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Sample English Paper On Embryonic Stem Cell Write My Essay Help

Embryonic Stem Cell

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Embryonic stem cell research has spark lots of argument and debate from politician, religious leaders, groups and the general public. This is because the cells are derived from fetus research.  Christianity compares the destruction of the embryonic cells to abortion. In this religion the moment eggs are fertilized life begins and the embryo has the potential to fully develop into a human being. This is true and the destruction of the cells is viewed as immoral and unethical to destroy one life to save another. It is also seen as ultimately de-valuing one’s life. By allowing this research it might pave way for more scientific producers that devalue human life. Beside that more developed adult cells are being used in the research and study thus no need to use embryonic stem cells.

On the other hand, embryonic stem cells have their own advantages. The stem cell therapy has the ability to get cures and treat many chronic diseases in the world. This research can treatment help many people with heart diseases by regenerating heart tissues and also regenerating nervous system tissues which can help people with strokes and spinal cord problems to fully recover. It can also help to find a cure for cancer which affects us in one way or another by engineering them into tumor fighting cells.

Though these are good benefits to humans, it does not warrant for the continuation of the research. The research should use the embryos that are left from in-vitro fertilization that would otherwise be destroyed.  The research can also use the embryos from legal abortion to be put in use for the good of humans instead of discarding them. Even though there are other ways of acquiring the embryonic stem cells without destruction of the fetus they are not perfect and require more research. Hence the embryonic stem cell should not be used from live human potentials even though viewed as not human by some religions such as the Jewish.

Sample Literature Research Paper on Epic of Gilgamesh admission essay help: admission essay help

Epic of Gilgamesh

Every historical tale is a reflection of modern society; and the Epic of Gilgamesh is no exception. The poem is a tale regarding the adventures of Gilgamesh, a Sumerian King ruling the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates during the second and third millenniums B.C (Sanders). Gilgamesh is a hero even though he commits atrocities on women, and throughout the story we see instances of gender inequality and incidences of women being mistreated. Women come out as having many diverse roles, but what is evident is that male characters have been given more privileges than their female counterparts. Many critics have written on this apparent mistreatment of the woman folk in the Sumerian society, and this paper will explore the ideas contained in four such articles. This paper will thus look at the roles given to women in the Uruk community and how they are overshadowed by men with the notion that despite their status in society, women emerge as the stronger species.

The first sign that men have more power over women is that all rulers and holders of dignified positions are men. The Sumerian gods mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh have no hierarchical order of authority, but they have a leader in Anu. Anu is considered the father of the gods and subsequently the most powerful of them all (Sanders). On the human realm, Gilgamesh is also considered the conqueror who is unmatched in strength and power, and subsequently becomes the ruler. When the people demanded another king to succeed Gilgamesh who had become a tyrant, the goddess Aruru fashioned another man named Enkidu (The Saylor Foundation). In the Epic of Gilgamesh, no woman ascends to any position of high power or is considered as having the same strength as men.

Women have also been portrayed as sexual symbols with intense sexual appeal. Shamhat, the temple prostitute who civilizes Enkidu and brings the friends together is perhaps the best representation of women’s power of sex appeal (Margesson). Shamhat enticed Enkidu at the watering hole with her naked body and after laying with her for seven nights, Enkidu did all that Shamhat wanted. The goddess Ishtar- the goddess of love- is able to not only manipulate men at her will, but also other gods. She is so used to this that when Gilgamesh refuses her marriage proposal, she gets angered and convinces the other gods to order the killing of Enkidu. Gilgamesh tells his mother Ninsun of being drawn to a star like a woman, indicating the sexual power that women have over men.

Despite being shown as having sexual appeal, women have also been sexually abused, and thus shown as symbols for pleasing men. Shamhat was a temple prostitute, indicating that prostitution was still present at the time. We are told that Gilgamesh was considered a hero even though he abused different female characters in the narrative (Cuyahoga Community College). Gilgamesh demanded virgins from their husbands on their wedding nights, which portrays the low regard women were held in to be defiled like that. All this happened even though the gods supposed to control human behavior were watching. The society of the time had been socialized to ignore any misdeeds committed against women, showing the gender inequality prevalent at the time.

The role of the woman comes out as that of being a companion to man. Sumerian society at the time was largely patriarchal with men taking up the most important roles, but women also played tangential but rather important roles. The Sumerian goddesses mentioned acted with the confidence and decisiveness of their fellow male gods, and are able to influence major decisions. The females in the epic mostly play the role of companion, as exhibited by women such as Shamhat, Siduri, and Ninsun. Shamhat manages to tame Enkidu while Siduri is a philosophical barmaid who is also wise (Margesson). Ninsun, Gilgamesh’s mother, plays the role of confidant and advisor to her son, a job she performs blissfully. Utnapishtim’s wife is not only a companion to her husband but also manages to intercede on Gilgamesh’s behalf. When confronted by a determined woman, both the male gods and mortal men are able to resist and the women are usually able to get what they want.

The Epic of Gilgamesh is a reflection of the present society and we can draw comparisons between the role of women then and now. Today’s society is still patriarchal with the most important jobs going to the menfolk. Many societies today have deities who are male, and most high offices are occupied by males, with only a few females. The female is still considered the weaker species and many heroes even in present day are male. Sumerian society and present-day society thus have a commonality in that they are patriarchal and treat women as the inferior species.

Women are still considered companions to men, and this is considered their primary role. Sumerian society and present-day society teach women that they are the companions of men. We see that when the men were restless, they always turned to women and their issues were settled. Women come out as wise advisors with immense influence over men. Ultimately, it is evident that women have the power to manipulate the minds of men, and this resonates to the present times.

The utilization of women as sex symbols and tools is common in both the Sumerian and present-day society. We see that both societies have prostitution, where women utilize their sex appeal to manipulate men to get what they want. Then sexual harassment of women is also prevalent in both societies, and perpetrators go largely unpunished. Society has learned to ignore the abuses suffered by females even when they are extreme with perpetrators even being labelled society’s heroes.

In conclusion, the role of women in Sumerian society is relegated to be beneath that of men. The woman is perceived as a companion of man and most of the female characters in the epic play that role. Females are also demeaned by being treated as sex symbols and they suffer abuse which goes unpunished. Despite all these, women have the sexual appeal to manipulate men and they hold considerable power to influence decisions. There is an obvious connection between the society then and today’s society regarding the attitude towards women, with both societies perceiving women as the weaker species. The hypothesis that women are the weaker species is, however, arguable as women are seen to have considerable power over men. In the end, despite women being relegated to the background, they manage to emerge as the stronger species.

Works Cited

Cuyahoga Community College. “Short Forms of The Epic of Gilgamesh.” n.d. Project. 30 May 2016.

Margesson, Brienna. “Matriarchy vs. Patriarchy.” 29 April 2011. 30 May 2016 <>.

Sanders, N. K. “The Epic of Gigamesh.” n.d. Assyrian International News Agency. 30 May 2016 <>.

The Saylor Foundation. “Study Guide for The Epic of Gilgamesh.” n.d. The Saylor Foundation. 30 May 2016.

Sample Religious Studies Essay Paper on Sing to the Lord: Music in Divine Worship narrative essay help

Sing to the Lord: Music in Divine Worship


I visited the University of Dayton Campus Catholic Church for the first time on Sunday at 10 am to celebrate Mass with them. The mass session was referred to as a celebration of the Eucharist by the congregants, a term that new and unknown to me. Having visited the church five minutes before time, I thought that I would find the space almost full. I realized that the church was almost empty even though it was a celebration of the Eucharist. This however did not deter the priest from continuing to lead the few faithful who joined physically and spiritually. I had a good time viewing the church, which was magnificently built and decorated with images of the saints and Jesus. There were numerous rooms for personal prayers and for the choir. All of these rooms had decent pews and prayer books packed on every section. The altar was beautifully decorated even though it was quite small compared to the church size. Everyone was solemn as they silently prayed to the maker. The seated faithful were causally but decently dressed save for a nun who wore the spiritual habit. A bell rang and everyone rose from their seats to welcome the priest as he came in. I expected to see a group led by the priest according to USCCB (10, para. 3). This is contrary to my expectations as the priest came in quietly and led the faithful in the prayer, without the expected Paschal’s hymn (USCCB, 10, para. 4). According to USCCB (9, para 3), a quite crowd should by now be jubilant and sing with raised their hands in rhythm to the song, in celebration of Jesus victory over sin and death. We sat down and heard the readings read by ordinary congregants at the front. The priest rose up to read the Bible before teaching the faithful. This was led by a series of prayers, responses from the congregants, and signing. Within the set time, the mass was over and the faithful silently walked out of the different doors. This was also contrary to my expectations as i expected some loud and happy songs led by the choir as the priest left the altar.


Attending catholic mass was a great experience for me as it was the first time I was visiting a church. I realized profound differences in the form of worship during the service since I am a Muslim. The church is beautifully built, with colored windows and additional space for personal prayers, meditation and reading. This is quite expected in a church which holds highly the need to pray silently and unite together in spirit in worship of God (USCCB, 15, 2). The faithful were joined together in prayers, songs and in liturgy in honor of God and Jesus their savior. I came to note of numerous images on the window panes, walls, curtains and table cloths within the church. I later discovered that numerous images of the spiritual people were portrayed in almost every wall within the church. These images and signs were proofs of the spirituality of the faithful. This is similar to the affirmation in USCCB (page 9, para. 3) which states that the signs and symbols are significant as they depict the spiritual realities. USCCB further states that the images through signs and symbols express God’s action to men and men’s action of worship to God. This is a sacramental principle, which is consistent with the Church’s belief in its history. This was further evident in the liturgy through the frequent application of signs, gestures, and symbols.

Among the differences noted from my observation and readings, include the expected singing. A celebration calls for a great and charged crowd ready and willing to celebrate the leader or the being. A celebration calls for jubilation, songs, and happiness, an aspect that i missed in the mass. The few number of congregants ready to have worship on a Christian Holy day therefore appalled me. This is in relation with the motive behind the meeting. I also excepted lots of singings and praise songs. This was however missing based on the small number of congregants gathered regardless of the motive behind singing during the mass. The congregants sing to enhance their devotion to the word of God (USCCB, 68, 3). There are the popular devotions, which were sung during mass that were derived from the book of psalms. These songs enhanced their celebrations of the word of God as the songs were accompanied by the playing of organs and instruments. A religious spirit other than encouragement of the sacred mystery is also fostered during worship. The psalms are also to be sung by the faithful to proclaim the presence of Christ and their worship and praise of their God. Numerous songs of praise and worship all through the liturgy are a canticle of victory from sin and death. It also capture the Paschal’s hymn which commemorates Jesus’ ministry on this earth (USCCB, 10, 2).

I was also surprised by the liturgical procession. Even though I read that the leader should be the bishop, followed by the priest and the liturgical procession, i noticed only one priest and very few congregants. This was also somehow confusing as USCCB (45, 2) noted that the procession should be similar to the spiritual liturgy where the process is also a form of honor and worship to the creator. I was somehow appalled with the kind of dressing the faithful had in church a holy place. This shock is also related to my Muslim background where men and women cannot sit together especially in a holy place. Women must cover themselves appropriately and never go near the priest publicly. In the church, the reader of the word wore a short trouser and a t-shirt and stood at the altar reading the holy word.

I was however pleased by the good time management by the priest. Despite the few people gathered, he went on with the celebrations. This action nevertheless made me enquire of the intent of the priest. Was he really sold out to the celebration or was he rather carrying out his duties at the altar. This is because I would be disheartened by the few faithful who turns up to the celebrations on a Sunday morning. Instead of moving on, I would rather enquire whether there is need for such a comprehensive mass celebration with medium songs and prayers. Visiting a church can be adventurous especially if it is a new place with new practices. The church where I attended the mass is in University of Dayton campus. At the Appendix is the Church Bulletin for comprehensive information.

Work Cited

USCCB. “Sing To The Lord: Music In Divine Worship.” 2007

Sample Management Essay Paper on Product Portfolio and Product Life Cycle computer science essay help: computer science essay help

Product Portfolio and Product Life Cycle


The principle of strategic marketing has great underlying importance within organizations and to the entire society. According to Stark (2015), marketing strategies usually result from a peculiar meticulous analysis of the market, which forces entrepreneurs to be familiar with all aspects that it can use to position itself in the market to garner more sales volume. Gmelin and Seuring (2014) defined marketing strategy as the process through which a firm identifies sustainable competitive advantages in the market it is serving then allocating appropriate resources to exploit it to the maximum. This business essay uses the practical market example to explore the concept of the product portfolio and product lifecycle management (Edgett, 2012).

Hollensen (2015) asserted that in the modern business setting, most organizations are offering a wide range of products and services (product portfolio) as part of their strategic marketing plans. He further explained that the advantage of offering more than one type of service and product is that the firm has opportunity to manage the product portfolio so that they are not all in the same phase in their life cycle. When products and services are evenly spread across the life cycle, the firm can manage the efficient use of both human resource and cash (Hollensen, 2015). The essay adopts real world situation to explain the concept of the product portfolio and outline its benefits as well as practical application in the soft drink industry.

Product Portfolio

In modern business, companies are accustomed to selling different types of products and services designed for different types of clients and markets – this practice of issuing different types of products and service is known as product portfolio. For example in the soft drink industry, the coca cola company is applying the concept of product portfolio where it produce several types of drinks namely coke, Fanta, sprite and others. Also in the automobile industry, the Toyota motors limited is producing a wide range of vehicles to suit different clients in the market. Archibald and Archibald (2015) argued that the essence of product portfolio is that within it each product or service makes different contributions to the firm’s bottom line. For instance, as explained by Archibald and Archibald (2015), some items within the product portfolio are increasing the firm’s market share, while other are losing it at a faster rate, some are costly to produce while others are less costly, and some items bring in greater marketing expenses while others bring more revenues to the firm.

The product portfolio contribute differently to the firm’s bottom line, thus, allowing the company to manage every item in the product portfolio independently so that they are not all in the same phase in their life cycle in order to achieve efficient use of both cash and human capital. According to Hellweg and Canals (2014), managing product portfolio is all about analyzing the overall consumer behaviors in the market with a primary goal of determining mechanism of expanding new products as well as improving profitability to removing the underperforming ones. When a firm offers a broader range of portfolio product, it is able to get more opportunities to capture consumers who have different tastes and needs by offering them more choices (Cooper, 2001). The coca cola company has used this approach successfully and it has helped them increase sale to double figures within the past years.

Unlike a company that maintains a single product, a key decision for any company who maintains product portfolio is the technique and process of allocating investment to product or service being offered. Lofsten (2014) asserted that to maximize profitability, firms make this decision based on the respective market share and market growth rate of each product they offer in the market. There are three major aspects of product portfolio to consider namely (1) different product lines, (2) different product categories, and (3) the individual products: all the three levels of product portfolio require management because they are focused on one goal, which is the betterment and profitability of the firm (Dunne & Dunne, 2011).

Classification of Product Portfolio

In a portfolio, products are classified using the principle of Boston Matrix. The Boston Matrix classification method is based on two aspects namely the level of growth rate and the market share of all the products offered by the firm –  it recognizes that every product offered by the firm may have different growth rate as well as different market share thus performing and contributing differently to the company. As explained by Lapasinskaite and Boguslauskas (2015), based on its growth rate and market share, a product manager decides the level of investment that should be given to each particular product in order to achieve the desired results. The number and type of products that a company has determines its strength and position in the market. This argument essentially makes the portfolio management very important in the business field because it leads to better firms with planned goals and optimal allocation of resources (Jugend & Leoni, 2015).

Boston Matrix and Product Portfolios

Boston Matrix is a model that is widely used in the business field to analyze portfolios and brands. When a firm owns a wide range of products, managing them becomes problematic because the firm must decide how to allocate its investments within the portfolio in terms of promotion, product development and so on. Boston Group Consulting Matrix (BGC) model helps firms to manage their product portfolio and decide how to allocate the investments (Gmelin & Seuring, 2014). The matrix categorizes products into four different groups namely (1) stars, (2) cash cows, (3) question marks, and lastly (4) dogs, all of which are grouped based on the level of market share and market growth rate. Under the market share, the firm should consider whether the product being sold has high or low market share while market growth considers whether the number of potential customers in the market are increasing or decreasing (Schultz, Salomo & Talke, 2013). The four categories of products are described below:

(a)  Stars

Stars are products that have the highest share and are growing faster in the market. In addition, they have the highest competitive advantage in the market. Bernard, Rivest and Dutta (2013) asserted that companies invest heavy on star products in order to sustain them. An analysis shows that in the later stage, stars start assuming slow growth rate and eventually become cash cows if they maintain their market share (Hellweg & Canals, 2014).

Using the coca cola company as a case study in the soft drink industry can help enhancing the understanding of the categories of products in the Boston Matrix. The Coca Cola Company is recognized for producing and maintaining a wide range of products that constitute its portfolio. Within the coca cola product portfolio, brands such as Sprite, Fanta, Thump-up, and Maaza are considered to be in the star category in the Boston Matrix because they have highest market share and growth rate. Despite the high competition in the market, these brands still manage to achieve substantial growth thus benefiting the company (Hollensen, 2015).

Over the past, the Coca Cola Company has maintained these brands in the same quadrant, a strategy that has been successful for the company. Companies such as the Coca Cola Company use holding strategy because it cannot invest in other products in the same quadrant with the primary goal of moving them into the cash cow quadrant.

(b)  Cash Cows

Cash cows are products that despite having high market share are operating in slow growing markets. They are products that are mature, successful and need relatively little investments to perform in the market. An analysis shows that for the cash cows to continue making profits, they must be managed well by the company (Rad & Levin, 2006).

For the case of the Coca Cola Company, the coke brand is considered the company’s cash cow product because it has high market value but experiencing relative slow growth rate. The coke brand is loved and consumed by majority of consumers across the world and the company generates a lot of revenue through its sales.

The Coca Cola Company is subsequently using the harvesting strategy for the coke brand because it is in the cash cow quadrant. As a result, over the past, the company has tried to reduce the amount of investments (through marketing strategies such as advertisement and promotions) in the coke brand but rather focus on maximizing the cash flow in overall profitability level.

(c)  Question Marks

Products in the question mark quadrants are fast growing but have low market share. The question market products have great potential to yield profits but need some level of investment to grow their share in the market – because they are relatively new, they cannot compete well in the market without investment (Jugend & Leoni, 2015). The company has to think and make a decision in which products in the question mark category to invest in and the ones they should allow to fail (Cooper, 2001).

In normal situation, new entry products in the market constitute the question marks. Quite often companies introduce new products in their portfolio especially targeting new markets or expanding their dominance in the same markets. In such cases, companies might come up with new innovate products and introduce them in the market but immediately experience slow growth rate and low market share.

The problem with new products is that their fate in the market is unknown, thus, the best strategy that most companies use is to build and develop them with the hope of moving them to star or cash cow quadrants: they are built by increasing investments in the product (Kodukula, 2014).

(d)  Dogs

Not only do they operate on the slow growing market, the dogs also have low market value. These products operate in low growth unattractive markets, thus, they may generate cash that can only break-even. Morris and Pinto (2007) argued that because dogs do not generate enough cash they are not worth investing in: a deeper analysis indicates that most companies usually sell or close their products in this category because they are rarely profitable and also very expensive to maintain (Levine, 2005).

For the case of the Coca Cola Company, brands such as tea, coffee, and coke-diet are considered to be in the dog quadrant because they have not attracted significant amount of customers and sales since their introduction. The best strategy that the Coca Cola Company can use to deal with these brand is to divest them because they are probably more long term and less profitable. Over the past years, the company has been using revenues from the coke brand to develop products in this quadrant.

Table 1: Boston Matrix

Table 2: Characteristics of Products

Cash Cows High market shareLow market growth rateProduct generating cash Recommendation: harvest the productQuestion Marks Low market shareHigh market growthAbsorbing cash Recommendation: Build the productsStars High market shareHigh market growth rateNeutral cash Recommendation: Hold the productDogs Low market shareLow market growth rateNeutral cash Recommendation: divest the product

A number of assumptions are made when managing product portfolio using the Boston Matrix model. First, the model assumes that a company can gain significant market share by investing in marketing. Thus, a company is expected to determine the type and level of marketing mix for each product within its portfolio to increase its market share (Lofsten, 2014). Secondly, the model assumes that a firm will always generate positive cash surpluses whenever its products gain market share. When managing product portfolio, it is assumed that the firm would generate cash surpluses whenever the product has reached the maturity stag in the product life cycle (Green & Indiana University, Bloomington, 2007). Finally, the growth phase provides the best opportunity that a firm can use to build a dominant market position or share.

Product Life Cycle Management

According to Katsifou et al (2013), product life cycle management is a strategic marketing approach that uses a set of business solutions to promote particular products in the market. Companies mainly use PLM strategy when it maintains a portfolio of products in the market: the strategy is used for creation, promotion, as well as dissemination of products within their respective markets throughout the product life cycle starting from creation until the end. The product life cycle management strategy involves various elements such as marketing plans, customer feedbacks, vendor application notes, and archived product schedules among others (Mello, 2006).

Products constantly change positions within the Boston Matrix in their entire life cycle process. Levine (2005) noted that firms that maintain few products in their portfolios might not undergo all the four stages of the product life cycle. Such firms are in the dangerous position of keeping all their eggs in one basket thus cannot exploit all the markets effectively and generate sustainable profits. In essence, firms that do not have a wide range of product portfolio usually prioritize in broadening their particular product ranges (Morris & Pinto, 2007).

A vital question that is being addressed in the product life cycle management is how the firm should invest its cash and human capital most effectively and increase its profitability in the market. However, this should be done in such a manner that not all products in the portfolio are in the same stage of the life cycle at the same time. Kodukula (2014) added that the primary of portfolio and product life cycle management is to allocate company’s resources to achieve the objectives of the corporate product. The need of product life cycle management is to make every product accessible to everyone in the market. In addition, it should address the comprehensive need of the entire organization as well as provide comprehensive product information.

Sequences in Boston Matrix

Ideally, in a product life cycle management, a business would prefer to have all its products in the four categories of the Boston Matrix except in the dogs. According to Mello (2006), most business choose this approach because it gives them a balanced portfolio of products, which would greatly enhance their level of profitability as well as effective management of human capital and cash. There are particular sequences that take place within the Boston Matrix which are considered in the product life cycle management namely the success sequence and the disaster sequence.

Figure 1: Sequences in Boston Matrix

Success Sequence

In the Boston Matrix, the success sequence occurs when products in the question mark becomes a star then finally a Cash Cow to the company. As explained by Kendall and Rollins (2003), this is the best sequence in the product life cycle management because it not only increases the profitability of the firm but also leads to efficient allocation of human resource and cash. In addition to profit, the success sequence greatly boosts the firm’s growth rate in the market. Vinten (2005) asserted that the occurrence of success sequence greatly depends on the right decisions made by the firm. For example, when introduced, eth coke brand was in the question mark quadrant but it later moved to the star before becoming a cash cow for the Coca Cola Company.

Disaster sequence

In the Boston Matrix, disaster sequence occurs when products in the Cash Cow category move to star and subsequently to the question marks due to high level of competitive pressure in the market. Once in the star category, the product the fall to the question mark due to increased competitive pressure in the market, which should be a worrying trend to the company (Schultz, Salomo, & Talke, 2013). At the end, the company may choose to divest the product because it is associated with low growth rate and low market value. In practical situation, the disaster sequence occurs due to wrong or inappropriate decision making by the company. When it occurs, the disaster sequence may drastically affect the company because it loses a lot of investment when it decides to divest the product. In addition, the company would lose other moneys coming from the Cash Cow product because they are being used to divest the failed products in the question mark (Stark, 2015). For example, the Coke-diet Tea and coffee brands moved to the dog quadrant due to intensive competitive pressure from the beverage manufacturing companies such as nestle café and coco.

