and anachronism; it ought rather to be read as a deliberate layering of historical periods in the reception of the Roman epic. This strategy of historical layering is paralleled in Morris’ other Aeneid project of the early 1870s, an original illuminated vellum codex of the poem in Latin, which also telescopes the historical trajectory of the source text by the layering of historical styles and details. Morris’ translation should be understood as a similarly ambitious, if more democratic, attempt to create a ‘cumulative’ Aeneid
Mueller, Martin. The Iliad. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2009. Internet resource. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=bVoBAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA190&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzpN7M_eTPAhVGthoKHUYxCCc4FBC7BQg1MAQ#v=onepage&q=TheIliadofHomerandTheAeneidofVirgil&f=false
This introduction to Homer’s poem sees it as rooted in a particular culture with narrative and thematic conventions that are only partly explained by assumptions about the properties of oral poetry. Professor Mueller follows Plato and Aristotle in seeing the plot of the “Iliad” as a distinctly Homeric ‘invention’ which shaped Attic tragedy and the concept of dramatic action in Western literature. In this second edition the text has been revised in many places, and a new chapter on Homeric repetitions has been added
Rossi, Luigi Enrico. “Dividing Homer: When And How Were The Iliad And The Odyssey Divided Into Songs? (Continued).” Symbolae Osloenses 76.1 (2001): 103-112. Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Oct. 2016.
The article presents close readings of direct references to Helen in the poem “Aeneid,” by the late ancient Roman poet Publius Vergilius Maro, known as Vergil, and examines the effect of the biases of the narrator and narrative context on the representation of Helen in the “Aeneid.” Topics discussed include discrepancies between recollections of Helen by Aeneas and Deiphobus due to narrator and context change, and adherence of Helen of the “Aeneid” more to the Greek tragedy character. Morris’ translation should be understood as a similarly ambitious, if more democratic, attempt to create a ‘cumulative’ Aeneid.
Prince, Meredith. “Helen Of Rome? Helen In Vergil’s Aeneid.” Helios 41.2 (2014): 187-214. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016
The article presents close readings of direct references to Helen in the poem “Aeneid,” by the late ancient Roman poet Publius Vergilius Maro, known as Vergil, and examines the effect of the biases of the narrator and narrative context on the representation of Helen in the “Aeneid.” Topics discussed include discrepancies between recollections of Helen by Aeneas and Deiphobus due to narrator and context change, and adherence of Helen of the “Aeneid” more to the Greek tragedy character.
Ross, David O. Virgil’s Aeneid: A Reader’s Guide. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2007. Internet resource. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=OATIXJFtQTkC&pg=PA1&dq=The+Iliad+of+Homer+and+The+Aeneid+of+Virgil&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzpN7M_eTPAhVGthoKHUYxCCc4FBDoAQgbMAA#v=onepage&q=TheIliadofHomerandTheAeneidofVirgil&f=false
Written by eminent scholar David O. Ross, this guide helps readers to engage with the poetry, thought, and background of Virgil’s great epic, suggesting both the depth and the beauty of Virgil’s poetic images and the mental images with which the Romans lived.
Smith, William and Charles Anthon. A School Dictionary Of Greek & Roman Antiquities. New York: Harper & Bros., 1851. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=9e8rAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR7&dq=A+dictionary+of+Greek+and+Roman+antiquities&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUrOn_eXPAhUDVhoKHeezBh0QuwUIMTAB#v=onepage&q=AdictionaryofGreekandRomanantiquities&f=false
The semantics of pain are an important and interesting aspect of any language. Ancient Greek and Latin had multiple words for pain, which makes scrutinizing different meanings problematic. The ancient physician Galen approached this issue through the use of adjectives to describe the qualities for pain, instead of the words for pain themselves. The medical texts of Celsus and Caelius Aurelianus reveal that Latin also vested particular significance in qualifiers to distinguish between different types of pain.
Sowerby, Robin. “Early Humanist Failure With Homer (Ii).” International Journal Of The Classical Tradition 4.2 (1997): 165. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.
The article discusses humanist attempts to translate the Greek epic “Iliad” by Homer into Latin verse, at the request of Pope Pius II. The author looks at the attempt by Florentine scholar Angelo Politian in the 15th century, the Latin epic poem by Virgil entitled “Aeneid,” and aspects of heroism in the Latin translations that translators such as Politian were attempting to recreate. Also discussed is the 16th-century criticism by authors Julius Caesar Scaliger and Marco Girolamo Vida.
Torjussen, Stian Sundell. “The “Orphic-Pythagorean” Eschatology Of The Gold Tablets From Thurii And The Sixth Book Of Virgil’s Aeneid.” Symbolae Osloenses 83.1 (2008): 68-83. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.
Among the many different sources and traditions Virgil drew upon when he described the topography and eschatology of the Underworld in the sixth book of the Aeneid it is the influence of the “Orphic-Pythagorean” tradition which is the most problematic. A recurring category of texts often used in this connection has been the “Orphic-Pythagorean” gold tablets which, it has been argued, show us glimpses of the same eschatology which influenced Virgil. This paper seeks to show how most of the alleged similarities between these short texts and Virgil’s eschatology are superficial.
Vergilius, Publius M, and Richard J. Tarrant. Aeneid Xii. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=Qf7-CRp740gC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Aeneid+Xii.&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=AeneidXii.&f=false
It is this will to make the past manifest and accessible in the present that underlies much of his extensive poetic output, including his translations. The Aeneid was Morris’ crowning achievement in this field, planned on a much more ambitious scale than his other manuscripts. Morris wrote out the text and was responsible for the overall design, including non-figurative capitals and decoration; he and Burne-Jones discussed the figurative illuminations during their Sunday meetings, and Burne-Jones’ drawings were then turned over to Murray for completion in the manuscript pages.
Morris had by 1870 abandoned the Gothic script of his earliest efforts and adopted a formal book practice. There are good general reasons, therefore, for reading the English Language Aeneid translation, which began not long before work stopped on the illuminated Latin-language Aeneid manuscript, in
Sample History Essay Paper on Birth of Co Colonization essay help us: essay help us
Birth of Co Colonization
The article ‘Birth of Co colonization’ explicates how Colonization of Taiwan encountered transformation throughout various centuries and how co colonization came on board in this country. There was the inception of the Spanish colony which was followed by the Dutch who indeed created a free trade world in the states of Taiwan (Jacobs, et al, 2011). This paper looks into how co-colonization developed in Taiwan and an explanation on some of the vital parties that took part in this actions of co-colonization. Thematic issues that surround co colonization are also discussed here by mentioning some of the motives of these colonizers of Taiwan as a country as described in the article.
The initial colonizer of Taiwan was the Spanish colony who used the ancient techniques of sending the missionaries to these areas. The main elements for colonization was the aim for the reach agricultural lands for rice plantation. The Dutch colony came into force by bringing on board a different kind of colonization. They came up with a profound management structure that would allow investments to thrive in this country. Every person was entitled to invest in this country as there were not taxes while investing (Katz, 2009).
Furthermore, there were less restrictions brought on board when it comes to wealth transfer. The Chinese colony came into existence due to good business environment in Taiwan and agreed to co-colonize it with the Dutch colonizers. The Spanish colonizers were also in this mix and this brought about the overexploitation of this country while maintaining a good business environment. The most important thematic issue in this context is the fact that through a profound management structure placed by the Dutch, there existed a good relationship between the colonizers and the colony that made investment thrive in Taiwan (Jacobs, et al, 2011).
In conclusion co colonization of Taiwan as a country was made possible through placement of a good management structure by the Dutch. The fact that there was a good environment for investment encouraged many colonizers to invest in this country in various stances.
Jacobs, J. B., Shepherd, J. R., Andrade, T., Hsinhui, C., & Ts’ ai, H. Y. C. (2011). The history of Taiwan.
Katz, P. R. (2009). How Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century. By Tonio Andrade. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Pp. 294. ISBN 10: 023112855X; 13: 978-0231128551.
Sample Environmental Studies and Forestry Coursework Paper on Environmental versus person hood college essay help free
Environmental versus person hood
Information networks and informatics environmentalism are shaping individual personhood in various ways. For instance, the risk communication specialists have provided insights on how different risk information users develop different thoughts and actions. This has helped the designers to understand the ways in which their systems could be used. As the developing technological advancements continue to create new risk communication opportunities, there hasn’t been changes in the basic information. There is, therefore, need for the designers to provide clear and simple key messages that would deter the users from distorting the facts and over-reading (Fortun 284).
An analysis of the nearby hazards and a comparison of findings in the Scorecard to the experience of using the EPA toxic map showed various implications. First, although there was a critical awareness of the various TRI data problems, it would be more advisable to build a Scorecard’s design as a complex information unit for more accessibility. Secondly, the mapping realities would need to be publicized, so that the basic data provision can be credited to all the sources. Most participants working in the state environmental agencies should partner with the various community groups in order to obtain EPA support in the development of real-time environmental conditions monitoring systems which would be significant to the residents. The goal of the support program would be to foster the developing of an innovative technological solution to the needs for locally, timely collecting, processing, and distributing of basic data (Fortun 288).
Scorecard’s intervention is effective in various ways for different reasons. Scorecard makes the information to be readable even at times when the quality would not be easy to control with existing glaring data gaps. It also aids in the production of imperceptibles. It also makes the health risks readable, for instance, it would provide ranking systems that would reductively equate all the risks of cancer to the risks of an iconic chemical as benzene then it would equate all the risks related to developments to toluene. The related health risks would become quite meaningful through sweeping aside their particularities. The various information on certain chemicals would be a vital part of the process of analysis. The integration of various sources of information on certain chemicals would be an important scorecard accomplishment. The accessibility would however not just depend on the present information but would also rely on the available prosthetics for ensuring the sensibility of the information. The designer of scorecard software who was also an MIT computer scientist, Phillip Greenspun, states it simply as a good disclosure which when combined with the interpretation would be better. The interpretation, would, however, require foreclosures. This is a fact that has existed for a long period although it has taken on new intensities with developments of information systems that are technologically driven. Such types of systems would work through the management of the tensions between the data sensibility and overload. Criticism of them because they efface and foreclose as they highlight and disclose would, therefore, miss the critical points. Many designers of environmental information systems often lay emphasis on the need to carry out an evaluation of the different disclosure modes, note how given modes accomplish the sensibility necessary reductions. This would occur while it would also be disclosing the way interpretive prosthetics would provided themselves for the designs. It is because of such a double system move that has resulted to the Scorecard’s high regard. It also gives the illustration of the way the various environments emerge in high-tech landscapes. The environment’s materiality would blink through the screens on which people would be observing it. For any visibility, other things are not. The process would always be mediated technologically. Environmentalism would, therefore, be a fundamental materialist project, and would have to be recognized as a project that is virtual (Fortun 295).
Scorecard pulls together the understanding of various basic data information. The designers work based on a keen understanding of the information contents. Instead of being dependent on the single data point validity, they establish information assemblages that would function as interactive systems, to which each single data point would contribute differently from the pixels but to meet overall effects of digital images. The images would be clearer when each of the pixels would be precise but remain readable even when they would not (Fortun 294-295).
The scorecard is strategic and has had various occurrences over time. The EPA site and Toxic map operate with the same philosophy as Scorecard for various reasons. The scorecard findings relate to the experiences of using the EPA toxic maps. Despite the fact that there is a lack of analytical frameworks for assessing ERP systems organizational benefits, most research findings have shown that balanced scorecards (BSC) approaches would be appropriate techniques for the evaluation of ERP system performance. There is a balanced-scorecard which is based on the frameworks for valuing strategic ERP system contributions. Based on SAP organizations as case studies, it is clear that ERP systems impact the various business objectives of firms and drive new innovative ERP frameworks for valuing strategic ERP system impacts. The ERP evaluation frameworks as ERP scorecards, integrate the Norton and four Kaplan balanced dimensional scorecard with the Zuboff’s automate, transformation and informative information system goals for the provision of practical approaches for measuring ERP system impacts and contributions on strategic goals (Chand et al 558-572).
Fortun, Kim. “From Bhopal to the informating of environmentalism: risk communication in historical perspective.” Osiris (2004): 283-296.
Chand, Donald, et al. “A balanced scorecard based framework for assessing the strategic impacts of ERP systems.” Computers in industry 56.6 (2005): 558-572.
Sample Aviation Paper on Leadership rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help
1. Lead-Across Principle #2
Competition among my peers and me is in between an informal circle that we have created to enhance our performance in the organization. We compete to beat the deadlines and take up new tasks as soon as one is through with the first task. It is a group competition which is performance oriented.
The competition contributes in the ways of developing each other among the group. It sets to help out the slow working individuals to enable the complete tasks on time and protect them from conflicting with the management. However, the competition harms our team in that at times some people end up submitting low-quality reports which are subject to numerous revisions due to the fast way of completing tasks ahead of fellow members of the group.
I draw a line when feelings of jealousy start having a toll on me or when I discover the same is happening to my peers. The moment I feel that I should have been the one who achieved a fete and not my peer, I draw away from the competition and find myself a new task. This ensures that I do not lose my motivation and morale for work.
2. Lead-Across Principle #6:
To create an environment where people are comfortable sharing their ideas I would implement an open approach to idea sharing. This approach would involve creating a platform and a culture where multiple ideas can be listened to, worked upon and shared. Collaborative brainstorming approaches keep people innovative hence improving their growth. There are various ways I can ensure that people that I do not like are also given an opportunity to share their ideas, but most importantly this can be achieved by not allowing personal attitudes overshadow the purpose or objectives. A leader should look beyond feelings for the good of the organization.
3. Lead-Across Principle #1
The six items in the leadership loop include caring, learning, appreciating, contributing, verbalizing and leading. Caring includes taking an interest in people, and it can be implemented through taking a focus on people by valuing them, trying to see from their viewpoints and appreciating them for their actions. Learning involves the act of getting to know people. Learning can be implemented through setting aside time to interact with fellow leaders and employees with the aim of getting to know their talents, opinions, interests among others. Appreciating is the act of respecting people. People and especially leaders find it easy to respect people with the same opinions as them as compared to those with different perspectives and opinions. Appreciating can be achieved through assuming the best out of other people’s opinions, especially in first encounters. Contributing refers to adding value to people. It can be implemented through sharing of one’s ideas and resources with others who may be short of the same. Verbalizing involves affirming people. Verbalizing can be implemented through genuinely praising and encouraging people with the aim of growing and developing them. Leading the act of influencing people. Influencing people can be implemented through developing relationships of trust and credibility. An example in a work related setting situation would best fit in the projects that an organization undertakes. Such a project for instance may include investment projects. At one time in a job I had been hired for a season our team’s leader observed almost all of the above items in the leadership loop. He would establish to know the viewpoints of his subordinates at all times before making a decision (caring), the leader would also set aside some bonding session where he would interact with the subordinates to get to learn them better(learning). The leader would also appreciate every member of his team and he would pay more attention especially to those with differing opinions from his (appreciating), and he would also engage us in private session where he would have a heart to heart conversion to boost our morale by encouraging us whenever we are short of motivation (verbalizing).
4. Lead-Across Principle #3, #4 & #5:
Friendship at the workplace is vital. It is the joy of knowing that one has a person who believes in him or her and is willing to stand by him or her. The author recommends making friends at the workplaces as it reaps many benefits including creating a suitable environment free from conflicts at the personal and organization level.
Friendships at the workplaces are beneficial in various ways. Firstly, friendship is the foundation through which influence in the workplace is built. Secondly, friendship is the framework for success individually and collectively as a team. Lastly, friends act as shelter during bad times at work. However, making friends in the workplace may lead to waste for the organization. Such waste may include employees engaging in time-wasting activities such as gossiping and chatting during working hours which affects their output and the overall output of the organization.
Both friendships are the same but what makes friendship between coworkers and classmates different is the environment and the purpose for the relationship. The level of friendship at work is on a higher level as compared to the level of friendship between classmates and as such the two relationships are different. A coworker friend is likely to help you more than a classmate-friend in real life especially because most classmate friendship is seasonal.
One of the greatest pitfalls of developing close intimate friendships at work involve the issues of breach of trust. The breach of trust manifests itself when coworkers use each other’s personal and confidential matters revealed to them in good faith for maliciously. A balance can be struck by separating social life from work life and if I have to share both lives, share only the level of information that cannot be used against me maliciously.
5. Lead-Across Principle #7:
Firstly, I hate failure. I always want to succeed in everything that I do which is not ideal given that not everything always goes as planned. This weakness can be mitigated by having an allowance for if things don’t go as planned. Secondly, I do not take change positively especially if it distorts my routine activities. Mitigation can be through identifying the best things I can do in the change process and teaching myself that change is inevitable. Lastly, I do not take people ignoring me lightly. This is something that troubles me when people fail to recognize me. Mitigation is by learning that people are different and that not everyone will be appreciative of my achievements, ideas, and opinions.
Sample Aviation Essay Paper on Leadership aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help
1. The main challenges faced in the middle-level management mostly deals with time allocation and balancing of various duties, functions and responsibilities. One should ensure that there are the balanced representation and attention to every activity to avoid underperformance or poor relations with the other team members. Dealing with the people in the bottom should be done carefully and avoid commanding, one should issue very clear instructions and assist where needed. Still, one should be straight forward and very much precise. Maturity, understanding and rationality are key drivers of ensuring balances in multitasking activities.
2. The best ways to ensure success and avoid falling into the traps of being ineffective include being focused and determined on one’s goals. One should work more toward the long-term achievements of these goals given their current position of power and leadership. These goals should be followed by a well-planned actionable plan. Some of the ways which I can use to avoid falling in mistakes would be; ensuring that I focus on my work fully secondly is to have a plan of action and clearly write down my goals. The following the written goals is a sure way to avoid falling into leadership challenges
3. The roles and responsibilities of an individual should be well-defined. These roles and responsibilities should be supported by a clear communication system. Good understanding of one’s duties, responsibilities should be emphasized. Consultation is very key when it comes to working and teamwork with the other parties avoiding overstepping as well. The assigned duties should be completed as per the proper requirements given the circumstances.
4. There is need to have a list of the goals one intends to achieve. A written plan of the activities to undertake is very crucial to achieve success in any given field. Consultation to the working team should be in-order to avoid confusion and duplication of roles. For an individual employee duties should come first before the position that comes with the duties. The long-term success of the organization surpasses any employee rewards given that without this success there will be no reward to offer. The ways of ensuring that I fully succeed in my line of duty as a leader is to have a clear understanding of the roles and duties. The, I should also consult widely and thirdly, I should ensure that I work closely with the laid down system and official activities given by the organization to be followed.
5. Yes, it is possible for me to live without credit. Living without the credit is a very clear show off one’s ability to work for the long-term goals and success of the whole objective. It is a level of growth in leadership level which clearly spells that one can put the objectives and success of the bestowed position before personal interests.
6. The five ways on how to relieve tension challenge can be applicable in such situations by ensuring that one is composed and taking things lightly. One should also ensure that they listen to the other team members, let the best idea prevail while keep on thinking critical in very situation. A thorough analysis of the underlying conditions should be conducted to reduce the chances of confusion among employees.
7. Leadership involves decision-making which is a function of sacrifices and preparation. The three categories of leaders that attract less followers include insecure leaders, selfish leaders, and controlling leaders. Dealing with these leaders will involve learning what each one of them values in a work setting. Insecure leaders call for quality work output. Selfish leaders value high levels of honesty and conforming to their work plans. Controlling leaders have an eye for observing the set standards for the completion of a given task. My approach of the work would be by team-work approach, delegation and working together with the other members of department. Then, I should also ensure that there is coordination with the other members of the organization.
Sample Ethics Term Paper on Digital Technology and Ownership college application essay help online
Digital Technology and Ownership
The multimedia industry was previously built around physical products. This is because music, videos, and games were all sold through physical products such as impact disks and other forms of physical storage. In the contemporary times, multimedia has taken a more digital format with sales and rentals being carried out on an information only basis. The result of this shift has been an increase in the rate of dubbing, both legal and illegal. Multimedia products include eBooks, music, videos, video games and television programs among others. All these are faced with the dubbing challenge, particularly when considering the illegal copying aspect. Digital information is easy to copy as well as to distribute through either downloading or streaming. It is because of this ease of illegal copying and distribution that many methods have been initiated for the prevention of illegal distribution of multimedia files.
Laws and regulations have been stipulated for the protection of media from illegal access and distribution due to the many negative aspects of this. Besides the economic damages that arise from illegal copying and distribution, many other impacts can also be connected to this practice. Laws stipulated through copyright laws are aimed at protecting the rights of the creators of media. There have been many pros and cons associated with different methods of media protection. Not any particular method is suitable for effectively addressing the challenge of illegal copying and distribution of media files. Despite the many advantages associated with each of the methods, they also pose significant challenges for those who wish to legally acquire the media files in distribution. As such, there have been proposals that copyright protection laws should take into consideration the rights of the legal media purchasers. The present essay delves into the need for providing copyright protection as well as the different strategies that are often put in place for the protection of media files.
The Need for Digital Media Protection
The shift in distribution format of media has made it easy to access and distribute media files across the world. As such, there is great need for access to such media files to be controlled. Copyright laws are meant to protect intellectual property rights of the creators of pieces considered to be intellectual property. Music, video, video games, eBooks and other forms of digital media such as software all fall in the category that needs intellectual property rights protection. According to the Congressional Budget Office, copyright laws stipulate that only the individual content owners should be able to have sole ownership of the means of production of the content, access for distribution and general digital content access (6). For digitally encoded music, only the copyright owners have the true ownership rights of the content in question. It is important that while planning for the digital media protection, limits have to be placed on the laws such as for the rental contents.
There are various reasons behind reliance on the intellectual property laws for the protection of digital media. The media creators need to benefit from their works economically. Raman (par. 3) reports that this is only possible when they can get funds from the sale of their work. Through illegal copying and distribution of digital media, the creators of the works are not paid for the works they do. In addition to this, the enforcement of copyright laws can also help in enhancing the creativity of various participants in the industry. For the owners of the copyrights, creativity is enhanced as they receive the benefits of their previous works. On the other hand, the absence of copyrights gives the pirates the opportunity to take advantage of the works done by others and to gain from this. In this way, their own creativity is hampered and they cannot produce their own works. Similarly, pirating can discourage the owners of the digital media from creating other new works for sale. A third benefit associated with the copyright laws is that the owners of intellectual property rights get the real financial values for these rights. For these three key reasons, copyright protection can be considered essential in the protection of digital media.
The availability and enforcement of copyright laws comes with the danger of copyright violation. Since the laws are used for the protection of the intellectual property of the artists, violation of these laws is probable and with effects that can be drawn from the implications of the laws. First, copyright violation exposes the pirates to dangers associated with peer- to – peer information sharing through the internet. Sharing the software used for downloading or streaming digital media illegally can result in computer infection with Trojan horses and viruses. The implication can however be played down through the use of strung antivirus software (Raman par. 5). Apart from this, violation of copyrights can result in investigations by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). The association has strong hacking software that can be used to track down those who violate copyright laws. When a law breaker belongs in a given company, the association can track him/ her down to their personal computer at the company. Although the RIAA should be using this information for apprehending and prosecuting those who violate copyright laws, they could hack organizational computers and subsequently gain access to confidential company information (Raman par. 6).
Raman (par. 7) further describes the danger of copyright violation through the threat of a law suit. The RIAA is tasked with the responsibility of following up on suspected copyright violators. This can come about with the probably dip in reputation among other negative impacts. Considering the potential impacts of copyright violation and the benefits associated with the copyright laws, it is clear that there is indeed need for copyright protection. Digital media owners can benefit greatly from protection of their contents. There are several strategies that have been used by copyright owners and digital media companies to control illegal access and distribution of digital media. While the proponents of such technologies suggest that digital media protection is very beneficial economically, it has been argued that digital media protection also poses significant challenges in terms of imposing unnecessary restrictions on legal media content buyers.
Digital Media Protection Techniques
To reduce the impacts of illegal copying and distribution of digital media, several strategies have been used through the years. The first and most common technology is that of cryptography. McOrmond (par. 13) opines that cryptography applies the concept of digital key and digital lock in order to protect digital media from illegal piracy. In this method, digital media stored online is encrypted using a key with a specific decryption code which can only be used by authorized personnel. The process of handling digital content through cryptography involves the use of a product key which the legal purchaser is issued with. Without the product keys, the digital media products cannot be used in any hardware of choice. While this method is considered suitable for the achievement of a significant level of digital media protection, it can also be said to be too restrictive to the legal purchasers of digital media. A second method that is widely in use today is the digital signing method. Contrary to cryptography, digital signing is mainly used by content owners to track down the sources of illegal content. This is achieved through the use of unique digital signs such as watermarks on the digital contents. From the watermarks, the consumer can verify the integrity as well as the authenticity of the digital content purchased. This is through association of the digital signature with a particular person on entity from which the media is obtained. The copyright holder can be able to detect the origin of files which are considered to have been unlawfully distributed (McOrmond par. 10). Both cryptography and digital signing can be described as forms of computer security strategies.