Strategies in the Boston Matrix

In order to have the most efficient use of cash and human resource management, companies can use specific strategies for each product in the Boston Matrix. The strategies are developed to suit the position of each product in the Boston Matrix: cash cow, dogs, stars, and question marks.

(a) Strategies for Cash Cow

Products in the cash cow position are the most stable for any business; hence, companies usually develop strategies for retaining them in the market and increasing their market share. Because their market is not growing, acquisition becomes rarely impossible thus leaving retention as the only strategic option for the business. A company can use a wide range of retention strategies such as loyalty programs, customer satisfaction, and other promotional approaches to retain market share of the product (Dunne & Dunne, 2011).

(b) Strategies for Stars

Because they have high growth rate as well as high market share, the best strategy for products in the star category is to retain and promote them: as a result, their strategy includes all types of sales promotion, marketing as well as advertisement in the market to increase their awareness. Because competition is very high in the star category, the best strategy is to market, advertise, and promote the products using all the available tools in the market. Companies with products in the star category usually concentrate and focus their investment needs in the marketing and advertising activities.

In practical situation, the telecom products such as handsets, tablets, laptops, and so on are all in the star category. According to a research by Jugend and Leoni (2015), the latest statistics indicates that all top five telecom companies are in the star category because they have good market share and growth rate. Because of good market share and high growth arte, the telecom companies are always competition with one another in the market. They constantly juggle between harvesting and investing in marketing their products or taking money time to time. This constantly happens in the market because other companies in the market can immediately overtake the stars even if they are top on the game (Vinten, 2005).

(c) Strategies for Question Marks

Because of their new entry in the market, the best strategy for products in the question mark category is to capitalize on their growth rate. This should be done in such a manner that the market share of products in the question mark category is significantly increased. Cooper, Edgett, and Kleinschmidt (2005) asserted that the best strategy for products in the question mark category is the acquisition of new customers because it would subsequently convert them into stars and later cash cows. Another important strategy to apply is the use of market research to determine the prevailing consumer psychology for the new products. Products in this category can easily slip into negative profitability thus forcing the company to make hard decisions (Tan & Theodorou, 2009).

(d) Strategies for Dogs

The most common strategy that is being used for products in this category is divestment. However, depending on the amount of cash that the company has invested in the product, it can choose to divest or revamp it through rebranding. Alternatively, the company may choose to innovate the product by addition or removing some features to make it likeable in the market to move it towards a star or cash cow: however, Tan and Theodorou (2009) noted that it is a very difficult task to complete successfully. Fortunately, it can be easily moved to the question mark region of the Boston Matrix but its future would still be unknown, which actually make divestment as the best strategy for dealing with products in the dog category (Mahajan, 2009).


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Lapasinskaite, R., & Boguslauskas, V. (2015). The maintenance cost allocation in product life cycle. Engineering Economics, 44(4), 17-23.

Levine, H. A. (2005). Project portfolio management: A practical guide to selecting projects, managing portfolios, and maximizing benefits. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lofsten, H. (2014). Product innovation processes and the trade-off between product innovation performance and business performance. European Journal of Innovation Management, 17(1), 61-84.

Mahajan, A. (2009). Portfolio management: Theoretical and empirical studies. New Delhi: Global India Pub.

Mello, S. (2006). Value innovation portfolio management: Achieving double-digit growth through customer value. Ft. Lauderdale: J. Ross Publication.

Morris, P. W. G., & Pinto, J. K. (2007). The Wiley guide to project, program & portfolio management. Hoboken: J. Wiley & Sons.

Rad, P. F., & Levin, G. (2006). Project portfolio management tools and techniques. New York: IIL Publication.

Schultz, C., Salomo, S., & Talke, K. (2013). Measuring new product portfolio innovativeness: how differences in scale width and evaluator perspectives affect its relationship with performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(S1), 93-109.

Stark, J. (2015). Product lifecycle management. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Tan, A. W. K., & Theodorou, P. (2009). Strategic information technology and portfolio management. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

Vinten, G. (2005). Product portfolio management and corporate performance in the banking sector. Bradford, England: Emerald Group Publication.

Sample Statistics Dissertation Discussion Paper on Data, Information, and Knowledge narrative essay help

Data, Information and Knowledge

Data represents unrefined details and figures devoid of any further explanation and assessment (MacDonald, 2016). It is often static in nature and may denote a set of detached facts regarding an occurrence. Organizations at times have to choose the nature and quantity of data necessary to generate the required information. An example of data is: ‘the cost of crude oil is 100 dollars for each barrel’. Information is taken to be a collection of data (refined data) that results in the ease of making decisions. Unlike data, information must have some significance and purpose. Therefore, information could signify data that has been deduced to acquire implication for the user; for instance, ‘the cost of crude oil has increased from 100 dollars to 110 dollars for every barrel’. This offers meaning to the figures hence generating significance to any person that could be in need of understanding the trend of the prices of oil.

Knowledge is considered an aggregation of information, understanding, and opinion that could benefit a person or a group. It indicates human comprehension of an area under discussion, which has been obtained after thorough evaluation or experience. Knowledge is thus based on insight, evaluation, and suitable comprehension of the subject matter. Knowledge is obtained from information similar to the manner in which information is acquired from data (MacDonald, 2016). Knowledge may be taken as the conception of information founded on its apparent impact or significance to the issue. It may be deemed the incorporation of human perceptive practices that assists them to demonstrate consequential determinations, for example, ‘if the cost of crude oil for each barrel has increased by 10 dollars, there is a possibility that the price of diesel will go up by one dollar per liter.       

            Data becomes information the moment it gets wrapped with significance (MacDonald, 2016). Data is, therefore, required to generate information, which makes information more important when judged against data since it gains significance and sometimes a time frame. On the other hand, information becomes knowledge if it is combined with realization regarding its value. In this regard, knowledge encompasses things that are attained through understanding, study, consistency, connection, awareness, and conception. For example, the moment specific figures concerning the price of a commodity are received in an organization, they form the organization’s data, and could be stored for later reference. Such data only turns out to be information the moment they attain timeliness and relevance. Similarly, information stored in an organization becomes knowledge when extracted, evaluated, and combined with experience, valuation, and interpretation.       

Significant and accurate data analysis, statistics, is important in using the quantities of available business data as it strives to create meaning. Irrespective of whether the volume of available data is small, intricate, or massive, the most significant aspect of data analysis is the relevance of the data to the business that seeks to employ them. On this note, the most suitable analysis requires being made to the gathered data since it has to be issued in the correct form to allow the decision makers to interpret it accurately and with ease. If suitably applied, correct and meaningful data analysis may play a key role in offering solution to business challenges, maximizing performance, and generating precise forecasts regarding future occurrences. Meaningful and accurate data analysis operates as a filter with respect to obtaining significant ideas from enormous data-sets (Wagner, 2014).


MacDonald, L. (2016).The role of data in business. Chron. Retrieved from

Wagner, D. (2014). The importance of big data analytics in business. TechRadar. Retrieved from

Sample Architecture Admission Essay on Strategic Analysis of Melco and Implications for Position of the Company popular mba argumentative essay help

Strategic Analysis of Melco and Implications for Position of the Company

Introduction to the Company

The company (Melco Crown) is a developer as well as operator of casino gaming and entertainment resort facilities. The company’s amenities comprise guest rooms, top-notch dining space, as well as spacious and contemporary casino. The company also operates nightclubs, operating a number of hotel towers, including Dreams Manila. The company’s casino gaming holds different gambling activities, from which it derives most of its revenues.  This report seeks to conduct a strategic analysis of the company and determine the implications for the position of the company.

Overview of the Sector

The gaming industry has been fragmented until the late 90s, when the sector consolidation had started to take place. The last two years of the period brought about a torrid pace of different activities, as a number of firms merged and acquired others. During the same time, there emerged an endless amount of cheap debt and private companies embarked leveraging the strong and rapidly rising cash flows of the gaining companies. During the year 2007, the gaming industry took a turn into the worse. In essence, the market/industry was particularly split into three customer segments, which were different in nature.

            Macau was the only area within China in which gambling was legal. During the period 2006, Macau displaced Las Vegas for the first time as the world’s gambling destination. Macau’s gaming revenues exceeded 15.5 billion dollars for the year 2010, compared to 8.7 billion dollars in Las Vegas.

The Business Environment Analysis

Each day markets are particularly changing the way in its customers live. A number of new things are happening within a matter of seconds, minutes, or even hours and days. Among these happenings, there are those that can be controlled as well as those that are beyond human control. There are also different systematic happenings in the environment where customers reside, which can affect people in a considerable. Businesses are affected by the environment in which they operate and all the situational factors, which determine situations daily. It is therefore, because of this that businesses are required to keep track in addition to evaluating the environment in which they operate their business and within which the market is found. 

The PESTEL analysis consists of those elements, which influence the business’s environment, where each of these factors, either directly or indirectly affects the industry in which the market currently stands (Cadle et al, 2014). The general forces that affect the business include the political, economic, socio-cultural, legal, technological, and environmental forces.  The political factors often take into account the political situation of the nation as well as the world in relation to the country.  For instance, the type of government leadership, which affects the region’s decision-making, will pose a significant impact. Taxes, policies, laws as well as every tariff, which the government levies the business falls under this particular category. The economic force includes all the determinants of an economy as well as it conditions. Conditions such as the level of inflation, rate of unemployment, or exports affect markets.  The socio-cultural force differs in each country, each nation has a unique set of values, and cultural believes. These values can significantly affect businesses and level of sales.  Gender, social lifestyles, domestic structures are all factors that influence people into gaming activities.

Besides, the level of technology in a region also affects the business, since technology keeps on changing now and then. Furthermore, legislative changes also occur from time to time, which can also affect the business to a very large degree. The environmental factors similarly affect the business operation (factors such as the location of the business, the climatic situation, as well as weather changes have greater impact).  The gaming industry, where Melco operates has a number of competitors, each competing to outdo the other and become the market leader. Some of my key competitors in the industry include Sands China, MGM Holdings, Galaxy Entertainment Group, and Wynn Macau among other important market prayers.

Analysis of the Macro Environment

The PESTEL analysis often measures the market. It is particularly a very useful and important strategic tool for gaining a greater understanding into the market growth as well as decline, business position, potential as well as direction for business operations. It is a scan of the external macro-environment in which the business operates, which is always expressed in terms of factors including political, economic, environmental, social, legal, as well as technological factors. The following is the PESTEL analysis of Melco Company.

Political Factors

The political factors comprise of the government regulations as well as the legal issues and often define both the formal and informal rules under which the company must operate. Some of these variables include tax policy, employment laws, environment regulations, trade restrictions and tariffs, regional integration of markets, as well improvement of governmental support for infrastructure.

The business’s operation is by a wide range of political factors such as the smoking ban, which influences the business both directly as well as indirectly. Particularly, the government has banned smoking in the casinos. Furthermore, neglecting such regulation will most likely lead to political pressures on the company.

Economic Factors

The economic factors usually affect the purchasing power of potential customers as well as the business’s cost of capital. The following are the variables affect the macro-environment of the company, include economic growth, interest rates, exchange rates, inflation rates, wage rates, cost of living as well as employment rates.

In particular, rising or decreasing costs in terms of labor costs presents a significant threat to the company. Furthermore, currency exchange rates are yet another significant economic factor for the business to deal with. Changes in the wage rates, inflation rate, exchange rates, and cost of living affect many of the customers in other nations considerably; therefore, affecting the company in significant way.

Social Factors

The Social factors comprise of the demographic and cultural aspects of the external macro-environment to the company. These factors will affect the customer needs in addition to the size of the company’s potential market. These variables include health consciousness, population growth, age distribution, career attitudes, as well as emphasis on safety. The increasing levels in terms of age distribution present an important opportunity for the business to exploit.

Technological Factors

Technological variables may significantly lower barriers to entry, decrease the minimum efficient production levels, as well as influence outsourcing decisions. Technological variables that affect the company include R &D activity, automation, technology incentives, rate of technological change, and innovations in the gaming equipments.

Legal Factors

The different legal variables that mostly affect the company include changes in legislation, customer protection, health regulations, as well as employment laws. Issues concerning gaming safety regulations are particularly demanding, since the company is required to offer gaming products that healthier and ones that ensure high levels of customer interests.  In addition, the growing employment regulations within the region also impacts on the way employees are hired  and remunerated. 

Environmental  Factors

There are different environmental variables, which affect the company. These include;

Business sustainability trends therefore, giving the company a good chance to excel in the industryThe growing popularity in support for responsible gamingIncreasing popular support for environmentally responsive technologies, which will ensure that issues to do with pollution are minimized

 Analysis of the Micro Environment

Analysis of the competitive forces (Porter’s 5 forces model)

The Porter’s competitive analysis model describes about the environment surrounding a company or an industry. The Five Forces comprises of the threats of entry, the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining power of the buyer, threats by substitutes, as well as the intense rivalries from the competitors. In the case Melco, it is in a difficult position in the regional as well as global markets because of many competitors. In addition, competitor companies have been dominant in this sector over the last few years. It is very hard for other companies to enter in this industry and compete against these numerous producers.

These firms are a big barrier for business in this industry. Furthermore, the rise in prices of gaming and gambling activities plays an important role in determining the bargaining power of suppliers. It is factual in marking to indicate that the many the competitors, the better the price becomes. The same thing goes with the buyers too. The bargaining power of buyer is determined through a large volume as well as increased cooperation.

In addition, there is a threat of the substitutes. When there is a new brand, which can substitute existing products, it would have a big impact on the market. For instance, casino and its associated gambling activities are becoming popular globally.  In addition, such products are growing with the steady increase of materials’ prices.

Competitor Analysis

The competitor analysis is very important to any particular business since it helps to understand the competitive advantages/disadvantages that are relative to competitors. It is also important because it helps in generating understanding of competitors’ past, present future strategies. Furthermore, competitor analysis will provide an informed basis for developing new business strategies in efforts to achieve competitive advantage in addition to helping in forecasting the success of new proposals as well as strategies for the business.

There are a number of companies, which present the greatest competition in market for Melco.  These four brands present a very challenging and high competition in the market, with each brands working hard in order to outsmart the other. These companies almost offer similar products and have significant market share in the gaming industry.

The Company’s SWOT Analysis

1. Strengths – Has a brand with substantial cash reserves and financial backing. Crown is diversified across geographic locations, cultural markets as well as is vertically integrated (accommodation, food & beverage) – all of which allow for a strong financial position and future growth.

2. Weaknesses – Whilst well positioned to capitalize on tourisms, there are some risks in terms of a weak consumer environment and requiring significant capital expenditure to reposition.3. Opportunities – There is growing middle class of Chinese gambling customers and generate significant VIP revenue. Internal and market projections see Crown’s main competitors losing substantial market share to Crown.4. Threats – Crown’s Macau enjoy significant local government support. In the case where licensing requirements represent less of a barrier to entry , competition could increase putting pressure on Crown’s market share.


Cadle, J., Eva, M., Hindle, K., Paul, D., Rollason, C., Turner, P., Yeates, D., … Cadle, J. (2014). Business Analysis. Swindon: BCS Learning & Development Limited.


Porter’s 5 forces model

SWOT Analysis

Strengths Offer unique products as well as have strong image diversified locations  Weaknesses Very strong level of competition in the market segment weak customer environmentOpportunities increasing middle class competitors likely to lose significant market shareThreats Stiff level of competition could arise  

Sample Business Case Studies Paper on Short term liquidity ratios essay help: essay help

Short Terms Liquidity Ratios

In the analysis of financial statements, there are various areas of concern that needs to be addressed.  An in-depth economic analysis brings on board the advent of knowing the real financial situation of the company.  Additionally, a clear cut understanding of the financial soundness of a company helps the investors decide the best way in which to invest in such enterprises. Various parties are interested in the analysis of the economic analysis of different companies (Agtarap-San, 2007).  One of them is the investors who are willing to know if they are investing a viable business.  Furthermore, the creditors would, and suppliers would want to know if their credit terms and conditions with the company are likely to be honored.  This notion will give them the opportunity to understand on whether they can transact with the company or not (Megginson, Smart, & Lucey, 2008).  Again we have the potential employees who would want to bring on board the advent of making sure that the corporation is in a position to pay its workers the best package market.  The existing shareholders also would want to know how their wealth is growing in the company.  With this, they can discern the amount of dividend that they are likely to get if the company declares the dividends for its shareholders (Perna, & Sibillo, 2012).

From the calculations done on ratio analysis, it is quite evident that the company will need external financing (debt) for the first three months starting March.  In the month of March it will need an amount equivalent to $ 50,000, then $138,750 in the month of April, $30,250 and $256,500 in May and June respectively (Agtarap-San, 2007).   A closer look at the real advent of transactions that led this deficit, the agreement the company made with the debtors made the company not to get much cash in the earlier months.

The arrangement of 20% cash receipt in the first month connotes that the company has higher amount of debtors in the short run. Additionally, the policy of the company to have a cash balance 50000 at the end of the month gives the company an advent of the high sense of deficit since in the month of March the only amount that is deemed to be borrowed is the cash balance to remain in the company. In the analysis also, it is important to note with concern that the company is indeed with high level for consideration with regard to the plant investment that reduced the amount of cash available from the sales proceeds (Perna, & Sibillo, 2012). 

The amount of $ 95000 that was deducted from the company reduced the liquidity of the firm and hence there was need to borrow to inculcate the advent of liquidity of the firm. Another important thing the company should do before borrowing is to look at the cost of borrowing in relationship with the rate of return on capital (Agtarap-San, 2007).  In this regard, the firm should give much attention to the period of borrowing in order to balance between the liquidity and gain from the customers which it serves.

The line of credit that I as banker would give to the company is $ 440, 750.  This notion is because it is the amount ultimate cash balance that is seen to be remaining for the company after the company had done all its deductions in the last month projected (Agtarap-San, 2007).  The company looks to be financially strong in the months of July going onwards. This is because the company has accumulated high amount of cash from the sales proceeds.  The notion is brought out with the fact that the company is indeed in a high liquidity in the last months of its operations. As a bank manager, I would like the company to be my client in that, the company has a strong financial base recognized by the liquidity at the later months of the year (Perna, & Sibillo, 2012).


Agtarap-San, J. D. (2007). Fundamentals of accounting: Basic accounting principles simplified for accounting students. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

Megginson, W. L., Smart, S. B., & Lucey, B. M. (2008). Introduction to Corporate finance. London: Cengage Learning EMEA.

Perna, C., & Sibillo, M. (2012). Mathematical and statistical methods for actuarial sciences and finance. Dordrecht [u.a.: Springer.

Sample Law Research Paper on Warrantless Searches in Florida instant essay help

Warrantless Searches in Florida


The question about the viability of a warrantless search in the law enforcement process drives the need to effectively provide satisfactory information on the same. While in most cases it may not be recommended or even legally acceptable to conduct warrantless searches on a person or their surroundings, it is important to know when such searches are allowed and thereby make use of opportunities when they arise. Conducting warrantless searches may not only be profitable to the law enforcement personnel but may also do a lot with regards to reduction of crime levels. The ability of a law enforcement officer to conduct a warrantless search can result in the discovery of new evidence that may be usable in a court of law. Additionally, officers can also protect themselves from attack through carrying out warrantless searches on suspects.

It is important in the law enforcement filed to categorically understate the conditions under which one is allowed to carry out warrantless searches. While some of the conditions outlined by the law are understandable, there are others that can easily be violated due to the ease of assumption. There are many reasons why officers may choose to carry out warrantless searches on suspects. Some of the reasons include protecting themselves from attack by the suspect, to help in the recovery of items related to crime as well as to reveal evidence to the crimes committed if possible (Florida Legislature para. 901.21). This implies that warrantless searches are mandatory and are effective as it is recommended to be carried out especially following lawful warrantless arrests. While there are conditions which warrantless searches may be acceptable, the Miami Dade Police Department reports that any evidence received through warrantless searches may be suppressed in a court of law (42). This implies that carrying out a warrantless search has to be for only the purposes highlighted and acceptable within the la w and may not be used as an excuse to gain access to evidence for a case.

There have been various articles written regarding the subject of warrantless searches particularly in Florida. Most of the articles are law related and directed towards the use of the law enforcement agencies. However, it is necessary not only for the law enforcers top understand their mandate with regards to warrantless searches but also to adhere to the conditions set for the searches. The present study adds to the already available dearth of information by clearly explaining the various conditions under which law enforcement agencies are allowed to conduct warrantless searches. The main objectives of the study therefore include to determine the conditions under which warrantless searches can be conducted and to explain within which limits the conditions are allowed to be invoked. The paper follows a simple outline which includes the discussion of various aspects of the warrantless search, and their limits.

Search of containers

One of the key areas that have been immensely discussed in the subject of warrantless search within the state of Florida is the search of containers found with the suspect. In this case, the definition of containers has been found to be ambiguous in some cases. While the initial case law in which reference was made to containers referred to the vehicles used by the suspects, the ruling in that case has been the forerunner in the consideration of other confinements within the control of suspects. Containers such as bags, locked luggage and glove boxes have all been classified under this law. In the case of Chimel v California (1969), it was ruled that the arresting officer had the mandate to conduct a warrantless search in places close by where the suspect may gain access to items that could probably cause harm to the officer and/ or help in hiding evidence and concealment of crime items. In ordinary frisking actions, the police are not allowed to look into locked containers without warrant. However, when the search occurs during an eminent arrest, the police can search a car only when the suspect is found within it. For locked containers such as suitcases, the court has been found to favor the arresting officers to access locked luggage which is in immediate control of the arrested suspect. For instance, in the case of U.S v Gonzalez (1996) the court ruled in favor of searching the car including locked glove compartments, passenger seats, consoles, receptacles, bags, boxes and luggage found anywhere within the car. The decision for this case was made citing a previous case (that of Breton), in which the police had been allowed to do the same. Consequently, it can be concluded that warrantless searches for locked containers are only allowed in cases where the suspect is found within the container (for a car) and in immediate control of the container (for locked bags, luggage). It must also occur in cases where an arrest is in progress and with the objectives outlined for the protection of the officer or collection of evidence.

In any cases involving a warrantless search, the arresting officer/ officer executing the search has to make an inventory of all the materials/ property taken into custody. According to a report by (Besselman 3), inventory is only carried out for the protection of the suspect’s property, protection of the officers from harm and protection of the officers from claims of stolen property. This implies that a warrantless inventory cannot be used as an excuse to access evidence to a crime. While conducting an inventory search, another issue arises on whether locked containers should be forcefully opened for the same reasons that an inventory is kept. In the case of Florida v Wells (1990), this subject was explored and the court decided that a law enforcement officer could only open a locked container forcefully in cases where the preservation of the property requires for the container to be opened and in order to avoid danger. The same principle is applicable in cases where the trunk of a vehicle in immediate control of the suspect is locked.

Apart from these conditions, the state of Florida also highlights the need to search vehicles based on suspicions of drug possession. From an article by Clarkson, the State of Florida allows the warrantless search of a vehicle without an arrest intention where the smell of pot is felt emanating from the car. According to this article, the state police department considers the smell of marijuana as a signal that there could be other drugs within the vehicle. Moreover, the senior officers also claim that the marijuana usually indicates the probability that other crimes could be ongoing such as gang activities. Clarkson further reports that the smell of marijuana emanating from vehicles has been intensively cited in arrest reports particularly in South Florida. In the article by Clarkson, Lt Ron Barerez, the head of a narcotics division in one of the Sheriff’s offices in South Florida is quoted saying that any police officer that does not conduct a warrantless search in a vehicle producing the smell of marijuana would be considered negligent in their duties (Clarkson para. 8). This implicitly says that the smell of marijuana in itself is a warrant for a search.