Several other methods of digital media protection exist, which are driven by the computer security policies. The policies stress the need for protecting computer hardware and software as well as the information stored in the computers. Through access controls and restriction of hardware use, it is purported that digital media stored in computers can be protected. This however applies particularly to eBooks and information. Despite the focus being on the strategies used for the protection of digital media, it is important to note that the concept of digital media protection revolves around the availability and application of digital rights Management principles.
Digital Rights Management
Digital rights management entails the protection of digital media distribution and access rights among the content owners. The process employs techniques such as encryption and restrictive licensing agreements. Access control technologies are used for the restriction of proprietary hardware. Copyrighted works are also covered under the digital rights management concept. The features of digital rights management are described by Conner and Rummelt (10- 14). According to these authors, digital rights management is characterized by uniform installation activations. This means that out of many attempts at media installation, only few of the attempts result in actual activation of the intended media on the intended device. This could be explained through the argument that the restrictive controls used in digital rights management results in greater installation difficulty and many requirements before one is ready to activate the media. As such, many people either give up on the way or are prevented by other features such as access control from gaining from the digital media.
The second feature associated with digital rights management is the persistent online authentication process. This implies that an individual using digital rights management has to provide authentication for his/ her use of particular media any time they are online. The software is persistent in that the request for authentication occurs repeatedly over time and has no option for removal of the authentication message. While this offers protection to digital media contents, it also has the effect of impeding the operations of authentic digital media. This is because the authentication messages pop up for valid as well as invalid users and the valid users can only return to the product use following the provision of the authentication key. From the need for authentication, the third feature associated with digital rights management is explained by Rosenblatt and others (26).
From the reports by Conner and Rummelt (15), the use of product keys and software tampering are also key features associated with the digital rights management concept. In terms of product keys, Rosenblatt and others suggest that all technologies that are used in digital rights management employ different keys for the protection of digital media. While encryption may be chosen in some cases, others require the application of product keys of other characteristics. The key feature herein is the ability to use a particular code for the validation of the media that is intended to be protected. Software tampering is described as a feature of digital rights management since most illegal as well as legal users of the digital media try to find software they can use without the interference of online authentication or initial installation requirements. As such, most of the users tend to adulterate the software they use in order to make the user experiences friendlier.
Several arguments have been put forward as to the benefits associated with digital rights management. Each of the benefits is important for the wellbeing of the digital content owners and the consumers as well. One of the advantages associated with digital rights management is that it prevents free copying and distribution of copyrighted materials. Conner and Rummelt explain that the constant online authentication messages coupled with the need for initial installation activations drive the illegal users to a disadvantage as they give up on using the digital contents that are protected. While doing this, digital rights management also helps the original content creators to maintain artistic control over the contents on which they have copyrights. According to Conner and Rummelt (28), the ability of the content owners to control use of their artistic contents by limiting access by unauthorized persons, the owners remain the sole holders of access and distribution rights. It can thus be said that digital rights management ensures that the artists have a continuous revenue source in their creations.
On the other hand, there have also been reports of the negative aspects associated with the digital rights management practices. From the work of Rosenblatt and others (110), digital rights management inconveniences the genuine purchasers of digital media. Through the features of DRM such as initial installation activations and persistent online authentication, the genuine users are placed in a tight position. At the same time, they are also made uncomfortable as they have to undergo the same verification processes that others, particularly the invalid users are going through. Apart from this, the use of digital rights management can render some of the artistic works permanently inaccessible through the failure of the software used for DRM. In this way, some of the artists associated with the works eventually lose revenue in spite of their works being out in the market. The genuine users can also be denied an opportunity for backing up the content they have rightfully purchased and which they wish to protect from loss. While these disadvantages can be easily addressed, the difficulty comes in terms of the shortcomings of DRM. Such shortcomings like interference in case of internet and server outages; increased infringement due to the excessive restrictions imposed by DRM; moral and ethical implications of the use of DRM and the ability of illegal media use through CD burning can still hamper the protection of digital media (Rosenblatt and Others 111).
Other Alternatives for Digital Media Protection
Because of the shortcomings associated with Digital Rights Management, several other alternatives have been developed for the protection of digital media from illegal copying and distribution. For instance, appealing to the moral and ethical senses of the users has been used over the years. Advertisements that indicate the negative economic and financial implications of piracy are used to convince the potential buyers to purchase only the genuine digital media. Moreover, CBO suggests that offering free downloads can also help to protect the legal users of digital media content as well as preventing illegal distributing and copying of digital media. In this context, free downloads do not refer to the media to be protected but to other media that are to be offered as incentives to customers (CBO 30). Elimination and reduction of fair use provisions and strengthening of copyright law enforcement can also be used as alternatives to DRM in the protection of digital media. Strengthening law enforcement can help to make potential violators be fearful of the implications of their actions.
The emergence of digital media has made it easy for people to copy and distribute digital content over the years. While it is easy to control the distribution of physical content, controlling digital media is significantly difficult. This implies that more stringent measures have to be put in place for the prevention illegal copying and distribution of digital media. The most commonly applied method in the protection of such media is the use of Digital Rights Managements. However, this method is associated with various disadvantages and shortcomings. Other methods such as provision of cheap and easy downloads, incentives, elimination of fair use provisions and strengthening law enforcement can thus be used in place of DRM.
Congressional Budget Office (CBO). Copyright issues in digital media. Congress of the United States, 2004.
Conner, Kathleen and Richard Rummelt. “Software Piracy: An Analysis of Protection Strategies”. Management Science. 37 (2), 1991.
McOrmond, Russell. Protecting property rights in a digital world. Digital Copyright Canada. Web. 16 July 2006. Accessed from http://www.digital-copyright.ca/own
Raman, Karthik. Protecting intellectual property rights through information policy. Ubiquity, 2004. Web. Retrieved from http://ubiquity.acm.org/article.cfm?id=1008537
Rosenblatt, B. et al., Digital Rights Management: Business and Technology, M&T Books, 2001.
Sample Aviation Essay Paper on How have Technological Advances in the Aviation Industry Led to Stability and Record Profitability among Airlines? global history essay help: global history essay help
How have Technological Advances in the Aviation Industry Led to Stability and Record Profitability among Airlines?
Overview of Safety Management System
The safety Management System (SMS) is a formal and proactive method of system safety. SMS backs the goal of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), which is to offer a safe and effectual aerospace system in the world. The Air Traffic Organization (ATO) safety management system is a wide range of values, guidelines, procedures, techniques, and plans utilized in identifying, analyzing, assessing, managing, and monitoring safety risks in delivering air traffic management and communication, routing, and inspection services (George, 2014).
Safety, which is the focus of all ATO activities, refers to the condition in which the threat of injury to people or property damage is permissible. The management and provision of safety of operations using SMS has been the objective of air routing service providers globally, and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has established the guiding principles and the directive for member organizations to have an SMS (Jinn-Tsai & Wen-Chien, 2007).
The ATO’s safety management system’s efforts support the FAA safety mission, which stresses on persistent advancement of safety and incorporation of the safety management actions across FAA bodies, plans, and areas of business. The determination to establish and effect a multifaceted Next Generation Air Transportation system (NextGen) to enhance the safety and efficacy of air travel in the United States shows the significance of the safety management systems (George, 2014).
The elements of the safety management system are combined to form a methodical approach to controlling and promoting safety. The components include the safety policy, safety risk management, safety assurance, and safety promotion (George, 2014). ATO procedures and tools that support the safety management system are assists in:
Providing a standard structure to proactively and reactively detect and tackle safety hazards and risks associated with the National Airspace System (NAS) apparatus, activities, and processes.Encouraging intra-agency stakeholders to engage in handling the safety problems of an increasingly complex NASReducing secluded analysis and decision-making through unified safety management principlesImproving liability for safety using outlines, managerial duties and functions, and SRM processesIntegrating safety assurance processes that help the ATO to measure safety performance effectivelyPromoting a consistent cycle of evaluating, alleviating, and observing the safety of air routing servicesFostering a positive safety culture that assists in enhancing system safetyMeasuring the performance and supporting the development of the SMS
Progresses in Safety Management System
Measuring NAS-wide ATO Safety Performance
As a way of supporting the FAA strategic initiatives and assisting it to attain the Next level of safety, the ATO has established the System Risk Event Rate as a measure of its performance. The System Risk Event Rate metric, a 12 months progressing level that equates the number of high-risk losses of standard separation to the number of total losses of separation, is centered on Risk Analysis Events. Risk Analysis Events are losses of standard separation whereby less than two-thirds of the needed separation is sustained. Risk Analysis Events are recognized and evaluated as a portion of the Risk Analysis Process, which considers causative factors and pilot and controller performance when assessing the seriousness and repeatability of incidents that took place (George, 2014). Through the Risk Analysis Process, Risk Analysis Events substitute the established measures of safety performance in the ATO, permitting relationships to be derived between incidents and possible causes. From the performance of personal amenities up to the NAS-wide system level, the Risk Analysis Process assists in focusing ATO safety plan on meaningful causes, occurrences, and dangers that require corrective measures, therefore, improving risk-based decision-making plans (Jinn-Tsai & Wen-Chien, 2007).
Accidents that Spurred Technology Advances
GRAND CANYON/TWA Flight 2 and United Airlines Flight 718
This crash prompted a $200 million improvement of air traffic control (ATC) system. No crash between two carriers has happened in the United States in 45 years (Gill, 2004).
PORTLAND/United Airlines Flight 173
The accident encouraged Cockpit cooperation. The United airline refurbished its cockpit coaching methods. Cockpit resource management promoted cooperation and consultation among the crew.
CINCINNATI/ Air Canada Flight 797
The accident made the FAA to instruct that aircraft lavatories be armed with smoke sensors and automated fire extinguishers. In five years period, all jetliners were retrofitted with fire-blocking layers on seat pillows and floor lighting to direct travelers to outlets in intense smoke. Airplanes that developed after 1988 have more flame –resilient inner equipment.
DALLAS/FORT WORTH/ Delta Air Lines Flight 191
The crash elicited a seven-year FAA research attempt that resulted in the creation of on-board forward-looking radar wind-shear detectors that became standard equipment on airliners in the mid-1990s.
NOVA SCOTIA/Swissair Flight 111
The plane collided into Atlantic about 5 miles off the Nova Scotia coast causing 229 deaths. The FAA instructed that the Mylar insulation be substituted with fire resilient materials in approximately 700 McDonnel Douglas Jets (Gill, 2004).
LONG ISLAND/TWA flight 800 explosion
The accident resulted in FAA inculcating changes to minimize sparks from faulty wiring and other sources. A fuel-inserting system has been developed to instil nitrogen gas into fuel tanks to minimize the possibilities of outbursts. Retrofit tools for in-service Boeings were established.
An SMS is an active process of constant development. Risk identification, analysis, and management need a practical, three-pronged safety tactic that inspects organizational, human, and technical faults.
George, F. (2014). Safety Management System. Business & Commercial Aviation, 46-50.
Gill, G. K. (2004). Perception of safety, safety violation and improvement of safety in aviation: Findings of a pilot study. Journal of Air Transportation, 9(3), 43.
Jinn-Tsai, W., & Wen-Chien, Y. (2007). Validation of fault tree analysis in aviation safety management. Journal of Air Transportation, 12(2), 43-57
Sample Nursing Coursework Paper on Evidence Based Practice admission college essay help
Evidence Based Practice
Change theory, which was established by Kurt Lewin, is a popular theory in nursing that is usually borrowed from the field of social sciences. The theory is a three-stage process, which includes the Freezing, change as well as the refreezing stages. The theory is commonly employed when introducing organizational change. The freezing stage is where people are prepared to accept change, the change stage is where people device new approaches to do things and the refreezing stage is where people embrace new ways that allow change to take place (Sales, 2012).
Lewin’s change theory has been applied in evidence-based practice to exhibit how health worker’s behavior is usually accepted and upheld in a clinical setting. The theory was applied in two projects that were able to evaluate their planning frameworks to create a common evidence-based practice, which entailed a multifactor risk appraisal and follow-up procedure. The EBP projects were new and needed implementation of additional requirements to improve care targeting older adults. The projects were implemented in two different EBP settings and they faced resistance from varying populations. Lewin’s model was however employed in making mature EBP demonstrations, which perpetuated employee behavior and system changes (Manchester, 2014).
EBP improves quality, safety and even outcomes in healthcare by allowing nurses to be engaged in the entire research process as well as collaborate with interdisciplinary teams throughout the healthcare setting. This allows them to engage in a lasting pursuit of integrating data, information and research-based evidence to inform varying actions. This allows nurses to consistently improve care process as well as encourage their peers to ensure that patients receive the best healthcare services possible (Larrabe and Rosswurm, 2009). EBP further improves safety and quality by ensuring that nurses among other healthcare professionals understand scientific knowledge as well as the various strategies that impact the use of evidence as well as the integration of change. EBP enables healthcare professionals to understand that implementation of evidence into the practical context is often realized through various approaches rather than adopting one simple intervention. This ensures that key stakeholders are able to translate scientific evidence into daily care, which improves quality and overall healthcare outcomes (Detrich, 2012).
Detrich, S. (2012). Evidence Based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions, Education and Treatment of Children, 35(2):89-178.
Larrabe, J and Rosswurm, A. (2009). A Model for Change to Evidence-Based Practice, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 31(4):317-322.
Manchester, J. (2014). Facilitating Lewin’s Change Model with Collaborative Evaluation in Promoting Evidence Based Practices of Health Professionals, Virginia Aging Publications, 21(2):1-36.
Sales, A. (2012). Models, Strategies and Tools: Theory in Implementing Evidence-Based Findings into Healthcare Practice, J Gen Intern Med. 21(2):43-49.
Sample English Essay Paper on “College Pressures” essay help 123
College students go through hard time in making life choices. They are influenced by pressures from their parents, economic reality, pressure from their peers and from themselves. As one joins college, he has his dreams and what he wants to achieve in life. In some cases, these dreams are contrary to what their parents want them to dream and achieve. They would feel confused because they feel that failing to obey their parents is disrespectful.
Their peers also influence them in a bigger extent. Peers may make a student feel like his life is going the wrong direction just because he does not do what others are doing. Economic pressure comes when what a college student wants to pursue becomes impossible because of financial constraints. Students exert pressure on themselves when they lose touch with reality and start living in a world of fantasies.
In “college pressure”, the narrator has used different scenarios to prove to students that there is no straight road ahead that one should use to face life and the future. People start from different points and use different roots to become great achievers in life. This is the thesis statement and page 86 in “patterns for college writing’ gives a clear picture on how to come up with a good thesis statement.
The four categories outlined by the narrator are still relevant in today’s world. Students leave colleges hoping to move forward in life, yet in reality their education loans already pull them backward. They still face pressure from parents and peers. One must deal very carefully with these pressures to not only excel in life but to be accepted by parents and friends in the society.
Sample Aviation Annotated Bibliography Paper on Empirical Research on the Relationship between Helicopter Pilots’ Mental Workloads and Situation Awareness Levels college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles
Li-Wei, L., & Ming-Shiun, L. (2016). Empirical Research on the Relationship between Helicopter Pilots’ Mental Workloads and Situation Awareness Levels. Journal of The American Helicopter Society, 61(3), 1-8. doi:10.4050/JAHS.61.032005
The authors analyze the concept of situation awareness that has been seen to be fundamental in posing a risk in most aviation accidents and incidents. Through the study they weigh if this concept is part of the problems that cause the mental workload thus affecting the pilots mission in diverse areas of experience for instance the duration of the situation awareness. Real-world helicopter flights were conducted and recorded. Both correlation tests and analysis of variance were done on the data. The outcomes of the study will be used to evaluate the mental being of a pilot and the level of awareness in terms of situations in which there was a significant difference for mental workload between frustration and the rest of the dimensions.
Gil, G., & Kaber, D. B. (2012). An Accessible Cognitive Modeling Tool for Evaluation of Pilot–Automation Interaction. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 22(4), 319-342. doi:10.1080/10508414.2012.718236
Gil & Kaber (2012) approach to the evaluation of pilot-automation interaction takes a cognitive approach that has been developed to support description and prediction of human behavior in complex systems. They adopt the GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection rules) modeling methods have been used in human–computer interaction (HCI) analysis for many years and are considered easy to learn. Another limitation is that operation time estimates are deterministic. The research they undertake enhances GOMS language and computational cognitive modeling tool to address the existing GOMS limitations to aid cockpit automation designers in assessing the potential for automation-induced pilot performance problems. The new enhanced cognitive modeling approach is expected to provide accurate explanations and predictions of user behaviors during the design of complex systems and interfaces in various domains involving interactive task performance.
Fennell, Sherry, L., Roberts Jr., R. J., & Feary, M. (2006). Difficult Access: The Impact of Recall Steps on Flight Management System Errors. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 16(2), 175-196. doi:10.1207/s15327108ijap1602_4
The study examines flight management system (FMS) by recently employed pilots taking into account the nature of errors they committed with regard to the training they received.
The most common errors that they found included poor formatting, insertion and verification of entries by the pilots due to the nature of the steps being undertaken.
Mosier, K. L., Skitka, L. J., Dunbar, M., & McDonnell, L. (2001). Aircrews and Automation Bias: The Advantages of Teamwork? International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 11(1), 1-14.
The authors compare a series of recent studies on automation bias, the use of automation as a heuristic replacement for vigilant information seeking and processing. This study was designed to follow up on that research to investigate whether the error rates found with single pilots and with teams of students would hold in the context of an aircraft cockpit, with a professional aircrew. In addition, this study also investigated the efficacy of possible interventions involving explicit automation bias training and display prompts to verify automated information. Results demonstrated the persistence of automation bias in crews compared with solo performers. No effects were found for either training or display prompts. Pilot performance during the experimental legs was most highly predicted by performance on the control leg and by event importance.
Bennett, W. (2016). Remotely piloted aircraft. Place of publication not identified: John Wiley & Sons.
Bernet takes us through how human systems integration is handled especially for remotely piloted aircraft system. Also does an analysis of human systems integration has evolved listing the policy issues that have been undergone through in the course of grounding the control systems. He does a dig in the training issues that remotely piloted aircraft system from a human system integration perspective.
Sample Aviation Essay Paper on Lead Across Principle medical school essay help
Lead Across Principle
Lead-Across Principle #2: Using either your current/past work setting or your work at UD, discuss the following in detail. You may answer them separately or collectively. [30-points]How are you and your peers currently competing with each other?
My peers and I are involved in healthy competition where we focus on completing fellow leaders rather than unhealthy rivalry that affects business activities. Some of the areas we compete in include developing new strategies to sell the product to the public.
How does this competition contribute to the overall strength of you and your peers? AND how does this competition hurt you or your team?
This competition ensures that every person is working toward success and outdoing the other group. The competition is helping us to build trust on each other and make the right decision in regards to organization welfare. This ensures that the complete strategy in play is a win-win situation. In some situation, the competition would exclude some members hence hurting the group performance.
Where do you draw the line between healthy and unhealthy competition among your peers?
I draw the line for unhealthy competition where individual’s acts towards a win-lose situation and intend to destroy the trust established between members. This means that the competition at hand is unhealthy and likely to lead to losses.
Lead-Across Principle #6: What are some pragmatic things you can do in order to create an environment where people are comfortable sharing their ideas? How do you ensure that the people you don’t like or respect is also given the opportunity to share their ideas?
Let the Best Idea Win comes as a results of according equal opportunities and listening to all members and then evaluate the best alternative to put into practice. Some of the pragmatic things that I can do include: creating a favorable environment for information sharing, appreciating contribution and encouraging members to contribute. Through utilization of the above strategies individual contributions will be respected despite their status or reputation in the institution. Rendering equal opportunities to all members in the organization ensures that people who are not liked by the management or persons in leadership gives their contribution which may help the entity move a notch higher.
Lead-Across Principle #1: In one or two sentences, describe each of the six (6) items in the leadership loop. AND provide an example of how you have met each of these items in the past or how you plan to implement them in the future. You may use work related or UD related examples from your past. If it is for the future, use work related examples.
Understand, Practice, and Complete the Leadership Loop is the first principle. It entails the following items of leadership loop.
The first one is Caring. Listening and understanding the needs of the employees comes along way with caring for them. Thus, a leader will be looking after his/her subject.
I met this loop by looking and working closely with employees and ensuring that employee issues are dealt with. One of the things that I did is to ensure that management employs flexible working schedule for the employees.
Learning ensues that a leader understands his/her employees. It is also an opportunity to learn their behaviors.
I was able to study employee’s behavior by monitoring their work. I met this through working hand in hand with junior employees on a daily basis.
Appreciating employee’s efforts comes with first respecting their decisions. Employee contribution also encourages dedication when appreciation accompanies good results.
I respected my juniors hence they were able to accord me the same respect. Thus, employee would find it easy to contribute and express their mind to me as I treated them with respect as their supervisor.
Contributing to individual life ensures that their lives ensures that individual work and feel at ease. In addition, they work to meet deadline and contribute favorably towards success.
An example is where I decided and ensured that all employees were medically covered while working at the entity. This would come as a result of their contribution to draft laws that would cover them at work.
Verbalizing is involved with information delivery. Thus, talking and communicating with employees helps understand some of the issues they face.
I used to communicate with employee by applying an informal system of communication. This would allow me to acquire feedback as well as transfer information from one party to the other.
Leading on the other hand includes influencing people to work and follow the right decision. In addition, it shows coming up with a plan to be followed by others.
I was in charge of directing employees in carrying out their duties at my previous job. I was able to offer leadership to them hence the entity was in a position to meet its goals and objectives.
Lead-Across Principle #3, #4 & #5: The author recommends that you maintain close friendships at work, avoid office politics and expand your circle of acquaintances. [40-points]Why do you think the author recommends making friends on the job and expanding your circle of acquaintances?
Making friend ensures that a person is able to co-exist with fellow workmate and build trust. In addition, a person will learn a lot from other hence important.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of developing personal friendships among your peers at work?
The advantages include:
Encouragement to work hard and increased collaborationImproved social life at work where individuals share life experiences hence reduce stress
time wastage due to grouping at the organizationRelationship affects performance of an individual due to lack of emotional control.
Should the level of friendship you develop at work be at the same or different from the friendships you have developed among your peers in class or at home?
Relationship at work should be based on the role and task carried out by different members. The reason behind this is that if the relationship goes beyond work related issues then individual may end up performing poorly at work. They will also spend a lot of time building the relationship rather than concentrating to their work. Thus, the friendship would be different between the two scenarios.
What are the pitfalls of developing close intimate friendships at work? How do you strike a balance in maintaining close friendships and keeping it professional while at work?
Intimate relationship at work place leads to jealousy that affects personal contribution. Thus, most of the time individual at intimate relationship will be watching their partners an action that reduces their contribution. Close relationship should be treated in a manner that they do not affect organization activities. One of the strategies that would help strike a balance is to treat the partner as a workmate during office hours hence lead to increased productivity.
Lead-Across Principle #7: Evaluate and Discuss giving examples, some of your own weaknesses, faults or blind-spots? Discuss a minimum of three (3) where you feel you could improve on or strengthen. What kinds of things can you do to strengthen each of them?
My Weaknesses includes, paying no attention to what individual says towards the entity or me and having low interest in socializing with people.
Faults include errors that come about due to ignorance or lack of knowledge. Some of the faults include making business decisions without consultation and assuming the responsibilities of managers while working as a supervisor hence led to conflict of interest.
Blind-Spots on the other hand includes shortcoming such as failing to honor promises made in organization and overlooking employees plight and demands.
Three of the areas I need to strengthen include planning, leading and controlling employees. Planning requires wide consultation and involvement of employees. Leading on the other hand calls for listening and learning from employees. Lastly, controlling employees requires that I develop mechanisms and strategies that allow monitoring their movement and activities.
Sample Nutrition Essay on Documentary Reflection college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx
There are various reflections from the documentary. First, adjusting eating patterns can be quite a big challenge meaning it is critically important to showcase that every choice made in food is a formula to help one shift towards practicing a healthy eating habit. The eating patterns currently undertaken and consumed by both the Americans and U.K does not follow the Dietary Guidelines when compared to healthy style patterns from the clip it is clearly evident that about three-quarters of the time the population consumes food that is low in fruits and vegetables. It is also evident that people from both of the countries highly exceed the recommended levels of saturated fats, added sugars and sodium, besides the fact that the eating style of many is exceedingly high in calories. Though the high percentage of the obese in the U.S show that a higher percentage of the American citizens consume calories as compared to the U.K counterparts.
There are various stressors faced by parents while attempting to change food habits. They include snacking all the time, this means that the child will not be hungry when meal time comes, this prevents the child from learning to recognize when full and when hungry. The other is kids refusing to eat vegetables which are a great source of vitamins A and C plus fiber. It is also important for a child to grow up knowing that vegetables are connected to a healthy diet, healthy body weight and helps lower risks of getting some diseases. Consumption of too much sugar, even though kids are born with an affinity to sugar, the added sugar such as those found in snacks, sweets and desserts provide a lot of calories with less nutrition.
There are various changes involved in fixing of diets. In order to fix bad eating habits, one need to start by making small changes in their diet by taking some of various steps as beginning the day with a nutritious breakfast and avoiding the eating junk. The other would be learning to adapt to eating only when hungry and drinking more water as opposed to sugary drinks. Reducing portion sizes by20% and trying to lower fat dairy products would also be beneficial.