Furthermore, other conditions also exist upon which a warrantless search can be conducted on vehicles. Apart from the smell of marijuana, the Miami-Dale Police Department asserts that searching a vehicle not within private premises can be conducted based on the availability of a probable cause for suspicion. The probable cause should be capable of justifying warrant issuance to search the vehicle in order to confirm that the vehicle actually contains the items that are sought. This is most likely to be the case where a vehicle is suspected to contain contraband and crime instrumentalities (Institute of Government 34). Conducting a warrantless search in such a case is done in the same way a search pursuant to a warrant is conducted i.e. including all locked containers therein and all parts of the vehicle. Additionally, it may be suspected that a container within the vehicle contains such items sought. The officers conducting the search in this case are allowed to search for the container within the vehicle without a warrant before proceeding to search for the intended items from the container. However, if the probable cause reported is that a contraband item is within a particular container, a warrantless search is not allowed for the entire vehicle but only for the container and items within the container. After stopping a suspected vehicle, the occupants of the vehicle may be ordered to step out and only searched pursuant to reasonable suspicion that their persons could also contain contraband items (Miami –Dade Police Department 46).

Motor vehicle search is subject to so many conditions yet still provide several opportunities for warrantless search. Apart from the conventional conditions under which it is allowable by law to conduct a warrantless search of motor vehicles, it is also plausible for police officers to conduct warrantless searches where the owners of the vehicle willingly consent to such a search. Conducting a search on locked containers within a vehicle where the owner has consented for a search is considered lawful in a court of law. Any officer intending to conduct such a search, probably for narcotics should do so only on containers considered susceptible to holding the items of interest. While requesting for permission to search a car, the police should use only neutral and general language which allows for an extended search to the trunk and other containers within the car (Institute of Government, 40). Giving consent should be done willingly and knowingly without duress or coercion. The police report should also include the context in which the consent is given to give the state an easy time in proving the legality of the search in case the need arises to do so (Besselman 4).

In-house arrest searches

Just as the search of containers in immediate control of the suspect, the search of the person and surrounding premises also poses a challenge. While it may be easier to act in the case of locked containers since one knows that those in immediate control can be accessed, in house arrests pose a challenge as to the limit of a warrantless search. According to various reports by the Florida judiciary, conducting a search within the premises should be restricted to only those areas that have the potential of launching an attack should be searched. Moreover, only the places that adjoin the particular arrest location can be searched on a warrantless basis in accordance with the Florida law. This makes it impossible to go into rooms that are not adjacent to the arrest location, although the law enforcement officers have the mandate to search closets and other enclosed locations in immediate contact with the suspect. Apart from this, a protective sweep could also be carried out by the arresting officer over the entire premises based on the suspicion that there might be imminent danger in those areas. This is most probably for suspects considered very dangerous and members of gangs. From this information, it could be said that conducting a warrantless search in cases of in-house arrests is more difficult and more restrictive compared to warrantless search in containers. While officers can pry into the privacy of locked containers, in-house arrests offer fewer chances for gaining access to the entire house. An example of such a scenario is referred to in the case of Maryland v Baie (1990) in which the court ruled in favor of the arresting officer who had searched premises.

While carrying out the protective sweep of the premises, the law enforcement officers are restricted in their actions in that the sweep may only extend to areas believed to be harboring the suspect and/ or those areas that may pose a danger to the person(s) conducting the arrest. The Miami-Dale Police Department asserts that the sweep may not take longer than necessary i.e. only sufficient time to effect the arrest and to dispel suspicions of danger. This could be taken to mean that the protective sweep should be restricted to areas within the premises where an individual could be found and nowhere else. While conducting the sweep, the officers are prohibited from seizing any piece of evidence found therein unless it is available pursuant to the plain view doctrine. This implies that for one intending to carry out a search of the suspect’s home or office where they are suspected to be, it is more advisable to obtain the search warrant prior to visiting the scene for the objective of conducting an arrest. Alternatively, one could secure the premises following the arrest, obtain a search warrant for the entire area and then come back to the scene to conduct a more thorough search (Miami- Dale Police Department 44).

In some cases, the suspect may be found within the premises of his residence but outside the house. In such cases, it is against the law to go inside the house with the objective of conducting a search. In case a law enforcement officer enters to conduct a warrantless search of the house in such a case, any evidence collected therein is inadmissible the court. This means that the recommendation to secure the place and obtain a warrant for search still applies to cases involving outdoors arrest. An example of such a case is that of Mestral v. State 16 So 3d 1015 (Fla. 3d DCA 2009) in which the plaintiff was arrested in the front yard, detained in his front yard and a warrantless search conducted through the house. The court upheld that the evidence found within the house was inadmissible.

Mobile Phone Search

It is highly probable for a suspect’s mobile phone to be accessed during an arrest. However, the authority to access the information therein is subject to obtaining a warrant for the same. Although the suspect’s phone may be in the custody of police officers, the information in it should be held as private property and viewing this information taken as necessitating the need for a search warrant. As in the case of an in-house arrest, any evidence obtained from a mobile phone such as phone records, pictures and others are inadmissible in court (Brill 10). While conducting a search preceding an arrest, phone seizure is often a probable outcome. However, it is unlawful to view or access the information stored in the phone without a valid warrant. In the case of Smallwood v Florida No. SC11-1130, the plaintiff commenced a motion in which he opposed the use of information obtained from his phone as evidence for criminal activity. Following his arrest, the arresting officer seized his phone and accessed it without a warrant. Information found therein was then used as evidence against him in the court. The prosecutor asked for a warrant to view the said content prompting the plaintiff to commence the motion on grounds that phone information is very private and should not be accessed without his consent as this violated his privacy. The court ruled in favor of the plaintiff with regards to the use of his phone explaining that conducting a warrantless search of phone information is unlawful (Miami-Dale Police Department 44).


Having looked at various conditions under which officers of law perform warrantless searches on vehicles and other locked containers, houses and residential premises as well as on mobile phones, one thing that is clear is that warrantless searches cannot be relied on as a source of evidence for criminal activity. In addition to this, the phenomenon is riddled with a lot of challenges, particularly on providing the proof that the reasons for the warrantless research are strongly founded on law and that the same reasons are probable causes for warrant issuance. Conducting a warrantless search in premises particularly offers a restriction for the law enforcement officers and may result in greater potential for case dismissal than expected. It is therefore recommended that any law enforcement officers having probable cause to conduct a warrantless search should find ways of obtaining warrants after securing the scenes upon which the search is to be conducted. This is to prevent issues of inadmissibility of evidence in court as well as to avoid suing by the defendants whose properties are searched. Explaining the probable cause for conducting a warrantless search is a difficult task as this activity is often viewed as a form of intrusion and any evidence developed through this process handled with a lot of suspicion and even repressed in cases involving a warrantless search of a premise. For locked containers, law enforcement officers can possibly use the need for inventory, being in the immediate control of the suspect and encounter during mobile conveyance as justifications for a warrantless search without consent.

Works Cited

Besselman, John. Locked Containers. Web.

Brill, Amanda. Warrantless Cell Phone Searches and the 4th Amendment: you think you deleted those Text messages… But you have no idea..Law school student Scholarship, Paper 4.

Clarkson, Brett ‘Smell of Marijuana: Who Needs a Search warrant when Police se their nose?’ Sun Sentinel, 9 June 2013. Web. Accessed 10 July 2016.

Florida Legislature. ‘The 2016 Florida Statuses.’ 2016. Retrieved from

Institute of Government. ‘Chapter 15: Stops and Warrantless Searches’ in NC Defender Manual. Institute of Government, 2002. Web.

 Miami-Dade Police Department. Florida Law Enforcement Handbook. Matthew Bender and Company, Inc., 2014.

Sample Management Research Paper on Business Policy and Strategic Management: Concepts and Applications descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help


This report focuses its attention on an American based company known as General Electric Company (GE). The company was formed in 1890s and its headquarters are in Connecticut (McKee, Kemp and Spence 159). The purpose of the report will be to evaluate the company’s core competencies with an aim of establishing the way the company utilizes it.


2.1 SWOT analysis

The term opportunity refers to any event, condition or situation that can be used to favor a company in the process of achieving its strategic goals. Threat, on the other hand, refers to the market conditions that challenge a company in the process of achieving its strategic goals. Strength is an internal capability of a company or an organization and it refers to the positive characteristic of a company that can be used to impact a company positively. Lastly, the term weakness refers to the negative characteristics within a company that can impact its strategic goals negatively (McKee, Kemp and Spence 158).

The purpose of the SWOT analysis is to help managers to understand the factors that can either be helpful or harmful in the process of attaining strategic goals. It provides a quick overview of the company’s strategic situation in the market. The analysis involves evaluating both internal and external factors that impact a company or an organization.

2.2 Value chain analysis

The different types of value chains include balanced, directed, supplier-dominated and buyer-dominated ones. Value chain includes the number of activities that an organization performs in its industry so that it can deliver valuable products to its customers. Core competency is a combination of technical expertise and knowledge that enable a company to be competitive in its industry. Distinctive competency, on the other hand, is a set of activities that a company is able to do better than its competitors.   

The purpose of the value chain analysis is to help companies to formulate as well as implement competitive strategies that can be used in business practices to create the utmost value for customers. While conducting this analysis, companies try to find areas they can improve in their business practices. The aim of conducting this analysis is to remain competitive (Webber and Labaste 10).    

2.3 Competitive advantage analysis

Basically, competitive advantage is a condition that puts a company into a superior business position than its competitors in the industry. It can be achieved through strategic leadership by selecting and implementing the right strategies. It can also be achieved through business practices such as product diversification or differentiation among other practices.        


3.1 SWOT analysis

Table 1: General Electric’s external analysis

OpportunitiesThreatsIndustry environment The company can invest in aerospace industry and develop infrastructure in other industries Industry environment The company faces stiff competition from its competitors and its is likely that new companies might join the industry   General environment The company can expand to different geographical regions and invest in other businesses.General environment It is highly likely that government policies in different parts of the world are likely to change and economic forces will change as well thereby affect the company.    

Table 2: General Electric’s internal analysis

StrengthsWeaknessesIn terms of intangible resources, the company has both capable and experienced workforce and in terms of tangible resources, it has good manufacturing equipments.  In terms of tangible resources, the company has a high debt burden and weak revenue growth in some industrial segments.

SWOT analysis discussion

The above SWOT analysis indicates that even if the company faces stiff competition from its competitors and that it is likely that new companies might join the industry, the company can expand its businesses in different industries. Furthermore, although the company has high debt burden and weak revenue growth in some industrial segments, the company has both experienced and capable workforce and good manufacturing equipments. Based on this fact, the company can build on its strengths to counter its weaknesses (McKee, Kemp and Spence 158). In particular, the company can utilize its good manufacturing equipments and experienced workforce to invest in its opportunities and improve its weak revenue growth.     

3.2 Value chain analysis

Although the company engages in different businesses, its main business is in electrical gargets. The company focuses its attention on adding value to its electric products and other products. Its core competency is in its good manufacturing equipments. Its distinctive competency comes from its ability to diversify its products and perform exemplary good in those areas (Gupta, Gollakota and Srinivasan 7).   

This analysis focuses its attention on the company’s refrigerator. The company seeks to differentiate this product from those of its competitors through product differentiation. In so doing, the company produces different types of refrigerators with different features. Some of these products include French door refrigerators, side-by-side refrigerators as well as bottom freezer refrigerators. Each of these products targets different customers.

3.3 Competitive advantage analysis

Based on the product that I have chosen (refrigerator), the company has achieved competitive advantage over its competitors. The company has achieved competitive advantage by ensuring that the product is unique in its own ways and that each product is different from each other. This helps the company to serve the interests of different customers thereby attracts and retains them.  


4.1 Problem

Currently, the major problem facing the company is that of growing its weak revenues in some business segments. This problem emanates from the diversity of its products. 

4.2 Solution

To resolve this problem, the company should utilize its strengths to counter its weaknesses. In particular, it should empower its experienced and capable workforce to utilize its resources to improve performance. In this case, competitive strategies should be formulated and utilized in the affected business segments. This means that the workforce should select strategies that can help the company to improve its financial performance and utilize those strategies on daily basis.


The report has established that the company has core competency in its good manufacturing equipments. This competency enables the company to diversify its products. In so doing, the company remains competitive in its various industries.

Work cited

Gupta, Vipin, Gollakota, Kamala, and Srinivasan R. Business policy and strategic management: concepts and applications. New Delhi: PHI learning PVT Ltd., 2007. Print.

McKee, Annie, Kemp, Travis, and Spence Gordon. Management: a focus on leaders. Australia: Pearson higher education, 2012. Print.

Webber, C M, and Patrick Labaste. Building Competitiveness in Africa’s Agriculture: A Guide to Value Chain Concepts and Applications. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2010. Print.

Sample Management Coursework Paper on Strategic Human Resources Management at Apple Inc. homework essay help: homework essay help

Strategic Human Resources Management at Apple Inc.

Strategic management of human resources in an enterprise concerns a tactical model of influencing and organizing human resources in a way that can avail and preserve competitive advantages in a market. It applies based on recognition that organization of people and their abilities is possible to influence a cutting edge in the enterprise’s activities and model, and hence develop organization-wide advantages in production. At Apple Inc., respected CEO Steve Jobs inspired high and sustained organizational success based on motivation, competent management, and influence on employees through abilities to envision and anticipate the future, enhance flexibility, think and act strategically, and enforce changes aimed at creating effective competitive advantages for the enterprise. Creating and adhering to a vision despite the uncertainty and fluid nature of the technology industry, Jobs demonstrated courage in making decisions that others in the organization hesitated to make. He outlined profound and radical ideas to employees at the enterprise and challenged them to work towards his vision, thus inspiring among them feelings of strong purpose in their work (Kutsar, Ghose, & Kutsar, 2014). This approach influenced employees’ belief that they could be effective with commitment and coordinated action.

Despite applying a brash approach at times, Jobs motivated employees effectively at Apple, inspiring intrinsic motivation rewards (internal and personal satisfaction from performance). Employees at the organization observed that working there was enjoyable and interesting because of the passion and belief in products and the vision that Jobs had inspired among them in a trickle-down effect. In terms of extrinsic rewards (external incentives to inspire performance), the organization offered employees stock options at discount prices. This strategy proved to be particularly effective as Apple’s stock prices rose, offering employees a stake in the enterprise’s success (Kutsar, Ghose, & Kutsar, 2014). This combination of strategic management of human resources at the enterprise inspired high levels of employee productivity that influenced Apple’s continued brand success in the technology market.


Kutsar, V., Ghose, N., & Kutsar, Y. (2014). Leadership Analysis using Management Tools: Steve Jobs. American International Journal of Contemporary Research 4(2): 125-130. Retrieved from:

Sample English Essay Paper on Perceptions on Technology grad school essay help

Perceptions on Technology

Rapid development is technology has brought much disparity in the way various persons live their lives. In this prospect, the urge of use of technology which differs from one generation to the next has a substantial effect on the way in which they use the technology. The younger generation is deemed to use the technology in a much different way than the older generation. To the younger generation, technology is one thing that they cannot do without while to the older generation, technology is a hindrance to the peaceful coexistence. In this paper a distinction is brought on board on the various advents of the use of technology among the elderly and the younger people. The distinction is geared towards unveiling the advantages and the disadvantages of technology with respect to making the world a better place to live. The paper explains my personal experiences on the different perceptions that me and my grandfather has about the use of technology and how differently if affects our lives (Postman, 3).

In the current context of discussion, it comes out clearly that my social life has been substantially affected by the use of my Smartphone. The taking of the photos and positing on the various social sites makes the order of the day. Additionally, a huge percentage of my social life is spent on getting busy on the social media platform. The technological advancement that comes with the age provides greater opportunities for spending more time browsing and trying to complete the social circle by the use of the mobile technology (Postman, 2).  A sharp contrast is drawn on the way in which my grandfather spends their social life. With him, the most interesting bit of socialization is when he meets with friends and has a get-together. As at now he does not embrace much of the technology but is keen to acknowledge the new developments in the technology.

The technophobia that is evident in the older generation is deemed to be quite intriguing since it hinders them from enjoy the fancy things like taking a photo and uploading it to the internet. Their fundamental belief of actual socializing is very important to them. In this stance, they do not much embrace the virtual socializing but instead tend to lean on adventure and a free world which has minimal control of the technology. The only way in which they Smartphone technology is through calling and texting. Beyond these activities, they tend to ignore since it gives them the impression of not only moving away from the culture but also an impediment to enjoying a better social life without automations brought out by the technological advancements (Postman, 2). To the younger generation, the advent of technology has made it possible for various things like formation of a group and sharing ideas to be quite easier. The moral development of my friends takes the shape of what they get from the social media platform since they spend more time in these sites than with their families. This has made it possible for them to face various issues in a bolder manner than before when they were being controlled by their parents (Postman, 5).

On the same account of the use of the communication gadgets, my grandfather still clings on the notion of making more interactions through the verbal communication where there is face to face conversation where the parties communicating have to be physically present. The perception is coined from the culture that in the ancient world, it feels very proper, moral and quite substantial for people to meet and talk one on one in order to promote high level of harmony where one would share their feelings and opinions while they gathered physically and their facial expression and some sense of touch is exhibited. They feel that the sense of touch and feeling being scrapped away by the inception of technology which proves to be quite destructive to the moral standards and beliefs of the older generation (Postman, 3). To the fraternity of our age, the use of technology has brought more of our friends who are far from quite near. They may be far but through the technology like video calling in the Smartphone, we are able to reach them and talk to them one on one even though they’re not physically present.  The globalization of information that the technology has brought on board gives us the avenue to listen to our fellow friends who are abroad in real times and share our feelings with them. This has the transcending effect of making sure that there are the growth larger social ties which binds us together as a family.

In a nutshell, the inception of technological advancement has brought much good and bad as well. To the elderly generation, it has made people to lose the sense of touch and physical affection among each while to the younger generation, it is a tool which allows for profound connection which does not only cuts across the geographical barriers but also helps in gaining more friends to socialize with.

Work cited

Postman, Neil. “Five things we need to know about technological change.” Retrieved December 1 (1998): 2003.

Sample Health Care Presentation Paper on MHealth-Technology Trends Proposal Presentation essay help websites: essay help websites

MHealth-Technology Trends Proposal Presentation


The impact of technological innovation has been recorded in all fields across the globe. Healthcare system is not exceptional. Devices such as smartphones and tablets are increasingly replacing the conventional monitoring and recording systems (Spekowius & Wendler, 2013). Now, patients have an option of undergoing full consultation and treatment at the privacy of their homes. Ingrained in mobile technologies, it is possible for patients to access medical services with increased ease from their homes. Healthcare is fast-adapting technological trends that include: Radio-Frequency-Identification (RFID) tags Mhealth, and Electronic Health Record systems (EHR).

Embracing MHealth has recorded a great shift of services by enabling services to be taken out of the hospital confines by integrating the healthcare services with user-friendly and accessible mobile devices. Therefore, this study develops a proposal for a prestigious health care organization that will be presented to the board of the organization on how the organization might adopt MHealth trend to improve the quality of the health care delivered to organization members.

Benefits of Adopting MHealth

Remote Monitoring

Spekowius & Wendler (2013) elucidates that in 2015, 5.2 million patients across the globe were utilizing a home monitoring system. Monitoring patients from their homes will be done by a medical specialist who monitors the state of the patient from his/her home. This will help reduce cost and visits to hospitals. For instance, a cardiac cast fitted with a pacemaker automatically transmits data to remote centers. In addition, patients can be easily contacted through their mobile phones.

The critical element of consideration to ensure a successful adoption and running of MHealth care system is ensuring that the privacy of patients is guaranteed. In addition, accessibility of reliable and quality information are crucial elements in ensuring successful adoption of MHealth (Geisler & Heller, 2014). For instance, it is important that the healthcare facility management ensures that the patient databases have clear records for easy retrieval.


Through communication gadgets, patients can easily connect with doctors. Healthcare professionals are able to track patient treatment history and gather data on vast areas and departments in the hospital. Ellen Lee (2013) portends that the communication gadgets such as the medical translation tools enable doctors to speak into the app and the message in translated instantly to another language helping physicians handle patients who are not able to speak in English.

Embracing MHealth will enable reduction of mistakes by healthcare practitioners. For instance, the need of verifying patient information illustrates the importance of ensuring that the databases are up to date and that the information therein of the patient is constantly updated. A study conducted by Geisler& Heller (2014) indicated that 44 million people residing in the UK who do not speak English benefitted from the app in 2014.


This proposal recommends that the board adopts MHealth to its organization members.

This is because the fundamental focus of the healthcare organizations is to ensure that their patients receive the highest quality of care. MHealth will facilitate the promptness in responding to the patients’ issues and ensuring close monitoring of the patient. Effective implementation and management of MHealth will not only ensure that the medical practitioners are able to offer quality healthcare but also allows the patients access to prompt services from their homes.

Most importantly, embracing MHealth will ensure that the patient’s privacy is guaranteed. Effective management of the databases and ensuring that information is constantly updated, failures such as wrong interpretation of results are limited. Consequently, this will minimize patient dissatisfaction. Therefore, this proposal recommends that that the board considers adopting MHealth trend to improve the quality of the health care delivered to organization members.


Ellen Lee (2013).Ways Technology Is Transforming Health Care. Retrieved March 20, 2016, from

Geisler, E., & Heller, O. (2014). Managing Technology in Healthcare. Boston: Kluwer Academic.

Spekowius, G., & Wendler, T. (2013). Advances in healthcare technology: Shaping the future of medical care. Dordrecht: Springer.

Sample Geology Coursework Paper on Hurricanes argumentative essay help online


Describe how the use of a tall smoke stack might improve air quality near a large industrial facility.

Most industries utilize smoke stacks to scatter smoke, vapor, and harmful gases out of their facilities. When the discharge that contains harmful chemicals is released through tall smoke stacks, it is blown away by the wind and fall far away from the facilities. Inversion, or the process that determines the formation of clouds, plays a crucial role in maintaining pollutants high in the atmosphere. During the night when the atmosphere is cold, gaseous emissions may be trapped near the ground if they are discharged from shorter stacks. Thus, tall smoke stacks are capable of releasing pollutants high above the ground, leading to improved air quality within the industrial facility. If the pollutants are not released above the inversion cap, they tend to linger near the ground, leading to air pollution within the industrial facility.

How can topography contribute to pollution in a city or region?

Topography is one of the factors that contribute to pollution problems in most cities. This is because most cities are built in valleys where the level of inversion is quite low. Valleys are prone to pollution due to the surrounding mountains acting as barriers to the prevailing wind (Ahrens, 2013). The cold air in valleys can hardly rise over the warm air on top of the valleys. The presence of smog within cities is due to polluted air lacking an escape as the warm air creates a barrier in the valley. Hence, the same polluted air will keep on circulating within the city region due to its topography.

From where do hurricanes derive their energy? What factors tend to weaken hurricanes? Would you expect a hurricane to weaken more quickly if it moved over land or over cooler water?

Hurricanes obtain their energy from the warm water vapor, which develops when the ocean’s surface becomes hot. The higher the ocean’s surface temperature, the higher the strength is available to generate high intensity storm (Stearns, 2015). Heat energy is transformed into wind energy as the water vapor condenses while the latent heat gathers inside the convective clouds, causing the storm. Hurricanes tend to get weak when they pass over cooler water, since their energy depends on the temperature of water vapor. Encounter with dry air reduces the power of hurricane due to loss of heat. Land may weaken hurricanes faster than cooler water due to the rugged terrain that blocks wind movement. Additionally, land has the capacity to absorb the moisture from the storm, hence, contributing to further weakening of the storm.

Where is the Bermuda High located during the summer and fall? How might the path of a hurricane, moving toward the west from Africa, be affected by the Bermuda High, as the hurricane approaches the United States?