Eating habits are highly influenced by the socio-economic environment that is not in support of making healthy food choices. This is regarded as food Politics. Because of financial might and enormous influence over the masses, some of the organizations have managed to influence how people eat, this they achieve by the way they do their advertisements, having the presence in schools, media, and civic life among other avenues. The same also apply to the government who instead of safeguarding the citizen’s health they safeguard the financial interest of the big corporations
Sample Aviation Essay Paper on Lead Down Principles instant essay help: instant essay help
Lead Down Principles
1-Lead-Down Principle #5 & #6:
One of the values that I learnt from the lead down principle #5 and #6 is that a leader should have purpose which directs them onto what to exactly do in the long end. For example, in manufacturing, the leader should have the targets for production in a day that they should accomplish. Additionally, they should have passion for what they do. Setting clear goals and making sure that they are met is also very vital. The attitude usually depicts the atmosphere of operation. The investment type usually connotes the return, the behavior of a leader usually determines the culture of the company and lastly, the character of the same depicts the trust one has on the leader. For example, if a leader meets the deadline, the subjects will be inclined to follow suite.
2-Lead-Down Principle #1:
One of the ways in which I would go about meeting the principle#1 is through caring by for example taking interest in most of the people around the workplace. Additionally, I would inculcate learning by getting to understand people and knowing them in detail. One of the ways I would curve the relational time is for example through knowing people and understanding the personalities of my workmates. On the account of caring, I would for example inculcate the notion of being empathetic and viewing these people through the lens of their understanding and personality. I would create a balance between professionalism and interest through leading which means I would influence their decisions across the board. For example, I would clearly define the time for work and leisure time.
3-Lead-Down Principle #2:
Treating everyone as ‘10’ in a group is quite important since it creates an avenue of teamwork with keen attention to the notion growth within the group. It is however important to treat each person according to their talents and capabilities within the group. In this prospect, one would feel autonomously obliged to the group and would therefore maximize their potential in contributing to the group. Creation of profound friendship within the organization is also very vital as it helps build the foundation. For example, organizing social events that brings the workmates together is very important. At this point.
4-Lead-Down Principle #3 #4, & #7:
One of the ways in which you should develop the team is through identifying their potentiality in various fields for example, in management, computer skills among other and giving them the work which they understand best to enhance the potentiality of my workmates. Discovering a person’s dreams and aspirations is important as it connotes the willingness to work for their dreams. Here I would for example, dig into the academic and professional history of these individuals and understand their aspirations. Additionally, you should identify the various skills these team require and give it the best training on the same. one should also give public praise as a sense of motivation. Reward various individuals differently to connote the uniqueness. Promote, give good compensation and give perks beyond just normal pay.
Sample Sociology Article Review Paper on Why and How to Improve Mental Health Services for Youths popular mba argumentative essay help
Why and How to Improve Mental Health Services for Youths
The article “why and how to improve mental health services for youths” brings out very significant concepts on the subject of health services. Most severe mental illnesses usually start in the youthful stage. This is at the age of between 21 and 24. The young people are most susceptible to mental illnesses because of the states of lives they live. Most of the youths are exposed to lots of stressful conditions. The stresses arise because the young people are usually adventurous and would wish to try out anything that comes their way. Most of the trials end up in awful conditions especially those related to their social life. The stress sometimes leads to abuse of drug which later results into mental illnesses(Lieberman, 2016).This essay discusses how to improve mental health for the youths.
The article also offers vital information on the need to improve mental health among the young people. It regards it as the ultimate focus of mental health practitioners in the today’s world. This is due of to the fact that the world has been losing a large number of young people annually due to stress and mental illnesses. The first important step of how to improve mental health is supporting youth organizations in providing mental wellbeing services. These organizations or agencies are most suitable because they are usually accessible to every young person in the society. Moreover, the youth agencies or organizations in most situations reach out to all vulnerable youths who are at risk of having mental challenges (Lieberman, 2016).
The article also brings out useful concepts on mental conditions. The reason for using these agencies is because they also offer a good opportunity for the youths to interact and share their experiences about their mental conditions. As they talk about these conditions and challenges, solutions are found and interventions sort. Early interventions help to come up with better if not best health outcomes in future life. As they talk and share, they are offered an opportunity to promote mental well-being. The activities done by the mental agencies are crucial in the improvement of mental wellbeing (Lieberman, 2016).
There are great discussions in the article on various ways of improving mental well-being among the youths. This would create a culture of positivity and healthy living environment for the young generation. This culture is created by enhancing positive talks among the youths in the workplace. Setting aside a department for mentorship and counseling is also crucial in creating this culture. This department would to the young people an opportunity to talk about the challenges they are facing at home or with their social life anytime. It must be realized that mental wellness is greatly enhanced when people talk about the problems they face. Apart from just setting the department, the adolescences should be encouraged to pay frequent visits to the department (Lieberman, 2016).
Finally, the article looks at mental health enhancements through participation in various outdoor activities. These activities include games and outings in the fresh environment. As one plays, they get an opportunity to have the physically fit body. Moreover, time spent playing replaces the moments they could have spent worrying about various issues. This, therefore, reduces their levels of stress. The energy released while playing also empowers their brains and makes them better in how to respond to stress (Lieberman, 2016).
In conclusion, the article’s discussion on mental health is vital in the way it brings out a well behaved and mental stable adult population. The best way to enhance mental health is by using an integrated method which involves incorporating mental wellness programs in the activities done by the young people in the daily activities. The most important step, however, is to create a culture of positivity among the adolescences.
Lieberman, J. (2016, sept 23), why and how to improve mental health services for youths. US News and World Report.
Sample Nursing Capstone Project Paper on How Elderly Patients Can Have Access to New Electronic Medical Records assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney
How Elderly Patients Can Have Access to New Electronic Medical Records
The tenets of this study are ingrained in determining how the elderly patients can have access to new electronic medical records. In order to effectively conduct this study, research objectives that include determining how digitization of medical records has affected the elderly people,importance of researching the topic, the socioeconomic and political consequences of failing to consider the elderly patients while digitizing medical records, andpredicted improvements in healthcare industry to address the current problem. This study established that elderly training integrated with ICT is critical in enhancing capacity building and competence among the elderly in accessing medical reports. The policy makers in the healthcare industry willfindthe findings of this studycritical in strategizing to ensure that elderly can access their electronic medical records.
How Elderly Patients Can Have Access to New Electronic Medical Records
As elucidated in many studies, technological innovation has brought vast impacts in all fields and healthcare system is not exceptional(Slade, 2013). Over the years, advances in technology have increasingly played a significant role in the growth of healthcare systems and stood out as a crucial factor driving change in healthcare systems. Healthcare processes that entailpatient registration and data monitoring have recorded the impact of embracing technology. In addition, lab tests have recorded a shift from the traditional ways that were purely manual. Ingrained in Wheelen & Hunger (2014) opinions, devices such as computers and smartphones in addition to tablets have gradually replacing the conventional patient monitoring and recording systems.
Technological advancements have realized a great drift in service delivery by enabling services to be conducted far from the hospital confines. Besides, healthcare services have been integrated with user-friendly and accessible devices. This capstone project seeks to determine the accessibility of electronic medical records by the elderly citizens in the United States. Because of the reported technological advancements in the 21st century in the medical field, hospitals and healthcare facilitiesare continuously embracing technological concepts in the daily operations in order to enhance efficiency in recording and service delivery.
The tenets of embracing technology in the medical field have emphasized on digitized data storage, its accessibility, and retrieval of patients’ medical records. Statistics that is backed by the study conducted by Smith (2013)confirm that there is increasing need to access by people particularly the elderly in accessing their medical records remotely. The senior citizens of the United States have reported to be marginalized with regard to use of electronic medical reporting. Often, their medical reports are manually written and stored. This situation has been attributed to the limited accessibility of the technological skills and device availability.
As such, these senior citizens find it daunting to access their medical records in the medical facilities. Against this background, this capstone project seeks to examine how the elderly patients can access the new electronic medical recording approach.
Statistics indicate that over time, medical policy makers and scholars have misrepresented facts regarding how the elderly in the United States have embraced the technological advances in the medical field. Notably, it has been erroneously assumed greater percentage, 82%, of the elderly citizens are familiar with the technology (Mellahi & Morrell, 2010). In fact, this study notes that majority of the elderly have been accessing their medical records manually written on papers as a sole means of recording.
It is important to acknowledge that the inception of the digital approach in the health care industry caught the elderly unawares. As such, this capstone project seeks to create awareness and sensitize policy makers into creating a conceptual framework that is geared at responding to this problem under study. Vast studies have established that the elderly citizens in the United States have a challenge accessing their electronic medical records; a scenario that has been attributed to limited familiarity of the new technology in the healthcare industry and modern day technological gadgets at large.
2.0 Literature Review
Healthcare industry advances in technology have been positively received and incorporated into the healthcare systems. Embracing the technology has been found to facilitate physicians to make better diagnoses and recommendations for treatment. Further, these advances in technology have resulted to changes in which healthcare is provided ranging from record keeping that has shifted from manual to electronic recording and electronic patient registration in addition to data monitoring to data storage. A study steered by Horcher (2013) concluded thatin 2013, 80% of the hospitals across the United States had embracedElectronic Health Recording (EHR) approach.
Far from effective data recording and storage, the new technology has been credited for remote monitoring. As elucidated by Griseri & Seppala (2012), 3.2 million patients were utilizing this home monitoring approach by 2012 courtesy of the new technology.Monitoring patients from their residential area helps minimize travel costto hospitals. For instance, it has cited that a cardiac cast fitted to a patient with a pacemaker can automatically transmit the patient data tothe remote healthcare centers.
Secondly, EHR has been credited for enhancing communication.Via this new platform and gadgets, patients can easily connect with doctors. Healthcare professionals are able to track patient treatment history and gather data on vast areas and departments in the hospital; a task that was previously difficult (Stanley & Nelton, 2012). Besides, the medical translation tools have also been found critical in enabling doctors to utilize the appin communicating with the patient. In order to affirm the fact, a study conducted byWheelen & Hunger (2014) indicated that 44 million residents of the UK were the beneficiaries of the app in 2013. In addition, through communication apps, doctors across the globe are able to collaborate online to share ideas and handle difficult cases.
Many healthcare facilities have outlined a major challengeof the inability of the elderly patients to use or access their health care records. This scenario has in turn affected the healthcare providersfrom effective service delivery to the patients.Studies that are ingrained in exposing and seeking remedies to this problem have further highlighted barriers to implementation of electronic health records that are not limited to failure by the elderly to access their records via gadgets such assmartphones and computers (Slade, 2013).
As concluded in their study, Schmidt & Strickland (2012). established that the inability of theelderly to utilize technology has been attributed as the major cause of ineffectiveness of health care record keeping. These scholars recommended that health care institutions should seek strategies of mitigating this problem such as introducing educational classes where skills on how to use computers, laptops, and smartphones are taught. In so doing, the elderly will be facilitated to competently utilize these gadgets in accessing the medical reports from the health care facilities.
In their survey aimed at examining the percentage of the aging United States citizens who have access and able to utilize the new technology in the medical industry Mellahi & Morrell (2010)established that it is only the minority of the elderly citizens who embrace the technology. A large number of the elderly, 76% are not conversant with this new technology and thus not able to embrace it. In concluding their study, they opined that there is need to embrace electronic health records in addressing and improving the health care provision particularly to the elderly.
Notably, Smith (2013) sought to examine the hiccups the senior United States patients undergo in their efforts to access their online medical records. Further, their study explored vast solutions and strategies that would best address these challenges and allow the elderly patients enjoy the online service in accessing their health records. Interestingly, their study also concluded that training and continued exposure to internet would enable the elderly patients be aware of the technology and make huge strides in embracing it. Similarly, Stanley & Nelton (2012) case study gave similar strategies of incorporating use of special software that has the ability to guiding the elderly patients in navigating through the internet and effective use of the gadgets to facilitate access of their medical reports.
The study finds the hypothesis under study critical inacknowledging the problems experienced by the elderly in their bid to access their electronic medical records. Further, the results will seek to give solutions to address the challenge. Ingrained on the results, this study will provide vast recommendations that will be geared at enhancing the steps of the elderly to accessing to their medical records electronically.
3.0 Research Methods Used and Data Collected
In this study, the researcher utilized a stratified random sampling approach in order to select the representative samples to be utilized in this study from the entire population. As per Montgomery & Douglas (2014), the tenets of stratified sampling are ingrained in dividing the target population into the homogenous subsets. After dividing, picking of a simple random sample was then done from each subset. Thirty percent (30%) of the entire elderly patients in twenty health facilities were sampled for this study.
Target Population Sample Size Sample % 373 111 30
Further, the researcher opted to embrace a descriptive design in this study. A research design is perceived to be an arrangement of data collection in addition to analysis approaches that are geared towards combining the purpose of the present study and the economy of the procedure that this research utilized. In carrying out a study ingrained in determining how the elderly patients can have access to the new electronic medical records; the researcher utilized interviews mainly as descriptive research approach in this study.
The choice of the descriptive research design was influenced Smith (2013). assertions that a descriptive study facilitates fact finding in addition to being open in formulating of vital principles that are of great significant in recommending strategies of addressing the exiting problems. As such, the choice of this study design is appropriate in formulating of crucial strategies of addressing the efficiency of service delivery at healthcarefacilities via the utilization of the new technology in the healthcare industry.
This study interviewed 111 elderly patients as an approachof data collection. This study employed three questionnaires that were used during theinterviews.The questionnaires were based on the Likert scale ranging from 1-Strongly Disagree to 5-Strongly. The first set of questions were phrased in a manner that was to trigger responses that will determine how the elderly patients can have access to the new electronic medical records and further determine their perceptions.
The interview questions contained both open and close-ended questions in order to help the researcher capture a vast range of perceptions from respondents towards how the elderly patients can have access to the new electronic medical records.
The researcher further ensured that the interview statements that were measure how the elderly patients can have access to the new electronic medical records measured the aspect that they were real indeed intended to measure. Ingrained on Montgomery & Douglas (2014) definition, validity is perceived as the ability of a research instrument utilized in research to obtain what if was purposed to measure. The researcher in the bid to ensure the validity of the interview statements recorded validity, the researcher embraced peer review. Notably, items of the interview toolwere randomly chosen to adequately cover the research topic to ensure content validity.
Reliability refers the extent to which a research tool yields consistent results over repeated trials (Mellahi & Morrell, 2010). Suitability and clarity of the items of the interview tool were determined and items perceived to be vague were discarded or modified to enhance clarity and ensure that responses were relevant to the purpose of the present research study.
Further, a reliability test of the interview tool was conducted by computing the Cronbach’s alpha. This was important in facilitating internal consistency of the research interview tool. Besides, a retest method was embraced in order to ensure the reliability of a research interview itemsthat were used in this study. Only reliable results can generalized to the whole elderlypopulation of the United States.
Data Analysis Methods
Data analysis is a perceived systematic process of applying a statistical or logical technique to describe, illustrate and evaluate collected data. This process is aimed at providing inductive inferences that will logical findings and recommendations (Stanley & Nelton, 2012).After data was been collected, data cleaning was done so as to eliminate incomplete data. Besides, data coding was also done and entered into the computer and analysis done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (rxy) was computed to determine the relationship between elderly training and utilization of technology in accessing healthcare records.
4.0 Results and Analysis of Research Findings
This section presents the results of the field study. The response rate and the demographic information of the respondents’will be analyzed. Additionally, the effect of digitization of medical records on the elderly citizens of the U.S will be examined. Examining the plausible reasons why conduct research on the inability of the elderly people being not able to access electronic medical records and the socioeconomic and political consequences of failing to consider elderly patients while digitizing medical records constitutes the scope of this section.
Besides, this section will seek to examine the predicted improvements on the public healthcare that are geared at addressing the current problem. The researcher will also be interested in determining the aspects of electronic health records that should be prioritized. Particularly, aspects of accessibility, storage, and retrieval of medical data will be determined. Both qualitative and quantitative statistics were used in analyzing data. In particular the correlation coefficient was used. The results are discussed in this section by the researcher are in the light of the reviewed literature that ingrained in determining how elderly patients can have access to the new electronic medical records.
Demographic Data of Respondents
Figure 4.1: Distribution of elderly patients by gender
Based on to the demographic results of the study presented in Figure 4.1, most of the elderly patients (59.1%) were male. The female elderly patient participants were 40.5%.
Theresearcher was interested in determininghow the elderly patients perceiveddigitalization of medical records.
Do you embrace EHR technology in accessing your medical records?
As such, the elderly patients were required to give their perceptions based on yes/no platform.
Based on the study findings, majority of the elderly patients,92%, reported that they did not embrace EHR technology in accessing their medical records. It is only 8% of the elderly patients who participated in this study who acknowledged to utilizing the technology in accessing their medical records. These findings are confirmation of the detrimental magnitude of the problem of the elderly not accessing and utilizing the new technology in accessing their medical reports.
Further, the researcher was also interested in determining the correlation between embracing technology and accessibility of the medical records by the elderly.
Pearson product moment correlation
TechnologySig. 1 .811**
N 111 111
AccessibilitySig. .811** 1
N 111 111
The researcher established a positive correlationof rxy = .811. Thus, advances in medical technology are of great importance in enabling the elderly access their medical records. The coefficient of determination was established as = 65.7%. Thus, 65.27% of job medical accessibility of healthcare records is attributed to access to technology.
The researcher considered researching on the inability of the elderly people not able to access electronic medical records because of a general misconception among scholars and policy makers in the healthcare sectors that all categories of the U.S citizens were at par with the new medical technology. The researcher was interested in disseminating a true picture on how the aged have been left the technology simply because of making generalizations.
Are you able to access EHR?
In order to establish the elderly patients’ perceptions, a four-point Likert scale ranging from ‘Strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’ was used. When asked how satisfied they felt with accessibility of the electronic health records, 72.2%either strongly disagreed or disagreed and elucidated that they are not able to access the technology. Only 12% of the elderly patients acknowledged to having access to the technology. When further asked to account for the gap, majority of the senior citizens attributed the gap to lack of skills.
The present findings are in agreement with that of Stanley & Nelton (2012) that concluded that incorporating the use of special software that has the ability to guide the elderly patients in navigating through the internet and effective use of the gadgets to facilitate access of their medical reports was critical.
4.3 Socioeconomic and political consequences of failing to consider elderly patients while digitizing medical records
Notably, the researcher sought to establish the socioeconomic and political consequences of failing to consider elderly patients while digitizing medical records. As such, the researcher asked the elderly patients to give their take on the policy makers in the healthcare industry failing to consider them while digitalizing records.
What are the socioeconomic and political consequences of low recognition of the elderly while embracing EHR?
Statement StronglyAgreeDisagreeStrongly agree disagree f % f % f % f % Are there socioeconomic and political consequences of low recognition by government? 82 73.9% 25 22.5% 4 3% –
After computing the frequency and percentages, it was established that majority of the elderly patients’ respondents, 73.9%, strongly disagreed with the idea of being lowly recognized.Giving the elderly low recognition was detrimental to the county’s GDP. Further, 77% reported being dissatisfied the political system of the day when they receive low recognition from the government.
The elderly patients were asked to give their opinions particularly on training in order to enhance their skills development to effectively embrace the new technology in accessing the medical records.
Can training enhance your skills of handling EHR technology?
Ingrained on the study findings, 71% of the aging citizens acknowledged that training is critical in enhancing their EHR competence skills for effective handling the online medical reports. On the other hand, it is only 29% of the elderly patients who felt that training in insignificant in enhancing development of technological skills. The researcher also established that elderly training integrated with ICT is critical in enhancing capacity building among the elderly. Training was found to boost skills among the elderly.
Similarly, the researcher determined the training and competence correlation.
Pearson product moment correlation
TrainingSig. 1 .782**
N 111 111
CompetenceSig. .782** 1
N 111 111
The researcher established a positive correlation of rxy = .782. As such, elderly training in medical technology will enable the elderly develop competence that is critical in accessing and utilizing technology in accessing their medical reports. The coefficient of determination was established as = 61.1%. Thus, 61.1% the competence in handling EHR is attributed to training.
This study further established found similar findings as that of Schmidt & Strickland (2012) that recommended that health care institutions should seek strategies of mitigating this problem by introducing educational classes where skills on how to use computers, laptops, and smartphones will be taught. In so doing, the elderly will be facilitated to competently utilize these gadgets in accessing the medical reports from the health care facilities.
The researcher sought to determine the priority amongaccess, storage, and retrieval of medical data aspects of the electronic records in order to address the problem of accessibility of the new electronic medical records among the elderly patients. In order to establish the facts necessary in analysis to determine what the elderly most prioritized; the elders were required to rate the aspects under study.
Ingrained on the study findings, 46% of the respondents reported that accessibility of the electronic records should be given the priority. A further 34% of the elderly felt that the aspect of information storage should be given priority while only 20% of the elderly opined that retrieval of the reports should be given priority.
5.0 Discussion of Hypothesis
This study was ingrained in determining how elderly patients can have access to the new electronic medical records.Firstly, theresearcher was interested in determininghow the elderly patients perceiveddigitalization of medical records. The researcher established embracing technology was critical in enabling the elderly accessing their medical records.
The researcher also sought to establish why conducting research on the inability of the elderly people not able to access electronic medical records is important. It was established that it is critical in order to incorporate the use of special software that has the ability to guide the elderly patients in navigating through the internet and effective use of the gadgets to facilitate access of their medical reports.
This study also established that elderly training integrated with ICT is critical in enhancing capacity building and competence among the elderly. Training was found critical inboosting the skills of the elderly in accessing their medical records electronically.
Griseri, P., & Seppala, N. (2012). Medical ethics and corporate social responsibility. Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Horcher, K. (2013). Essential of the financial risk and management. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Jachia, L., & Nikonov, V. (2012). Risk management and regulatory framework to a better risks management. New York: United Nations.
Mellahi, K., & Morrell, K. (2010). Ethical business handling: Challenges and controversies (2nd ed.). Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Montgomery, T., & Douglas, C. (2014). Statistical Quality Control. John Wiley & Sons.
Schmidt, F., & Strickland, T. (2012). Client satisfaction surveying: Common measurement tool. Ottawa: The Centre.
Slade, S. (2013). Case-based reasoning: A research paradigm. The New Havens, CT: Yale University, Dept. of Computer Science.
Smith, C. (2013). Clients’ satisfaction results from Quality service for practice and success. Lakewood, Colo.: AAHA Press.
Stanley, B., & Nelton, G. B. (2012). Research ethics: A psychological approach. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Weathington, B., & Cunningham, C. (2012). Understanding business research. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
Wheelen, T., & Hunger, J. (2014). Strategic management and business policy (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Criminal Justice Coursework Paper Sample on The Turner Diaries writing essay help
The Turner Diaries
From the Turner Diaries, its evident that revolution was geared by a war led by The Organization. This gained concern after the continued existence of racism between the blacks and the Jews. Before this war began, we find that there was a law that was passed. The main reason for this was to avoid illegal possession of firearms by the civilians. To some extent, this was necessary since there were a lot of disparities between the two races. Through the Cohen Act, the Supreme endeavored to legalize rape on grounds that such laws against rape tend to breed some sense of racism in the society (MacDonald,1996).
The Organization in itself has attempted to achieve their objectives in various ways, some justifiable as others tend to draw more on terror and acts against humanity. At some point they attack the FBI by bombings. Such acts are never taken lightly by the federal government. Following this, Turners group is one that is a necessary evil: they are fighting for equality and justice as whole while at the same time attacking the federal government. From my point of view, the Organization’s acts are those that violate the law and therefore it is more of a terror campaign than that seeking for equal treatment.
The introduction of Katherine by the author presents a situation of giving a hand. As per the text, she is one who has gained much experience since she has worked for several organizations (MacDonald, 1996). Turner uses Katherine to provide a bridge between the government and the group that is campaigning for equality at the expense of lives of innocent citizens and government property. The group has destroyed lots of buildings most of which belong to the government, FBI agents have lost their lives and innocent civilians have lost their loved ones. However much this campaign is geared towards equality, peace and development, shedding innocent blood doesn’t make it right.
The group has conducted many attacks, some of them targeting New York City. Nuclear war heads have also been used in these attacks. Israel was among the targets of this group with the main reason of starting a war between the US and the Soviet Union. All of their attacks presented situations that enabled other parties like Arabs to invade Israel. At the end of the day, they killed so many people before achieving their main objective. Therefore, such a movement can never be considered just and fair as far as destruction of lives and property is concerned.
The Islamic State has had plans to fight for the main leader of the Jihadist movement. This comes after Al-Qaeda became successful in some of their operations. The fact that the victor is not known makes it more violent and one that will have many Americans beheaded. These are groups that fight for what they believe in without considering the kind of destruction they cause. Al-Qaeda on the other hand, has several operations to run in order to emerge victorious in their attacks with the aim of claiming the title as the head of the Jihadist movement. Other religious groups like the Catholic church has always fought against same sex marriage. Their operations are totally different since their campaigns are not driven using force and firearms. They only want to convince the public that what the Holy Book advocates for is right and should be adhered to (Raspail, 1994).
MacDonald, A. (1996). The Turner Diaries. New York: Barricade Books Inc.
Raspail, J., Norman, R. (1994). The Camp of Saints. Paris: Social Contract Press. pp 221-235.
Sample Nutrition Research Paper on Metabolic Syndrome college application essay help
Metabolic syndrome is a series of conditions which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. The condition is indicated by conditions such as hypertension and hyperglycemia and diagnosed through the presence of at least three of the symptomatic conditions. The standard medical treatment involves isolation and pharmacological treatment of individual conditions while both alternative and nutrition therapies are aimed at weight reduction. If not checked, the syndrome can result in increased risk of various conditions such as myocardial infarctions, which can be fatal.
Introduction and Background
Metabolic syndrome is described as a series of conditions that are clinical, biological, physiological and/ or biochemical. These conditions are interconnected in a way that they cause an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type two diabetes mellitus. The connection between cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome as well as that between the syndrome and diabetes mellitus has been well established through studies based on experimentation and research. Other studies have also indicated that metabolic syndrome could be a precursor early menopause as well as some menopausal complications. According to a study carried out by Jouyandeh et al (2013), the reduction in health related quality of life that is a result of metabolic syndrome can result in reduced fertility levels and early menopause.
Metabolic syndrome was discovered in 1920 as a concept and not as a diagnosis. The concept was demonstrated by Kylin who realized that there was a connection between high blood pressure and hyperglycemia. Through the years, this remained just as a concept, with the belief that there is the possibility of having both conditions at the same time. In 1947, further studies on the subject of metabolic syndrome led to the inclusion of visceral adiposity as another condition that could be associated with the series. The key discovery in relation to this condition however came in 1988 following a study by Reaven, in which a syndrome identified as syndrome X was linked to increased vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. The linkage between the syndrome and CVDs as well as with diabetes led to more efforts towards discovery of diagnostic and treatment procedures. Currently, the condition has effectively been associated with particular symptoms through the efforts of specific interest groups such as the World Health Organization among others. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the present times stands at 10 percent to 84 percent. The prevalence across world populations varies depending on factors such as race, sex, age and ethnicity among other key features. The impacts of different factors on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome are discussed in depth by Kaur (2014).
Despite the efforts that have been made over the years by different organizations to develop effective pharmacological treatments for metabolic syndrome, this has been challenging because of two key reasons. First, metabolic syndrome presents through a variety of distinctive conditions. As such it is difficult to clinically diagnose the condition unless through clinical testing to ascertain the presence of at least three of the conditions associated with metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the lack of a common definition of metabolic syndrome across the medical divide has led to great difficulties in treating the condition wholesomely. The key procedures used in the treatment of the condition are therefore differentiated for the different conditions associated with the disease. There are on the other hand, alternative treatment procedures that can be applied to manage metabolic syndrome.
Etiology and Pathophysiology
Metabolic syndrome is associated with chronic inflammation that is said to be low grade. The inflammation comes about as a result of the combination of environmental and genetic factors which increase the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and type two diabetes mellitus. The syndrome constitutes of various conditions including insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, endothelial dysfunction, atherogenic dyslipidemia, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure and chronic stress among other conditions. These conditions are characterized by various distinctive symptoms which pose a challenge in the management and treatment of metabolic syndrome. Due to the ability of identification of the constituents of metabolic syndrome, the syndrome can be managed by isolation and addressing the different characteristic conditions of the disease. As such the condition symptoms are also synonymous with the symptoms of the combination of the different conditions that constitute the syndrome (Reilly & Radin, 2003).
Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome
Being an interconnection of different conditions, the disease is characterized by various symptoms. As opposed to other conventional symptoms, metabolic syndrome symptoms are identified as conditions or diseases in their own. For instance, one of the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome is Elevated Blood Pressure (Hypertension). Apart from this, those with metabolic syndrome also exhibit hyperglycemia or high blood glucose levels, hypertriglyceridemia; reduced High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL- C). Other symptoms include abdominal obesity, chest pains, Xanthomas and shortness of breath. The conditions have to be present in multiples in order for metabolic syndrome to be said to be in occurrence. According to a research by Grundy et al (2005), those with abdominal obesity portray an extended waist size greater than the maximum allowed for the consideration of metabolic syndrome. The symptoms can be used to recognize the particular conditions for different patients since the combinations are different depending on the genetic predisposition and the environment in which the patient stays.
Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed through the presence of three of five key symptoms of the disease. The first of the five is an indication of elevated fasting glucose levels. Normally, it is expected that the fasting glucose, determined after 8 hours of no eating should be less than 100mg/ dl. In patients with the metabolic syndrome, the fasting glucose level is higher than or equal to the maximum amount set. Alternatively, diagnostic procedures may include only a determination of whether the patient is undergoing therapy for hyperglycemia. The second diagnostic measure involves the analysis of the blood pressure level. Individuals with metabolic syndrome have a high blood pressure, of greater than 130/ 85 mmHg. The clinical diagnosis procedure may involve asking the patient whether they are on therapy for hypertension. Reduced High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL- C) is another clinical indication of metabolic syndrome. The HDL- C levels should be greater than 50mg/dl for women and greater than 40mg/ dl for men. The procedure involves the consideration of whether the patient is under medication for reduced HDL-C levels (Grundy et al., 2005).
Other diagnostic measures involve waist circumference and triglycerides. The waist circumference for men with metabolic syndrome is usually greater than or equal to 102cm while that for women is greater than or equal to 88 cm. The triglycerides on the other hand have to be greater than 150mg/dl. Those under pharmacological therapy for hypertriglyceridemia are also considered for evaluation for the metabolic syndrome. All the diagnostic procedures target at least one of the symptoms associated with the condition. Since metabolic syndrome is a series of interconnected conditions, the diagnosis is only concluded to be positive when an individual display at least three of the symptoms associated with the syndrome. Grundy et al (2005) report that in addition to the more direct diagnostic procedures, the process may also involve examination of patients for conditions such as chest pain and shortness of breath. This examination however comes only later when considered necessary and not as part of the general diagnostic procedure. Chest pains and shortness of breath form an important part of diagnosis as they may be indications of underlying cardiovascular problems (Jouyandeh et al., 2013).
Standard Medical Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome
Although there is no singular pharmacological procedure for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, the combination of appropriate pharmacological agents can help in the treatment of the syndrome. The identification and isolation of the constituting conditions is the first step towards effective pharmacological treatment. Reilly and Raden report that since there are several risk factors for the syndrome, there is need for preventive practices such as lifestyle changes (2004). However, when the case is already escalated to a point where the lifestyle changes cannot result in significance change in the status of the patient. Those with high risk factors cannot be helped much through lifestyle changes and thus have to undergo the pharmacological treatment associated with metabolic syndrome. Following the identification and isolation of the disease conditions, the next step in medical treatment of metabolic syndrome involves the treatment of each individual condition to reduce their impacts on the lives of patients. There is no single method that can help to treat metabolic syndrome wholesomely.
One of the key factors that place one at risk of metabolic syndrome is the increase in wait. To address this factor, patients are normally assisted through giving appetite suppressants. Weight is one of the factors that increase the risk and adversity of conditions such as hypertension, abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia and other conditions that are symptomatic of metabolic syndrome. Shortness of the breath may also come about as a result of restricted blood flow and excess weight which needs to be reduced. To help in addressing this issue of weight, medical treatment involves giving phentermine derivatives and/ or sibutramine which help in the suppression of appetite. Apart from this, other medications given may help to increase the rate of metabolism. For patients who fail to respond to weight loss diets and medications, and those who are extremely obese and likely to develop co morbid conditions, surgical procedures may be recommended. Bariatric surgery is the most relevant option for patients desiring weight loss but unable to achieve it through other procedures.
Raising the HDL-C levels can be done in a meaningful manner clinically through the administration of statins such as rosuvastatin. This method is supposed to be helpful but it is yet to be widely accepted. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have been indicated to be effective for the increase of HDL-C too. Overweight patients with high levels of triglyceride and low HDL-C can be given fibrate therapy as an adjunct. Patients with hyperglycemia have to begin medication with an insulin sensitizing agent like metformin. It is reported that this drug may be useful in reversing the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. This is however only probable when used in combination with various lifestyle changes in the patient. Following treatment with insulin sensitizing agents, the hyperglycemia patients may be subjected to screening and management of diabetes mellitus as well as screening for complications in the end organs (Reilly & Raden, 2003). There are other treatments specific to different conditions associated with metabolic syndrome. Triglyceride treatment involves administration of niacin and fibrates and sometimes may involve addition of omega three fatty acids to the medical treatment regime. Treatment of hypertension is possible medically but is dependent on the ability to modify lifestyle and to combine a variety of diagnostic and pharmacological procedures (Reilly & Raden, 2003). However, blood pressure can be controlled through increased activity and frequent screening for renal disease to prevent escalation.
Medical Nutrition therapy
Apart from the medical/ pharmacological procedures used in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, the conditions can also be addressed through medical nutrition therapy. In fact, only patients who fail to improve following medical nutrition therapy and alternative treatments are subjected to pharmacological procedures. Medical nutrition therapy involves the modification of patient diets in a manner that favors reduction of syndrome risk factors. Dietary practices which lead to weight gain are discouraged while those which lead to weight reduction are encouraged and taught. Medical nutrition therapy requires great discipline on the part of the patient and may result in even greater benefits for the patient in terms of reduction of syndrome symptoms. Almost all the conditions that constitute metabolic syndrome are associated with weight gain. The reduction of calorific consumption per day can help in the overall efforts for weight reduction. From the research carried out by Kaur (2014), the use of real energy diets was found to be essential in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. In this case, the diet involves consumption of 500 – 1000 calories of energy per day. In this way, one is sure to consume less calories than used leading to weight loss.
Apart from this, Kaur also reports that for the dietary changes to be sustainable, it is necessary for the patients to be referred to registered dieticians. This can help in giving directions to the patients on how to balance their dietary needs with their consumption in such a way that the overall weight loss is increased. While minimizing the consumption of materials that can result in energy increase or in the increase of fat, it is also recommended that patients should ensure that they consume micronutrients adequately. In most cases, dietary plans fail to take into consideration the micronutrient requirements for the body. This is where a certified dietician comes in. For patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia, it is also necessary for the diet to contain approximately 25 to 35% of the total calorie intake as fat (Kaur, 2014). In this case, the protein intake is recommended to be approximately 10 – 35 percent of the total calorie intake.
Another measure that is often recommended in medical nutrition therapy for patients with metabolic syndrome is dietary replacement. Conditions such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus which are prevalent among patients with metabolic syndrome require particular dietary consideration. In a review of relevant literature, Kaur (2014) found out that one of the methods which are most relevant in medical nutrition therapy is sodium restriction. This is most essential for patients suffering from hypertension. Reduced sodium can help to improve their overall health related quality of life. Furthermore, patients with diagnosis of high blood pressure can reduce the sodium in their diet and substitute it with potassium salts. In this way, their blood pressure can be reduced significantly. Other dietary changes may also be necessary for patients with abdominal obesity through reduction of fat intake. Patients with high blood glucose levels can reduce sugar consumption and instead substitute the artificial sugars with natural sugars derived from other foods.
Patients are also advised to keep off processed foods, refined carbohydrates and sugar and alcohol. Researchers have shown in the past that processed foods such as bagged, boxed and frozen items led to increased risk of metabolic syndrome developed. Consumption of processed foods was found to result in increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both adults and children. Similarly, refined carbohydrates and sugars come with increased insulin resistance, high blood sugar levels and increased risk of development of diabetes mellitus. Too much alcohol can help in raising the blood pressure and the triglyceride levels. Alcohol increases the calorific intake to the diet. Men should have at most two drinks per day while women should take no more than one drink per day (Wilson et al., 2005).
Wilson et al also give a list of foods that can be consumed by those with metabolic syndrome to help in the reduction of the disease symptoms. Omega three rich foods can help in reducing triglycerides as reducing blood pressure. In addition to this, vegetables are also recommended as essential for the reduction of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Dark green vegetables such as kale, broccoli and spinach are all nutritious as well as clinically effective for the reduction of high blood pressure and maintenance of a healthy weight for those with metabolic syndrome. Fruits such as pomegranate can also be taken by metabolic syndrome patients to help in reducing the severity of hyperglycemia since it has hypoglycemic effects. Other effects associated with fruits such as pomegranate include improvement of blood lipid profiles, reduction of total cholesterol levels, anti-inflammatory effects and increased insulin sensitivity. All these are instrumental in the reduction of metabolic syndrome prevalence (Wang, 2015). Legumes and whole grains are also critical in the maintenance of a high health related quality of life.
In addition to the medical and medical nutrition therapies recommended for metabolic syndrome, other forms of treatment also exist. Effective preventive approaches for the treatment of metabolic syndrome lifestyle changes, weight loss and exercise can help in the management of metabolic syndrome even before medical treatment procedures. This is the reason behind the recommendation that pharmacological treatment methods be used only for cases in which the patients fail to exhibit improvement following the use of alternative treatment methods. Cameron et al (2004) assert that the key prevention and treatment procedure that can be applied for metabolic syndrome patients is through lifestyle change. The lifestyle change process that is recommended for such patients involves an interdisciplinary approach to treatment. It requires physicians, fitness experts and nutritionists among other persons since the change applies to all aspects of the patients’ lives (Cameron et al., 2004).
The key areas of lifestyle modification include exercise physiology, behavioral psychology and health education. The first stage in modification is the health education aspect. In this stage, the patients are given information on the impacts of their current lifestyles on their future and on the exacerbation of their conditions. This information is provided as a basis for the development of a positive attitude towards the coming lifestyle modification efforts. This is the only way through which patients can be prevented from offering resistance to changes in their lifestyles. The key target of lifestyle changes in the patients of metabolic syndrome is to result in weight reduction. This can only be achieved through calorie restrictions, increased physical activity, behavioral modification and combination of FDA approved medications for pharmacological purposes (Wang, 2015).
Increased physical activity as a way of improving the quality of life of metabolic syndrome patients involves incorporation of moderate to vigorous physical exercises in the patient’s routine. This can be initiated through experimenting with different forms of physical exercise so that the patient can find the most comfortable ones for them to engage in. In case there is need, the patient can break up the exercise regime into 10 minute stints to help better manage with their condition. Calorific reductions can be done through the outlined procedures for medical nutrition, particularly by reducing intake to range between 500 to 1000 calories per day. According to Kaur behavioral modifications simply involves avoidance of negative behaviors such as alcohol consumption while pharmacological procedures come in after the failure of all the alternative treatment methods. Smoking should also be stopped by the metabolic syndrome patients.
Long Term Impact on Quality of Life and Life Span
The quality of life and the life span of individuals with metabolic syndrome are negatively affected to a large extent. The fact that the syndrome can result in mortality is alone to signify reduction in the life span of the affected individual. Similarly, the long term effects of metabolic syndrome such as increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and increased risk of diabetes mellitus are all reasons for concern. For patients with metabolic syndrome, Wang (2015) reports that there is a five times higher risk of diabetes mellitus compared to patients with no metabolic syndrome. This implies that the risks associated with diabetic mellitus such as liver failure and loss of sight are also prevalent for those who suffer from metabolic syndrome. This means that as long as one is affected with metabolic syndrome, there is the potential of being affected by the after effects of diabetes mellitus hence increasing the potential for mortality.
Apart from the risk of diabetes mellitus, victims of metabolic syndrome are also twice as likely to develop cardiovascular diseases as those without the syndrome. Cardiovascular diseases can result in increased risk of fatalities such as heart attacks. This can be taken to mean that as long as patients are at risk of cardiovascular diseases, they are also at risk of developing such problems. Metabolic syndrome also results in two to four times higher risk of developing stroke. From these findings, it is clear that metabolic syndrome can greatly impair the health related quality of life of patients. Other impacts such as first order risk of myocardial infarction, risk of atherothrombotic complications are also associated with metabolic syndrome. From the results presented by Wilson et al (2005), the risk of dying from these conditions is also increased due to the risks associated with metabolic syndrome.
In conclusion, metabolic syndrome has adverse effects on the long term quality of life of patients due to many reasons. However, the reduction in the potential for activity due to co morbidity can be recognized as the greatest negative impact for the condition. It is thus necessary that preventive and lifestyle modification efforts be made prior to giving up on the condition. Identifying the constituent conditions is the first step in treatment and management of metabolic syndrome since the standard medical treatment procedures are dependent on the constituent conditions.
Cameron, A.J., Shaw, J.E. and Zimmet, P.Z. (2004). The Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence in Worldwide Populations. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 33(2), 351-375.
Grundy, S., Cleeman, J., Daniels, S., Donato, K.A., Eckel, R., Franklin, B.A., Gordon, D., Krauss, R., Savage, P., Smith, S., Spertus, J. and Costa, F. (2005). AHA Scientific Statement: Diagnosis and Management of Metabolic Syndrome. Circulation, 112(17).
Jouyandeh, Z., Nayebzadeh, F., Qorbani, M. and Asadi, M. (2013). Metabolic Syndrome and Menopause. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, 12(1).
Kaur, J. (2014). A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome. Cardiology Research and Practice, Article 943162.
Reilly, M.P. and Raden, D.J. (2003). The Metabolic Syndrome: More than the Sum of Parts? Circulation, 108(13), 1546- 1551.
Wang, S.S. (2015). Metabolic Syndrome. MedScape.
Wilson, P.W., D’Agostino, B., Parise, H., Sullivan, L. and Meigst, J.B. (2005). Metabolic Syndrome as a Precursor of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Circulation, 112(20). 3066-3072.
Sample Technology Essay Paper on The Life and Legacy of Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla university essay help: university essay help
The Life and Legacy of Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla
Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla are great scientists who made tremendous contributions during their time. However, there exist some differences in terms of their approach to the innovation and application. Arguments arise over which one of them was better than the other, with two opposing thoughts coming up from both sides. This essay seeks to come up with objective analysis of life and legacy of the scientists, devoid of myths in circulation. The first major case can be seen when it comes to the development and adoption of electric current. It is clear that Edison innovated the direct current, having the patent to develop and distribute it to homes. On the other side, Tesla discovered that an alternating current could work better than the DC. However, they both made contribution towards the different fields of technology.
Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla are some of the prolific scientist ever seen in the twentieth century. Tesla had come to America in of Edison in order to show him the new innovations on Alternating Current (AC); however, Edison brushed him off, doubting its practicality. At the time, Edison had the patent for Direct Current (DC) and was wary of any competing thought to his innovation. Nikola Tesla worked for Thomas Edison but later parted ways in order to concentrate on his innovations. Thomas Edison turned out to be a multitalented innovator who used his connections and influence to turn his patents into commercial value (Baldwin, 2001). He promoted himself to sponsors and donors in order to penetrate the market. On the other hand, Nikola Tesla concentrated his effort in coming up with solutions on electricity and never making it in terms of turning his work into commercial value. He lived in seclusion, mostly in hotels and laboratories in order to come up with excellent innovations. While Edison died a wealthy and respected man, Tesla died with debt on his head.
Questions arise on who among the two scientists had more influence on the current state of electricity. Most of the historical books indicate that Thomas Edison was the greatest innovator off all times when it comes to electricity, with thousands of patents to his name. In many of these books, Nikola Tesla and his contribution has always missed. However, Tesla has, in the recent past gained popularity, especially over the internet, for being one of the great innovators of all times, earning people’s support (Essig, 2003). In a bid for the supporters to outdo each other, there seems to be distortion and misinformation all over, especially on the legacies of these two great scientists. This work takes a sober look at the life of the two scientists and their legacies, devoid of the fallacies from both sides of the arguments. Both scientists played a role in the development of electricity; however, their personality differences made Edison more famous than Tesla. While Tesla only concentrated on coming up with solutions, he failed to come out in the open to make partnerships that could make his work commercially viable (Trinkaus, 2002). On the other hand, Edison was aggressive and his main aim was to do business, something he achieved. This essay puts these legacies into perspective.
Thomas Edison was born on February 11, 1947 to Samuel Ogden Edison and Nancy Matthews Elliott. Edison is known to be one of the prolific innovators and businessman of the twentieth century, owing to the many patents to his name. Some of his innovations and developments have helped in making today’s life better (Essig, 2003). As an inventor, he had 1,093 patents in the U.S. and other foreign countries like the United Kingdom, France and Germany. Other than the many patents, Edison’s inventions greatly influenced life during his time and making him more famous. Edison got his first job as a telegrapher after saving a three year old boy from being hit by a train (Baldwin, 2001). The boy’s father known as Mackenzie, a station agent offered to train him as a telegrapher for his heroic effort. It was through this job that Edison developed his interest towards experimenting and reading, leading to his innovations. Some of his early innovations include the first electric light, recording of sound, motion pictures and other power utilities.
While at New Jersey, Edison began her innovations by making improvements on the telegraph of the time. However, people did not make notice of these changes with Edison’s first breakthrough coming in 1877 from the invention of phonograph, a device that could record sound and be replayed back (Essig, 2004). He instantly become famous and was given opportunity to travel to Washington to present his work to the congressmen, senate and the US president. Despite having the patent to innovating phonograph, he failed to make improvements.
Figure 1: Edison sitting beside his phonograph
(Source: Baldwin, 2001)
In early 1800s, scientists like Humphry Davy and James Lindsay had invented systems that could support electrical illumination. Some of the bulbs in place were very uneconomical, with short lifespan and requiring high amount of current (Trinkaus, 2002). Such faults led Edison to embark on experiments of coming up with commercially viable electric lights. For this reason, he did a serious of tests in order to come up with metal wires that could offer high resistance while allowing lower voltages (Essig, 2003). After testing carbon, platinum and other metal filaments, he chose carbon. His breakthrough came in October 1879 after a successful test and subsequent improvements that led to him acquiring the patent U.S. patent 223,898 in 1980. Being the first practically commercial electric light (see figure 2); Edison approached a number of investors who agreed to fund him to form Edison Electric Light Company in New York City (Essig, 2003). The success led to the commercial use of the electric lighting system in systems like the steam engines, earning Edison money. He also built laboratories where his employees would make necessary tests and innovations. Edison went ahead to continue with manufacturing electric bulbs in other markets like Great Britain and Czech Republic.
Figure 2: Edison’s first bulb model
(Source: Essig, 2003)
Edison’s innovativeness led him to come up with a device that record motion pictures known as Kinetograph, working on it with his employee known as W. Dickson who specialized on the optics. However, it is said that Dickson was the main brain behind this development despite of Edison’s getting the patent and all commercial benefits. By April 1896, Edison, with the help of other scientists had developed and received patent for recording and displaying motion pictures. This technology that entailed the use of Kinetography and Kinetoscopy became public when it was used for public screening projects within New York City. Thomas Edison went ahead to form Edison’s film studio that produced more than 1,000 films, setting a precedent for the successful film industry today.
Ore-milling through Edison Ore-Milling Co. was also an area Edison ventured; however, he did not make progress in this area due to lack of market for the materials. On the same note, he formed Edison Portland Cement Co. in 1899 in order to promote the use of concrete for construction purposes. His quest was on coming up with a cheaper alternative towards construction at the time. Unfortunately, the market seemed unprepared for the use of concrete for construction purposes.
Direct Current (DC) Supply System
Edison had the patent of the direct current system that was used to homes and industries with electricity. He had developed a system where he sourced for funds to build stations to help supply power to homes. However, the challenge came after innovation of the alternating current (AC) by Nikola Tesla, a former employee, who sought to provide solution to various challenges with the direct current. Edison embarked on a plan to discredit and stop adoption of AC through various unconventional methods in a bid to protect his patent and business (Stross, 2007). However, it did not work since the alternating current supply was efficient, cheaper and provided stable current over a wider area.
Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor born on July 10, 1856 and is known for a number of innovations. He committed his life to coming up with innovations, shunning family life by remaining chaste, claiming that his chastity helped him concentrate on his innovations. Other than just being an inventor, he had immense knowledge in electrical and mechanical engineering, physics. He also helped in developing the alternating current (AC) used today as well as the power supply system. Tesla moved to the United States in a bid to meet and showcase his skills and innovations to Thomas Edison, who was already known for his innovations (Stross, 2007). Tesla had gained experience in electrical engineering when he migrated to France in 1881 in order to work for the Continental Edison Company.
Working with Edison
As noted above, Tesla migrated to the United States in 1884 in search of Edison in order to work together in the development of the alternating current. However, Edison did not buy into Tesla’s idea, brushing it of as unpractical. This may have come from the fact that Edison already had the DC patent and coming up with another idea or invention would affect an already working idea. Nevertheless, Tesla continued to work for Edison at his Edison Machine Works in order to help improve the electrical components of the direct current generators in place (Solomon, 2001). His hard work and dedication helped him solve some of the difficult problems that made Edison’s technology slow and unproductive. One time, Tesla offered to make tremendous improvements to the inefficient direct current motors that Edison used, prompting a promise of fifty thousand dollars from the boss. Relations between the two scientists went sour after Edison failed to honor his part of the bargain, prompting Tesla to resign to start his own research laboratories (Peat, 2003).