Bermuda High is usually located around the southeastern region of the US during the summer, but during the fall, it moves further to the south. Its location is essential in determining the path that the hurricane assumes. During the fall, the Bermuda High pushes hurricane towards the Gulf of Mexico or towards Cuba, as it applies pressure that pushes air downward. When Bermuda High is situated at the northwestern side of the US, it directs the hurricane that originates from West Africa towards the northeastern US, causing a landfall (Morisawa, 2013). During the summer, hurricane moving westwards increases its intensity owing to the formation of the Bermuda High over the Atlantic Ocean.

How do you think pollutants are removed from the atmosphere? Does this occur quickly or slowly?

Pollutants are usually eradicated from the atmosphere through precipitation. When water vapor condenses in the atmosphere, it traps some particles, which are later dropped to the earth’s surface when it rains. Planting trees can also assist in removing pollutants from the atmosphere through the reduction of air temperature and transpiration. Plants absorb carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere during photosynthesis, and maintenance of natural environment could enhance high absorption of pollutants. The speed of removing pollutants from the atmosphere depends on temperature, as well as pressure within the atmosphere. The speed would be high in case of high temperatures since condensation will occur faster than during low temperatures. Planting more trees can also boost the rate of absorption.


Ahrens, C. D. (2013). Meteorology today: An introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Morisawa, M. (2013).Geomorphology and Natural Hazards: Proceedings of the 25th Binghamton Symposium in Geomorphology, Held September 24-25, 1994 at SUNY, Binghamton, USA. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Stearns, B. (2015). The Hurricane Preparedness Handbook. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing Inc.

Sample Aviation Term Paper on Organizational Lapses Accident Report online essay help

Organizational Lapses Accident Report

Fine Airlines Services Flight 101 was a cargo flight which pitched up sharply after taking off reaching a very high altitude. The aircraft stalled and then crashed resulting to the death of three flight crew members, one security guard on board, and a motorist who was on the ground. The aircraft was damaged by a post crash fire and this was as a result of failure by the firm to adhere to some principles of safety management system. Safety management system principles greatly contribute to reductions in aircraft accidents because of the procedures and regulations that have been set (Flouris & Yilmaz, 2009).  This essay identifies two Safety Management System principles that were missing from the organization that contributed to the accident.

The principles of safety management are used as a yardstick in formulating regulations that ensure safety of all those who are concerned. The goal of Safety Management System is to improve safety by helping ensure that the outcomes of any management or system activity incorporate informed, risk based decision making (Dillingham, 2013). The NTSB found out that the cause of the crash was an incorrect loading of cargo and a correspondingly incorrect stabilizer trim setting, precipitating an extreme pitch-up at rotation.

Firstly, the safety policy of fine air was not effective enough and thus led to ineffective loading which contributed to the accident. The firm was unable to exercise control over some of its operations and processes which led lapses in the loading process which contributed to the accident. Fine air failed to provide a framework that could be used to identify and address the deficiencies in equipments, operations, and procedures in the loading department. The lapses that existed in the safety policy of fine air resulted to the failure of the Cargo loader to load the plane as it was specified by the regulations of the company. This indicates that the procedures and rules that were laid down by the company on how to load the cargo were not adhered to the loader. The rules and regulations were not backed up with strict enforcement mechanisms that could ensure that all procedures were followed.  The organizations did not have a strong internal environment to ensure compliance to the standards that were set in the process and procedures of loading cargo. A strong control environment mandates that reliability be woven into the fabric of every business transaction; it’s the fiber of operational execution (Maitre, 2015).

Secondly, the safety promotion strategy of the firm failed because of the failure by the management of fine air to exercise operational control in the loading procedures. The firm failed to provide those concerned with the loading process of the basic skills that are needed in cargo loading and to ensure that the deficiencies that existed in the cargo loading procedures were corrected. Fine air failed to develop instruction for loaders that could guide them towards the successfully performance of their duties. Fine air also failed to adhere to the safety compliance principle which requires that a firm providing such services should comply with certain standards.

Safety Management System is a formal, proactive approach to manag­ing safety which emphasizes on proactive and predictive safety processes to identify hazards before reactive safe­ty techniques are necessary (Ostrowski, Valha& Ostrowski, 2014). Failure of the company to act in accordance with some of the safety management principles contributed to the accident that led to the loss of lives. The firm did not have effective monitoring structures to ensure that the cargo was packed according to the laid down procedures and ensure that deficiencies were corrected before the plane took off.


Dillingham, G. L. (2013). Is the Federal Aviation Administration Making Sufficient Progress on Safety Initiatives? Congressional Digest, 92(6), 13-19.

Flouris, T., & Yilmaz, A. K. (2009). Change Management as A Road Map for Safety Management System Implementation in Aviation Operations: Focusing on Risk Management and Operational Effectiveness. International Journal of Civil Aviation (IJCA), 1(1), 1-19.

Maitre, S. (2015). Risk Management, Internal Controls and Aviation Safety. Armed Forces Comptroller, 60(1), 24-27.

Ostrowski, K. A., Valha, D., & Ostrowski, K. E. (2014). Gap Analysis Using ICAO Safety Management Guidance. (cover story). Professional Safety, 59(7), 26-32.

Sample Law Research Paper on Oil Spills and International Marine Environmental Law argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

Oil Spills and International Marine Environmental Law

            The world’s coastal waters are becoming harmful for both humans and other living organisms due to oil spills. Oil spills have become common activities in the oceans owing to offshore oil production as well as shipping activities. Oils spills are not the only form of marine pollution, as other sources, such as radioactive substances, plastics, persistent toxins, and sediments destroy the marine environment more than oil spills. Oil spills have grave consequences on the marine environment, hence, the need to have marine environmental laws. To protect human health, in addition to safeguarding the natural environment from pollution, international bodies have come up with regulations and established treaties to guide on the exploitation of seawaters, as well as compensating victims of oil pollution.

International Law Documents on Marine Environmental Pollution

The quest to safeguard the marine environment from numerous incidences of oil spills led to the signing of treaties and conventions in various international conferences. The Geneva Conventions of 1958 incorporated the provisions concerning environmental protection, particularly in oceans, where oil pollution occurs through leakages from oil pipelines or in the course of continental shelf operations. Many provisions made from the Geneva Conventions matched the customary international law with regard to the high sea. The convention on the High Sea (CHS) classified the high seas as parts of the sea that are excluded from the internal waters.[1] Article 24 of the Convention necessitates states to institute national legislation to safeguard the marine environment from pollution originating from cargo ships, oil pipelines, and seabed activities.

The Civil Liability Convention, which was adopted in 1969, ensured that people who suffer from oil pollution damage are compensated adequately, and that the liability for oil pollution rest on the owners of the ships that are involved in the oil spills. The Convention (also known as CLC 1969) imposed strict and limited liability on registered ship-owners, in addition too compelling them to have compulsory insurance mechanisms to assist in paying for damages.[2] The Convention catered for pollution damage that occurs out of persistent spillage of oil within a territory of a member party.

The 1972 Stockholm Conference, which focused on the human environment made a declaration that states shall undertake all possible steps to ensure that pollution is eradicated in the global waters. According to Schiffman, the UN organized the Stockholm Conference after the US and other industrialized states raised concerns on pollution, population growth, as well as destruction of natural resources.[3] The Stockholm Declaration initiated specific attempts to deal with conservation issues at different levels. Principle 7 of the Declaration commands states to take necessary measures to avert pollution in seas by regulating substances perceived to be injurious to human health and marine life. 

The struggle to conserve the marine environment was boosted by the UN in 1982 when the international agency convened its members at Montego Bay, Jamaica. The UN helped in the establishment of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which offered general provisions on marine protection.[4] The Convention underlined the need to reach an agreement on solving issues on pollution within the regional level. Agenda 21 was a program of action meant for sustainable development, based on the agreement reached at the Earth Summit that was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The summit, which was also prepared by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), underlined the need to tackle environmental and development matters amicably.[5] Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 stressed on the need for states to protect marine environment from activities such as offshore oil and gas exploration, which cause pollution.

International Liability for Oil Pollution

Although there exist numerous regulations aimed at offering safety standards to prevent oil pollution, oil spills are still occurring in the global waters as if there are no rules to penalize the polluters. One of the areas that suffer most from the effects of oil spillage is the shoreline. Spilled oil is extremely lethal to animals, birds, and other marine life. They cause death by inhibiting normal feeding habits, in addition to blocking respiratory systems of ocean wildlife, as well as other living organisms at the seashore. The damage caused by oil spills is erratic and may not depend on the magnitude of the spills, but rather on the vulnerability of an area.

Although the number of oil spills by large tankers has gone down over the years, the repercussions of oil spills are quite devastating for the affected local economies. The global trade in oil is expected to rise due to high demand, and this has increased the potential to create more harm in seawaters. However, the possibility of encountering oil pollution due to the carriage of enormous quantities of oil, the liability, as well as compensation for oil pollution, is well regulated through international legal and liability regime.

The need for international guidelines led to the establishment of international conventions to discuss how polluters should be compelled to make financial compensation to the victims of oil pollution. The CLC 1969 made the ships’ owners liable for any damage resulting from oil pollution, in addition to obliging them to have compulsory insurance cover.[6] Through the convention, oil-carrying ships are required to compensate victims of oil pollution within the territory of the states that are members to the convention. The Convention is acceptable within the member states. However, when the damage occurs outside the CLC member states, such damage is not covered.

Oil spills are exceedingly expensive to clean up, and can pose a financial disaster to the affected companies, local governments, and states. States are compelled to place barriers on the shorelines to prevent people from accessing beaches. Most activities along the beaches are stopped to prevent loss of lives from oil pollution. People who sustain their lives through fishing are forced to look for other alternatives of earning a living after oil spills. Property value is also affected by oil spills, as investors would not invest in areas that are experiencing loss of vegetation and human settlement. Sea transport is vastly affected by oil spills, as the floating oil spoil boats and other vessels. Fishing nets cannot function effectively when they dipped in oily water.

To claim for damage caused by oil pollution, the claimant must demonstrate a quantifiable economic loss by producing accounting records or any other evidence that indicates loss from oil pollution. Compensation can be paid on clean-up operations, property loss, as well as loss of livelihood from fishing and tourism activities. Individuals, business owners, and local communities are entitled for compensation, as long as they are located within the CLC member states. However, claimants cannot sue for damages made by non-commercial vessels owned by states, as CLC only covers for commercial vessels owned by companies within the member states.

Although the CLC 1969 offered a vital mechanism for compensation, it failed to offer adequate compensation for all legal cases of oil pollution. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) came up with the FUND Convention in 1971 to supplement the CLC 1969, as well as relive ship owners the financial burden.[7] The adoption of the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage (also known as 2001 BOPC) was also meant to facilitate for liability and compensation based on bunker oil pollution resulting from all types of sea-going carriers, other than oil tankers.[8] The 2001 BOPC imposes harsh but restricted liability for the damage from pollution on the ship-owner while claimants are awarded rights to take action against the ship’s insurer.


Marine environment has suffered enormously due to oil spills, leading to serious consequences on social and economic activities along the coastlines. A major oil spill poses a severe impact on people’s livelihoods as well as on the environment. However, steps to combat oil pollution resulting from ocean transport have already been taken by international agencies. Numerous treaties and conventions have helped in laying down rules that guides on oil pollution and its international implications. The Conventions, such as the CLC 1969 and 2001 BOPC have offered a platform where victims of oil pollution can make claims for compensation. The CLC member states have to carry the burden of paying damages to victims of pollution to discourage oil spills.


“International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND).” International Maritime Organization (2016). (accessed 13 July 2016).

“Liability and Compensation for Ship-Source Oil Pollution: An Overview of the International Legal Framework for Oil Pollution Damage from Tankers.” UNCTAD (2012).

Anyanova, Ekaterina. Oil pollution and international marine environmental law. Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2012.

Godlund, Josefin, Annika Nilsson, and Elena Fuchs. “Are The Current International Regulations Sufficient Enough To Combat Marine Pollution (Focus On Oil Pollution) Caused By Shipping Activities?.” (2015).

Hui, Wang. Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage: A Comparative and Economic Study of the International, US and the Chinese Compensation Regime. Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit, 2010.

Schiffman, Howard S. “International Law and the Protection of the Marine Environment.” International Sustainable Development Law-Volume I (2010): 306.

Tillio Treves. “1958 Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea.” Audiovisual Library of International Law, April 29,1958. (accessed 13 July 2016).

[1] Tillio Treves. “1958 Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea.” Audiovisual Library of International Law, April 29, 1958. (accessed 13 July 2016).

[2] Wang Hui, Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage: A Comparative and Economic Study of the International, US and the Chinese Compensation Regime. (Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit, 2010), 3.

[3] Howard S. Schiffman, “International Law and the Protection of the Marine Environment.” International Sustainable Development Law-Volume I (2010): 306.

[4] Ekaterina Anyanova, Oil pollution and international marine environmental law. (Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2012), 32-33.

[5]Ibid., 34.

[6] Josefin, Godlund, Annika Nilsson, and Elena Fuchs. “Are The Current International Regulations Sufficient Enough To Combat Marine Pollution (Focus On Oil Pollution) Caused By Shipping Activities?.” (2015), 14.

[7] “International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND).” International Maritime Organization (2016). (accessed 13 July 2016).

[8] “Liability and Compensation for Ship-Source Oil Pollution: An Overview of the International Legal Framework for Oil Pollution Damage from Tankers.” UNCTAD (2012).

Sample Computer Science Research Paper on Computers and the Environment college admission essay help houston tx

Computers and the Environment

In the current context of management of waste materials many parties have come up with various ways in which the diverse types of wastes can be controlled and managed in the best way possible. The contemporary world surfers from the problems the wastes products bring to the humanity. Additionally, it is deemed that there is high depletion of very vital resources that would be used in making sure that the humanity lives in a better place. It is therefore important to engage means and ways in which the waste products could be managed for the preservation of these scarce resources (Adamson 33). Technology is seen to be one way in which the menace of controlling the wastage could be achieved.  In this prospect, it is imperative that stratified measures should brought on board to make sure that the technology is appropriately used for this purpose which would eventually not only make the world a better place but help in the creation of efficiency in waste management. This paper is destined to give an incisive research on the various tenets of solutions that technology brings in trying to save of the wastages postulated by various parties across the world. This paper also takes a discussion on the various areas of concern which tends to criticism the use of technology and the tradeoffs that they bring to the development of the whole agenda of energy conservation.

With regards to PCs and nature, the primary concerns originate from the outcomes of making and discarding the machine. These crucial machines have birthed a computerized universe of data and applications at the snap of a catch, altering the way people, social orders and undertakings work, convey and flourish. Necessary to for all intents and purposes each conceivable human action, the advantages of PCs are complex: from making extravagant illustrations to putting away incredible measures of information, these stallions fueled instruments encourage more prominent profitability in organizations, government workplaces and family units alike (Satyanarayanan 11). No big surprise that a genuine look on their negative ramifications is upon us, as they turn out to be progressively universal. Initially developed in the 1940s, electronic PCs kept up a moderate rate of movement in innovation and generation until the 1980s. At that point, with the improvement of the IBM Personal Computer (PC’s) and their clones, offers of PCs expanded drastically (Adamson 113). The 300,000 desktop PC deals in the U.S. in 1980 expanded 500 percent the next year and multiplied again a year later. Regardless of the cutting edge emergency of the late 1990s, PC deals developed around 10 percent a year and more than 130 million PCs were sold every year around the globe. Before the end of 2002, one billion PC’s had been sold around the world. This increment, combined with the evolving innovation, prompted out of date quality and made a lot of electronic waste. This paper examines PCs and nature on every specialized arrangement includes tradeoffs and symptoms and additionally demonstrating to manage them, for example, Electronic Waste and Energy Consumption (Garrison, Terry, and Walter15).

While a portion of the effect of PCs and the Internet has shockingly been negative, quite a bit of it has likewise been sure. There are a couple of the ways that innovation is enhancing nature e.g. it helps us create and deliver new materials and advances that are supportable and don’t hurt the earth, so we can in the long run quit utilizing ones that do hurt it, it permit us to screen and study our surroundings to better see how it functions and the effect of our activities on it, it helps us make more astute innovations that react to how we utilize them and modify themselves to lessen their natural effect, for example, lights that can sense when nobody is in the room and consequently kill. It additionally permits us to have an overall virtual lab, so that specialists from all fields can share their exploration, experience and thoughts to think of better, quicker witted arrangements. Not just does this permit individual far from each other to cooperate, however it additionally lessens the ecological effect individuals would regularly bring about from making a trip to meet with each other. Also, it takes into account paperless correspondence like email and online bill paying to decrease the measure of trees chop down, it permits organizations to diminish transporting and producing sway and to contact a more extensive group of onlookers. Nonetheless, sometimes individuals can get so amped up for utilizing another innovation that they neglect the negative effect on nature. Be that as it may, it’s vital that we utilize innovation in the sharpest and most dependable way, so we are taking care of issues, not making more for what’s to come (Satyanarayanan 21).

A considerable lot of the innovations we utilize each day expend significantly a larger number of assets and force than they have to, and utilizing and producing them can make a wreck. Here are a couple of the ways that innovation can hurt the earth. They contamination – Air, water, warmth and clamor contamination would all be able to be brought about by delivering and utilizing innovation, devouring assets, for example, Non-renewable assets, including valuable metals like gold, are utilized to make innovation. Numerous others, for example, coal, are expended to create the power to utilize innovation (Adamson 12). Indeed, even some renewable assets, similar to trees and water, are getting to be sullied or are spent quicker than they can restore themselves on account of innovation. PC waste – Manufacturing innovation makes a lot of waste, and utilized PCs and gadgets get tossed out when they break or get to be obsolete. Called techno waste, the hardware contains a wide range of risky materials that are extremely hazardous for the earth. They should be discarded utilizing unique techniques. Disturbing biology – by clearing land where creatures used to live to construct industrial facilities and permitting contamination to debase the evolved way of life can significantly influence the earth’s common cycles. Wellbeing dangers – Using poisonous materials that can hurt our wellbeing can bring about malignancy, and innovation fixation can prompt other wellbeing issues like weight and carpal passage disorder (Garrison, Terry, and Walter 5). One can urge producers by purchasing more vitality effective and less unsafe hardware and by supporting organizations that make securing the environment a need. One can likewise do their own particular part to decrease ecological effect by not being inefficient and discarding their hardware securely and legitimately.

The sparing of paper is conceivable in principle; however, by and by PCs have expanded paper use. After a hard plate crash and an infection or two, a large portion of us legitimately doubt electronic capacity techniques. It is constantly more secure to make a printed version—in the event that something goes wrong. Furthermore, the simplicity of printing continually entices us to put out a gaudy and beautiful notice or letter or report or gift or flyer. We know, obviously, in the event that we ever stop to consider it, that nine tenths of what we print will never be perused—who has sufficient energy to peruse it? — yet to see every one of those conveniently arranged sheets progressively rising up out of the printer makes us feel so … profitable.

PCs likewise have diffuse social and ecological impacts that are barely noticeable. As hard as we are on the characteristic world when we meet it vis-à-vis, we might be harder still on the off chance that we totally protect ourselves from it, as we do when we spend the day fastened to a video show terminal. We can’t think about what we have the foggiest idea, and we don’t won’t safeguard what we can’t think about (Satyanarayanan 18).

PC waste – Manufacturing innovation makes a lot of waste, and utilized PCs and gadgets get tossed out when they break or get to be obsolete. Called techno waste this hardware contains a wide range of risky materials that are extremely hazardous for the earth. They should be discarded utilizing unique techniques. Disturbing biology – by clearing land where creatures used to live to construct industrial facilities and permitting contamination to debase the evolved way of life can significantly influence the earth’s common cycles. Wellbeing dangers – Using poisonous materials that can hurt our wellbeing can bring about malignancy, and innovation fixation can prompt other wellbeing issues like weight and carpal passage disorder. One can urge producers by purchasing (Garrison, Terry, and Walter 12).

Additionally, exceptionally the demonstration of sitting at a PC is, as opposed to first appearances, not ecologically kindhearted. For, while we sit, our lives are being kept up by a horde of ecologically ruinous procedures: the ventilating, the warming, the force for the lights and hardware, the transfer frameworks that divert our squanders, the guards of eighteen-wheelers zooming down the interstate to supply our nourishment, et cetera. We would not have the capacity to utilize PCs were these different things not accommodated us, and their procurement is (at any rate under current game plans) discernably ruinous to the earth. Hence, regardless of the fact that we were to radically expand the measure of time spent sitting before PCs, it is impossible that any natural change would come about. Despite what might be expected, the endeavors required to support our lives for our virtual undertakings would ensure continual with ecological corruption (Adamson 13).

Maybe the most aggravating ecological effect of PCs, nonetheless, is the way they dislodge reality. Rather than the vastly mind boggling and honest to goodness universe of creatures, plants and individuals, we are given a rarified and disentangled virtual world that, however captivating, is deceptive. Our interest with this virtual world springs mainly from the way that, not at all like this present reality, it is altogether—down to every last piece and byte—under human control. In the event that we know the right dialects and can issue the right summons, we have over it the terrific domain of which humanity has constantly imagined—utter and total control. We can get to be as divine beings.

In any case, there is a cost. We pay for total control over the virtual world with distance from this present reality. The hours and days spent on the PC are hours and days subtracted from our genuine lives—from genuine adoration and genuine experience, furthermore from genuine grief and genuine distress. In addition to the fact that they are stunning; our PC lives are not the ones we imagined. When we think about the lives we truly need to live, when we picture our saints, we don’t envision them spending their days sitting at PC. Nor when we come to kick the bucket will a significant number of us think back and lament that we didn’t invest a greater amount of our energy gazing at a video screen (Garrison, Terry, and Walter 18).

The sparing of paper is conceivable in principle; however, by and by PCs have expanded paper use. After a hard plate crash and an infection or two, a large portion of us legitimately doubt electronic capacity techniques. It is constantly more secure to make a printed version—in the event that something goes wrong. Furthermore, the simplicity of printing continually entices us to put out a gaudy and beautiful notice or letter or report or gift or flyer. We know, obviously, in the event that we ever stop to consider it, that nine tenths of what we print will never be perused—who has sufficient energy to peruse it? — yet to see every one of those conveniently arranged sheets progressively rising up out of the printer makes us feel so … profitable.

PCs likewise have diffuse social and ecological impacts that are barely noticeable. As hard as we are on the characteristic world when we meet it vis-à-vis, we might be harder still on the off chance that we totally protect ourselves from it, as we do when we spend the day fastened to a video show terminal. We can’t think about what we have the foggiest idea, and we don’t won’t safeguard what we can’t think about (Satyanarayanan 21).

Additionally, exceptionally the demonstration of sitting at a PC is, as opposed to first appearances, not ecologically kindhearted. For, while we sit, our lives are being kept up by a horde of ecologically ruinous procedures: the ventilating, the warming, the force for the lights and hardware, the transfer frameworks that divert our squanders, the guards of eighteen-wheelers zooming down the interstate to supply our nourishment, et cetera. We would not have the capacity to utilize PCs were these different things not accommodated us, and their procurement is (at any rate under current game plans) discernably ruinous to the earth. Hence, regardless of the fact that we were to radically expand the measure of time spent sitting before PCs, it is impossible that any natural change would come about. Despite what might be expected, the endeavors required to support our lives for our virtual undertakings would ensure proceeded with ecological corruption.

While out of date PCs are an important hotspot for auxiliary crude materials, they can likewise be a wellspring of poisons and cancer-causing agents, if not treated fittingly. The metals contained in PC’s usually incorporate aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, gold, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, palladium, platinum, selenium, silver and zinc. Eight of these metals (appeared in italics) are recorded as unsafe by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), one of the Federal laws that control the mien of waste in the United States (Anderson 15).

A normal 24-kilogram desktop PC requires no less than 10 times its weight in fossil fills and chemicals to be produced – a great deal a greater number of materials-serious than a vehicles or cooler, which require 1-2 times their weight in fossil powers.

Materials, and also vitality exceptional creation forms, more noteworthy appropriation of PC’s worldwide and the fast rate at which they are disposed of for more up to date machines, signify heaps of electronic junk and progressively genuine commitments to asset consumption, ecological contamination and worldwide environmental change (Garrison, Terry, and Walter 15).

Carbon emanations, generally carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, are nursery gasses that are created by individuals. Nursery gasses will be gasses in the air that trap and reflect warmth and radiation back to the planet’s surface. It is trusted that in the course of the most recent century, the measure of nursery gasses in the environment has expanded because of carbon discharges, and that they are adding to a worldwide temperature alteration. Carbon outflows get discharged into the air from things like autos, planes, power plants and production lines. They additionally get discharged by individuals.

As efficiency is being created in by the use of technology, a cost benefit analysis is very vital in getting to understand the whole context of saving the energy for the future. The state of art energy saving mode that has been installed in many computers is one of the most fundamental ways in which we can address the concerns of energy wastes. In abide to get to understand the dynamics of the whole energy savings, there are varied areas of concerns that need to be understood. One of them include the other dangers that the energy saving initiative of the technologically advance PCs (Anderson 5). Even as one uses the PCs, there are various e wastes that are created which are considered to be quite detrimental to the inception of conservation of environment. This notion is true for a fact that the cost of exterminating, controlling and managing the electronic waste might be quite expensive than the very purpose that it was instituted to serve. For example, there are various while creating a program that puts the whole hardware of the computer into saving mode, there might be some other adverse effects that would create other unprecedented problems for which the humanity has to deal with. One of these predicaments is the health risk that one is deemed to be exposed to in the event that they get to use these gadgets for longer period of time (Satyanarayanan 11).

The problems may arise from the connotation that the connotation that there are x-rays which these gadgets are made of which would not only affect the eye but also cause cancer by devouring the cells making them quite dysfunctional. The functionality here revolves around providing the essential elements that would give a clear gesture on the best approach that would be used in making these computers. A compromise should therefore be reached where a cost benefit analysis would tend to strike a balance between conservation of energy through the use of technology and making a comparison with the whole context of adverse effects that the technology brings to the humanity. In some occasions, the role of technology in bringing down the cost of waste is quite high for example using of the state of art software installed in the computers in controlling bigger machines brings high level of precision and reduces the effort used in controlling these production machines. On the other hand, there comes a point when the health problems caused by these e wastes becomes quite high and impedes the whole process from breaking even in terms of sales and getting of profits (Anderson 15).

In a nutshell, it is a fact that technology has been used by many parties in trying to bring down the rising cost of management and prevention of wastes. The automation of various processes through the use of the computerized systems gives way to some of the best ways in which one can manage the wastes. On the other hand, there are predicaments that the whole context of technology inception brings to the humanity that needs to be checked (Hopper, and Andrew 11). Therefore, it is the duty of every institution to carry out an analysis and come to making a decision on the execution of the work using technology or not based on the cost benefit analysis carried out in this context. Technology is seen to be one way in which the menace of controlling the wastage could be achieved.  In this prospect, it is imperative that stratified measures should brought on board to make sure that the technology is appropriately used for this purpose which would eventually not only make the world a better place but help in the creation of efficiency in waste management.

Work cited

Adamson, Melanie, et al. “Environmental Impact of Computer Information Technology in an Institutional Setting: A Case Study at the University of Guelph.” University of Guelph 29 (2005).

Anderson, Terry, et al. “Assessing teaching presence in a computer conferencing context.” (2001).

Garrison, D. Randy, Terry Anderson, and Walter Archer. “Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education.” The internet and higher education 2.2 (1999): 87-105.

Hay, Simon, Andrew Rice, and Andy Hopper. “A global personal energy meter.” Adjunct Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Pervasive Computing. Vol. 135. 2009.

Hopper, Andy, and Andrew Rice. “Computing for the future of the planet.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 366.1881 (2008): 3685-3697.

Satyanarayanan, Mahadev. “Pervasive computing: Vision and challenges.” IEEE Personal communications 8.4 (2001): 10-17.

Weiser, Mark. “The computer for the 21st century.” Scientific american 265.3 (1991): 94-104.

Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Health Care Section of UAE Vision 2021 Critique college essay help: college essay help

Health Care Section of UAE Vision 2021 Critique

UAE’s health care system is envisioned to be among the best in the world by the year 2021. The initiative of Vision 2021 augmented as UAE moved towards the edge of the top most growing economies in the world. A report released in 2013 by World Health Organization (WHO) ranked UAE at number 17 of the leading countries in happiness, out of 156 countries (UAE Vision 2021, 2016). Of course, health is one of the essential ingredients for happy lives. Thus, the incentive to a better nation is improving healthcare in UAE into world-class levels. That is the reason why healthcare is part of UAE’s vision 2021. The country is akin to the fact that success of her citizens depends entirely on a healthy body and mind. To achieve Vision 2021, the healthcare system annexed 10 key national performance indicators to the project (UAE Vision 2021, 2016). The indicators are: number of deaths from cardiovascular diseases, prevalence of diabetes, prevalence of obesity among children, average healthy life expectancy, prevalence of smoking tobacco, number of deaths from cancer, percentage of accredited health facilities, health care quality index, number of physicians, and number of nurses (UAE Vision 2021, 2016). However, only five years remaining to the target point, vision 2021 is still sluggish. It then begs the question; whether the national indicators that were selected as key could drive the 2021 vision of world-class healthcare system. The review of the appropriateness of detailing each national indicator in correspondence to baseline data is critical to driving strategic objective. Therefore, below is a discussion of the five key indicators which are intended to improve the healthcare by the year 2021.

Critique of the Appropriateness of Detailing any of the Five Indicators

Prevalence of diabetes

Currently, diabetes is a major worldly pandemic, and indeed, it is a threat to the UAE population. However, detailing it as one of the key indicators that encompass vision 2021 is being insensitive to numerous health issues that UAE should put at the forefront if at all it has to improve its overall health (Qiao, 2012). Findings in Loney et al. (2013) study suggest that in addition to chronic diseases, there are a myriad and fundamental health issues facing the UAE population. For instance, injury related issues and respiratory disorders acquired from exposure to fumes, dust, and gasses are issues of health concern. Although health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and obesity also confront the population, they should be classified under one key indicator; chronic diseases. Classifying them singly as key indicators driving vision 2021 is a failure to notice the urgency of other health issues; if at all, the ministry is determined to achieve vision 2021. It is apparent that chronic diseases almost require similar preventive measures that should be handled under one umbrella (Qiao, 2012). Globally, various studies also document fundamental health issues the society is grappling with (Brown, 2016; Qiao, 2012).

In a review of available diabetes information, the International Diabetes Federation (2015) report indicated that UAE has 1 million cases of diabetes as at 2015. The prevalence of diabetes among adult population alone (20-79 years) was 14.7%, slightly lower than 16.28% of 2016. Clearly, within a very short time, cases of diabetes in UAE rose by 1.58% (International Diabetes Federation, 2015). In contrast, there were 415 million cases of diabetes recorded worldwide (International Diabetes Federation, 2015). In comparison, although diabetes is a global issue, UAE should not focus on it singly. The ministry of health should realize that working on the lifestyle culture of her population would avert issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular, cancer, and obesity. The moderate prevalence negates the appropriateness of diabetes as a national key indicator for vision 2021.

In its definitions, the health ministry defines diabetes prevalence as a measure of the population between the age of 20 and 79. I real sense we realize that definition ignores other age group despite the fact that diabetes affects people of all ages. It could have been better if this indicator reflected the general public. On the same note, the only source for diabetes statistics is the International Diabetes Federation which is overwhelmed in its role of giving clear information of diabetes prevalence in the whole world. This bring a lot of questions on its mandate in giving correct statistics that will help UAE achieve 2021 health vision. In 2012, the federation projected to lower diabetes related cases to 19.02% by 2014. In real sense, UAE continues to experience more deaths from diabetes. This shows the less effort the concerned ministry had put to curb the rising cases. In its 2021 vision, UAE aims to lower this pandemic to 16.28%. Looking unto the 2012 results the 2012 results, this will be a very slight change meaning that other key health issues should have been given priority instead. The key sponsor for his vision is the ministry of health. Track records indicates that the health ministry had failed to realize it obligations in bettering health service. Therefore, I see this as the biggest challenge in achieving the set targets by the year 2021. In order to realize the set goals in lowering diabetes cases, the government should seek aid from well-established health organizations.

Prevalence of Obesity amongst Children

Children face numerous health issues in addition to obesity. Although a serious problem among UAE children, making it a key indicator for vision 2021 alone neglects the list of other conditions children are grappling with them. The strategic objective for UAE’s vision 2021 should have focused on the entirety of health issues facing children such as low birth weight, infant deaths, and malnutrition, among others. Focusing only on obesity among children cannot make any difference regarding improving healthcare provision for children. As indicated in UAE Vision 2021 (2016), the indicator measures the proportion of children between 5 and 17 years of age considered obese. In a review of provided data, the ministry defines obesity as a BMI greater than +2 standard deviations in children. The body indicates, as of 2014, 13.7% of children between ages 5-17 were obese. The ministry of health targets to prevent rising cases of obesity to a manageable prevalence of 12% by 2021.

However, the ministry seems to place little interest on numerous other health cases affecting children in UAE. According to Bell (2013), various chronic diseases affect one out of three children in UAE. Obesity is not the only health problem that affects UAE children drastically. The study done by Dr. Abdulla at Zayed Hospital indicated that 14.2% of UAE children and teenagers from age 6-19 were facing numerous health issues. Whereas 19.8% were obese, 14% were suffering from at least one chronic illness (Bell, 2013). Unfortunately, the study found out that there were no measures put in place by the government to check the kind of health issues afflicting children. Analysis of countries in the MENA region shows increasing child mal-conditions prevalence, in addition to high rates of malnutrition in early childhood. Malnutrition in children actually should be detailed as a national disaster (AlBlooshi, Shaban, AlTunaiji, Fares, AlShehhi, AlMazrouei & Souid, 2016). Worldwide prevalence of childhood malnutrition increased from 4.2% in 1990 to 6.7% in 2010. The trend has worsened by 2015, and it is projected to continue surging drastically by 2021 (Browne & Flanigan, 2010). According to Browne and Flanigan (2010), the rate of rate of malnutrition in middle-income countries remains relatively higher as compared to obesity. For example, in UAE, the prevalence of malnutrition among children is two to three times greater than that of obesity (Browne & Flanigan, 2010). Therefore, urgent measures to limit the escalation of childhood malnutrition are needed than obesity. Although there has been the focus in micronutrient and malnutrition deficiencies by the ministry of health, the vision 2021 strategic objective incorporates should address them urgently.

Obesity among children should be defined as the condition whereby kids are living with overweight which is caused by food and genetic problems. Therefore, defining obesity among children using the BMI will be difficult for some people to understand the meaning of obese among children. Also, the age of obese children should not be limited between the ages of 5 and 17. The ministry of health is the main source of giving statistics on the rising cases of obesity among UAE children. At some times, the credibility of figures might be compromised since the ministry is obliged with a lot of responsibilities making it difficult to give correct figures and estimates on how it is committed to avert the condition. For instance, the ministry deals with a lot of issues and does not give much concern to the rising obese cases among children. Results of the year 2012 indicated that obesity prevalence among UAE children was 13.17%. This figure is not correct since independent organizations indicate a higher percentage. This is underestimating this key indicator towards realizing an obese free nation. And when comparing with its target for 2021, we realize that the government is doing less to reduce obesity among kids. New overweight continues to be reported each day. Reducing figures to entice the public on its work, the ministry imply that, this indicator should have not been in the top five priorities since there many health challenges affecting children. Therefore, the targets for vision 2021 should be less than the current stated 12% to show commitment towards a health nation. Also, the key sponsor for this vision in the ministry of health. Again, this raises questions on whether the ministry has enough funds to realize the set goal by 2021. In the past, the government has not attained set goals in the health sector. This is a worrying trend that questions its capability in achieving the 2021 vision. The government should identify sponsors to show its commitment to realizing its strategies.

Prevalence of smoking any tobacco product

Smoking prevalence varies considerably across countries and among youth and adult populations. As at 2013, Cleland (2013) reports a growing trend of smoking among UAE youths, indicating that a quarter of all smokers start smoking before age 10. The ministry of health had launched a campaign against smoking amongst the youth, though the trend is still on the rise. According to statistics from the ministry of health, as found in Cleland (2013), 28% of people below 18 years smoke tobacco products. The ministry’s Vision 2021 reports 21.6% prevalence of smoking among men and 1.9% among women. In view of this, and the conservative culture, smoking is not a worrying issue as compared to particular critical lifestyles that threaten health in the country. Actually, smoking can be addressed more in homes and schools than by the government. Perhaps, the government should only support some awareness programs to raise concern about the issue. As such, the issue should not be urgent than the issue of nutrition and exercise programs in schools. Although globally, smoking has increased significantly, it is clear that exercise programs contribute to the reduction of addiction. As such, they should be the point of focus as compared to smoking. Smoking is purely an addiction problem, which the ministry should address through proper intervention programs. Furthermore, trends in tobacco use in middle-income and industrialized countries have gone down by 1% each year. UAE is no exception. The ministry should focus on establishing nutrition programs and improve PE programs in schools to facilitate a fitness nation that taking smoking as a key indicator.

This indicator is defined using the amount of tobacco consume by an individual on daily basis. The definition does not clearly elaborate parameters set to lessen tobacco usage among UAE population. On the other hand, it ignores the fact that the affected people are not only the users, but also the general public. We understand that it is difficult to undertake a survey to show the number of cigarettes each age group consumes. Therefore, the age factor does not real matter when it comes to the number of cigarettes an individual uses in a single day. Therefore, this definition should be improved to depict the clear message that tobacco products affects people indifferent of their age or gender. The ministry of health is the main source of figures showing tobacco consumption among men and women in UAE. Previously, the credibility of surveys by the ministry of health were questionable. This worries if these figures are correct given that the people given the responsibility to undertake surveys fake figures. In 2012, results indicated that the percentage of men smoking tobacco had fallen to 21.6% in the year 2010 as that of women fall to 1.99%. This figures are not correct bearing in mind that currently, a larger percentage in various researches conducted in UAE reveal a worrying trend of female engaging in tobacco smoking. In its mission, the ministry of health envisions to lower the percentage to 15.7 and 1.66 in women by the year 2021. This is a nice move though it has not clearly shown how it will achieve this as the social media is influencing more youth to indulge in tobacco smoking. Also, the ministry of health is the main sponsor for this indicator. More should be done to attract other sponsors like non-governmental organization in fighting tobacco smoking among the UAE population rather than shouldering all key indicators to the ministry of health.

Healthcare Quality Index

Healthcare services in UAE have improved significantly in the last two decades. The provision of quality care is anchored in UAE’s economic growth trajectory and vision for her people. The country further seeks to improve the quality of healthcare delivery in the Vision 2021 strategic objective. UAE Vision 2021 (2016) defines health care index as an indicator measuring the quality of healthcare in three Legatum Prosperity terms, health preventive care and infrastructure, essential health outcomes, and mental and physical health satisfaction. Regarding quality healthcare index, UAE is ranked number 34 worldwide in the year 2015. The ministry targets to improve the quality of healthcare and projects to be ranked number 20 in the year 2021. According to Kirsten and Karch (2012), healthcare expenditures in the many parts of the world remain low by international standards; however, healthcare systems in UAE have undergone rapid changes. The progress is driven by a sharp increase in demand for healthcare due to changing attitudes toward lifestyle diseases and to increased life expectancies. However, improving quality health index depends on numerous factors such as technology, education, infrastructure, cost, and so forth. For UAE to enhance its quality, all these factors must be incorporated into their healthcare system.

Healthcare quality indication should be defined as the state whereby the healthcare sector has sufficient number of nurses, facilities, technology and training so as to better service delivery. Entirely, this indicators should look into different way on how the country can offer qualified health services to patients. Legatum Prosperity is the source of information regarding to healthcare quality. It ranks countries in regard to the quality of service in the healthcare sector. Though, the organization thus not put into consideration of key factors that lead to betterment of quality delivery in healthcare. The results of 2012 ranked UAE in position 34 among countries that offer quality service in the healthcare sector. This results cannot be relied on since UAE faces numerous challenges in assuring better health service to its citizens. In its visions, UAE aims to be ranked among the top 20 countries offering quality services in the health sector. If indeed this was a priority in its strategy, the country should have aimed to be among the top 5 nations with improved healthcare. Again, the ministry of health is the main sponsor in realizing that UAE improves healthcare quality by 2021. The country could have done better improving healthcare quality index if the sponsor was an independent organization with lesser responsibilities.

Percentage of health facilities.

In its 2021 vision, UAE intends to increase the number of health facilities across the country. This is intended to make it easier for the UAE citizens to access health services closer to their homes. In this strategy, the country envisions to increase funds so as to enhance infrastructure development in the health industry. Though this is seen to be a brilliant idea, the health ministry should have looks at training more nurses to reduce the nurse to patient ratio. Currently, the number of nurses serving 100 patients is wanting. Therefore, UAE should have made steps to recruit more health workers and train them to offer good service in the hospitals. Also, the amounts of money set aside for this strategy should be diverted for purposes of purchasing medicines to the already existing health centers. Normally, hospitals face challenges since the government does not provide enough drugs for the patients. Therefore, this should be a priority in the healthcare vision.

Clearly, this indicator was defined as the share of public and private hospital among the UAE population. The definition is not precise in stating that this is a strategy geared to ensuring all citizens receive health services easily. It only looks at distribution of hospitals across the country ignoring other key factors. The health facilities should be accredited by relevant authorities to ensure that people receive professional treatment which is not mentioned in the indicator’s definiion. The source of this idea is the ministry of health. Its main concern should be on how to improve service in the existing health centers across the country. Results from the year 2012, indicated that UAE was 48% in ensuring accessibility to health services among its citizens. This is quite a small percentage bearing in mind that the health sector is so critical to any nation. By the year 2021, UAE intends to improve the number of accredited health facilities to 100 percent. This can only be achieved if the government sets aside enough funds for improving infrastructure and technology as well as accrediting private hospital that meet health standards. The ministry of health as the main sponsor of this strategy might not be enough. More stakeholders should be called into give aid.

Suggesting Alternative Indictors

Of course, the ten indicators envisioned in Vision 2021 are fundamental issues that threaten the well-being of UAE citizens and the success of its health care system. However, when weighing five of the proposed indicators, they are less prevalent than major global issues challenging the health care system. The five indicators that can be substituted are the number of deaths from cardiovascular diseases, average healthy life expectancy, the number of deaths from cancer, the percentage of accredited health facilities, and the number of physicians. The rationale for substituting each indicator has been explained in subsequent analysis. Further, alternative indicators have been suggested based on global baseline data indicating the most serious healthcare issues today. Below is a discussion of major suggestion to the above indicators.

Number of deaths from cardiovascular diseases per 100,000 population/alternative indicator is ‘technological advancement in healthcare systems.’

According to Brown (2016), the age of new technology has made significant proliferations in the healthcare system. For example, machines have been developed that provide chemotherapy, radiotherapy, ultrasound scanning, and numerous healthcare functions for the prevention and cure of diseases. These machines are vital in treatment, yet, most of them are extremely expensive. With the rising cases of cancer, medical data indicates that UAE lacks enough radiotherapy and chemotherapy machines (UAE Vision 2021, 2016). On the other hand, the issue of assessing the number of cardiovascular deaths is mundane. Even though cardiovascular diseases are rampant, a focus on obesity and smoking will solve the problem. Therefore, this indicator can be substituted with a focus on technological advancement. The government should source new technological machines to help health staff diagnose ailments easily. This will help them to start offering treatment at the right time thus saving many lives. Also, the ministry of health should ensure to offer relevant training to the nurses so that they develop skills in operating technological machines which enhance fast service delivery for the people. Results from 2012 are biased since they ignore facts that cardiovascular deaths are increasing each and every day. The ministry of health should look for sponsors so that this condition can be reduced.

Average healthy life expectancy/alternative indicator is ‘patient-centered care’

It is completely nonsensical to spend time in mapping the average healthy life expectancy of a nation when the people are vulnerable to poor treatment. Merlino (2015) observes that the healthcare system across the world has embarked on a journey, 10 years ago, to improve patient satisfaction. Patient-centered care is the key to patient satisfaction. To improve the healthcare system, patient-centered care is the most important quality. It is one of the main elements to indicate improved healthcare. Apparently, it is missing in the UAE’s vision 2021 agenda and should be incorporated as an alternative to the ‘average health life expectancy’ indicator. The health staff should be taught to show compassion and love for their patients as this enhances their recovery. At the same time, keeping patient’s information confidential is key in keeping trust that helps them share freely with their doctors.

Life expectance should be defined as the average number of years an individual is guaranteed to live given that there are many health issues that arises at different ages. The WHO is the main source for statistics showing average life expectancy in different nations. Their credibility is highly questioned given that they are limited with staff. Results of 2021 showed that life expectancy was at 73 years. Actually, the results are questionable with the rising number of deaths at younger ages. It is a few people who live to the stated age. As its target, UAE word to increase life expectancy to 73 years. This is not a simple task given that the nation failed to offer better health services to its citizens. Well-established organizations should be key drivers since the ministry has many tasks and this indicator might seem not meaningful.

Number of physicians per 1,000 population/alternative indicator is ‘improving the quality of physician education.’

Indeed, the need to increase the number of physicians in UAE is undisputable. However, anticipating the provision of quality care requires the country to have quality physicians. The country must have well-trained physicians to spearhead quality care. UAE can have a huge number of physicians but who are quacks because they do not have quality training. For example, numerous hospitals in UAE are unable to implement Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), because they lack the necessary training to do so. Instead of focusing on training many physicians, 2.9 physicians per 1000 population as a key indicator, the Vision 2021 plan should focus on training quality physicians by improving education programs offered in medical schools. On the same note, the ministry of health should hire professional health staff from other nations so as to improve the physicians to patient ratio. This is key to making UAE a world-class health hub.

The definition should have been improved by stating that the indicator is concerned in ensuring that each and every individual accesses service from a qualified physician when in need. The definition ignores the fact that quality is paramount besides increasing the number. The WHO gives statistics based on continental average. Therefore, UAE should not use this as a correct measure to know the number of physicians needed. The 2012 results indicated 2.53 physicians among 1000 populations. Again, this is not true since many citizens do not get a chance to see physicians. And, aiming to increase the number to 2.9 is a clear indication that the nation is not committed in achieving the set vision goal. Also, the ministry of health should allow other stakeholders like private hospitals to help curb the deficit in the number of physicians.

Number of deaths from cancer per 100,000 population/alternative is ‘spearheading nutrition awareness programs.’