Alternating Current (AC) and Induction Motor
Nikola Tesla later approached Alfred S. Brown and Charles F. Peck and agreed to get funds to form Tesla Electric Company in 1887 in order to proceed with the innovations towards the alternating current. The new laboratory led to the development of an induction motor that could help transmit alternating current over a very long distance without losing the high voltages. This motor could easily use the rotating magnetic field in order to run motors (Solomon, 2001). However, he later came up with designs that could run without a commutator, thus avoiding the brushes. Tesla also goes a patent of this innovation. Later, he was hired by the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company in order to develop the polyphase induction design motors for street use (Stross, 2007). Engineers at the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company made tremendous improvements to Tesla’s polyphase system motor leading to the brand name: “Tesla Polyphase System”.
Tesla took time to demonstrate safety of the alternating current in a bid to encourage adoption of the same. At one time, he passed the alternating current through his body to light a bulb in front of a large crowd without harm.
Figure 3: Tesla’s AC dynamo
(Source: Solomon, 2001)
Tesla came up with theories of a possible transmission through radio waves. However, this innovation did not sound well to those in authority at the time. Nevertheless, he proceeded with his innovations, leading to the development and subsequent demonstration of a radio-controlled boat. However, the innovation was received with outrage, with witnesses terming the demonstration as controlled by magic or a hidden inside the boat (Stross, 2007). Tesla tried to sell the idea of radio waves to the US military without breakthrough. It was interesting to note that this idea was quickly embraced by the military of some countries that participated in World War I, something that motivated Tesla to make further developments on his “Tele automatics”. He later got the patents to the “system of transmitting electrical energy” and “an electrical transmitter” in 1900. He later made other inventions that included coming up with successful x-ray experimentation and giving advice on the use of AC two phase power generation at the Niagara Falls (Peat, 2003).
Figure 4: Tesla’s Radio Controlled Boat, 1898
(Source: Peat, 2003)
It is obvious that Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla are great scientists who made tremendous contributions during their time. However, there exist some differences in terms of their approach to the innovation and application. The first major case can be seen when it comes to the development and adoption of electric current. It is clear that Edison innovated the direct current, having the patent to develop and distribute it to homes. On the other side, Tesla discovered that an alternating current could work better than the DC. However, Edison failed to give it a thought from the beginning (Josephson, 1959). Therefore, both scientists took different paths in order to make their work known. The different paths led to what was known as the “War of Currents” by the media of their time. According to Peat (2003), Edison was only protecting his work and the only reason was to ensure that there was no competing thought.
The entrepreneurial prowess of Edison is evident as he quickly makes each innovation into a commercially viable venture by getting the patent. Tesla later formed Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing by the support of two other businessmen, a partnership led to the innovation of illumination system that used arc lights and dynamo commutators for machines (Jatras, 2003). These innovations led to the first patent under Tesla’s name in the United States. However, things did not turn well when developers and financiers refused to fund new innovations, but rather in the implementation of the existing systems. In the long run, Tesla was forced out of the system, even going ahead to lose patents under his name. In the winter of 1886/1887, Tesla lost everything, forcing him to remain penniless. He went back to doing casual jobs like small repairs of electrical appliances in order to survive.
As the use of DC quickly became uneconomical, Edison’s fortunes quickly dwindled, his company later being to a merger and a change of name from Edison General Electric to General Electric; his name had been dropt (McNichol, 2006). The same company later purchased patent in order to develop its own alternating current technology from Tesla’s ideas. This was a proof of the great ideas that Tesla had from the beginning.
The mode of work between the two scientists also differs. Whereas Edison was a family man who got married twice and had six children, Tesla decided to remain chaste in order to concentrate on his innovation work. Edison built laboratories and workshops where he employed experts, including Tesla, to work on his ideas. These employees did the actual work of innovation and improvements while he enjoyed all the rights from the parents on his name. His mode of work helped in the development of mass production factories as he came up with a system of specialization (Jatras, 2003). However, he seemed stingy by the fact that he never honored an earlier payment agreement with Tesla after making improvements on the DC motors while working for him.
On the other side, Tesla shunned family by deciding to remain chaste for the rest of his life, mainly staying in hotels within New York City. He spent most of his time in his laboratories doing tests. According to Carlson (2005), he had two to three hours of sleep every night, starting his day as early as three in the morning till past midnight. He never involved many people in his work, and a few times he had to work with others, there was never any understanding. It is obvious that he did not have the business skills like those possessed by Edison, in spite of his great innovations that are still in use today.
The life between Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla shows benefits of innovations. It is obvious that Tesla was the brain behind many of the great innovations of electricity. However, he failed to convert these innovations into commercial benefits, giving the difference between an innovator and an entrepreneur. Thomas Edison succeeded in using his fame and power to convert some of the patents to earn commercial value out of them. There exists people who have great innovativeness and creativity; however, a few of them have the ability to convert these into success products that can penetrate the market. Nikola Tesla seems to be one of such, going by the life he lived to his death. While Thomas Edison lived and died a rich and honored man in the United States and beyond, Nikola Tesla died while struggling with debt as much as he was the brain behind great innovation like the Alternating Current (AC).
Entrepreneurial skills make the basic component of successful innovations. These two scientists are an indication that it is not enough to have great innovativeness and designing capabilities may not make a scientist successful but developing skills in other areas. It seems Tesla was only talented in electricity and specifically Alternating Current (AC); however, Edison was multitalented and could mobilize funds in order to commercialize his work on Direct Current (DC) and other parents (Josephson, 1959). According to the discussions above, besides Tesla being an electricity genius, he lacked skills that could help him achieve by taking a lonely route. He failed to take advantage of other options like partnering, licensing and making other viable alliances. Despite of these short falls, it can be said that Tesla was the major contributor towards the current power systems. It is humbling that he was never hungry for personal gain like what is shown by Edison’s life who could conduct crooked public stunts to either promote him or discredit Tesla’s innovations. His life is an indication of a self-centered innovator who is also a shroud businessman (Josephson, 1959). Nevertheless, his talents ensured quick commercialization of the electricity innovations. Therefore, the two scientists made tremendous contributions towards developing the current electricity in use.
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SOLOMON, I. D. 2001. Thomas Edison: The Fort Myers Connection. Arcadia Publishing.
STROSS, R. 2007. The Wizard of Menlo Park: How Thomas Alva Edison Invented the Modern World. Crown.
TRINKAUS, G. 2002. Tesla: The Lost Inventions, High Voltage Press.
Sample Sociology Research Paper on Discrimination against AIDS/HIV Victims in Indiana in the 1980s essay help site:edu
Discrimination against AIDS/HIV Victims in Indiana in the 1980s
Topic #1: incidences of discrimination
Discrimination against AIDS/HIV victims is huge problem in developing countries; however in developed countries such as United States it is still being practiced. Indiana is none of the states in United States of where numerous cases have been filed in court challenging discrimination against AIDS/HIV victims. Also referred to as stigmatization, discrimination against HIV/AIDS refers to incidences of negative attitudes, prejudice or abuse that are directed towards people living this condition. It also includes incidences such as denying them some privileges and opportunities such as employment, education, travel, and relationship among others. This section is going to analyze a particular incidence of discrimination against AIDS/HIV victims in Indiana, United States of America. The chosen case to be analyzed is hat of Ryan Wayne White, and young boy who contracted HIV/AIDS and his picture was being use in posters across the state.
Ryan Wayne White was born in 1971 in tiny village of Kokomo. He was diagnosed with hemophiliac at a very tender age, a condition that subjected him to uncontrollable loss of blood through bleeding. The condition increased his risks of contracting HIV infection among others. In 1984, when he was just 5 years, he was diagnosed with HIV infection caused by contaminated blood treatment. The years that follows, Wayne found himself in uncountable incidences of prejudice, discrimination and persecution due to his HIV condition. Because by then there was no clear medication or proper management for HIV/AIDS, some people from his community, family, and friends gave him few years to live; they were discriminating him on the basis that there is no cure for HIV and Wayne would have to die soon.
At school, Wayne was the subject and object of discrimination both from his fellow students as well as teachers and subordinates. One major incidence of discrimination took place when Wayne was expelled from school because of being HIV positive. According to their understanding then, the main reason why the school administration expelled him from school is that he posed great risks of infection to other teachers and students. The fact that AIDS was poorly understood at the time contributed to the school administrators’ fear that he poses great risks to other students. In the early eighties, little was known about AIDS including facts about its causes, transmission as well as management and treatment. AIDS was treated with fear because there were no proper medication or management approaches that could elongate life of the victim.
Apart from death due to contamination, there are other reasons why some parents and teachers were vehemently opposed to Ryan Wayne joining the school. The first one is the wrongful association of HIV/AIDS with some disapproved behaviors such as drug abuse, homosexuality, infidelity and commercial sex work. Even though there is no scientific evidence from research, some people associate HIV/AIDS with these conditions that are largely unaccepted by the community. In fact in the early 1980s, the American community associated AIDS with gay and homosexuality because the first diagnosis was found among the gay people. Another reason is that the community treated HID infection to be a result of sexual immorality; they needed to guard their children against sexual immorality and preserve values of the society. Lastly, they did not have accurate information on how HIV infection is transmitted.
Wayne’s parents looked for intervention so that their son could continue with his education. They got a letter from medical doctors who explained that Wayne’s HIV condition did not pose any risks to other students including teachers and subordinates; however, the school could not readmit and accept him back. Instead, many parents and teachers in the school were vehemently opposed to him joining the school. They expressed concerns that if Ryan Wayne continues attending the school, he would spread the disease to other students and teachers through transfer of bodily fluids; uninterestingly, they strongly held this opinion against the advice from medical doctors. The impetus for this high level of discrimination against Ryan Wayne due to his HIV status was lack of adequate information and the fear of contamination because by then there was no proper treatment.
While the school continued discriminating Ryan Wayne, his parent took a legal intervention that ultimately made him popular and an advocate for AIDS/HIV Victims. It became a very lengthy legal battle between the family and the school; it took some years before the judgment could be issued. Ultimately, the court intervened and Ryan Wayne White resumed his education; unfortunately he did in 1990 barely one month into his high school graduation. During the case period and afterword, Wayne’s photo was being used as a national poster in Indiana and the entire United States of America for HIV/AIDS campaigns enabling him to become a public figure, a celebrity and an advocate against discrimination of AIDS/HIV victims.
Topic #2: stigmatization in school
It is a common practice at some social institutions such as schools to discriminate against victims of HIV/AIDS. In such cases, they are stigmatized, mistreated, underrepresented or harmed by those they interact with at the institution. In American schools, children and teachers who are victims of HIV/AIDS continue to be stigmatized by their fellow teachers, students and other members of the institution. Previously, like the case of Ryan Wayne White, schools were not ready to accept and admit students who have HIV/AIDS for the fear that they would spread the risk to others in the institutions. In such cases, they were discriminated by refusal to join the institutions.
From early 1980s, HIV/AIDS stigmatization in American schools took the form of laws, polices, and regulations that singled out the victims and denied them some equal opportunities because of their conditions. For example, local school boards used to develop laws that refuse enrolment of HIV students and employment of HIV teachers and subordinate staffs. These laws drafted by the local school boards acted as tools for enhancing discrimination against HIV victims in schools. Fortunately, currently it is rare to find a school in America that has refused to enroll a student or employ a teacher on the basis of his/her HIV status. However, that does not means stigmatization has stopped in American schools; it still continue but in some various forms we are yet to discuss.
Currently the leading percentage of HIV/AIDS discrimination in American schools does not takes place public but in the form of “internalized stigma”, which is described as an imagined, felt, or self-stigma. Internalized stigmatization results from the internalization of the shame, hopelessness, blame as well as fear and guilt that makes the group fear associating with HIV/AIDS victims. Even though the victims are not denied equal enrolment and employment in schools, majority of people in the institutions, the teachers, students and subordinate fear associating with them, a practice that leads to internalized stigmatization. At schools, majority of students living with HIV/AIDS experience some form of internalized stigmatization associated with guilt, shame, fear, loss of hope, and depression; they often isolate themselves from the rest of students and live lonely lives (Mawar 30).
Topic #3: current legal provisions
Over the past years, there have been remarkable developments in the field to tackle the issue of stigmatization of AIDS/HIV victims in United States of America – some laws are development by the respective states such as Indiana while others are instituted by the federal state. It is interesting to note that some of these laws are good in the sense that they protect against discrimination of AIDS/HIV victims while others are bad because they promote or tolerate the vile practice in the society. This section of the paper will highlight some positive and negative laws in United States of America with respect to discrimination of AIDS/HIV victims.
(a) Positive Laws
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is one of the greatest positive developments in the legal field against the discrimination of people with HIV/AIDS. The ADA became a law in the United States in 990 after series of long debates about the need of government to protect discrimination of people with disability in America. The initial intention of the act was to prohibit any form of discrimination against people with disabilities in various areas such as transportation, education, employment as well as private and public places. The act gave federal the civil rights to protect people with disabilities and ensure that they get equal opportunities.
Apart from individuals with disabilities, the ADA law also protects persons with HIV/AIDS inflection against various forms of discrimination, prejudice or persecution. This is because the law considers people with HIV/AIDS to have physical disabilities that may limit their abilities to undertake major activities of their life. The advantage of this provision in the ADA is that it applies whether the symptoms of HIV infection is manifested outwardly or not, so it protect even people have not discovered that they infected by the virus. Therefore, as it stands now, the ADA gives federal the right to protect all individuals with HIV/AIDS infection against any form of discrimination. Being a federal civil right, it applies to all states including Indiana.
Another advantage of the ADA law is that guarantees people living with HIV infection equal opportunities just like it gives to people with other forms of physical disabilities; the law gives equal opportunities for employment, telecommunication, accommodation, and transportation among others. In addition, the ADA act specifically prohibits hotels and restaurants from refusing to render their services to people with HIV infection because of their condition. It requires the restaurants and hotels to allow people living with HIV to use their services, rooms and other facilities without discrimination. The law also discrimination against the sue of public accommodations such as theatres, doctor’s offices, hospitals, health clubs, libraries, museums, retail stores, restaurants, hotels, private and public schools, as well as daycare centers among others; this is beneficial because it allows AIDS/HIV victims to have unlimited access to public accommodation just like those who are not infected (Gostin 88).
Title I of the ADA Act also prohibit employers from discriminating against people living with HIV/AIDS in all matters related to employment. It prohibits employer’s action such as job termination, failure to hire, and reduced salary on a person with HIV/AIDS. The act also prohibits discrimination in employment procedures such as job application, hiring, firing, interview, training, job assignment, promotions, wages, benefits, leave, as well as health insurance. Lastly, the law requires employers to keep privately and confidential medical information about their employees; this further protects HIV/AIDS victims against discrimination.
Apart from the ADA, the Rehabilitation Act also prohibits discrimination against people living with HIV virus; in section 501 of Rehabilitation Act requires employees and job applicants who are victims of HIV/AIDS to be treated on the basis of disability similar to the provision of ADA. Equal Employment Opportunity Laws (EEOP) is another law in united states that prohibit discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS; it requires private employers, government, labor organizations and education institutions to provide equal employments to victims of HIV/AIDS. Recently in 1996, the Congress enacted a law called Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) that required health acre facilities to patient’s medical record with absolute privacy and confidentiality.
(b) The Negative Laws
It is essential to note that some laws are acting negatively by leaving loopholes that discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS to continue. Under the ADA provision, there is no requirement for all health care facilities to treat all persons with HIV/AIDS; the laws allows them to refer the patients to other facilities, a provision that they can use to deny medical services to people with HIV/AIDS.
There is also a potential weakness with the Equal Employment Opportunity Laws (EEOP) in prohibiting discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS because they only cover companies or organizations that have employed 5 or more workers; because of this cap, the law cannot apply to small employers with less than 5 employees. Majority of new companies in America and small and medium enterprise and employs few workers; any discrimination against HIV/AIDS victims in those SMEs are not prosecuted because the law does not cover them.
In Illinois State, there is a law that requires a person who has HIV/AIDS to first disclose his status to his/her partner before engaging in sexual activity. In addition, this law allows for prosecution of the victim even fi transmission did not take place. This is a negative law because it singles out HIV while there are many other dangerous diseases that could be transmitted through sexual intercourse. The law could be fair enough if it requires the persons to disclose their status in all sexually transmitted diseases; in its current state, it discriminates against the victims of HIV/AIDS.
Topic #4: current social standing of HIV/AIDS victims
News about HIV/AIDS infection in USA seems good on the surface; however, deeper analysis reveals that the underlying problem is great. The first cases of HIV inflections were reported in 1981 in Los Angeles and they were only five in number to a tune of more than two million Americans today. However, since then, the number of HIV/AIDS victim has risen to unimaginable number. During the early 1980s, cases of HIV/AIDS were only associated with few gays and lesbians. Today, HIV/AIDS is not a big threat to the American society as compared to the 1980s when it was considered a death sentence to be diagnosed with the virus; today, a twenty years old person having HIV virus expect to live for more than 55 years if the treatment is started earlier in time.
According to the CDC statistics, by 2014, more than 2 million Americans were living with HIV virus. The report further indicates that the unfortunate discovery is that one out of eight people who have contracted HIV virus are unaware about it. Among the American society, the African Americans, gay and bisexual men are the most affected. In the same year, an estimated 44,075 people were diagnosed with the virus. The statistics indicates that between 2005 and 2014, the new of new HIV infection fell to 19% suggesting a decline in infection. The decrease can be explained by the government efforts in HIV prevention over the last decade. Even though there is a general decrease in the rate of HIV infection, the diagnoses have been increasing in some groups such as gay and bisexual men.
The gay and bisexual group accounts for the highest number of HIV infection in United States of America. In 2014, about 83% (29,418) of gay and bisexual men were diagnosed with HIV infection. Amongst this group, African American bisexual and gay accounted for the highest number of infection; in 2014, about 11,201 black African Americans were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS as compared to the 9,008 whites. Over the past decades, HIV infection trend in this group have been varying by race; statistics indicates that between 005 and 2014 the rate or infection have been declining amongst the white race while among the Hispanics and African Americans it has increased by 24% and 22% respectively.
Over the past decade, the rate of HIV infection has been increasing among the heterosexuals and people who inject themselves with drugs. In 2014, about 24% (10,527) heterosexuals were diagnosed with HIV infection; in this group women account for about 19% of total number of infections. Over the same period, injection drug use accounted for about 6% of diagnosis. Between 2005 and 2014, the rate of infection has been decreasing among women in this group.
In overall, the rate of HIV infection is highest in the African American group followed by Hispanics; they continue to bear the greatest burden of HIV infection as compared to other ethnicities in America.
Topic #5: Application of social conflict theory to HIV/AIDS stigmatization
Social conflict theory originated from the Marxists and it argues that in a society, conflict rather than consensus is the basis of individual or group interaction. Conflict is ever present in a society and it takes various forms, for instance in the case of HIV/AIDS stigmatization, it takes the form of infected versus the uninfected. This theory explains that in the presence of a conflict in the society, the more powerful group often uses their power to suppress, exploit and discriminate the less powerful.
In this social theory, conflict is used to represent a struggle between opposing groups in a society. When it comes to HIV/AIDS infection, conflict arises from the real or perceived risks associated with the condition. The uninfected consider the infected to increase their risks of infections. In addition, they consider the condition of the infected as having been caused by their immoral sexual deed, which are not acceptable in the society. As this conflict continues in the society, the uninfected group struggles to gain more power to subdue the infected in a move to protect themselves thus leading to stigmatization in its various forms. The continuation of this conflict creates polarization in the society and ultimately the uninfected group start using their gained powers and numbers to stigmatize the HIV victims (Pierret 99).
The social conflict theory posits that in the presence of a conflict in a society, one group will have to inevitably gain advantage over another thus leading to series of exploitations and discriminations. It can be argued that the stigmatization of HIV in the society takes places because the uninfected group wants to take advantage of the infected group in a struggle of existence; they perceive that the only way to increase their chance of survival in the society is to reduce their risk exposure by subduing the HIV positive group. Discriminative actions such as denial of school enrolment, employment, free association, and treatment among other then come in as tools of subduing the infected group because they pose more risk to the society (Gilmore and Margaret 94).
The social conflict theory further posits that in order for conflict to exist in a society, inequalities must exist between two groups. In the case of HIV/AIDS, inequality arises from the overall risk exposure. For instance, the uninfected group considered themselves to having no risks while the other group as having greater risks. It is the existence of inequalities in the society that eventually cause imbalance in power leading to discrimination of the perceived weaker group. The uninfected group discriminate the infected group because, in their perception, they have greater power in the society and their power comes from their sense of moral responsibility and good health status.
Bunting, Sheila M. “Sources of stigma associated with women with HIV.” Advances in Nursing Science 19.2 (1996): 64-73.
Gilmore, Norbert, and Margaret A. Somerville. “Stigmatization, scapegoating and discrimination in sexually transmitted diseases: overcoming ‘them’ and ‘us’.” Social science & medicine 39.9 (1994): 1339-1358.
Gostin, Larry O. “Public health strategies for confronting AIDS: legislative and regulatory policy in the United States.” JAMA 261.11 (1989): 1621-1630.
Mawar, Nita, et al. “The third phase of HIV pandemic: social consequences of HIV/AIDS stigma & discrimination & future needs.” Indian Journal of Medical Research 122.6 (2005): 471.
Pierret, Janine. “Everyday life with AIDS/HIV: surveys in the social sciences.” Social Science & Medicine 50.11 (2000): 1589-1598.
Sample Aviation Essay Paper on Patrol Activities college essay help free: college essay help free
The United States government needs to increase funding to US Customs and Border Patrol to be able to buy an aircraft to help in patrol activities. Skylane and scan eagle are both high speed planes that are suitable for patrol purposes. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrasts the suitability of these two aircrafts in regards to border patrols. This will facilitate provision of fund to purchase either Cessna 182 Skylanes or Insitu Corporation Scan Eagles to provide second-line surveillance of the western half of the El Paso border patrol sector. The border stretches and covers a distance of 3,201 kilometers. This calls for a fast and reliable means of patrol. The selection criteria to be used in this case will focus on costs consideration, features of the airplane and patrol requirements. This report will be forwarded to the congress for it approval and funding for the purchase for one of the above planes. The organization of this report will be as follows: mission fit, cost and public acceptance.
The purpose of this report is to lobby for funds from the congress so as to improve security by covering the area 5 miles north and south of the stretch of I-10 running between the outskirts Las Cruces and the New Mexico-Arizona border, Observe the highway for suspicious traffic and activities, track illegal border crossers that make it through the first-line patrols along the U.S.-Mexico boundary and Follow pick-up vehicles until they can be intercepted by surface patrols.
The aircraft will be tasked with surveillance of the border as well as assisting the surface unit to intercept and arrest law breakers. This will enhance security in the country as well as prevent drugs and other harmful products from entering the United States. The team will carry out twelve patrols in a day with intervals of three hours between one patrol and the other. It means therefore that these patrols will be stretched within the day and probably should be conducted at predictable time.
The two aircrafts have the capability and features to be considered for this patrol mission. At this point, the report outlines each and every feature observed in these planes. This will aid in the making of purchase decision. The first plane to discuss is Skylane. Its patrol speed is 120 knots and aircraft utilization rate (UTE) of eight hours daily, 176 hours monthly and 1760 annually. This insinuates that each patrol will take approximately forty minutes hence it can be effective. However, in times of emergencies or interception the plane will be ineffective due to its low utilization rate of eight hours daily.
The second airplane is Insitu Scan Eagle. It has a speed of 60 knots and utilization rate of 12 hours daily, 240 hours monthly and 2400 hours annually. Thus, patrols activities along the border and on some streets will take approximately one hour hence an effective strategy in securing the country. I therefore feel that this plane will be the best in regards to Aircraft utilization rate (UTE). The reason behind this is that it will have time for interception and close monitoring activities within the areas of jurisdiction (Dimc, Baldini, Shaw, & European Commission, 2011).
To operate these planes, the government will have to employ specialist who will be in control of surveillance. This means that the new plan will come at a cost. For each plane, the number of employees/ personnel’s will be outlined below.
For Cessna 182, one pilot will operate for 8 hours shift daily for 200 days in a year. Thus, the number of pilots to operate this plane will be two based on a shift model. Alongside the pilot is the sensor operator who will also work for 8 hours on a daily basis. This does not include administrators, security personnel’s and other instructors who will work hand in hand with the patrol team. Thus, it may involve a number of parties and approximately ten people to make the plan a success (Graham, 2011).
For Insitu Scan Eagle, sensor operator and the two pilots will work on shift for eight hours daily. This means that both planes will be operated on shifts by a pilot and a sensor operator.
The costs associated with acquisition and operation of these aircrafts will be outlined in the table below.
Particulars /AircraftsCessna 182Insitu Scan EaglePersonnel (annual salary + benefits)2 Pilot @$75K 2 Sensor operator @ $75K2 pilots @$80K 2 Sensor operator @$80KAircraft$450,000$150K Wedge launcher: $20K Control booth: $160K Signal repeater stations (5 required) $20K eachCost per flight hour (fuel, maintenance, service)$120Cost per flight hour $25 Boeing will provide and maintain all Scan Eagles and related equipment under contract.Total cost$ 2190K$ 1050K
From the table above, the total cost of operating a skylane plane is $2190K. This cost is inclusive of acquisition cost which is $450K and maintenance cost amounting to $1440. Salaries on the other hand take a lion share of this cost because it amounts to $300K. The acquisition cost is low but the plane has high maintenance costs. This makes it too expensive for an institution to operate with both in the short term as well as in the long term.
On the other side, scan eagle requires an acquisition cost of $150K plus an additional cost of $280K for facilities and equipments that will help in the operation activities. Some of these facilities include Wedge launcher ($20K) Signal repeater stations (5 required) $20K each) and Control booth ($160K). The cost is higher compared to skylane plane acquisition. However, the manufacturer will take care of maintenance as well as cost of other related equipment’s. This means that the first year will be easy for the patrol team operating using scan eagle plane. In regards to cost per flight, this plane attracts a total cost of $300K which is much less as compared to what is incurred for skylane ($1440K). Thus, from the above figures; the best option is Insitu Scan Eagle because it attracts less costs while at the same time improving security activities in the country.
The local communities are interested in a secure environment that will enhance their movement from one place to the other. In addition, they will be looking at noise pollution or disturbances from the security operations in the region. The first plane, skylane, moves at a speed of 120 knots. This speed will result to noise pollution hence the public in this region will oppose the move by the government or security patrol to use this plane for surveillance. The costs of the plane and other items that are used together will also determine the acceptability issues by the community. Government spends tax payer’s money hence when the cost of acquisition goes high, it is in the best interest of the public to reject the proposal or get an alternative plan see the light of the day. From the information provided and the figures included with the purchase of skylane, the endeavor will be aborted by protests from the locals.
Scan Eagle speed is at 60 knots hence produces less noise while moving or conducting operations. This indicates that the locals will not be destructed or they will go on with their work while security officers perform their duties. Thus, the community will be assured of their safety as they carry on with their daily chores. The cost is also very low hence attracts public support an action that will see the plan come into play.
It is the role of every government to protect its public from crimes or illegal businesses. To enhance security within the border, the United States needs new planes to be able to monitor the activities along the border as well as in major highways that leads to American-Mexico border. Thus, this report evaluates some of the possible alternatives in securing the country through air surveillance. The reports therefore show reasons as to why the congress should fund the purchase of Insitu Scan Eagle which will aid in apprehending crimes as well as securing the border. Thus, the congress will make decisions based on facts and data provided in this report (Nicolaides, Van Jaarsveld, & Wilkinson, 2010). The importance of the report is to informs and persuade the congress to support the move by patrol security to have more planes manning the border line or what is referred to as the second-line surveillance. In most cases, drugs traffickers and smugglers use the Mexican border to illegally entre the goods to the United States. In the event, the country losses a lot from these activities in the sense that they benefit criminals hence siphons money from the economy. Proceeds from these activities may be used to finance crime or other illegal activities hence posing threat to security.
The following findings show the reasons as to why the congress or government should finance the acquisition of Insitu Scan Eagle. First, the plane moves at a low speed hence does not produce a lot of noise. This will ensure that the local communities support and embrace the initiative by patrol team. Patrols activities will also go on at night without disturbing the residents alongside the border. The second finding concerns the cost of maintenance, when using Insitu Scan Eagle the cost will be incurred by the manufacturer. This is a boost to the patrol team as well as the government as it will use less or nothing to maintain its crafts. The country will therefore benefit from high performance crafts due to constant and effective maintenance activities.
At this point, the best choice is Insitu Scan Eagle because they are less costly and efficient in performance. To cover the whole distance along the line, the country will have to purchase at least 5 planes. This will ensure that each region is manned well and all activities are monitors with a keen eye. The maintenance costs are also manageable.
Dimc, F., Baldini, G., Shaw, D., & European Commission. (2011). Detection of satellite telephones for maritime security. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
Graham, I. (2011). Aircraft. Mankato, MN: Smart Apple Media.
Nicolaides, K., Van Jaarsveld, J., & Wilkinson, A. (2010). Demonstration of the advantages offered by an ultra-wideband (100–400 kHz) sonar system for simultaneous planar imaging, volumetric imaging and Doppler in harbour survailance applications. 2010 International WaterSide Security Conference, 22(1), 167-201. doi:10.1109/wssc.2010.5730268
Sample Aviation Essay Paper on Noise Management Strategies within Airports essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax
Noise Management Strategies within Airports
Sound constitutes an important part of our everyday life where it serves a wide range of purposes that may not often be appreciated or even given any significant attention. This however may not be the case when sound becomes unpleasant, undesirable and annoying, which is when it becomes noise. Noise particularly in urban areas may be attributed to varying sources including emergency sirens, construction activities, road and even air transport. According to David (2014), aircraft noise has particularly gained significant attention among human populations including those living close to airports as well as under flight paths. This is because the noise produced by aircrafts as well as other related components tend to disrupt everyday activities including lifestyle, learning activities, entertainment appliances and sleeping schedules. Aircraft noise is not a new concept but an important issue that gained popularity for the first time in 1960s when commercial jets were introduced. Since then, a wide range of studies have been carried out with the aim of understanding what attributes to aircraft noise displeasure as well as how to effectively measure, control and even improve the situation (Sharman, 2000). This paper looks into various strategies that are being employed to manage the amount that people living in close distances to airports experience.
Noise control strategies around airports
The need to control noise around airports emanates from the level and frequency of annoyance it causes to people living around airports as well as those living or working under flight paths, which subsequently generates a significant level of complaint from the wider public. Aircraft noise mainly comprises of the pollutant noise that is often produced by airplanes or various aircraft components during varying flight phases. For instance, an airplane as well as its components make a lot of noise while parked on the ground, when taxiing, during take-off, on the departure as well as the arrival paths and when over-flying during en-route (Charles, 2009). Although various machineries also produce noise that may interfere with people’s daily activities, it is the aircraft noise that people living around airports and under flight paths complain about. According to Ron (2013), different aircrafts produce varying degrees of noise, which may impact people differently. For instance, airplanes can produce a lot of noise when air flows into the fuselage as well as the control surfaces. Aircrafts can also generate noise from the propellers as well as the aerodynamics or from the cockpit pressurization.
Elevated aircraft noise generates a significant level of annoyance and subsequent complaints among members of the public because of the physiological as well as the psychological effects it can have on those living around airports or under flight paths. According to Sharman (2000), aircraft noise can lead to various health problems including hypertension, heart diseases, hearing problems, annoyance and inability to sleep. An inquiry conducted by Xie (2014) in various airports in China showed that more than 46% of people living around airports had hearing impairment, which was aggravated with the increase in the number of years they lived in these localities. 32% of these populations had heart problems while 22% of them were hypertensive. As pertains to psychological effects, findings of the study showed that people living around airports suffer from stress, distraction and memory loss. In an inquiry conducted in schools around airports in the UK, Charles (2009) found that the rate of memory loss as well as classroom distraction among most students in these schools was 37% and 14% respectively higher compared to students from distant schools. The study further showed that elevated aircraft noise can lead to varying degree of annoyance depending on the time during which the noise is experienced. For instance, the study showed that most people living around airports are least annoyed between 8.00-9-am and most annoyed between 1.00 and 2.00 pm. Elevated aircraft noise also affects lifestyle by interfering with learning activities in schools, communication between people and entertainment appliances. A study conducted by Ron (2013)showed that students in schools around airports in Australia had difficulties concentrating in class. People working or living around airports could not have smooth communication either face-to-face or through phone. He further discovered that those living around airports could not fully enjoy entertainment appliances installed in their homes.
Despite the various effects that elevated aircraft noise can have on people living as well as working in near proximity to airports or even under flight paths, the growing demand for air transport has aggravated this issue into becoming a global problem. According to Sharman (2000), the aviation industry has grown at an alarming speed in recent years, which indicates that there has been a significant increase total departures and arrivals of aircrafts. The annual growth in the number of aircrafts in global airports has already exceeded 12%. Estimates show that airports around the world will have an annual increase of more than 5% in the next twenty years. As such, failure to effectively control aircraft noise will seriously deteriorate significant relationships between airports and the neighboring residents as well as violate potentially sustainable growth in the aviation industry. As reported by Xie (2014), the number of relevant complaints following aircraft noise disturbances has recently increased dramatically from among members of the general public. This is particularly because the number of populations affected by aircraft noise has continued to increase with most airports prevailing in near proximity to schools, hospitals as well as residential areas. As such, appropriate and effective control of aircraft noise has become an extremely urgent issue.
Although people perceive aircraft noise differently depending on the circumstances under which it occurs, a standard measure can be employed to ensure that the most effective control strategies are employed. The dBA is the standard measure of aircraft noise, which is usually measured by use of a sound meter whose filter has a frequency response that is almost comparable to the human ear. While most aircrafts have almost equal dBA level, a change of sound by between 1 and 2 dBA is usually unnoticeable among most people. However, a change of sound by about 3 to 5 dBA is usually noticeable while a change by 10dBA usually indicates doubling of aircraft noise (Charles, 2009).
Forecasts show that the negative impact of aircraft noise will increase dramatically with the potential increase in the duration, the intensity as well as the number of noisy aircraft events in the next twenty years. ICAO has made this discovery and hence devised certain guidelines that airports can adopt in controlling aircraft noise. According to Ron (2013), the guidelines are particularly intended reduce the amount of noise that aircrafts release during take-off, landing as well as taxiing. In addition to these guidelines airports around the world have devised various strategies that can be effectively employed in controlling aircraft noise around airports.Modifying engine technology is one of the important strategies that airports are using to reduce the amount of aircraft noise that people living around airports and under flight paths experience. As explained by David (2014), airports around the world are increasingly replacing the old aircrafts, which are believed to produce a lot of noise, with newer and hence quieter ones. German airlines are a suitable example of airports that have employed this strategy to control aircraft noise. The airlines are already operating a huge number of newer and quieter aircrafts and also intend to procure over 230 more in the near future. According to Sharman (2000), the new airplanes are equipped with modern engines that prevail in the form of what is popularly known as geared turbofan. Contrary to the old engines, the geared turbofan produces high-frequency sounds that mostly prevail outside the human perceptible range. This in return contributes to significant noise reduction, which eventually reduces the overall impact that an aircraft can have on people living around airports.
Integration of vortex generators is another strategy that airports around the world have used to control aircraft noise. According to Charles (2009), the old aircrafts generated a lot of noise that was mainly caused by the air flowing through the pressure balancing vents. However, the new aircrafts are equipped with vortex generators, which tend to diversify the air that would otherwise flow over the vents to prevent the production of any annoying noise. Frankfurt Airport is a suitable example of an airport that has employed this strategy to reduce aircraft noise by about four decibels when an aircraft approaches landing at a distance between 10-17 kilometers.
Noise propagation is another strategy that airports around the world have employed to control the amount of aircraft noise that people around airports experience. This strategy has mainly been employed in China owing to the fact that most places around airports constitute of villages as well as suburbs with houses that lack proper soundproofing devices. In addressing this situation, the Beijing Capital Airport has recently funded the installation of sound-insulated walls as well as soundproofing windows on all residential buildings surrounding the airport. An inquiry following this installation has shown that sound insulation in the residential buildings has increased by 10dBA and a positive response in regard to the soundproofing impact received from residents (Ron, 2013).
Noise prevention legislation is another strategy that airports around the world have employed in controlling the amount of noise that people living around airports experience. According to David (2014), most countries established laws and guidelines intended to regulate the amount of noise that aircrafts should generate from as early as 1980s. Although such guidelines may not have been sophisticated enough, they have helped limit the amount of noise that aircrafts can generate during take-off, when landing and when taxiing. For instance, China implemented the Environment Guideline for Aircraft Noise, which has been adopted for over two decades. This regulatory standard has particularly been critical in governing efforts made by airports around the country to implement noise control structures (Sharman, 2000).
Aircraft noise has recently become a global issue of concern following the psychological and physical effects it instills on people living around airports and under flight paths. Elevated aircraft noise causes annoyance, stress, hearth problems difficulties in concentration, memory loss and high blood pressure. It also interferes with daily lifestyle, communication, sleeping schedule and entertainment. The fact that aircraft flight and departure activities are expected to increase with the growing demand for air transport shows the dire need to control aircraft noise. Hence, airports around the world have devised noise control strategies, including introducing a new engine technology, installing vortex generators, noise propagation and employing noise control laws and guidelines.
Charles, S. (2009). Noise That Annoys: Regulating Unwanted Sound, Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(1):207-419.
David, H. (2014). Flight Noise Pollution: A Public Health Strategy, Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(2):910-1201.
Ron, C. (2013). Decibel Hell: The Effects of Living in a Noisy World, Environmental Health Perspective, 113(1):76-119.
Sharman, R. (2000). Reducing the Impact of Noise Abatement Strategies on Airport Capacity by Forecasting Noise. Retrieved on 5th October, 2016 from http://www.atmseminar.org/seminarContent/seminar3/papers/p_003_AGOADM.pdf
Xie, H. (2014). The Characteristics and Control Strategies of Aircraft Noise in China, Applied Acoustics, 84(2):47-57.
Sample Environmental Studies and Forestry Essay Paper on Earthquake get essay help
Earthquake refers to vibrations that occur in the Earth’s crust that result into shaking of the Earth surface, that are highly unpredictable and in most cases are experienced suddenly without warning. However, after a major earthquake, some of the shocks that are experienced may be an indication of the likelihood of another earthquake. There are those occasions where some less intense tremors and other cases of foreshocks may precede the earthquake. Some of the basic characteristics of earthquake include the following:
1. The magnitude is unpredictable, the time and place where the earthquake will occur.
2. In most case, the onset is hidden.
3. Regions prone to the earthquake are well identified and defined on geological features as well as previous or historical occurrences of earthquakes.
4. A considerable number of the effects arise particularly from the movement of the ground as well as fracture and in some cases slippage of underground rocks. The major visible outcomes include severe damage to buildings and infrastructure among other considerable casualties.
In regions prone to earthquake, there should be a meticulous inspection both on workplaces and homes to establish if there exist any structural danger. In this case, the concerned engineers need to provide assurance concerning structural stabilities on the respective sites. Secondly, during an earthquake, individuals should avoid moving around or rather making attempts of moving out of buildings. In the case of a multiple-story building, people should not make efforts of evacuating through either the elevator nor staircases, therefore it is advisable to remain inside rather than trying to move out. Also, after the occurrence of an earthquake, various services such as electricity and gas need to be disconnected immediately in such cases where damages take place in either system.
The following are images illustrating how an earthquake revolution, how the coverage from the ocean impacts on temperature and sections of the waves respectively:
Some of the organizations addressing earthquakes include Concern Worldwide (CW) and Counterpart International (CI) (https://www.devex.com/news/global-ngos-supporting-earthquake-relief-efforts-in-nepal-86102). The two organizations focus on livelihood and nutrition among other basic needs that human beings need for survival, and in this case, after the occurrence of an earthquake. The organization extends the services to rebuilding damaged water and other cases of sanitation infrastructure, and facilitation services on earthquake mitigation strategies.
National Science Foundation (http://www.usnews.com/science/articles/2011/03/09/mitigating-effects-of-earthquakes) is one of the articles addressing the earthquake through the mitigation strategies. The article has illustrated some effective ways through which major raptures can be withstood by strong engineer design systems. Throughout the article, the author, Marlene Cimons, has been able to explain the significance of using long-lasting as well as quality materials in architectural designs among engineering frameworks. On the same note, the article proves to be useful in the field of disaster preparedness with regard to catastrophic events which in this case is earthquake, through analysis of how strong buildings or structures can be more advantageous than the relatively less strong ones.
In a personal opinion, the article has been successful in its framework as well as strategy for mitigation and preparedness for earthquake. The information proves to be valid and more reliable, by taking note of the fact that the author managed to visit previous scenes; where the event took place and analyzed the different building structures that were destroyed as a result of the event. Through this analysis, the different readers for the article are able drive the meaning of strong buildings alongside quality structure as a way for mitigating the various impacts of an earthquake.
The National Academic Press (https://www.nap.edu/read/1840/chapter/6) has embraced the approaches through which a safe future can be realized through minimized impacts of natural disasters. In a more effective way, the article has successfully illustrated the various actions that can be taken with the objective of preventing as well as reducing the various risks, not only to life and property, but also for social and economic activities among other relevant natural resources from earthquake hazards. The article has been able to illustrate the reasons as to why cases of disastrous events are always reported despite the mitigation programs that have always been brought on a rise. In the field of Environmental Studies and Forestry, the article has emerged useful by analyzing the economic, social and political barriers that come along during the times of adopting the various mitigation programs. The article has further suggested the approaches through which the mitigation approaches can be considered non-restrictive, less costly and being compatible with the set economic development of the respective communities.
Tornado refers to a violently swirling air column usually arising from severe thunderstorms made of the hollow core. Among the key characteristics of a tornado include air rotation containing dust and debris that spiral upwards at a higher rate. The column’s bottom is usually touching the earth’s surface with the upper part extending up to five miles into the sky. The images below illustrate how a tornado season looks like and its key features respectively:
The best mitigation strategy for tornado includes meeting building codes since this will provide the structure with a better chance of surviving the high and strong winds as well as flying debris. It is also required that individuals install good windows, particularly the modern window systems that are impact-resistance since they have been tested to survive a massive windstorm. Also, people should strengthen their entry doors and further inspect the hinges.
TORnado (http://www.torro.org.uk/index.php) and the American National Red Cross (https://learn.guidestar.org/give-to-charity/donor-resources/oklahoma-tornado-recovery) are some of the leading organizations in raising efforts towards fighting a tornado. The two organizations have played critical roles in providing relief services to the victims and taking them through facilitation services concerning the measures they need to undertake in mitigating the various impacts of the same.
Some of the articles addressing tornado include Insure.com (http://www.insure.com/home-insurance/tornado-building.html) and KMT (http://www.12newsnow.com/news/how-to-help-victims-of-the-missouri-tornado/270316188), with the former providing a detailed illustration of the process of reducing tornado damage. The article by Insire.com have emerged useful in illustrating the various steps that need to be undertaken with regard to preparation for a tornado and its aftermath. The article has basically emphasized on the need for setting up better buildings, and in this case, adhering to the various building codes, as the best mitigation approaches towards to a tornado.
KBMT, on the other hand, illustrates on how the several victims of the tornado, including those in Missouri, can be accorded appropriate assistance and aid. The article has been able to attract full attention of the reader, through a historical analysis on various tornado that have been experienced in different parts of the world. The article has further analyzed the various efforts set for rescuing communities from the impacts of the disastrous event.
Sample Aviation Research Paper on Airport Winter Preparation “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu
Airport Winter Preparation
Contaminants such as ice, slush, and snow on airfield pavements are known to cause hazardous conditions that have contributed to airplane accidents and incidents. Focusing on winter season, airport traffic volumes are reduced as the weather conditions are considered hazardous. Thus, flights are either delayed or cancelled. In case the winter season is severe, the airport ought to be closed. Focusing on the effects of winter on flights will help airports prepare in order to minimize any undesirable incidences likely to occur. Approach to apply however, depends on airport operators and the measures being applied to monitor and assess the undesirable conditions as closely as possible. This will enable the airport operators to employ mitigating practices ready and capable of combating potential and actual contaminants on an airport. This essay will therefore introduce new practices and concepts as well as different approaches airport operators can rely on in ensuring winter seasons are not hazardous.
This topic is vital as it will synchronize activities across FAA Lines of Business while issues arising from contaminants on airport surfaces. The harmonization will recognize that aircraft manufacturers have and should continue to determine variances in contaminant type, air temperatures, and depth as they change aircrafts braking performances. Thus, it will emphasize that aircrafts manufacturers’ data should be taken for specific contaminants in order to generate a Runway Condition Assessment Matrix. This is relied on by airport operators. This however requires identification of contaminants. It is also vital to determine standards and procedures that can easily identify airport contaminants. The procedure however should be less subjective to fulfill part 139 for certified airports. A focus on the NOTAM system will therefore be critically addressed in order for the report to produce accurate and applicable measures, methods, practices, and materials used in fighting snow and ice during winter seasons. Thus, the report will also discuss terms used to notify pilots of hazardous runway conditions.
Terms and Definitions
This refers to solid form of frozen water that is either rough or scarified. FAA however states that, a layer of ice over compacted snow should be reported as ice.
This refers to snow that has been condensed and merged into a hard rock. It resists further compression in order for an airplane to remain on its surface without displacing the compacted snow. In case chunks of compacted snow are handpicked, they ought to remain intact although they can be broken into pieces. FAA asserts that compacted snow over ice should be reported as compacted snow. For example, when an airplane is operating on surface, significant rutting or compaction can fail. Compressed snow like a combination of snow and entrenched ice can be more ice than trampled snow. As a result, it should be reported as either wet ice or ice.
This refers to frost crystals formed from humidity that condense on a surface. The temperatures should be below freezing point. It should however be differentiated from ice due to the fact that the crystals are autonomous and more coarse in texture. In case the ice is heavy with noticeable depth, it is likely to have friction qualities comparable to ice. As a result, it can downgrade the conditions of a runway code prompting airport operators to report it. More so, if driving an automobile over the frost does not result in tire tracks to the bare runway surface, it should be deemed as sufficiently deep to consider a downgrade of the runway condition code.
This refers to snow that has insufficient free water enabling it to stick together. FAA reports that dry ice occurs at temperatures below zero degrees or 320F.
Dry Runway Pavement
This term is used to describe pavements neither contaminated nor wet. Thus, it is not necessary for a FICON NOTAM to be originated in order to report a dry runway. A dry pavement surface can however be reported if the conditions on the remainder of the surface should be recorded.
This refers to grayish, white, and/or black hard deposits of combustion. It originates from crushed particles of matter ejected during volcanic eruptions.
This refers to deposits of frost, snow, ice, water, and slush on an airport pavement. The effects of contaminants on an airport are hazardous or detrimental to the friction characteristics of the runways.
They refer to overall distances covered by pavement surfaces covered with more than twenty-five percent of frost, slush, water, ice, and snow in depth. Due to contaminated runways, overall coverage within a runway area should be reported. However, if the contaminated runway is less than twenty-five percent, a runway condition code is not generated. Mud, sand, oil, and ash are also reportable contaminants. FAA however notes that such contaminants should not be associated with the performance of an airplane as data to affirm their effects is not available. More so, the contaminants do not warranty Runway Condition Code to be reported. FAA also asserts that rubber is not subject to the twenty-five percent rule. However, rubber should be reported when it is wet and slippery if pavement evaluation and friction decreases average Mu value indicated on wet pavements. Thus, the value should be below Minimum Friction Level classification under AC 150/5320-12 FAA requirements.
FICON Field Condition Report
Notice To Air Men (NOTAM) is a report generated to reveal the conditions of a runway of pavement surface. It also reports the condition of taxiways, Runway Condition Code (RwyCCs) and aprons. The reports should however be reported if more than twenty-five percent of the overall length and width are covered with contaminants.
Several aircrafts have been involved in hazardous incidences and accidents especially during winter. For example, Boeing-737 was involved in an overrun accident in 2005. FAA discovered that the industry’s practices were not adequate in providing airport operators with guidance and regulations addressing operations on runways that are wet and contaminated. The FAA chartered an Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) in order to discuss issues linked to Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment (TALPA). TALPA requirements for appropriate parts 23, 25, 91, subparts K, 121, 125, 135 and 139 were addressed. In order to formulate recommendations, it was clear that the ability to communicate to pilots’ actual runway conditions using terms directly linked to expected aircraft performance was vital on real time basis. ARC affirmed these skills had to be acquired in order for FAA to prevent hazardous conditions across airports in the future. Research affirmed that the NOTAM system that was in use was facing numerous shortcomings hampering communication processes. As a result, NOTAM system’s reporting processes had to invest in digital communication procedures supporting major safety initiatives while resolving identified shortcomings with accurate real time information required for pilots to assess, takeoff, and land an aircraft safely (O’Donnell, 2016).
Snow and Ice Control Committee (SCC)
According to the United States Department of Transportation in collaboration with Federal Aviation Administration, winter and stormy weather conditions reduce airport traffic volumes by cancelling or delaying flights. During severe conditions however, airports should be closed down until the conditions minimize. As a result, SCC discusses the following approaches to be taken by airport operators in combating winter conditions. Foremost, airport operators ought to ascertain that the Airport Snow and Ice Controlling Committee are tasked in conducting pre-seasonal and post-seasonal planning meetings. SCC should develop written plan as Advisory Circular that can be implemented in order to provide applicable guidelines and regulations to improve operational safety across airports. According to O’Donnell, this plan is an airport certified report under part 139.313 referred to as Snow and Ice Control Plan (O’Donnell, 2016).