The world acknowledges that cancer has become a pandemic (AlBlooshi et al., 2016). Epidemiological data suggests a rising curve of cancer cases in UAE (UAE Vision 2021, 2016). As observed, WHO report indicates that 99 people die from cancer per 100,000 populations as at 2012. Of course, this is a worrying figure. The ministry of health thus seeks to reduce the death cases to 64.2 deaths per 100,000 populations. However, the ministry has not indicated how it is going to reduce those deaths. Indeed, it is good to have such a vision; however, more focus would be placed on how to reduce such deaths. The answer is nutrition awareness. Often, cancer is a lifestyle disease. Curbing smoking and obesity is one way of bringing up a healthy people. The key indicator, therefore, should focus on nutrition awareness programs, which if incorporated into the culture of UAE people would address cancer deaths, naturally. Training the people on health risks that heighten cancer can save many cancer deaths seen in the UAE population. The definitions should be improved by defining what cancer, causes is and how it affects people than dwelling on deaths. The ministry of health is not competent enough in giving correct figures of this pandemic. In 2021, results stated that there were 99 among 100000 people. This is not true, in fact, cancer cause over 1000 deaths among the said population and in some cases deaths are unreported. In its 2021 vision, the ministry targets to reduce the number of deaths to 64 per 100,000 population. Also, this is an over ambitious target which will never be achieved as it understates the correct figures of cancer deaths. About sponsorship, the ministry should target partners like the media, private investors to help sensitize in financial aid as well as educating people on the health risks caused by cancer.

Number of Deaths from Cardiovascular related ailments per 100,000 people.

In the recent past, the world has witnessed rising number of deaths from cardiovascular ailments. This has also been a major threat to the UAE population according to the World Health Organization reports. Therefore, the ministry of health should have not left this indicator out in its top five priority. The current situation needs the government to intervene by putting research into the causes and ways to avert this situation. It should also, invest in modern technology used in developed countries so that all patients with cardiovascular problems access decent treatment. The definition for this problem should be more accurate in state the number of deaths per 100,000 population. This can be better in putting the right measures to curb the situation. The world health organization is the source of this information. Since it deals with health issues throughout the globe, its statistics cannot be entirely dependent on in fighting this pandemic. The results of 2021 are not correct by stating that there was only 297 reported deaths from cardiovascular disease. The disease is among the major causes of deaths in the population. Therefore, this figure could have been correct if it incorporated independent reports from hospitals and other organizations. Why should the ministry target to reduce deaths to 158 among 100,000 people? Actually, in its 2021 targets, the ministry should strive to avert deaths from the ailment completely. And, this will be achieved if it called for the corporate world to give sponsorship as it is overwhelmed with a lot of responsibilities. The World Health Organization should be given the mandate to foresee this dream come true by 2021.

Conversely, along with education, infrastructure, sustainable environment, public safety, fair justice system, unity, and a competitive economy envisioned in Vision 2021, health services are considered a fundamental means for the realization of UAE’s national agenda. The provision of quality healthcare is viewed by the government of the UAE as serving a number of goals. It is an effective means of enhancing the welfare of UAE population. Better healthcare depends on quality education and training, which in turn improves the quality of the labor force, thereby increasing the indigenous supply of workers needed for the development process. As noted in the alternative section, a comprehensive and free health care for UAE citizens is a positive distributive measure through which the government can share its wealth to the people. Clearly, it should be a fundamental element of Vision 2021 if at all such a dream could be realized. Furthermore, the manner in which a government moves to distribute wealth and income can have serious side effects. Given the burst of hospital and health facility construction of recent years, it comes as no surprise that the lion’s share of the UAE budget is allocated to the ministry of health to drive the vision 2021 agenda. The vision can be attained by focusing on the right indicators.


AlBlooshi, A., Shaban, S., AlTunaiji, M., Fares, N., AlShehhi, L., AlMazrouei, A., & Souid, K. (2016). Increasing obesity rates in schoolchildren in United Arab Emirates. Obesity Science & Practice, 2(2), 196-202.

Bell, J. (2013). One child in three is overweight or obese, UAE study shows. TheNational. Retrieved from

Brown, B. (2016). Top 7 healthcare trends and challenges from our financial expert. Health Catalyst. Retrieved from

Browne, N. T., & Flanigan, L. M. (2013). Nursing care of the pediatric surgical patient. Burlington, MA: Jones & Barlett Publishers.

Cleland, E. (2013). Stub it out: Alarming smoking statistics emerge on UAE youths. The National. Retrieved from

International Diabetes Federation (2015). United Arab Emirates. International Diabetes Federation. Retrieved from

Kirstern, W., & Karch, R. C. (2012). Global perspectives in workplace health promotion. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Barlett Publishers.

Merlino, J. (2015). How to improve patient satisfaction scores by using data. Health Catalyst. Retrieved from

Qiao, Q. (2012). Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes. Helsinki: Bentham Science Publishers.

UAE Vision 2021 (2016). World-class healthcare. Vision 2021. Retrieved from

Sample Psychology Coursework Paper on Cognitive Development essay help writer: essay help writer

Cognitive Development

Part One

One aspect of Piaget’s developmental theory that I concur with is its portrayal of a qualitative process of children’s cognitive development with growing age. Piaget’s theory advanced the idea of stage-based development of human intelligence, dealing with the process in which human beings acquire, construct, and utilize knowledge in a gradual progression. Piaget recognized cognitive development as a sequence of progressive restructuring in mental processes owing to experiences of the environment and biological maturation. In this context, children construct and adopt an understanding of the surrounding world by adjusting to the experiences of discrepancies between personal knowledge and discoveries in the world, hence acquiring new knowledge. This concept in Piaget’s theory is suitable as a basis for the design of educational programs in terms of enforcing teaching and knowledge levels that match the level of children’s developmental preparedness.

One element of the theory that I disagree with is the idea that children have to take initiative on the environment to revise their thinking and knowledge. This notion represents a narrow approach towards understanding the process of learning because cognitive development involves extensive interactions between the environment and the individual, rather than being self-generating. Piaget’s notion portrays the environment as a passive factor in the child’s cognitive development, ignoring the active and practical role that the environment plays in shaping the child’s knowledge and new conceptualizations through experience. In effect, Piaget considers cognitive development as a self-generating and self-developing process, disregarding the environment as a vital influence. In practice, children are likely to fail to notice certain perspectives and elements in the environment, and hence miss the benefit and influence of these aspects in their cognitive development. Piaget’s idea would imply that the application of specific teaching strategies aimed at fostering optimum learning for children in education environments is useless, which is not true.

Part 2

Both Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories address the process of cognitive development among human beings. While Piaget considered children as active learners who develop and adopt knowledge from environments through accommodation and assimilation, Vygotsky identified formal and informal conversations with adults as a principal influence in children’s development. One limitation of Piaget’s theory concerns his ignorance of the influences of cultural-specific factors on the process of cognitive development. Piaget developed his theory based on observations of children in a specific cultural and social class in Switzerland, specifically his own children and those of well-educated professionals with high socioeconomic status. His use of such an unrepresentative sample in a specific social group with similar conditions and influences in life as the foundation of his theory makes its arguments and concepts difficult to generalize. Considering the differences in experiences and exposures that different societies and social groups and classes influence in children’s lives, Piaget’s theory is inadequate in capturing the potential influences of these differences in cognitive development.

To rectify this deficit in Piaget’s theory, I would conduct a study to observe differences in the cognitive development of children of a similar age in multiple social class, society, cultural, and education model environments. The purpose of such an experiment would be to establish whether differences in the exposures and experiences of different children in varying social class, society, cultural, and education contexts have significant effects on their processes of knowledge development. Such an experiment would address the problem of Piaget’s reliance on a small and unrepresentative sample of children to develop the theory.

Sample Geology Essay Paper on Natural Hazard Journal computer science essay help

Natural Hazard Journal

            A natural hazard involves a major undesirable event that emerges out of natural processes within the Earth. Some of the natural hazards that have claimed millions of people on Earth include earthquakes tsunami, floods, famine, and volcanoes. One of the natural hazards that has occurred recently is Super Typhoon Nepartak. The storm was experienced in southeastern China after hitting Taiwan. Both China and Taiwan had prepared for the disaster, but loss of property was inevitable in such situations. Wildfires in California are another form of natural disaster that was difficult to avoid. Displacements following hazards are often laden with complex and political impediments to solutions. Although natural hazards can hardly be prevented, adequate preparations can assist in mitigating their impacts.

Super Typhoon Nepartak

            The Western Pacific Ocean has always been a common ground for typhoon, and this year’s typhoon was predicted as early as in April. The storm became a reality on July 10, 2016 when Super Typhoon Nepartak hit Taiwan before proceeding to cause havoc in southeastern region of China. According to The Guardian, the tropical storm has claimed the lives of six people while approximately 2,000 homes have been destroyed (France-Presse n.p). In Taiwan, the storm forced more than 15,000 people to vacate their homes due to the strong winds that had never been experienced in the region. Figure 1 below depicts a satellite picture that was captured by NASA from space portraying how Typhoon Nepartak began as it proceeded towards Taiwan.

Figure 1: Origin of Typhoon Nepartak (Source: Daily Mail)

            A day before the typhoon, the government had managed to evacuate more than 200,000 residents while people from southeastern region of Fujian had to survive without power to avert more danger (France-Presse n.p). Flights were cancelled while ferries that operate in Fujian province and the surrounding islands stopped their operations as they heeded advice from the government. Fishermen were warned to remove their boats along the shores as activities on the shoreline were expected to stop. The government also warned of heavy rain that would be experienced in 14 provinces. The storm destroyed most of the crops in the southeastern region with an economic loss of approximately 900 million Yuan (Williams n.p). Public offices and schools had to be closed due to heavy rains, floods, and strong winds in the region. Figure 2 portrays how Typhoon Nepartak left a trail of wreckages, especially at the residential homes in Putian city.

Figure 2: The wreckage after super Typhoon Nepartak (Source: The Guardian)

            The Chinese government had already warned the residents concerning the impending storm and had managed to evacuate most of the residents to safer grounds. It is quite hard to experience super typhoon without social and economic loss, as people’s lives have to change as they adapt to new environments. Typhoons have killed thousands of people in China, but the Chinese government has enforced evacuation operations as it takes precautions in advance. With thousands of hectares being destroyed by the storm, the government had offer food to the victims of Typhoon Nepartak, in addition to assisting them settle back in their homes. People should be warned earlier if their regions are likely to be hit by the disasters while governments should always be ready with the right apparatus to assist in evacuation, as well as settlement. The most fundamental thing after a disaster is how to recover from the loss.

Wildfires in California

Wildfires have devastated several regions in California, as the state continues to experience a dry season. An explosive wildfire has caused the death of two people in California, as they strived to escape smoke coming from the forest in central California. The fire, nicknamed Erskine Fire, which began on June 24, 2016, destroyed more than 100 structures and compelled thousands of residents to leave their homes Carroll n.p). Prolonged years of drought, in addition to extreme heat and strong winds have been blamed for causing the destructive conditions. Figure 3 below illustrates areas that were affected by the wildfire. The fire has threatened to destroy crops, as well as critical infrastructure that include communication lines if rescue efforts were not effective. Another wildfire, dubbed Sherpa Fire, was witnessed near Goleta, as illustrated in Figure 4 below. The fire razed over 6,000 acres of vegetation, after gaining strength from the sundowner winds. Mandatory evacuations were ordered in various regions of Santa Barbara, as the state government engaged in saving lives and properties.

Figure 3: Areas that experienced excessive heat in Santa Barbara (Source: Los Angeles Times)

Figure 4: Sherpa Fire in California (Source: CNN)

The state government in California has announced a state of emergency as it embarked on rescue efforts. Meanwhile, residents have been warned of strong winds that are likely to add energy to the fire. The Sherpa Fire compelled the firefighter to close the 101 Freeway temporarily to facilitate emergence response (Ellis and Lucaciu n.p). Wildfires in California have already created an effect on tourism, as several beaches and campgrounds have been shut down to save lives. The fire also destroyed a water treatment plant located in El Capitan Canyon, causing a closure of public areas that depended on the facility (Fernandez, Serna, and Blume n.p). Residents were advised to comply with the mandatory evacuation orders to avoid fatalities. 

Most wildfires are manmade, but heat sources, such as lightning and scorching sun are capable of creating sparks that ignite wildfires. Although wildfires are destructive and injurious to humans, wildfires that start naturally contribute immensely in nature’s processes. Fire contributes in returning nutrients to the soil as it burns up the decaying matter. Wildfires also assist in disinfecting the environment by removing disease-laden plants from the ecosystem. Some seeds cannot germinate without exposure to high temperatures, hence, wildfires plays a role in their germination. California government can be lauded for funding the fire department adequately to cater for emergencies. Respective governments should always be ready for wildfires if their regions experience prolonged drought that causes vegetation to dry up. People who work in wild-land areas should consult the meteorologists, who possess wildfire risk forecasting tools, to enhance their safety.


            Natural hazards can hardly be prevented, but relevant authorities can devise ways of predicting them so that preparations can be made on how to mitigate them and minimize their impacts. Natural hazards such as floods, typhoons, and wildfires cause social and economic losses, which can affect people’s lives for a long period. In case of typhoons and storms, people should be aware of their surroundings to discern whether they are prone to such hazards. The government should keep on reminding residents through the media concerning the approaching disaster as early as possible. Wildfire incidences are hard to envisage, but prolonged drought, strong winds, and excessive heat can help to take precautions of fire. Having adequate funds for the fire department can assist in coping with fire disasters.

Works Cited

Carroll, Rory. “California wildfire: two die as hundreds ‘engaged in epic firefight’.” The Guardian, June 24, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016

Ellis, Ralph, and Loli Lucaciu. “Wildfire spreading fast near Santa Barbara.” CNN, June 17, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016

Fernandez, Alexia, Joseph Serna, and Howard Blume. “Sherpa fire in Santa Barbara County grows to nearly 6,000 acres as a hot, windy weekend looms” Los Angeles Times, June 17, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016

France-Presse, Agence. “Super typhoon Nepartak: six dead in China as tens of thousands flee storm.” The Guardian, July 11, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016

Williams, Sophie. “In the path of the super typhoon: Dramatic pictures show the devastating scenes after Nepartak battered China killing at least nine.” Daily Mail, July 11, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016

Sample Health Care Argumentative Essay Paper on The benefits of home birth versus hospital birth writing an essay help: writing an essay help

The benefits of home birth versus hospital birth


Did you know that giving birth is a natural event? In addition, did you know that before 1900 majority of US births took place at home? More importantly, did you know that before hospitals became part and parcel of human life women gave birth at home or at any other place that did not qualify to be termed as hospital? If you did not know this, then it is high time you realize that women started giving birth in hospitals in large numbers in 1900s. In addition, it is high time you realize that giving birth does not require a lot of science for it to take place because up to 90 percent women can give birth normally (MacDorman, Mathews, & Declercq, 2012). This means that majority of the women do not need assistance from medical practitioners for them to give birth as purported in hospital births. Given that the number of children that lost their lives before 1900 was very minimal then giving birth at home is as safe as giving birth at hospital.

This essay focuses its attention on the benefits of home birth over hospital birth. It argues that giving birth at home is as safe as doing it in hospital. The essay maintains that home births do not result to cesarean operations as majority of hospital births do.     


Before 1900, majority of the US women gave birth in other places other than in hospitals. Although this practice changed in 1900s, no research was conducted to demonstrate that giving birth in hospital would be far much safer than giving birth at home. In addition, no research was conducted to demonstrate that the practice would improve care as well as reduce infant mortality. According to Beech (2012), the practice became widespread after the Peel report was published in 1970. The report did not provide anything concrete about safety except expressing its opinion that it would be good for women to give birth in hospitals (Beech, 2012).

Following this report, the number of women that gave birth at home in USA fell to 1 percent from 44 percent between 1940 and 1970. To date, the percentage of women that give birth at home stagnates between 1 and 2 percent (MacDorman, Mathews, & Declercq, 2012).    

Throughout this essay, the term home birth refers to the exercise of giving birth at home with the assistance of experienced midwives. On the other hand, the term hospital birth refers to the exercise of giving birth in a hospital with assistance of qualified medical practitioners (Olsen, & Clausen, 2012). It would be worth noting that qualified medical practitioners are not involved in any way in home birth evaluated in the essay.    

Reason and evidence

Inasmuch as hospitals are presented as the safest places for giving births, studies have demonstrated that these places are full of unnecessarily interventions that are not present at home births. According to Olsen and Clausen (2012), planned home births can have less intervention. They can also have fewer complications and be as safe as hospital births. While some interventions that take place at hospitals are good and executed for the benefits of women, majority of the women especially the healthy ones can give birth normally. Consequently, most interventions that take place when women give birth in hospitals are uncalled for and unwarranted. Studies have demonstrated that women with normal deliveries that labor at home increase their chances of giving birth safely and in satisfying manner (Beech, 2012). On the contrary, such women that labor in hospitals are highly likely to be subjected to cesareans in case they show minor signs of complications. At times, they will be ill advised by medical practitioners to undergo cesareans even when they can give birth normally. Given that up to 90 percent of women can give birth normally without complications, then home births are safe (Olsen, & Clausen, 2012). In addition, they stop women from undergoing unnecessary cesarean operations practiced mostly in hospital births.    

It would be important to acknowledge the fact that the exercise of giving birth is a natural one. Consequently, even in the absence of the assistance of medical practitioners as it is the case in hospital births, women can give birth normally. Normal births are far much better than hospital births that in most cases result to unnecessary cesarean operations. Although cesareans do not usually result to major complications after women give birth, they are not as safe as normal births because they might expose women to infections as well as excessive bleeding (Olsen, & Clausen, 2012). On the contrary, normal delivery is unlikely to lead to infection and excessive bleeding because it is a natural exercise. Indeed, it is a safe exercise that does not subject women to unnecessary surgical operations.   

Likely objection

With regard to the reasons and evidences provided in support of home births, the proponents of hospital births are likely to raise the following objections. First, they are likely to claim that majority of interventions that take place at hospitals usually occur to help women to give birth safely. Consequently, they are called for and warranted. Second, they are likely to claim that home births are not as safe as hospital births because most of the midwives are untrained people.

With regard to the first objection, the proponents of hospital births ought to know that majority of for profit hospitals are after making profit even if in that process they offer quality services. Consequently, unethical medical practitioners working for these hospitals are highly likely to trick women into surgical operations so that their hospitals can make more money. Although it might be difficult to prove that majority of these hospitals tend to do this, it is evident that majority of cesarean operations are uncalled for given that up to 90 percent women can give birth normally (MacDorman, Mathews, & Declercq, 2012). Based on this understanding, most interventions conducted in hospitals during delivery are unnecessary. With regard to the second objection, the proponents of hospital births ought to know that the exercise of giving birth is a natural one. Consequently, even in the absence of trained medical practitioners majority of the women can give birth safely. Indeed, they were doing it before 1900 and no major incidences of infant mortality were reported back then.  


In contrast to hospital births, home births allow women to labor for quite some time before any major intervention can be executed. In addition, they are low-risk activities because the exercise of giving birth is a natural one. More importantly, majority of the women can give birth normally. Therefore, they do not require assistance from medical practitioners as it is done with hospital births. Based on these facts, home births are safe, natural and non-invasive. For these reasons, women should be allowed and encouraged to give birth at home. 


Beech, B. (2012). The benefits of home birth: evidence of safety, effectiveness and women’s experience. London: AIMS. 

MacDorman, M., Mathews, T., & Declercq, E. (2012). Home births in the United States, 1990-2009. CDC. U.S department of health and human services.

Olsen, O., & Clausen, J. (2012). Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth (review). The Cochrane library: John Wiley & sons limited.

Sample Business Studies Research Paper on History of business college essay help service

History of business

Top leadership responsibility

Ethical principles and responsibility is one of the top leadership requirements in large organizations that make it possible to balance profits and stakeholder’s concerns. It is asserted that it provides the foundation for work activities, business and organizations as it broadens the corporate priorities with the aim of generating more profits while enriching the stakeholders (Bhatia, 2008).  Business executives have opined that some of the ethical issues and principles are significant in influencing business organizations including those that have still maintained traditional priorities of delivering quality services (Bhatia, 2008). 

As a matter of fact, cost management accountants and general managers must increasingly take account of ethical considerations and to ascertain how they are likely to affect both business and corporate world. This important leadership responsibility will encompass other related issues and managers aiming to provide leadership must fully be aware and implement these related issues so that the business may prosper. Ethical professionals have asserted that these related issues comprise corporate social responsibility, ethical management and leadership, globalization sustainability, corporate governance, social enterprise, mutual relationships, cooperatives, employee ownership, micro-finance, and well-being at work and life balance (Ethics Resource Center, 2005). 

It has been established that top leadership managers should be aware that anything issue related to ethics will be important in balancing profits and the concerns of all stakeholders.  For instance, the business is obliged to take care of the environment in the process of making profits; the business may sponsor environment cleaning initiatives, sponsor local charities or support the less fortunate in the community (Ethics Resource Center, 2005). The business managers are also expected to implement sound ethical activities in the process of generating incomes; this may include avoiding mismanagement of funds. Due to the fact that businesses are becoming global in nature, many businesses may be affected by globalization and so requires top leadership of many organizations to address the negative effects of globalization. It is worth noting that managers must make good use of their conscience as there is no universally agreed rules to govern ethics and it is fascinating to pin point that ethics has become an important ingredient in business operations as an enterprise tries to balance between success and stakeholder’s welfare.

Present day businesses

Based on the arguments of Terris, business ethics since 1800s has been revolving around activities such as anti-competitive practices, businesses seeking unfair advantage through immoral arrangements with suppliers and public officials, failing to adhere to laws and regulations, and lack of transparency. Based on the assertions, today businesses are better placed due to strict observance of ethics in business practices. Business professionals have affirmed that the reasons for running businesses ethically have heavily been on maximizing profit while taking care of the concerns raised by all the stakeholders (Ethics Resource Center, 2005). In the light of this, running such businesses ethically is likely to become more complex in the future.

Most of what Terris discussed has been achieved with businesses aiming to protect their reputations and respective brands. This is achieved through improving on ethical practices of organizations, today businesses have taken upon themselves to protect their brand, establish strong customer trust while winning investor confidence. However, it has been established that globalization has brought challenges in leading business ethically; this is because it has brought stiff competitions in the industry that experts fear that it may lead to shadier business conduct now and in the future (Ethics Resource Center, 2005). This has impacted negatively on ethical practices and standards of business due to the increased pressure to meet unrealistic business objectives. Despite the challenges brought on board by globalization many people still expect businesses to behave ethically with the greater pressure witnessed. Currently, business have fully implemented corporate socially responsibility while making it a cornerstone of all business operations. Ethical researchers have asserted that it is clear that business specialists are expected to implement and anchor higher CSR standards in the year today and in the future (Ethics Resource Center, 2005). 

Today, studies have established that environmental issue concerns are becoming the second most important external driver of business practices as it ensures that concern of the community and surrounding are taken into account (Bhatia, 2008). In addition, it has been discovered that corporate cultures have also played a greater role in business today because it comes in to prevent unethical behaviors in organizations (Ethics Resource Center, 2005). This has been supported by leaders supporting myriad models of ethical behaviors in business organizations.  Currently, businesses are characterized by ethical leadership that revolves around keeping promises of all business undertakings, encouraging open communication, keeping employees informed and support employees who uphold ethical standards.

Welfare capitalism

Welfare professionals have opined that welfare capitalism is a combination of economic systems with welfares; it is aimed at providing welfare services to employees. It is asserted that through welfare capitalism business managers recognizes that providing workers with some minor benefits can forestall complaints about larger structural issues, such as unsafe conditions and long hours (Ethics Resource Center, 2005). Today, most organizations are offering new benefits for their employees through sponsoring sports teams, established social clubs, and provided educational and cultural activities for workers. To some extent some businesses are involved in even providing housing facilities and more generous retirement packages and health care for their employees. It is a forerunner in contemporary business ethics movement due to the motivation and encouragement that employees get from such gestures.

Social responsibility

Ideas of Howard Bowen have been discussed in regards to the evolution of SR of businesses, to a larger extent his predictions have been held as true since 1953. This is supported by the assertions of hearing a lot about corporate social responsibility these days that has its focus on how businesses can continue their pursuit of wealth creation in harmony with the environment and society. This notion can be traced back to 1930s when business executives provided measures on social performance of business with Howard Bowen being credited with coining corporate social responsibility indicating that it referred to the obligations of businessmen to pursue their policies ethically (Bhatia, 2008). 