The certified report prompted the Airport Snow and Ice Control Committee (SICC) to acknowledge that all airports subject to icing and snowing conditions of several inches acquire the SICC. It is effective in pre-seasonal planning while focusing on operational plans capable of improving runway safety and communications among agencies and departments affected by snow, storms, and ice. It also addresses requirements of airport users while ensuring clearing activities are undertaken on an airfield efficiently. It also addresses apron areas after the winter, icy and stormy seasons comes to an end. Airport operators should therefore schedule ongoing evaluating meetings especially after each winter season in order to determine procedures and safety concerns to revise and implement (O’Donnell, 2016).
The size and functions of the SICC however are determined by the size of the airport, number of users and type of winter season being experienced in the particular geographical location. All airport managers and their representatives ought to chair SICC. These include airport operation staff members, pilots, deicing council representatives, FAA air traffic control operators, and United States military contractors if necessary among others. Evidently, Snow Control Center (SCC) should be set up by airport operators to control ice and snow activities. However, it can also be a special room, facility or a desk located in a command vehicle or maintenance building headed by operations officers. This depends on the size of the airport and operations taking place. However, it should manage snow clearing operations. It should also serve as the primary source of field conditions reporting. For example, it should report runway braking conditions and snow accumulations on timely or real time basis. Consequently, it should inform Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT), air carriers and taxis and other parties that are expected during runway opening and closure. Lastly, it should issue timely NOTAM orders. According to FAA, the orders include 150/5200-288 notices to airport operators, 7930.2 notices to airmen and 7340.1 notices to contractors (O’Donnell, 2016).
Airfield clearing priorities for the snow and Ice Control Plan (SICP) should be determined as it is neither practical nor feasible for airport operators to clear runways and simultaneously support facilities focusing on contaminants. Airport operators are therefore required to establish minimum levels of services by establishing a priority classification system. This ensures critical areas of an airfield allowing aircraft operations are safe allowing efficient activities at suitable levels of service given ecological and weather conditions take place. Thus, efforts to clear airfield areas with lower importance can be either be delayed or implemented during low aircraft activity hours in order to focus on fully functional areas (McGormley, Arendt, Seal, Fisher, & Smith, 2015).
The following measures should be taken to identify priority areas. Foremost, the SCIP states that, depending on activities taking place on the airport, a minimum of two priority areas, navigational aid facilities, and safety requirements should be identified. The size of the priority areas should also be determined by taking into account airport resources, capabilities, and the actual operational needs of the aircrafts. In order to determine the accurate dimensions of the highest priority areas, the clearing activities should be optimized. This avoids over sizing the areas resulting to counter productivity exceeding airports’ resources and capabilities. Consequently, deflection of inadequate resources and assets to clear areas that are not immediately needed for airport’s operations is also prevented. For example, areas that influence the safety and re-establishment of aircraft operations should be given the first priority for minimum acceptable level of service to be undertaken. These include primary runways with taxiway turnoffs, associated taxiways leading to terminals, airport rescue and firefighting (ARFF) teams among others. Ultimately, areas allowing necessary movement of aircrafts at minimum acceptable levels of service should be prioritized (McGormley, Arendt, Seal, Fisher, & Smith, 2015).
The second priority should be awarded areas that are not critical in reinstating minimum suitable levels of service with regards to aircraft operations. They include secondary runways, terminal and cargo apron areas that did not get cleared under the first priority, commercial ramp areas and airfield facilities essentially facilitating flight operations without being used on day to day basis. The final priority should therefore be awarded areas that were not included under the first two priorities. These include perimeter security roads as well as other service paths within AOA. The figure below summarizes the information discussed above (O’Donnell, 2016).
Airports should invest in appropriate and sufficient equipment required to clear ice and other contaminants on runways within reasonable time limits. FAA asserts once inch of snow occupies at least 2.54cm weighing close to 400kg/m3. Such amount of ice should be cleared from the three prioritized areas outlined above as they accommodate anticipated airplane operations during the clearance time provided. Thus, some terminal or cargo portions can be included under priority one. For example, parallel runways may have simultaneous operations especially during winter seasons. As a result, both pavements as well as associated principal taxiways ought to be included under priority one’s total area. The appropriate or reasonable time required to clear the areas as used in the AC depends on the type and size of airport as well as annual operations taking place. The tables below indicate the reasonable amount of time required to clear commercial and non-commercial service airports respectively (O’Donnell, 2016).
Operations controlling snow and size require staff members to utilize the equipment efficiently. In order to control the fleet of equipment, the size of snow and ice should be determined. Based on the total priority areas to be paved within the targeted clearance time period, the right number of staffs can be determined (Hazel, Jan, Thomas, & Daniel, 2011). For example, AC 150/5220-20 provides a guidance report on methods to apply in selecting number and type of equipment meeting the targeted clearance time periods. The report, under section 139.303 (a) – (b) asserts the size of equipment fleet should be provided with sufficient qualified staff members that are certified hence, capable of complying with the requirements of utilizing provided resources. Under section 139.303 (a), qualified staffs holding a certificate ought to provide satisfactory personnel complying with certification manual in the airport. The snow removal and surface treatment ought to be adequate for runways extending to maintenance of open taxiways, centralized deicing facilities, aprons, and holding bays in safe operational conditions (O’Donnell, 2016).
Depending on the total priority areas to be cleared, snow and ice controlling equipment fleet ought to be determined as follows. Foremost, equipment required to meet the first priority can later be used to clear lower propriety. AC 150/5220-20 provides guidelines on methods of selecting the type and number of equipment fleets meeting targeted clearance times. The equipment should be stored in buildings capable of maintaining fifty degrees Fahrenheit in order to prolong the useful life of the fleet. The temperatures of the storage are also vital to control as they ensure the fleet is efficient to meet operational needs during more rapid responses. It is also crucial to ensure all operational equipment fleets are inspected after every use in order to determine if either additional maintenance or repairs are necessary. These guidance measures on how to store snow and ice control equipment are provided under AC 150/5220-18 (O’Donnell, 2016).
FAA Approved Runway Friction Measuring Equipment
FAA asserts there are two indispensable types of friction measuring equipments that should be utilized in conducting friction surveys on runways operations undertaken during winter. These are namely Decelerometer (DEC) and Continuous Friction Measuring Equipment (CFME) (Hazel, Jan, Thomas, & Daniel, 2011). Decelerometer equipment is recommended over Continuous Friction Measuring Equipment. This is because it is used among airports with longer runway downtime that is required to complete a friction survey hence, unacceptable. Decelerometer is also appropriate among airports that are often busy. This is because it can be intricate gaining access to full length pavements crossed by other runways. Decelerometers should be electric in order to offer the following advantages. Foremost, electronic Decelerometers eliminate potential errors likely to be made by humans. This is because they automatically compute and record friction averages for each one third zone of the runway. Consequently, they provide printed records of the friction survey data (O’Donnell, 2016).
Mechanical Decelerometers on other hand can only be used during backup plans. This is because they do not offer Continuous Graphic Record of friction with regards to the conditions of the runways. Although electric Decelerometers do not offer the same service, they provide only a spot check of the runway unlike mechanic equipments. Thus, they take longer than the runway downtime required to complete a friction survey. Consequently, they neither provide Automatic Friction Averages nor printed copy of data. FAA asserts that pavements with frozen contaminants require less than twenty-five percentage electric Decelerometers to be used. This results in a conservative representation of the conditions of braking runways. The conditions however, should be considered when using friction values as input when making decisions about runway treatments. More so, in case a pilot experiences braking values that are widely varying along the runway, the percentage of contaminant coverage should be noted in the report. Ultimately, FAA approves electric Decelerometers as they are installed with performance specifications as provided under the requirements of FAA (O’Donnell, 2016).
Conversely, Continuous Friction Measuring Equipments refer to gadgets authorized over Decelerometers in measuring friction characteristics of contaminated runways. This is because Continuous Friction Measuring Equipments offer a Continuous Graphic Record of the runways friction characteristics with friction averages for each one third zone of the runway. Continuous Friction Measuring Equipments can either be towed or self-contained. AC 150/5320-12 contains performance specifications for Continuous Friction Measuring Equipments as approved by FAA (O’Donnell, 2016).
In conclusion, FAA provides requirements ensuring airport operators understand conditions prompting runways to be reported as contaminated. It also provides guidance on approaches, equipments, and staffs required to ensure runways are safe for airplanes to either take of land without risking human lives.
Hazel, A., Jan, B., Thomas, B., & Daniel, B. (2011). ACRP Report 19A: Resource guide to airport performance indicators. Washington, D. C. Transportation Research Board on the National Academies.
McGormley, R., Arendt, T., Seal, E., Fisher, E., & Smith, G. (2015). Guidebook for airport winter operations: Final report. Airport Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.
O’Donnell, M. (2016). Airport field condition assessments and winter operations safety. United States Department of Transportation.
Sample History Book Review Paper on Things Fall Apart my assignment essay help london
Things Fall Apart
Considered as the beginning of African literature, Chinua Achebe’s “Things Fall Apart,” centers on the events that followed at the beginning of colonization in the African continent. It narrates Okonkwo’s’, a respected Igbo hailing from Umuofia, a region close to the Lower Niger. Upon the arrival of the Englishmen, Okonkwo finds that he is the protagonist in a tragedy depicting the white man with his Bible and Christian doctrines and on the other hand, the Africans with their African traditional lifestyle which entailed farming, community rituals, and religion among others.
As the Englishmen settled and found their way amongst the Igbo, there arose bitter conflict that touched on the core center of both cultures. It was a battle that focused on their cultural values that kept both the Western aliens and the Africans apart. In the first case, Chinua Achebe captures the conflicts through religion, war, and tribal conflicts, collective and personal conflicts, education, and politics. The conflicts thus followed a pattern in which the Africans and the Europeans attempted to dominate and impose their cultural values on each other. The English depicted the Africans as “no thinking beings,” and introduced an education system that groomed one towards “self-hatred, subsurface, and suspicion” (Chinua, 1958) On the other hand, the Africans viewed the Europeans as exploiters who were out to wreck and destabilize their peaceful way of life. It was a pattern in which the two protagonists tried to dominate and control each other.
Chinua Achebe’s narrative is a documentary of the great continent destroyed by the Europeans; it is also part tragedy depicting the wide gap that existed between the rich and the poor regarding their social standings. Okonkwo’s father, once a promising young man gifted as a flute player turned as a failure in his adult years. He dies in debt. Due to the massive debt, he owned to the other members of Igbo community; Unoka was laughed at, scorned, and remained a weak member of the community as depicted on how other members of the community interacted with him. However, they carried out a ritual of hospitality, indicating some sense of respect to the owner of the homestead who happened to be Unoka. As quoted by the author, “Age was respected among his people, but the achievement was revered” (Chinua, 1958). Additionally, despite his poor social standing, Unoka was respected and he accorded his visitors a traditional welcoming ceremony by breaking the kola nut as a cultural practice amongst the people of Igbo. As Okoye says, “Thank you. He who brings kola brings life. But I think you ought to break it.” On the other hand, his son Okonkwo is a rich man destined for greatness. With his massive ability at war and in generating wealth, Okonkwo was charged with greater responsibility in the Igbo community such as watching over Ikemefuna who was “destined for sacrifice.” According to the author, the Igbo community reserved the leadership positions to influential, healthy, wealthy, and respected members of the community such as Okonkwo. As the author quotes, “Okonkwo was clearly cut out for great things. He was still young but he had won fame as the greatest wrestler in the nine villages. He was a wealthy farmer and had two barns full of yams…” Chinua Achebe, 1958)
The Igbo cultural lifestyle was stable and deeply rooted in its teachings, ways of life, and customs. However, conventional wisdom dictates that culture is never static but dynamic. Considering external influences, it is a wrong notion as in most cases the cultural way of life of people can easily be changed and interrupted by outsider’s, as is the case of the Western influence on the Igbo community. As depicted by Chinua Achebe in Things Fall Apart, the traditional cultural ways of life of the Igbo gradually fell apart with the invasion of the Europeans. Slowly, the people of Igbo such as Okonkwo’s son, Nwoye, embraced Western education and did away with their cultural practices of development (Chinua, 1958). Certain practices such as the killing of the twins could have thinned away with time due to exposure and interactions with other cultures. Additionally, harsh and punitive punishments such as the death of the twins and the sending of Okonkwo into exile were a cruel judicial act. Even when the Europeans could not have intervened, such practices could have withered away more so because of external influences and social interactions. Chinua Achebe used the title too to display the failed attempt of Okonkwo and Umuofia at large to hold onto their cultural values and practices even with the newly introduced European’s ways of life such as in education, worship, and trade. As quoted by the author, “The white man is very clever. He came quietly and peaceably with his religion. We were amused at his foolishness and allowed him to stay. Now he has won our brothers, and our clan can no longer act like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together, and we have fallen apart” (Chinua, 1958).
Chinua, A. (1958). Things fall apart. Ch. Achebe, 1-117.
Sample Accounting Thesis Paper on Taxation Policies Thesis english essay help online
Taxation Policies Thesis
In this thesis, a study of the special effects that diverse methods of taxation have on economic growth and the tax transparency. Furthermore, the thesis examines what the future of the country would be if there were reverse VAT/GST goods, and luxury goods. For instance, the rich in the society should bear the huge tax burden while those with deplorable life styles should bear less tax burdens. Company tax policy should also be revised to create a more friendly business environment. In addition, professional taxes for each sector are necessary to allow accountability and more efficient tax collection procedures by the government. The taxation bodies should also reduce that individual or personal tax to VAT/GST tax percentages. There should also be civil education to individual and company to sensitize them on the importance of paying taxes and that tax avoidance does not help but rather it slows downs development. The government should also ensure that the taxation system expands to foreign countries in the future.
Consequently, the thesis will be able to give a clear direction on how the taxation system will be efficient. For instance, it is important to know whether there will be a change in the per-capita GPD will result to change the life styles of the citizens if a new taxation structure is in place. Will the economy of the country grow when the revenue collection increases because of the change in taxation laws and how big will such a growth in economy be? The thesis also proposes a taxation system that divides the taxation into different categories and the different rate of taxation for the different professional and social status. The thesis stands out from other thesis since it gives an in-depth of a perfect taxation policy, which on implementation will spur massive economic growth and per-capita of the gross domestic product. Furthermore, the thesis will also propose an efficient way of economic growth while still focusing on streamline the taxpayer.
Tax transparency and effective tax rates
The thesis views taxation as a reputation issue where institution and individuals are obliged to take responsibility. The various stakeholders such as government, media, and companies, individual, among other are on the forefront in the current dispensation to ensure that they have a better knowhow of the taxation structure, strategies and the amount of taxes they are to pay. Workers and labor unions before taking up jobs with a particular employee should seek to know the employer standpoint on matters of tax payment. Therefore, a company should form an external public relations department whose main purpose should be to know and comprehend key message and theme consuming taxation. The department should then incorporate the theme and message in their communication plans. This is due to the reputational and public image of the company greatly depends on their tax implementation and payment strategy.
On the issues of tax rates, the government uses different strategy to come up with the best rates. For instance, during hard economic times and global crises the government may effect changes to the tax rates in order to raise revenue to prevent their economy from crashing. Throughout the world statutory rates on taxes charges on company have been on the downwards spiral to create a conducive and favorable environment for business. However, this statutory are not enough to determine the tax charges to companies. Therefore, company understands better why their company tax is different from other companies in the same sector as they are by benchmarking the effective tax rates (ERT).
Since taxation has become a very important factor in determining the company’s public image it is important for company to compare its ERTs with peer company ERTs. The benchmarking should be within the same period and use data of the same type. The comparison will allow the company to have an insight of their tax payment and publicize it to the public. Furthermore, the company will manage to incorporate its tax stand to its communication policies.
Future of the tax system – taxes on luxurious goods
The global financial crisis trigged an increase in the level of inequality between the rich and the poor. However, the inequality is not only because of the financial global crisis, but also to blame is the inability of the middle class and lower class to purchase luxurious or spend more money (Saez, Emmanuel, Joel, and Seth, 3-15). The situation is worse in lower income countries where the difference between the rich and poor is abnormally big and keeps growing. The problem in such economy can is due to the fiscal stains because of using most of the resources on infrastructure and long term projects. There has been an improvement in the inequality since the 1990s in the developing nations, but the gap is still large and takes some time to close. Therefore, the thesis proposes wealth taxation, which will result in the high end and wealthy people paying more taxes. These taxes could then be put into use to build infrastructure. However, wealth taxes are unpopular as most economists argue that a good tax system should target either income or expenditure. Therefore, charging higher taxes on luxurious good would increase government’s revenue, promote equality and lead to increased demand for the ostentatious goods or other luxurious good.
VAT and GST should remain as they are in terms of rates and method of evaluation, collection and over role administration. However, these taxes should be charged at a considerably low rate than the luxury tax. Implementation of higher rates of luxurious goods including those that are habit forming would lead to a significant decrease of VAT and GST rates.
Corporate tax policy promoting business friendly environment
Government should consider charging low corporate taxes to the companies in their countries. This way company can manage to operate at low cost in the foreign countries and compete fairly in the global market. The other issue is that government should avoid double taxation for companies operating in the foreign countries. As a result, companies are able to develop and create more jobs in the country of origin. Therefore, a company should only pay taxes to the government of the country it is carrying out its operation rather than pay two governments.
The thesis is of the view that that intercompany debt should be deductible and liberalized. Therefore, the government can use the funds from the deduction to develop the foreign subsidiaries. By doing this the company manage to create more job vacancies in the country of origin than when the rule is no in use. Furthermore, the technological and intellectual capital should be researched, developed and protected by the state (Hofmann, Hoelz, and Kirchler, 209).
Professional tax for each tax
Profession tax refers to the tax the government taxes to individuals due to earning from calls, employment, profession and trade. The professional tax should be implementation is through use of progressive rate slabs, which are different from sector to sector. Different sectors have different earnings and different job related professional expenses. This includes subscription to professional bodies, need for specialized occupational attires and tools that may not be provided by the employer. Introducing different rates will ensure that the taxing system satisfies the equality maxim as different sectors have different needs.
Reduction of personal tax
It is notable that the raising of the personal income tax does not necessary translate to additional revenues for the state. This comes about, as people will start devising way of tax evasion, tax avoidance and changes in career. However, it comes a time when the government needs to raise more revenues for the existing projects. During such situations, the best way is not by raising the personal tax, but rather devising a tax raising strategy that will not lead to undesirable behavioral response. Such method may include closing the existing loopholes, raise taxes on recurrent revenues such as residential facilities, and reduce taxes on personal taxes while making sure there is reduction in environmental damage. Such measures are important to reform the taxation system and are important to implement by any state.
Future of the tax across countries
With time it has been seen that most wealthy individual try to evade taxation. Due to the trend, this thesis proposes the use technology to track such tax evasions. Various taxation authorities around the global have liaised to track funds moving across the world to ensure that no one avoid paying taxes. Such systems look at the various companies and individual financial statements in financial institution, identify abnormal activities, and account changes (Auerbach, Alan J., et al). This way the governments ensure that people do not hide any cash in offshore accounts.
Therefore, the thesis reorganizes the need for international cooperation in taxation policies. However, this does not been that a country is not sovereign in implementing taxation policies that best suites its interests. The proposal is that in selecting it taxation policies to achieve its economics aim a country should put into consideration the effects the policies will have to the international trade. Therefore, in the thesis advocate is that countries should ensure that its tax laws do not in impede free international trade. However, there are situation in which a country may find it difficult to objectively satisfy its need and at the same time align with the international agreements. In such a scenario, a country may seek exception to allow it to grow and manage to fit to the international standards.
The knowledge of the taxation of the citizen is important, as it is directly proportional to the economic growth of a country. Therefore, a state should ensure it avails all the information its citizen need to comply and know the importance of taxation. The public should be very aware that practices such as tax evasion do not help either the economy or the individuals. Therefore, the citizen will be capable of knowing that compliance with the taxation policies will benefit them, taxation authorities and the state.
Auerbach, Alan J., et al., eds. Handbook of public economics. Vol. 5. Newnes, 2013.
Hofmann, E., Hoelz, E., Kirchler, E. Preconditions of voluntary tax compliance: knowledge and evaluation of taxation, norms, fairness and motivation to cooperate. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, (2012)216(4), 209
Saez, Emmanuel, Joel Slemrod, and Seth H. Giertz. “The elasticity of taxable income with respect to marginal tax rates: A critical review.” Journal of economic literature 50.1 (2012): 3-50.
Sample English Essay Paper on Play Analysis essay help service: essay help service
“The Crucible” is a play that was drafted by Arthur Miller. In this narration, Miller cites various changes that characters encountered. Changes that Reverend Hale faced in the play became reflected in his attitude. This was evident when he completely changed in his entire stay in Salem. He failed to identify the duplicity that existed within people and their behaviors. This was because those individuals who were perceived to be the best did not have sufficient confidence. Conversely, individuals who were in the worst section were always depicted to be filled with intensity and passion.
In this play, Hale found it difficult to understand the way people that had plenty of passion. This accounted for each form of evil deeds that he committed. It happened when he stamped out of Salem and the entire world. In addition, Hale also identified a miracle that was essential to him in the play. As a result, this made him to incur more challenges especially when the play comes to an end (Miller 92). A good example is indicated in Act II when Hale decided to visit Proctor at home.
At the moment when he was almost leaving, Giles Corey and Francis Nurse came in and announced; “Reverend, our wives have been arrested.” His change in the play is evident when he imparted individuals with positive messages concerning the church and salvation. In this regard, Hale advised Elizabeth and John on ways to be successful. They had to put two aspects into consideration. They included their salvation and respect to the church. He also advised them to honor Reverend Parris because they would need him to baptize their last child on Sabbath.
Furthermore, the change in Hale became evident in his mind. The reason was that it was converged with both the institution and religious purity. It was difficult for him to understand any form of disconnect. This change further compelled him to carry out an investigation on Giles and Martha Corey concerning the reading. At the first stage of the investigation, his belief was that nothing was wrong. This was because it was being carried out by flatly religious individuals.
Evidently, Hale faced change in the play when he was forced to understand the disconnection among people and their psych. According to Hale’s perspective, individuals who were considered as spiritual turned out to be hypocrites. Conversely, those who were perceived not to be spiritual had good character. (Miller 67). As Hale struggled with this change and concept, he broke from the court. As a result, this made him to conduct a search and pursue more of a “grass roots” strategy. The purpose of this approach was to control witches in town based on the desire to remove the confession.
Based on this reason, he encountered change especially when he failed to understand Proctor’s motivation at the end of the narration. This further implies that his failure to comprehend and accept the outcome would contribute to a vital change. This was in relation to complexity and duality that revolved around the nature of human beings. The change that Hale encountered in the play made him to incur singularity that became part of his life. His changes were also clear in their complicated settings. Additionally, such environment made Hale to experience a huge form of change in contrast to other characters in the play.
In this play, Reverend Parris also incurred changes. This began when he became paranoid and in secure as the story proceeded. His change is evident when he was included in the witch trials. As a result, this made him to accuse innocent individuals and spread gossip in relation to his own benefits. From the start, Parris had numerous enemies who also contributed to his change. It generated favoritism and selfishness in him (Miller 114). This happened when he rubbed individuals such as Proctor in the wrong manner. In act four, the entire Salem population became fed up of hysteria. Furthermore, they also gave up on the form of change that was depicted by Parris.
Evaluating his personality throughout the play, Parris is depicted to be greedy in Act one. He was also concerned a lot of his reputation than he cared for his daughter. The bad character that his daughter exhibited made him to change. As a result, he began praying. His daughter’s name was Betty who made Parris to become worried concerning his welfare. This situation made Reverend Parris to share his story with other characters.
Parris mentions how his congregation will perceive him after the incident. This is after realizing that he practiced witchcraft. In addition, he also changes in act three when he is described as annoying, pushy and bossy. The time when trials progressed, he changed while attempting to act as a judge. Additionally, he also changes in act four but his reputation still worries him. On finding out that his life may be at stake, he become paranoid that he might be killed at some point.
The changes that John Proctor encountered in the play revolve around a huge dilemma. In this story, being arrested for witch craft was the only dilemma. Clearly, Proctor encounters numerous dilemmas that marked a continuation from the past problems. “Adultery became his great dilemma at the outset.” All of his accusations were related to the act of witch craft. At the end, he also encountered change which was brought by a crisis of ethics. As a result, this led to his huge dilemma lies that further revealed his identity sense.
In act one, the author terms Proctor to be a sinner against his vision of conduct and decency. These changes contributed to chaos that began from the private to public level. Furthermore, Proctor changes when he confesses to Elizabeth his wife concerning his adultery activity with Abigail (Miller 82). As he repents during Elizabeth’s judgment, he further declares how he would “freeze as beer.” In this situation, witch craft is brought into the picture after Abigail who is revengeful accuses Proctor’s wife to be a witch.
The major changes that Protocol encountered are clear in his dilemma accusations. This became apparent when Protocol made accusations that Abigail was a whore. He also changes when he accused his wife of witchcraft. As a result, this subjected him to be an outcast from his home due to the private sins that he committed. These changes contributed to a situation that disgraced Proctor in a public manner. Proctor’s dilemma and conscience also revealed his change especially when he engaged in false confession. He further encounters a huge dilemma that made him to deny himself.
The quotation in the play that supported this perspective is clear when he laments “God in heaven, what is John Proctor?” This was after he was asked the reasons why he could not publish the confession. In this regard, change became apparent when names of the innocent individuals that were inclusive of Proctor’s became blacklisted. However, the major dilemma in this story was not encountering death but having to deal with his loss of identity.
Evidently from the play, the impact of Puritan beliefs revolved around their culture. Furthermore, this indicated their motives and character. From the play, Puritans strongly believed in existence of the devil. They were also aware of hell because they felt that the devil had the authority over people while they still lived on earth. The impact of these beliefs contributed in a situation whereby they believed in existence of witches.
In this regard, the Puritans perceived witches as servants who belonged to the devil and served him. For instance in the play, there are accusations that both men and women were witches. The reason is because they had “signed his black book.” According to Puritans, the impact of such beliefs depicted individuals as servants of the devil who sold their souls to Satan (Miller 154).
For instance, the author revealed how Reverend Hale was aware of the demonic arts. This was despite the fact that he was supposed to preach God’s word. Puritan beliefs had an impact on characters such as Hale when it made him to consider the influence of Satan. Besides making individuals in community to be accused of witchcraft, Puritan beliefs made people to accept the existence of witches. In addition, the outcome of this belief made Puritans to perceive the bible to be both the law of land and God. In essence, the impact of Puritan beliefs made the society to be overcome by Satan’s deeds.
Miller, Arthur. “The Crucible;” University of Missouri at Kansas City: The Salem Witchcraft Trials, 1692 Print.
Sample Literature Paper on One Trek Mind essay help websites
One Trek Mind
Spock greatly illustrates logic versus emotional binary in the film, since he is partially a Vulcan and partially a human being (Oliveira 56). Vulcans are perceived to have suppressed their emotions since they are illogical while Spock has to often times deal with the added pressures of the human nature. There is an obvious duality in Spock since he is partly a human being and partly a Vulcan. He exhibits the struggle of human passion and Vulcan logic that becomes interesting aspects of the character. He can deeply feel the emotions but has to suppress them due to his restricted duality. This duality is strongly expressed when Spoke lost his mother and failed to hide the wave of unspeakable grief. The character was torn between the insensate human grief and the warm human emotions, which he secretly exhibited. Though he could excuse himself as a Vulcan and turn off his emotions, his share was unhealthy eventually as it constantly led to volatile anger. Spock depicts the logical aspect that is similarly shared by human beings. He, just as human beings, set reasonable boundaries for behavior and set aside space for explosion of emotions. By allowing feelings to explode, Spoke managed to think and plan on his next strategy.
Film elements such as sounds, color, and time sequence that strongly emphasized the logic/emotion binary are highlighted in the film. The music is equally beautiful and heart pounding. This makes it easier for the audience to relate with the scene and emotions that accompany it. For instance, there is the introduction of Jerry Goldsmith’s Score that introduced the scene further highlighting the title of the film. Other sounds become alien and hostile just like the Vulcan in the film. The visuals allow the audience like the villains the more irrespective of the initial perception towards them and their inhumane behavior. Emotions of annoyance crop up and can blind the viewer from appreciating the logical capability of the characters. Shinzon is more of a tool for B-4 that complements him and gives him the choice of becoming whatever he desires to be (Oliveira 34). This is really distasteful of his character. The visuals associated with the characters reveal their behavior. For instance, Lore is mostly depicted in dark scenes and unaccompanied. This depicts him as a villain and his ultimate petition alerts the audience of his half-heartedness and untrustworthiness. Data on the other hand, shows his emotional nature through the sounds he produces when he deactivates his brother. The sounds, “The Offspring” are closely related to his emotional send off he gives his dying daughter. The bold visuals allow the audience to understand the piece and enjoy the plot. Other than being entertaining, the film exercises the logical side of the viewer by influencing them to set reasonable boundaries
Emotion and logical are clearly in conflict during Spock’s childhood when he is being bullied by other Vulcan children so he can elicit emotional response. Vulcan’s as logical beings have grasped emotional control and apply logic to dictate their character rather than emotions. Bullying, which is aspect of emotions and being in a psychological state here on earth is used in an illogical manner. The children ought to be practicing sufficient emotional control due to their logical ability (Johnston 29). This makes Spock’s father to be disappointed at him for reacting and thus solves the conflict by directing Spock on the expected conduct. From the scene, it is apparent that Vulcans are expected to exhibit higher level of emotional control while they are still children. The scene accentuates the idea that although Vulcan is expected to exhibit much control, their children have a varying concept of logic from adults and hence display uncontrolled emotional rights to adolescence stage. The scene further proves that a partial Vulcan cannot control his emotional state as much as a complete Vulcan and hence, the reason for bullying.
From the studies of the emotion/logic binary I have widely gathered sufficient knowledge which has helped me to understand this film intellectually, and not simply as entertainment. I have come to acknowledge the emotional aspects that human beings have to grapple with. This knowledge is derived from the life of Spock who has to make independent decisions and live independently due to arising conflicts. Humans often encounter deeply rooted conflicts due to aspects such as duality of personality (Hoffman Para 3). A human being can be outgoing as well as withdrawn and introspective. This is clearly illustrated in the mind against the heart creation in Spock’s journey. I have learnt of the significance of allowing adequate space for others as well as ourselves to have and experience feelings. As human beings, this is an important aspect to us since we have feelings, and at times, difficult and explosive emotions that ought to be worked on. People should have therefore had adequate time to go through their feelings and prevent it from limiting our behaviors. Talking about our feelings with trusted people enables human beings to control the feelings.
Hoffman Jordan.” One Trek Mind.” Star Treck. 2012 Retrieved on 9th October, 2016 from>
Oliveira Carmen. Return of the Jedi Serenity Star Trek. NJ: Telotte. 2009. Print
Johnston M. Keith. Science Fiction Film: A Critical Introduction. Oxford: Fantasy Film. 2011.
Sample Aviation Admission Essay Paper on Letter to My State legislator nursing essay help: nursing essay help
Letter to My State legislator
I hereby write this letter to request nomination to attend and participate in the upcoming 2017 Texas high school aerospace scholars. I am a resident of the state of Texas. Most significantly, I attend the O’Connell college preparatory school. I have a great interest in science. Therefore, I believe this program will serve to enhance my knowledge in science.
In school, I have taken up science subjects such as applied biology and pre-calculus both of which I excelled in the last test – scoring straight A’s. Apart from academic studies, I am also involved in various scientific activities through the Robotics Club and Science Competitions. I also take courses in English as well as the history of the United States. These courses have helped me increase my social skills as well have a firm understanding of the American history as relates to the scientific advancements.
I have experience in the community based assignments because I have participated in different activities in the society. For instance, I offer various services during the Mass such as singing, leading events and heading the youth department, notwithstanding my different religious background. These services have helped me to develop my personal traits. For example, I am humble and kind, a character which helps me to deal with any challenges which may arise in the daily activities.
Lastly, I would like to reiterate my request for your nomination to the upcoming Texas 2017 high school aerospace activity. Scientific advancements in the field of aerospace have been on the rise in the recent years. Many countries including China and Russia are making great advancements each year. This program will be instrumental in nurturing future talents for the country as well as help the country maintain its competitive advantage in the aerospace science.
Sample History Research Proposal on The Oil Man of America essay help service: essay help service
The Oil Man of America
There is a growing interest in how John D. Rockefeller came to be such an influential person in the oil industry and the world. Rockefeller was born July 1839 in Richford, New York. His father was William Avery Rockefeller and mother Eliza Davidson Rockefeller. Rockefeller was a very religious and disciplined man from a very tender age: a quality he instilled in him by his mother. He was the most successful entrepreneur during the start of the great depression. The majority of firms in the Northern hemisphere were wounding up during this period: the economic depression of the 1930s.Rockeffer managed to keep afloat as his managerial skill and risk taker method were outstanding.
Even though John D Rockefeller was not born in a wealthy family, nor did he have a higher education; which was considered by many as a prerequisite for a successful manager. In the 1860s, he mobilized all his savings and made money work for him. He provided the justification that entrepreneurs are not made but born. As long as people are willing to invest in high-risk ventures with new ideas, they will succeed. Rockefeller’s live and background are reflective of the mantra that entrepreneurs should not be faint of heart and be calculated risk takers.
Statement of the Problem
The objective of this research is to use the life of John Rockefeller and how the economic, social and political influence during the 1870s affected his entrepreneurial decision-making and career path in the oil industry.
Despite the growing interest in the field of entrepreneurship by learners at the higher level of education, no researcher has examined in depth the relationship between the economic, social, and the political environment so as to ensure successful entrepreneur emerge.
My objectives are divided into four parts. Firstly, through this research, I tend to examine and understand Rockefeller’s charismatic and charming leadership style and how he managed to keep competitors he could not buy out at bay. Also, this research paper will focus on how Rockefeller single handedly managed to start the first monopoly in America and how he made his employees to be loyal and adore him. In addition, this research will determine how Rockefeller, being an entrepreneur, acquired his wealth.
Another main objective of this research is to investigate how the political environment helped Rockefeller to grow his standard oil company, although the government tried to regulate him through the filling of law-suites by the reelected President Roosevelt. Also, the research determines whether the political environment shaped how Rockefeller controlled his company; standard oil. The research paper will determine whether the government is involved in business operations so as to encourage entrepreneurial growth in the economy.
Moreover, another objective of this research is to determine whether the social environment Rockefeller was raised played a major role in making him to be have a success story in the oil industry. Also, the paper will look into social environment and how it influenced Rockefeller’s life after retirement in his philanthropic works. In addition, the research will describe how Rockefeller’s early life helped him to be a risk taker, to think ahead of his peers, and to selling them sweets and to even become a bookmaker at a tender age of sixteen. The paper will describe in detail how Rockefeller had to act like an adult even though he lacked a fatherly figure. Also, this research will show how Rockefeller found ways to make money and fill the gap of the family provider. And to answer the question, “Does social environment we grow in play a role in our entrepreneurial growth in our adult life?”
Lastly, another objective of this research is to describe how Rockefeller, who born in a humble family, influenced how him to be a good finance manager. Also, the research will describe how Rockefeller made deals with railway magnate Vanderbilt to have cheaper transport for his crude oil. The research will answer the question, “How did the economic environment of his life propel him to start an oil empire and the first monopoly in the United States?” Moreover, the paper will determine how Rockefeller at a very tender age managed to developed the mentality of saving cash. He worked for neighbors for a fee and reinvested in the money by loaning it out.
In this research, I will use scholarly research on John D Rockefeller in the library and online sources for information I require.
My research on how the social, economic, and political environment influenced the entrepreneurial decision-making and career path of John D Rockefeller. This research I believe can be helpful to learner and individual who want to carve a path in the entrepreneur field. My work will give them information on how they can succeed in starting their business with limited resources and interference from their environment.
Nevins, A., & Rockefeller, J. D. (1940). John D. Rockefeller; the heroic age of American enterprise.
Steiner, G., & Steiner, J. (2005). Business, government and society: A managerial perspective. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Weinberg, S. (2008). Taking on the trust: The epic battle of Ida Tarbell and John D. Rockefeller. WW Norton & Company.
Segall, G. (2000). John D. Rockefeller: Anointed with Oil. Oxford University Press.
Kemmerer, D. L., & Jones, C. C. (1959). American economic history. McGraw-Hill.
Yergin, D. (2011). The prize: The epic quest for oil, money & power. Simon and Schuster.
Poole, K. Biography: John D. Rockefeller, Senior. American Experience.
Tarbell, I. M., & Chalmers, D. M. (2003). The history of the Standard Oil Company: briefer version. Courier Corporation.
Alef, D. John D. Rockefeller, Sr.: America’s First Billionaire. Titans of Fortune Publishing.
Chernow, R. (2007). Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. Vintage.
O’Connor, E. S. (1999). The politics of management thought: A case study of the Harvard Business School and the Human Relations School. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 117-131.
Miller, D. (2015). A downside to the entrepreneurial personality?Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(1), 1-8.
 Nevins, A., & Rockefeller, J. D. (1940). John D. Rockefeller; the heroic age of American enterprise.
 Weinberg, S. (2008). Taking on the trust: The epic battle of Ida Tarbell and John D. Rockefeller. WW Norton & Company
 Segall, G. (2000). John D. Rockefeller: Anointed with Oil. Oxford University Press.
Sample Health Care Critical Thinking Paper on Assuring OSHA Compliance easy essay help
Assuring Osha Compliance
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) concerns itself with workplace safety and regulations. According to the Act, employers have the sole responsibility to ensure that their employees work in a healthy and safe environment. OSHA’s mission aims at enforcing these standards and by ensuring that employers abide by the Act. Additionally, the Act aims at offering training, education, outreach, and assistance to employers in order to comply with all the set standards. Some of the key responsibilities of an employer towards OSHA compliance include safety training, medical examination, and safe tools for the employees (Majid et al 2016). Additionally, employers have the responsibility to keep records of any injury or illness among the employees.
The Managing Director of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization cites that his health care facility complies with the requirement and highlights that the facility is compliant by ensuring that:
The workplace is free of potential hazardsThe employees use properly maintained and safe equipment’s and toolsDue to some of the dangerous chemicals in the laboratory, the facility has a program aimed at communicating the hazards associated with the chemicals. Additionally, the facility offers proper cautions at handling these chemicals by the employees.An OSHA poster is posted at an open place to educate the employees on their responsibilities and rights.Ensure that employees follow safety requirements of minimizing accidents and injuries.Use of warnings such as posters and signs to warn employees of hazards within the workplaceKeep records of any sort of injury by the employees in addition to providing medication and training as stipulated by the OSHA standards.Regular examination and inspection of the working conditions aimed at ensuring they comply with the standards set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
However, according to the Managing Director of the health facility, they face a major challenge in ensuring that the employees stay abreast with the regulations despite the fact that they carry our regular training on the same. The majority of the employees ignore or assume the use of safe equipment’s such as the use of gloves in handling chemicals in the laboratory. According to the Managing Director, most injuries they have recorded take place in the lab because of poor handling of chemicals. For instance, the manager cites an incident that occurred five years ago, whereby a fire broke out in the laboratory due to the employees failing to follow the procedure outlined in switching off the main power source by use of appropriate tools. The managing Director pointed out that the health facility has taken major drastic actions aimed at educating, training, and creating awareness on the same with the major objective of establishing a collective responsibility amongst the employees towards abiding by the OSHA regulations. Due to the fire incident, the facility was fined a violation fee of $10500, because of failure to display a warning poster near the power source. Additionally, the facility was fined a repeat violation the following year of $11000 due to the same offense in which a fire broke out in the same laboratory due to failure to monitor the chemical reactions during an experiment. An employee sustained a 30 percent burns from the accident. Due to failure to maintain health and safety records, the facility was further fined @7000 within the same year. However, since then, the management has tried its best to make corrections on its failures and according to the MD; they have not received any fine for the past couple of years.
The managing Director emphasized that the facility has tried its level best over the years to ensure that the employees are aware of the potential danger in the laboratory and posters displayed in open conspicuous places to warn employees. However, Shudtz et al (2013) argue that just posters may not be enough to keep the employees safe and away from danger. The MD cites that laboratory staff has undergone training on ensuring safety is maintained and upheld in the laboratory. Additionally, all the staff members are taken on first aid training at least once in a year to enable them to stay abreast with safety standards within and even out of the health facility. Additionally, the managing director maintained that all top management staff is fully aware of the standards expected of the organization irrespective of the level of management. The MD maintained that compliance with the OSHA regulations is a continuous process and the management is doing all within its ability to ensure that the good welfare of the employees is upheld and highly maintained.
In order to further maintain and keep abreast with developing issues by the regulations, the management ought to regularly call upon OSHA officials to carry out safety inspection and follow-ups to ensure that the facility complies with all the set regulations in addition to any developing issue. In addition, the facility ought to organize joint training sessions of its employee with the OSHA management in order to stay in line with the skills needed for safety measures within the facility. According to Burr and White (2015), the joint training would help reduce risks and improve on employee keen attention to safety within the working environment.
Burr, R., & White, K. R. (2015, January). OSHA’s PSM Standard: Achieving Compliance and Avoiding Pitfalls. In ASSE Professional Development Conference and Exposition. American Society of Safety Engineers.
Majid, N. D. A., Shariff, A. M., & Loqman, S. M. (2016). Ensuring emergency planning & response meet the minimum Process Safety Management (PSM) standards requirements. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 40, 248-258.
Sections, B. (n.d.). UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. Retrieved October 09, 2016, from https://www.osa.gov/laws-regs.html
Shudtz, M., Steinzor, R. I., Shapiro, S. A., & McGarity, T. O. (2013). Workers at Risk: Regulatory Dysfunction at OSHA. KBH Energy Center Research and Publications.
Sample Aviation Admission Essay Paper on Transition from Childhood to Adulthood essay help online free: essay help online free
Transition from Childhood to Adulthood
Transition from childhood to adulthood is a gradual process in other societies while in others it is almost instant. While in other civilizations boys and girls are initiated into adulthood with a particular ceremony or ritual, others use personal achievements and other social determinants to usher one into adulthood. This paper aims at expounding my transition into adulthood.
Every child has or should have a dream. As a child my dream was to one day soar in the clouds like an eagle. I was so excited about flying that every time I was in the sky I was really motivated and knew that I had to be in the cockpit one day, at least that’s what I told myself. The excitement was great whenever I flew to visit my relatives in Lithuania as it was motivating whenever my neighbor took me to fly with him around town in a little, single engine Cessna. When I turned 15 years, I thought it was the best time to turn my life around. I decided it was a time for me to get a pilot’s license.
When I was 15 years I worked for my dad in his construction company which started me off well as I could manage to pay flying lessons. It was time to take responsibility to get a license so I had to work for it. This was a big leap for me because it was time I started working, paying for and taking my lessons all at the same time. Later on I got hired at Jersey Mike’s which took my lessons even further and molded my responsibility to a whole new level. At this time I had to manage my time properly since I had to go to school, work, fly and since I was in the school’s golf team I had to include it into my tight schedule.
In my culture and family, adults are supposed to work while the children are viewed as the beneficiaries. For me this was a very important stage in my life for I was not only changing people’s perception of myself but also my own. I felt like I actually had control over my own life. When I was 16 years I had the opportunity to fly alone and it was wildly exciting. This was a big moment for me as it was not only about flying but flying on my own made me feel like I was ready for a life of my own. where I can make judgements and decisions on my own.
The moment I so much waited for came when I was 17 years. This was the 5 hours that was going to determine my fate as a certified pilot. It would also be the moment that the fate of my dreams would be decided. Luckily for me the 5 hours ushered me into adulthood. I got my pilot’s license at 17 and the admiration of people especially children. I believe that this was my transition process into adulthood. When those who are below you get to admire you and aspire to accomplish whatever you have achieved then you know that you have taken some steps forward. The circumstances which led to my acquisition of a pilot’s license also played an enormous role in my transition. Adults are supposed to be responsible, hardworking and time conscious qualities which I acquired during this time.
The cockpit experience was also a life changer because you learn accountability and know that your decisions can either be life threatening or maybe a life saver. This concludes my transition into adulthood.
Sample Psychology Thesis Paper on The impact of bilingualism on cognitive aging and dementia my assignment essay help london
The impact of bilingualism on cognitive aging and dementia
Many past studies argue that bilinguals demonstrate a cognitive advantage when compared with their monolingual counterparts. Research studies with children seem to have dealt with the cognitive effect of bilingualism more directly. Bilingual benefits are reported across such diverse domains as problem solving, creativity, and perceptual disembedding (Bialystok et al 2004). However, several studies have also reported negative bilingual effects. To resolve this disparity, it is important to take into account the cognitive processes linked to in different tasks used to evaluate the impact of bilingualism. Generally, tasks revealing bilingual benefit are typified by differences in representational and control processes. One of the main challenges facing researchers conducting research to compare older adults and young children with respect to bilingualism is identifying a task suitable across the different age groups. In this case, the Simon task has found widespread application in bilingual studies owing to its ability to meet set of assessing the performance benefits of bilingual individuals.
The Simon task hinges on stimulus-response compatibility and examines the level to which “the prepotent association to irrelevant spatial information affects participants’ response to task-relevant nonspatial information” (Bialystok et al. 2004, p. 291).
Research shows that bilingual children outperform their monolingual counterparts on different control tasks. Similar inhibitory benefits of bilingualism have also been reported in younger adults, albeit at an inconsistent rate, with various studies comparing the inhibitory benefits of bilingualism in older adults and children also suggesting a likely larger bilingual benefit on inhibition tasks in older adults. Bilingual children are reported to do better than their monolingual counterparts on different inhibitory tasks, with a number of studies comparing older adults with younger adults suggesting that the former group possess larger bilingual advantages on inhibition tasks (de Bruin et al., 2015). However, other studies have failed to notice a behavioural bilingual advantage in older adults, younger adults, and children. Bilinguals have also been shown to switch between non-verbal tasks when compared with monolinguals in groups of older adults, younger adults, and children.
Immigration is an important confounding variable for comparing monolingual and bilingual groups on their ability to perform inhibitory control tasks. Immigration is linked to improved cognitive functioning and health probably due to the change in lifestyle and flexibility required of immigrants (Fuller-Thompson & Kuh, 2014). This might explain why certain studies report positive effects between migration and bilingualism, while such positive relationship is lacking among the non-immigrants. However, more recent studies (for example, de Bruin et al., 2015) could not establish this kind of ‘bilingual advantage’ on inhibition tasks.
Numerous studies have compared difference in immigration status on bilingualism. This difference may be linked to a number of factors, such as the ability of immigrants to adapt to new circumstances, thus resulting in enhanced cognitive flexibility variation in immigrant status has also been shown to result in differences in ethic, cultural, educational, genetic background, and lifestyle, with several studies indicating that immigrants, holding bilingualism constant, reveal less cognitive decline and enhanced cognitive control in comparison with non-immigrants. The ‘health immigrant effect’ has also been implicated in the observed differences in immigration status and bilingualism (Fuller-Thomson & Kuh, 2014), with studies suggesting that healthy individuals are more likely to migrate, thus enhancing their bilingual capability. This is a clear indication that immigrant status is a significant, but usually ignored, background variable that could partly explain the benefits of bilingualism. Positive effects of bilingualism have also been reported in dementia patients and non-immigrant healthy adults as well. However, no positive cognitive effect of bilingualism has been reported by non-immigrants samples involving younger adults and children, even though studies with healthy older adults, ERP data, and dementia patients revealed some differences.
Kirk et al (2014) compared Gaelic-English bilinguals to monolinguals, bidialectals, monodialectals, and Asian-English bilinguals. The five different language groups demonstrated comparable Simon costs. The Gaelic-English bilinguals were living in an isolated rural environment, while the control groups resided in an urban environment. The study findings revealed confounding effects of environment and lifestyle on bilingualism. However, the bilingual group does not have to always constitute the immigrants. For example, the study by Clare et al (2014) consisted of monolinguals, majority of whom had migrated to Wales from various parts of the country. On the other hand, the bilingual group was largely made up of autochthonous population. This study did not show any evidence that the bilingualism had a delaying effect on the onset of Alzheimer’s disease.
While several studies (for example, Schweizer, Craik & Bialystok 2013) have evidently expressed a strong hypothetical justification for why we ought to link bilingualism with delayed onset of Alzheimer’s disease, a number of recent prospective studies indicate that immigration status could partially explain the protective effect of bilingualism reported by various retrospective review studies. Prospective cohort design studies have so far provided the strongest indication of a likely association between a delay in onset of dementia and bilingualism. Fuller-Thompson & Kuh (2014) associate the slower rates of cognitive decline reported among immigrants to lower prevalence of chronic health conditions linked to dementia, including high cholesterol, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Fuller-Thompson & Kuh (2014) further indicate that immigrants also possess a higher IQ (intelligent quotient) in comparison with non-immigrants who come from the same age group. In this case, IQ is recognized as a highly protective factor against dementia and the associated cognitive decline.
In their study, Fuller-Thompson and Kuh (2014) sought to determine the confounding the role of healthy migrant effect in confounding the relationships between delayed onset of Alzheimer’s disease and bilingualism. As a means of separating immigration from bilingualism, the researchers took into account evidence from prospective cohort studies at birth, in the United Kingdom and New Zealand. The study also used data from the NSHD (National Survey of Health and Development) to assess if immigrants from the UK to Australia and Canada have higher average cognitive ability at childhood, in comparison with non-immigrants. To assess childhood IQ, the researchers relied on tests developed by the National Foundation for Educational Research. This enabled them to measure nonverbal and verbal ability, such as word reading ability, picture intelligence, vocabulary, and comprehension. Study findings revealed a higher mean IQ among emigrants, compared to non-immigrants.
Elsewhere, de Bruin, Bak and Sala (2015) assessed the impact of bilingualism on executive control in a non-migrant sample of older adults by comparing inactive and active monolinguals and bilinguals matched on socio-0economic status, IQ, lifestyle, age, education, and gender. With respect to the Simon arrow task, the researchers could not establish bilingualism on either the Simon effect or overall RTs. There was also no significant difference between inactive and active monolinguals and bilinguals in the task-switching paradigm.
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