The assertions provided by the author has been true since the idea of social responsibilities supposes that the corporation has not only economic and legal obligations but also certain responsibilities to society which extend beyond these obligations (Bhatia, 2008).   This is what has been considered as a greater achievement in contemporary businesses as it has brought on board obligations for good citizenship and improved environmental conservation and protection. Predictions have been proven today due to the emergence of issues such as voluntarism where businesses are voluntarily acknowledging and accepting that they have relationships of responsibility beyond the corporate fortress. In addition, contemporary corporate social responsibilities have brought up corporate caring, improved image and get rid of any evidence of unethical conduct.


Bhatia, S. K. (2008). Business ethics and global values for management courses. New Delhi:

            Deep & Deep Publications.

Ethics Resource Center (U.S.). (2005). National business ethics survey: How employees view

            ethics in their organizations, 1994-2005. Washington, DC: Ethics Resource Center.

Sample Astronomy Essay Paper on Star Formation essay help site:edu

Star Formation

When one looks at the sky, stars are the most identifiable astronomical objects in the galaxy. Many studies are carried out to find out about the formation, distribution, dynamics and composition of the stars (young). Stars have a propensity to exist in dusts that are spread all over most galaxies. Orion Nebula is one good example of such dust clouds. Within these dust clouds are strong turbulence that leads to formation of knots that are characterized with ample mass of dust and gas that would ultimately disintegrate due to its own force.

            In the process of their collapse, the materials at the centre would blaze. This material is known as the protostar and with time it would become a star (young). In the galaxy, stars appear either in multiples or in pairs, this is due to the breaking away of the collapsing dust and gas into three or two lobs.

The hot core around the collapsing cloud starts to gather dust and gas, and in the end it forms part of the star. The parts that would not form the star but develop into planets or asteroids, or would just remain dust. The formation starts when heavier parts of the dust cloud commence to cave in because of their own gravity or weight (young).

The cloud core generally has a solar accumulation of about 10000 in the outward appearance of dust and gas. The outer clouds are less dense as compared to the core; this explains why the core collapses first (young). The collapse of the core leads to the formation of small fragments called the clumps. The clumps are the ones that would turn to protostars in a progression that can last for around 10 million years.


The mass that has broken from the cloud core, with its own uniqueness and gravity is known as the protostar. As it forms, gas collects at its centre which produces kinetic energy. This force is in the form of heat making the stress and the hotness at the centre to rise to thousands of degrees (Schneider & Arny).

Image as portrayed in Schneider & Arny

During the initial stages, the clump responsive to radiation because it is transparent and the process are fairly quickly. The clump gradually becomes dense hence opaque and stops responding to radiation effects (Schneider & Arny). The escaping rays from the inside is trapped and the stress and hotness of the central region increases. The increase would continue and pressure inside would stop inflow or more loose gas into the protostar and it becomes stable.

T-Tauri Stars

After the protostar is stable, it becomes a hydrogen-burning star and forms a powerful airstream along its rotation axis. This explains why many stars in their early phases of development have the bipolar outpouring of gas.

Image as portrayed in Schneider & Arny

The collapse leads to massive, opaque disks around the star during this phase. The disks radiate energy from the infrared wavelengths and ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. On the exterior of the youthful stars are black spots which resemble spots of the sun but cover larger face of the young star. (Schneider & Arny) The T-Tauri phase is characterized by strong solar winds, spirited surface activities like eruptions and flares, and irregular and variable light curves.

From the fall down of the cloud to the adulthood of a star big as the sun could be as long as fifty million years. It could then remain in that state for about 10 billion years. Today, many studies are carried out to shed more light on the formation of the stars and more interesting breakthroughs have been made on this issue (Schneider & Arny). The evolution of stars is described by the position they take on a graph known as the Hertz Sprung-Russell, this is like the periodic table of various elements but instead of the elements, it has the star positions.

Deep in the core of the stars, helium is present and it results mainly from the nuclear synthesis of hydrogen. The energy that flows out from the central region of the star provides pressure that enables it to remain afloat and never to collapse because of its own weight and the same energy gives the start its shiny appearance. On the Hertz Sprung-Russell diagram, one would notice some stars that appear on the main sequence (NASA). These stars are characterized by a broad assortment of colors and luminosities and these are the same distinctiveness that can be used to classify them.

Red dwarfs are the tiniest stars are made of a mass that is 10% that of the sun. Their energy emission is also low at only 0.01% and could be seen glowing feebly with a temperature of 3000-4000k (NASA). These small stars however form the largest number of stars in the galaxy and their lifespan could span to more than ten billion years.

Hyper giants, on the other hand, are the enormous stars and are thought to be over a hundred times huge than the sun. The surface temperatures of these massive stars are 30000k and their energy emission is more than 1000 times that of the sun. Their lifespan is however fewer as weighed against other stars as it exists only for a few millions of years (NASA). These stars used to dominate the skies in the early universe but only handful of them exist in today’s Milky Way galaxy

From the above discussion, it is clear that larger stars have shorter lifespan. When all the hydrogen in the center of the star has been compounded, the nuclear responses stop. The reaction provides energy necessary for the existence of the stars and deprivation of this energy leads to collapse of the center which in turn becomes hotter (NASA). The available hydrogen in the external core of the stars ensures sustained fusion in the case around the core.

The hot inner core continues to get hotter and in the process push outer layers outside making the start to expand, cool and the change into a red giant. Sufficiently massive star would have their core become much hotter that they can even support nuclear reactions that uses helium while giving out various heavy elements including iron. Such responses however never last and are only for momentary reprieve. Eventually the nuclear fires inside the star becomes unsteady, burns furiously and even die down. The disparities of the heat would make the star pound and scatter its external covers. Whatever follows after this would depend on the size of the star’s core

Innovative scientists at the zooniverse have been able to discover some hidden phases that were in the past absent from the diagrams of star formation. The recent discovery showed that before stars to be emerge from their dusty forms, the first grow to form dense, cool gas before they form protostars which are ready to burn and heat up materials in their surrounding in the process. One of citizens was able to classify bubbles from the detailed image of a star at the gallery of the spitzer space telescope (“NASA”). He was not able to classify it and so he opted to post it on the zooniverse discussion forum

A professional astronomer tagged the image as yellow ball. It showed natural molecules and a warm radiant dust releasing green and red matter respectively. It is understood that these emissions formed what was earlier missing in the transition of stars from clumps of chilly gas and dirt to new stars.

One factor that points out to the importance of studying star formation is the invention of machines to help scientists during their studies (“Propulsion”). This method, generally identified as the machine learning helps in understanding detailed properties of the stars in the galaxy. The machines help much in sorting through the millions of stars that exist in the galaxy and in learning of their compositions, sizes and various traits. Machine learning is part of the ever-growing research in which large data sets from computers are used by the scientists to find patterns that would otherwise be overlooked or missed by human beings.

Before machine learning, scientists used detailed spectrum in which starlight is shifted into various wavelengths which was slower as compared to machine learning (“Propulsion”). The computer algorithms flip through the existing stacks of images very quickly and in the process identify different patterns that show the properties of stars.

Works Cited

NASA.” Stars” Internet Resource

Propulsion Laboratory. ”Machines teach Astronomers about stars” Astronomy. 13 Jan, 2015. <>. Internet Resource

Young, Monica. “Yellow balls: A New View of Star Formation” SkyandTelescope. 2 February, 2015. <>. Internet Resource

Sample Music Essay Paper on Paganini Etude essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers

Paganini Etude


There are different musical approaches in public and private venues. Live music plays a very significant role. It nurtures talents and develops its trade.  It is a vital component development in society. The recognition of cultural achievements and partaking in them offers a great avenue for building societal unity. It is crucial to establish goals towards opening   discussions on the merits of transforming from weak quantitative investment conceptions to more holistic pictures of how private and public spheres interrelate, and how values could be enhanced by the intersections.


Paganini Etude pieces of music qualify to be in the category of private venues. While he had enjoyed public love and fame, his name and worker, later on, became pronounced only on the mouths of the few restricted performers. The performers were majorly vocalists and instrumentalists. The performance of his team was received with lots of respect by the public. Their performances were restricted only to a largely middle-class audience. The performance of this team took Europe by surprise as the music had greater effect and sensation on the audiences.

Paganini had an excellent command of his violin, and he would play the soft, virtuosic and simple melody that influences even the imagination of the listener. Paganini concerts were celebrated for their expressiveness and effect on one’s emotion. The pieces of music played with the violin are capable of calling a lion out from its den. The humility with which this musical piece is played makes one cry for more of such concerts where they would listen to Paganini.

The pieces of music qualify to be in the private category because the concerts are held in the house of Paganini. The house is seriously jammed to the extent that some of his audiences struggle to have a look at his face. The amusement of many is not in the beauty of his music but on the great number of people who come to the concert. Some of the audience even felt ashamed for coming to such a venue for a concert.

Despite all these, no one can refute the great impact of the pieces of music on people. The reason why people would go as far jamming at the house of Paganini is that of their sweet and soothing effect on the senses of people. The manner in which the performances began was just majestic. Everyone in the venue was filled with admiration at the beauty of the symphony and fine touch of the instruments at beginning of the presentation. The melodies in this are just beautifully employed with a mixture of violin and piano.  The audiences for the presenters are a group of middle-class people whose want is a piece of music that would wash away their toils for self-actualization. They yearn for music that not only excites the auditory senses but also gives hope to them. This was a period of hard work due to the industrialization that was taking place in Europe, and thus music was also getting revolutionized.

Public instrumental pieces of music

The piece, song without words by Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) is an example of beautifully intricate public pieces of music woven together to have powerful effects on the listeners. He chooses to please the senses of his audience not with words that make sense to many but with music that please the feeling of the listeners. The pieces of music are so soft that one would even wish to have a touch of their feel.

His works are a narration of love tour. They present a romantic atmosphere as the piano, and other instrumentals are played. No one would agree on less that in deed there is love in the atmosphere. If one wanted background music for a romantic date for sure, this would be an appropriate recommendation. The pieces of music are enchanting and convincing. The instruments are played by an audience whose target audiences are anyone in their public concerts. The audience perceives an image of a well-organized musical performance that appeases not only their feeling but also their physical senses. The various melodies played in these pieces of music are so beautiful, and they are symbolism of how an ambiance of what love should be.


The nineteenth century marked the emergence of the middle class as the new set of a jury in the music industry. Though these people were at a point of trying to empower themselves economically, they did not undermine the powerful effect of music to their spirits. They believed a good piece of music would encourage the weary, weak and those giving up. Like any other people in a society entertainment through music were pivotal in their well-being thus they craved for beautiful pieces of music. These pieces of music were just what they needed for them to have complete lives. The harmony and tenderness in these pieces of music combined with skills attracted them to listen to them.

Sample English Essay Paper on Effects of the ‘Blackfish’ Documentary to the Seaworld, Workers and Animals college admission essay help

Effects of the ‘Blackfish’ Documentary to the Seaworld, Workers and Animals


The ‘Blackfish’ is a 2013 American documentary film directed by Gabriela Cowperthwaites about an orca called Tilikum involved in the death of three people and the distress of killer whales in captivity. The documentary centers on Tilikum, an orca who spent 30 years of intense internment after being taken from his home ocean off of the coast of the Pacific in 1983. The formation of the film was started after the death of Dawn Brancheau, who was Tilikum’s trainer. According to the documentary, Tilikum together with other whales were confined at the Seaworld where they would swim and perform tricks to amuse tourists. The documentary attributes Tilikum’s aggression to the fact that being in captivity might have hindered his creative and emotional stimulation, freedom and also due to harassment from the other captive whales. Tilikum is purported to have been found with bite marks which were as a result of harassment from the other whales. This and other factors contributed immensely to Tilikum’s aggressive behavior towards his trainer Dawn Brancheau and the deaths of the other two individuals.

Tilikum is said to have been captured from his mother at a mere two years of age and taken to Seaworld where he was aggressively attacked by other orca whales. According to the documentary, the captivity of these orcas from their home oceans/breeding places causes extreme stress to the orcas especially when they are separated from their mothers since this tends to break the otherwise important bonds between the orcas and their offspring. These broken bonds together with other factors such as confinement, forced tricks and deprivation of food as punishment as was the case with Tilikum are a violation of the animals’ rights as well as triggers of violence from the whales. The documentary further argues that in the wild, the orcas are able to swim freely and in large surface areas as opposed to Seaworld and other marine parks where the orcas can only swim in small circles to amuse tourists and live in small tanks that can be equated to the size of a human bath tub.

According to Gabriela Coperthwaite, such confinement makes it hard for us to realize the intelligence and abilities of these whales.  She also asserts that the life span of the orcas in confinement is much more reduced than their life spans out in the wild (Wobbler in the addendum). The documentary insinuates that Tilikum together with the two older orcas were held in a holding tank in the dark for hours; an act the documentary describes to be barbaric. Researchers responding to the documentary also argue that there is no known documentation of orcas having killed humans in the world but in marine parks, there are evidences of such death related reports. The filming of this documentary has had several effects on Seaworld, the trainers and animals in general in the following ways. (Palmer 2014)

Effects of the ‘Blackfish’ Documentary to Seaworld

The ‘Blackfish’ documentary is thought to have been quite damning to the Seaworld community as a whole. This is because it mostly portrayed the errors of the Seaworld staff and officials in the way it handled the captive whales. The documentary presented the whales in a sympathetic manner that made people question whether the Seaworld officials were treating the orcas in an acceptable manner or whether they were justified to have the orcas in the first place. This is especially true where the documentary shows the numerous efforts the whales put in place to guard the young ones from being captured and the heartbreaking scenes thereafter of a mother whale crying uncontrollably floating motionlessly on water after her young one has been captured and separated from her. This highly reprehensible act together with the gruesome circumstances the orcas were subjected to at Seaworld brought a backlash amongst viewers and a public uproar. The documentary led to an overall reduced attendance of people to Seaworld. This is because the orcas were purported to be mistreated hence violating their animal rights and this is thought to have dampened people’s interest in visiting Seaworld and other related parks (Dewell 2014). As a result, Seaworld decided to stop breeding the whales in captivity and they subsequently stopped using Tilikum as a sperm donor.

Seaworld has also suffered immeasurable financial losses since the debut of the documentary. This can be widely attributed to the reduced attendance of people and tourists in general. (Stossel 2015) Another contributing factor to these losses is the pulling out of partners from Seaworld. For instance, Southwest Airlines, a long term partner with Seaworld pulled out for fear of being perceived as supporters of animal cruelty by animal rights activist groups. In addition, several celebrities such as Willie Nelson, Heart, and Barenaked ladies to say the least boycotted their performance and concerts at Seaworld citing their decisions to have been prompted by the release of the documentary. Criticism from such high-profiled people proved to be a blow to Seaworld’s image. This is said to have been a disadvantage to Seaworld considering the money in tickets that would have otherwise been earned. Seaworld was also slapped with lawsuits by some of their investors due to reduced earning after the documentary was aired, others citing the fact that Seaworld was not fully truthful in their report of the conditions under which the whales were kept as their reasons for suing. (Pedicini 2014) The film also highlighted the fact that the trainers were improperly trained thus posing risks to their lives as they deal with the giant mammals. A matter which would put off prospective investors. This therefore tarnishes the name and image of Seaworld. (McCaffrey part 1). Aside from the backlash and public uproar towards Seaworld, the numerous lawsuits and huge financial losses proved to be quite a blow to the image of Seaworld in general (Pedicini )

Effects on the Animals

The biggest selling point of ‘Blackfish’ is that it created awareness about the suffering and repugnant circumstances that animals in captivity were subjected to in the name of entertainment. The airing of the documentary made it necessary for measures regarding the safety and ethical treatment of animals to be undertaken. (Mitra 2015) Such measures include the New York’s proposed legislation that bans keeping orcas in captivity and the amendment to the agriculture act that requires updating of Animal Welfare Act in relation to the captivity of whales. The documentary also prompted Seaworld to move the orcas from the small holding tanks to a considerably larger space for swimming. ‘The Blackfish’ documentary acted as a cautionary tale to Seaworld and other such like parks and to people that would want to startup such a business. Animal rights activist groups such as PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) were strengthened by the film and became even more vocal in their fight against the mistreatment of animals. (Villarreal 2014) Years on, the documentary is believed to have pushed Seaworld into making a major decision of stopping their breeding of orcas and training them for performances despite this having been quite a profitable business for them. This was as a result of immense pressure by activist groups such as Peta through their sustained activism through physical protests and online campaigns through their website This type of pressure also had a hand in Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey circus’ decision to move their elephants to a larger conservation area (The Black Fish effect 2014).

The documentary also portrayed the forced training of orcas to perform tricks for entertaining tourists and the public to be barbaric. An act which would deter such animal training in future. Bills that would prohibit the importation or exportation of whales for entertainment have been suggested. A move that many feel would also apply to wild animals in general when passed. In a personal interview with Wobbler which can be found in the addendum, the confinement of the orcas and several other wild animals’ stunts their growth thus there are suggestions that these brilliant animals ought to be allowed to live in their natural habitats (Wobbler, in the addendum). For instance, Tilikum’s health is deteriorating and he is said to be dying as a result of an infection of the lung and since he is often given antibiotics, his body has become immune. Generally, one of the motives behind ‘Blackfish’ is to dissuade people from the notion that imprisonment of animals in zoos and entertainment parks is acceptable. A motive that when embraced would allow animals to remain in the wild. In future, any park that harbors wild animals would be compelled to treat them with care to avoid the shame and negativity that ‘Blackfish’ brought to Seaworld.

Effects on the Trainers

To many, ‘Blackfish’ was an eye opener into the hazardous/risky working conditions the trainers were exposed to while tending to the killer whales. Attacks by the orcas to their trainers were termed as negligence on the trainers’ part but a closer look through the documentary showed that the attacks had little to do with the trainer’s expertise but rather depended on the orca’s distress due to being kept in captivity. In essence, the attacks were just a cry for help from the whales. Seaworld was also slapped with lawsuits for exposing the trainers to poor working conditions. (Pedicini 2014) The release of ‘Blackfish’ pushed for several precautionary measures to be put in place to ensure the safety of the trainers while dealing with the whales. For instance, the trainers were provided with horse pipes while massaging the whales as opposed to their initial hand massaging. Barriers that would keep the whale from the trainers were put in place to reduce injuries from whale related violence (Sherwood 52-58).

 At Seaworld, a floor that could lift a whale out in the event of a person falling in the water was fitted in the pool to farther ensure the safety of the trainers. The exposure of several documented injuries and even worse, deaths that were termed as negligence of the trainers by the employers in an effort to continue making money were later proven to be untrue thus forcing the employers to put the safety of the employees above their need for making money. However, despite the numerous advantages especially to the animals that come with the closure of Seaworld and other marine parks, it also comes with some negative effects. For instance, although the closing of such parks is seen as a humane gesture, it was not as helpful because it also means the end of working for the trainers as this would lead to joblessness amongst trainers who mostly had a passion of working with the orcas.

Consequences/Ramifications of the Problem

The problems arising from confining wild animals as in the case of the orcas are many and dangerous as portrayed from the interview which is in the addendum. Besides subjecting them to unfamiliar lonely territory, recent studies suggest that a good percentage of new infectious diseases originate from animals that belong in the wild for example the highly infectious monkeypox disease is said to have been brought about by a Gambian rat from Africa. The manner in which some of these animals are captured is heart wrenching, cruel and a gross violation of their rights. Some people would argue that their capture can be equated to human kidnapping as by portrayed by ‘Blackfish’ based on the reaction of the mothers as in the case of the orcas’ separation from their calves.

From my interview with Wobbler that is in the addendum, he argues that the stress of being separated from their pods or family-like structures causes emotional stress to the animals thus making them lash out in anger to their trainers during performances (Addendum). Sometimes these violence leads to deaths as was the case with the three individuals killed by Tilikum. The continued confinement of these animals puts them at a risk of extinction. This is true in the sense that their lifespan is reduced and they tend to die young in captivity. While in captivity, experts argue that their primal instincts are taken away and they are susceptible to diseases. The conditions under which the captured animals are kept in are nothing short of a human prison. They are at times kept in small enclosed areas surrounded by wire meshes and electric fences thus limiting their movements if any.

Solutions to these Problems

Tougher laws should be put in place to deter the importation, exportation and capture of animals for entertainment purposes, the same rules should be put in place to govern the handling and treatment of already captured animals in zoos since they can no longer be released in the wild again. Animal activist groups should be unanimous, vocal and unrelenting in the fight against confinement of wild animals and fair treatment of the animals already in captivity. Rescue missions should be purely and precisely for the purpose of conservation and for the educational aspect of it. For the already captured animals, seeing them without necessarily performing tricks and stances is satisfactory. The building materials should also be changed. For instance, Seaworld should avoid using cement for building the pools and tanks because the whales were affected. Tilikum has no teeth as a result of the cement (Palmer 29). Zoos and parks ought to come up with new natural inspiring encounters for the animals and the visitors. In the case of animals captured for rehabilitation, there should be a move to set aside bigger conservation areas to allow the free movement of the rehabilitated animals as was the case with Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey’s decision to move their circus to a 2000-acre conservation area. They should also research about which whales to place together. This is because these whales live in pods that they harmonize with and this is the reason why Tilikum was always bullied by the other orcas because they were from different pods (Villarreal par 3&4).


In conclusion, wild animals are definitely a thrill and such an allure, and they no doubt generate a lot of income to any government from the influx of both foreign and domestic tourism. Humans are generally known to explore bonds with wild animals. This has however proven to be a challenge in the sense that keeping these animals from their natural for the amusement of people goes hand in hand with the violation of their rights and such. This is true in the sense that their bonds are broken thus they should be left in their natural habitats where they are able to live their lives freely, mate freely and maintain their primal instincts.

Works Cited

‘Blackfish’ debate spurs legislation. (2014, Mar 23). La Prensa

Dewell, K. (2014, Apr 13). Opinion: Zoos problematic for captive animals, population viability – the collegian.

EDIT: The blackfish effect. (2014, Jan 14). University Wire

Mitra, M. N. (2015, winter). Animals are persons, too. Earth Island Journal, 29, 17-21,24-26.

Palmer, M. J. (2014, spring). International Marine Mammal Project: Keeping up the fight in Greece and Japan. Earth Island Journal, 29, 17.

Pedicini, S. (2014, Sep 29). Aquariums scale back amid battle over keeping whales in captivity. The Herald

Pedicini, S. (2014, Sep 11). Lawsuit claims SeaWorld misled stockholders. Orlando Sentinel 

Sherwood, B.(2016).“Strategic Map for Exploring the Ocean-World Enceladus”. ActaAstronautica 126: 52-58 Web

Stossel, J. (2015). Green tyranny. New York: CQ Roll Call.

Villarreal, M. (2014, Feb 05). ‘Blackfish’ inspires awareness of wild animals in captivity. University Wire

Wobbler, Samuel (2016, July 07). Effects of ‘blackfish’ documentary personal interview Par 2-3


Appendix: Interview Write-Up

As a prerequisite to writing this paper, I interviewed Mr. Samuel Wobbler who has been a marine biologist and cetacean expert for over two decades now. With a vast knowledge on the behavioral, cultural and emotional characteristics of these mammals and with such a long term experience, I had no doubt that Wobbler had an unquestionable understanding of this topic. Here is a write-up of the entire interview.

Me: What are the general behavioral and social adaptations of orcas?

Mr. Wobbler: Whales or orcas are born to live in family-like structures. They live in social units known as pods the most important being the mother-calf pod. The calves mostly live close to their mothers for a period of nine to twelve years which explains the strong bond between them. Whales are generally very social and are known to help an injured member of a pod. At times, they refuse to leave behind an injured or dying whale, a trait that hunters mostly exploit in order to catch them.

Me: In your understanding based on your research and studies, what is the average distance an orca can swim in a day and what is the proven lifespan of a whale in the wild? Would you say that there it is any different for whales in captivity?

Mr. Wobbler: Yes, there is a very huge difference to the effect that when out in the ocean, whales are known to travel up to 2000 kilometers and their overall lifespan is about 60-70 years for a male and 80-100 years for a female orca. In captivity however, the whales can only swim in a small area and their overall lifespan is greatly reduced. Orcas in captivity are usually characterized by a collapsed dorsal fin which in my opinion is as a result of limited swimming space; a trait quite uncommon amongst whales in the wild

Me: From a scientific point of view, is there any difference in growth in a whale kept in captivity compared to a whale out in the wild?

Mr. Wobbler: As a matter of fact, the difference is quite enormous. Generally, an average whale can grow to the size of a school bus but captivity stunts the growth of these cetaceans. This stunted growth can be attributed to several factors such as the limited space, a difference in diet and the overall emotional and physical stress these whales are subjected to.

Me: Whales are said to be generally quite friendly to humans. What do you make of such violence as was the case of Tilikum?

Mr. Wobbler: In fact, when in the wild, whales are one of the most gentle and friendly creatures to a point that there is only one documented incidence of orca to human violence. The chances of such violence from orcas to humans out in the wild are slimmer to none despite the fact that man and whales have shared the ocean for over a thousand years. However, this is sadly not the case when these orcas are kept in captivity as proven by the numerous injury reports emanating from violent’ orcas to their trainers and worse even death. Such violence from these otherwise friendly creatures is triggered by several factors. First while in captivity, the orcas are much more susceptible to anger and subsequent violence as a result of years of confinement and isolation under unfriendly conditions. The distress caused by being in these circumstances may force an orca to retaliate against his/her trainer.

Secondly, orcas in the wild are able to live in pods or family units for their life time which means living in harmony. In case of disagreements within a pod, an orca has ample space to flee. This is however very unlikely for orcas in captivity since they are forced to live with other orcas who are not compatible or might not be of the same pod. These leads to violence amongst themselves and since there is nowhere for a captive orca to flee, it leads to physical and emotional distress.

Me: There is a notion however that orcas are mostly brought for educational purposes, the fact that they perform tricks is their way of bonding with humans. What is your take?

Mr. Wobbler: Getting knowledge about these orcas is the best way of bonding with these animals without necessarily having them perform forced tricks failure to which they are punished. Orcas in captivity tend to mute their senses due to the monotony of being in the same place and doing the same thing over and over for years. Besides, there are numerous books and researches on the behavioral set up and adaptations of whales that make up for good reading materials without necessarily having to keep them captive.

Sample Management Case Study Paper on Strategic Marketing Plan essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Strategic Marketing Plan

Table of content:

 Title page1 Table of contents21Strategic Marketing PlanOrganization description32Task 1: Understand the principles of strategic marketing management    33Task 2: Understand the tools used to develop a strategic marketing strategy64Task 3: Be able to use strategic marketing techniques85Task 4: Be able to respond to changes in the marketing environment106    Bibliography12

Strategic Marketing Plan

Organization description

Lewis Leathers is a business company established in 1892, based in Britain and has been in the forefront in the manufacture of leather jackets and other assorted clothing. It has been established that the company supplied protective gear clothing to ancient aviators and motorists that could protect them against the harsh British climate. At the establishment of the company it was involved in production of gentlemen suits and raincoats, and the time that most people were involved in purchase of automobiles, the company came in to provide the motorists with the protective clothing they needed with the market target being motorists, motorcyclists and the general population. Products for the company include jackets, gloves, boots, badges, stickers and T-shirts.  

Task 1: Understand the principles of strategic marketing management

Using examples, discuss the role of strategic marketing in your organization

Strategic marketing plays a vital role in business entities and is fundamental in success by ensuring that market is reached and that the products meet their requirements (Hastings and Saperstein, 2007). As pointed out above, the company has its market revolve around aviation professionals, motorists, motorcycles as the company manufactures protective clothing for the target.

First, strategic marketing plays a role in streamlining the product development of the company at is aids in the creation of products and services that have high chances of generating more revenue. Historically, the company only provided protective clothing against the weather, however when the company discovered that most people were engaged in purchase of automobiles they strategically decided to develop clothing products for motorists.

Second, it plays a major role in determining the optimal prices for the company and their products and services by setting on the price supported by the market research. It is important to note that pricing may determine the success of a company and its products as it takes into account the pricing strategies of other organizations providing similar products. For example, their Plainsman jacket product goes for about £800 inclusive of VAT compared to other companies that charges more for a similar product.

Third, strategic marketing is vital in the establishment of an effective distribution channel for the products and services (Hastings and Saperstein, 2007). For example, marketers have opined that different customer segments are likely to be reached differently; young customers can be reached through the new online marketing and sell points while older customers are effectively reached through retail outlets. The company has been in the forefront in reaching all the companies through the online points and retail outlets based on the information from the marketing research. This in addition also helps the company in communicating its marketing initiatives and strategies through creation of brand and image that establishes and affirms a business in the industry.

Lastly, it plays a massive role in ascertaining the organizational impact through discovering whether the organizational departments are working as a unit. For example, in this company, the advertising unit works hand in hand with the product development team so as to send appropriate information to the customers. Similarly, the sales department also works hand in hand with the marketing and public relations department in managing the image of the organization determine if they can offer discounts, coupons without damaging your brand.

Explain the processes involved in strategic marketing

Marketing professionals have opined that strategic marketing is a planning process that aims to establish a clear direction and unified purpose for all marketing efforts and to determine where a lot effort should be injected. According to marketing specialists the process of strategic marketing starts with coining the reason why Lewis Leathers exist and how it can fulfill the needs of the customers both in the short and long term. In this case, the marketing team must come up with the mission statement that is intended to foresee the future and describe how the organizational products are likely to meet the short and long term goals of the target market.

Second process is the critical analysis of the situation to highlight on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, professionals have asserted that this helps marketing managers to understand the resources they can build on and the challenges they are likely to face in the future (Hastings and Saperstein, 2007). For instance, the marketing team at Lewis Leathers is able to realize through this process that a good image in the clothing press would be a key strength for the company, while a poor relationship with clothing retailers would be a weakness and that opportunities and threats may come from the external environment like economic growth and new tax regulations.

Objectives formulation forms the third activity of the process and help decision makers at Lewis Leathers to estimate and measure progress since the objectives are formulated in terms of revenues, profits and market share of the company. For example, the marketing object can be to aim for a ten percent increase in profits of Lewis Leather within a fiscal year.

Selecting the market, experts have asserted that those planning strategic marketing must choose tactics too implement and formulate effective ways to mix marketing tools of product, promotion, price and distribution to reach and influence prospective consumers of the protective clothing. It is also important to specify ways and means through which the formulated tactics and initiatives will be monitored and evaluated to assure the company managers that the organization is in the right track.

Evaluate the links between strategic marketing and corporate strategy

Marketing specialists have opined that strategic marketing and corporate strategy in most cases coincide or overlap due to the assertion that both are aimed at marketing the products of the organization towards the achievement of corporate long term goals. However, they differ on few elements with the corporate strategy having less to do with product and service development while concentrating on how to maximize the market to generate more profits for the organization.

As pointed out, corporate strategies in Lewis Leathers are more concerned with profitability in the short and long run. This is the reason why to effectively achieve profitability the organization is involved in creating an organizational structure, debt reduction initiatives that are aimed at improving the overall balance sheet performance of the organization. In addition, the corporate strategy of the company has ensured diversification of the protective clothing gear to increase the profits and reduce overdependence on few products and merging with or buying other businesses to create economies of scale.

Experts have supported the fact that to come up with strategic marketing initiatives then the created product must have unique selling proposition, the product must target a specific segment in the population. Moreover, the prices must be set in a way that is affordable and at the same time generate profits and the channels used for distribution must be effective so as to reach more customers. The link between the two exists through the close association and collaboration between executive managers and the marketing department to determine if any corporate strategies they wish to pursue align with the company’s marketing strategies. For instance, for Lewis Leathers Company a corporate cost-containment strategy that includes using cheaper materials to make clothing products might damage an upscale brand the business relies on to support pricing, distribution and brand strategies.

Task 2: Understand the tools used to develop a strategic marketing strategy

Assess the value of models used in strategic marketing planning

It has been discovered that strategic marketing planning models provide basis for strategies to be used in marketing and thus excellent strategies come of from the insight of applying the strategy tools and the discussions that happen within the management team and not as a direct result of using the planning model. The PEST analysis model for instance, provides a comprehensive environmental analysis and understanding of how such forces may change business operations of the company in the future. It has been established that the life cycle strategic marketing model will be in a position to show the general trends in the market and the product offered. This model focuses on product life cycle which goes through the introduction, growth, maturity and decline stages which can be useful for thinking about demand trends.

In addition, those models can also help in establishing the competitive advantage that makes Lewis Leathers organization to have an edge in the industry with generic strategies focus on lowest cost, differentiation and focus of the protective clothing offered by the company to its customers. Marketers have also found that models are of value in assessing strategic direction of marketing of the company with competitive advantage matrix making the company to create a strong and sustainable advantage over the others. They are also of value in helping the organization to assess its overall strategy in marketing with the space matrix model being a useful tool at the start of the strategy planning session and at the end to sense check the strategic marketing decisions by managers at Lewis Leather Company.

Discuss the links between strategic positioning and marketing tactics

Positioning will be able to define the product of the business according to the needs and preferences of the customers who wish to buy the product and also position the company to the market venue making it able to reach the target customers. In Lewis Leathers business organization, strategic positioning will help in establishing the result for strategic marketing. In addition, scholars have found out that strategic position may help a business to create a brand concept that marketing places in the minds of the target customer. The link between the two exists in the need for the company to accomplish its marketing plans and objectives using strategies based on a thorough understanding of the psychographics and demographics of the market segment identified as the target audience (Lambin, 2007). Strategic position initiates strategic marketing tactics that are used to promote a product; in this case the company promotes how it is safe to drive with protective clothing worn.  

Analyze the merits of relationship marketing in a given strategic marketing strategy

Relationship marketing is important in any strategic marketing strategy initiated by an organization as it ensures a consistent and healthy customer experience by aligning information sharing and team work in the process of meeting the customer needs. This would be in situations where a customer may be facing challenges with a particular protective clothing product of the business organization. Relationship marketing also aids in getting immediate customer feedback in terms of concerns, complaints and compliments that can be addressed quickly to promote the image of the organization.  

It has been asserted that relationship marketing is important in promoting profitability through relevant communications and offers that motivate consumers to use the full complement of product and service offerings. It is worth pointing out that customers can understand the reason why some incentives are offered and thus may make them be compliant with product offerings of the company. In addition, it is important in advocating for customers and thus makes them pleased and enjoys the product offerings and in the process makes them have a consistent and good customer experience. Lastly, it promotes innovation to help the company develop more customized products since they are invited to provide new ideas and kept abreast with new products. 

Task 3: Be able to use strategic marketing techniques

Use appropriate marketing techniques to ascertain growth opportunities in a market

In formulating a strategic marketing plan then there is need to ascertain where there is or there will be growth in terms of market expansion. In light of this, many marketers have engaged a myriad of techniques in ensuring that they ascertain the viability and growth opportunities in existing markets and comprise addition of new products or ingredients in the existing products as this will create opportunities for more sales and ultimately growth.

Second technique is making the marketing team a valuable resource to the customer through providing free information, making them access services faster and this may create an opportunity for a new market. There is also need for Lewis Leathers to separate itself from existing competition through provision of faster results, easier procedures, personal attention or a better guarantee to the customer to help expand the market. Third, marketing specialists have pronounced that the end result needs to be promoted especially due to the fact that customers are always in need of the benefit provided by the product (Lambin, 2007).

To ascertain growth opportunities in market Lewis Leathers should anticipate change that may create challenges to the business. Experts have assured that to effectively perform well then the marketing team needs to develop the habit of looking for early signs that something is changing and then confront it before the plan

How to use marketing strategy options in a market

In order to effectively plan to use marketing strategies in the market there is need to effectively define the marketing strategy to use in reaching the potential customers. Marketing experts have concurred that an effective marketing strategy will help the organization in defining the overall direction and goals for marketing plan (Lambin, 2007). The strategy should then articulate on how the organization is likely to deliver the products and services to the customers in a way that will satisfy their needs and preferences (Lambin, 2007). Planning should also entail on defining the target market and then develop tactics of reaching them for instance, using the marking mix tactics that will define the product, explain on the pricing of the product, position the product and organization in the market, promote the product and motivate the employees to achieve more.

Create appropriate strategic marketing objectives for a market

Research has discovered that marketing is vivacious for any enterprise that is in the process consciousness about its products (Lambin, 2007). “It is worth pointing out that one of the most important objectives of strategic marketing is to reach more customers and in the process increase sales” (Lambin, 2007). Appropriate strategic marketing objectives for Lewis Leathers and other business entities includes; improving product awareness in the market, to establish the organization in the market, to identify on how to manage brands and image of the organization (Lambin, 2007).

Task 4: Be able to respond to changes in the marketing environment

Report on the impact of changes in the external environment on a marketing strategy

It is a fact that before formulating marketing strategies a thorough analysis and examination of the internal and external environment should be conducted (Hastings and Saperstein, 2007). This will aid in understanding the opportunities and threats especially from the external environment and develop strategies of dealing with such. It has been discovered that the external environment is vital as it poses more challenges to the organization and comprise customers, suppliers, and shareholders, political, social, marketing and cultural environments.

It has been discovered that changes in the external environment may impact negatively or positively to an organization and its marketing strategy, the external environment may impact negatively when it poses as a threat to the operations and profit generation to the business organization. When the economic conditions changes in the external environment then the general health of people including that of employees is affected and this impact the business through reduced sales and loss of productivity in employees. Global issues also impact negatively in businesses and their marketing strategies through creation of barriers to trade thereby hurting the economies and reduce the chances of businesses to prosper (Hastings and Saperstein, 2007). Technological changes in the external environment may also hurt business operations by making existing products to be obsolete or promote products by creating alternatives. Changes in population and the associated characteristics may also present marketing managers with threats and opportunities to change established marketing strategies like new clothing designs for women.

Socially businesses are at threat with the new assertion of health consciousness in wearing of protective clothing, customers are requiring more advanced products that hurt manufacturing and operation costs. A change in political situation in countries also affects strategic marketing strategies for businesses and their managers (Hastings and Saperstein, 2007). In the process it also transforms the structure of the clothing industry, the stringent regulations passed by government may also affect the ability of customers to purchase products and reduce the ability of the organization to reach the clients. Businesses specifically Lewis Leathers may in return respond through myriad strategies like adjusting prices, differentiating products, creativity in distribution and strengthening stakeholder relationships.

Conduct an internal analysis to identify current strengths and weaknesses in a marketing strategy

In order for businesses to effectively perform internal analysis to identify current strengths and weakness then managers should understand the impacts of creativity, innovation and responsiveness to customers so as to create value products that may assist in maximizing profits. Specifically, Lewis Leathers may perform internal analysis through the available elements of SWOT; this effectively informs the marketing team to come up with strategies that may make the company to have competitive advantage over the others. Internal analysis that can help identify either strength or weaknesses and the tools include examining strategies, discovering distinctive competency and establishing competitive advantage (Hastings and Saperstein, 2007).

Propose strategic marketing responses to key emerging themes in a marketing strategy

Business and specifically Lewis Leathers may respond to emerging issues in marketing strategies through ensuring efficiency in production and product development by changing the inputs and finding ways through which the output can reach the prospective customers. Companies may also ensure that products are to the required qualities and reliability, in other words the protective clothing of the company should conclusively meet the needs of their customers. Experts have also established that creativity and innovation can help in responding to emerging issues in strategic marketing as it will create new products and invent new ways of reaching the potential customers. Excellent customer care and responding to queries and complaints is also another way of dealing with emerging issues and so the organization should reduce the time that a customer waits for a product to be delivered. Lastly, the organization should make the distribution chain more flexible and effective to ensure that customers receive the products at the rights time and place.


Hastings, H., and Saperstein J. (2007). Improve Your Marketing to Grow Your Business.

            Wharton School Publishing, ISBN 0132331594.

Lambin J. (2007). Market Driven Management: Strategic and Operational Marketing,

            2nd Edition. Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 1403998523.

Sample English Coursework Paper on Why Study History college essay help free: college essay help free

Why Study History

One of the main reasons why studying history is important is because it helps us understand the precepts and concepts of our society. The learning of societal background gives us a better understanding on the inception of certain cultures in the community. For example, one may try to understand why some countries are quite developed than others. A closer look at the historical migration patterns, it is evident that due colonization of the various countries America acquired natural resources and wealth from other nations to build its stable economy (Stearns, 1998). One of the reasons why the other countries like those in the African continent are still developing was because of the migration of the African populace into various parts of American and Europe where they served slaves. It is for example through the study of the slave trade that one can understand the existence of black Americans and the cultures which they uphold (Rodwell, 2013).

In the current context of Native Americans, the learning of history helps us understand our lives as well as others. The unending hatred between the white Americans for example and the black Americans can be traced back to the racism that occurred during the ancient times when the blacks were considered slaves. Africa at one point was considered the Dark Continent where nothing good could come. The inception and abolishment of the slaves in the American and European continent can help us understand why the western countries are quite stable economically while other nations like the African countries are not economically stable (Stearns, 1998). This notion is strengthened by the fact that history is at the center of every culture for it helps in pushing it from one generation to the next.

Another related reason why we study history is to understand the real person’s identity, their beliefs, and traditions. The understanding the history of the colonization, one can discern the motives behind the formulation of individual policies in various governments across the world (Toynbee, 2006). For example, one would question the reason why Cuba does not get involved in major trade deals with other countries. The colonization of Cuba by both Spain and America made this country realize that the primary motive of these countries was to rob them of their raw materials and use these to build their economies. On the account of gold, God, and glory, one can understand the fact that human beings are social beings who needs to be appreciated (Stearns, 1998). Additionally, the people would always submit to supreme beings and that they like being glorified through appreciation.  The current context of American political system is dictated by glory. To get the loyalty of the colonies, the British and American colonial masters first brought in the notion of religion since they understand that man has to submit to a God. This conception made the penetration quite easy making these colonialists take most of the resources to build their economies (Rodwell, 2013).

The major objective of gaining these economic resources and becoming wealthy was to obtain glory from other countries who would then become their slaves. It through history on the patterns of slavery and colonization, that one, is able to understand the advents of capitalism. The motivating factor for the capitalist countries is the glory. The colonialists, therefore, used the motivating factor God to the colonies to get to their resources. In this prospect, they hoodwinked them that their primary motive was God while in a real sense their main aim was Gold in the form of the resources that they would use to attain glory (Toynbee, 2006).


Rodwell, G. (2013). Whose history? Engaging history students through historical fiction (p. 280). University of Adelaide Press.

Stearns, P. (1998, January 1). Why study history? Retrieved from

Toynbee, A. J. (2006). Study of history. University of Adelaide Press

Sample Economics Coursework Paper on Merger Analysis: Stanley Black & Deck Company college application essay help online

Merger Analysis: Stanley Black & Deck Company

Stanley Black & Deck Company which was initially called Stanley Works is one of the leading manufacturers of various industrial tools used in the United States. Black and Decker Company was one of the major producers of the industrial tools that were used in the machines and handworks at homes as well. Stanley Works Company, on the other hand, was a major manufacturer of hand tools which indeed made it be on the competitive edge. The merger of the two companies in the year 2010 was a horizontal merger. The two companies shared the same market of manufacturing the industrial tools. It means that they had many related departments with similar ways of operational management. The merger is to beef up the market share and control of the same (Bies, 22). The Net worth of the company is also expected to increase since the assets are coming together as a formidable team. The various industry players have perceived the merger as a threat as it gives the newly formed company a greater competitive advantage hence a high bargaining power in the sales and distribution of its products.

With the merger, it is evident that there are many benefits that they are deemed to get. Firstly is the notion of expansion and control of their market stance. The fact that the headquarters is now situated in Connecticut makes it be centrally placed. The placement makes the distribution channels to be reachable. The fact that it is a horizontal merger assists the company to strengthen the notion of specialization of the products and departments. In this prospect, the firm has specialized into various departments to maximize its production. The company’s principal aim in the merger was to increase its productivity and end the market rivalry in this industry. It is important to note that these businesses were the major industry players.  Their merger would mean that the control of the market would be high and the level of competition would be reduced. Stanley Company, on one hand, had a successful marketing and distribution strategy. On the contrary, the Black and Deck was mainly good at the creation of a high level of management efficiency (Jarrell, 22). The composition of these two companies has recently made the newly formed company to grow exponentially. The growth is attributed to the high level of specialization and the combined effort between the qualified employees from the different divide. As we speak, the company currently has a wide range of department as a result of the merger which is good management. In managerial economics, a merger brings the bright minds together and makes a company be on a high competitive edge. The control of the market indicators is imperative in ensuring that these companies rip the best out of their capital investment.

As the merger took place, the business probable business model that was formed was the monopoly. The two companies were the key industry players in the market of making industrial tools. In a monopolistic market, the industry players dictate the prices. Their monopoly power makes them reduce the advent of competition. The control of the market is very detrimental to the ordinary consumer since the decision on what to sell and who to sell to is solely depended on the merged company.  The less level of competition connotes a reduction in the quality of the company products. Currently the company has divested into various department which has helped it to differentiate its products. One of the agencies business segment brands which is differentiated into industrial tools production, the security tools, the divested businesses and the construction and do-it-yourself. This kind of framework is only possible with high capital and proficient human resource (Rhoades, 33). The merger has made it possible for the professional experts from the two divides to come together and form a formidable company that does not only be on the competitive edge but also attains a high level of market share.

In the recent past, the company had to deal with the antitrust bodies that were on the opposing end of the merger. Even as the alliance came into play, it is the expectation of these agencies that it will not only bring the level of competition to go down but it will also provide grounds for manufacture of low quality goods. The possible merger would bring on board the advent of price fixing. Here the newly formed company would collude with other industry players to fix price at certain levels which would eventually bring the notion of economic burden to the final consumers of these goods. Additionally this body saw a possible discrimination of the rights where some parts of the country would have more of these goods while other won’t have (Brown and Eric, 12).

With the control of all the distribution channels, Stanley Black and Decker Company have the control of supply of various parts of the country. This power is also tied to the fact that their manufacturing stance in now unified and therefore they can monitor the amount of stock in the market.  The playing with the demand and supply of goods and services in the market, poses a threat of diminishing economy. The antitrust body allowed the merger on the account that they would not enter into a possible control of the forces of demand and supplies. Instead the company would ensure that it protects the consumers from unscrupulous retailers who want to hike prices of these commodities. Additionally, the merger would not affect the market share of other industry players since the government as the regulator has placed measures that dies not only protect the consumer but also gives the young upcoming firms a competitive advantage over the bigger companies. The market entry for example is quite easy as the regulations have been made less tight by the antitrust laws.  Additionally, the more prominent companies are charged with the mandate of growing the smaller firms.  With this arrangement in place, the harmful effects of monopoly caused by the merger will not be felt. 

In a nutshell, the merger between the two formidable companies brings on board the advent of monopolistic market.  They are the major players in this industry and this would mean that they can control the forces of demand and supply and therefore the notion of prices.  The breach of the antitrust laws on price fixation was a probable occurrence for this newly formed company (Heinicke, 223). It would therefore lead the imposition of economic burden to the final consumers as depicted by the dad weight loss in the monopoly curve. The merger has brought growth in terms of profits to the company. Additionally, there is high operational efficiency due to highly professional human resource. The regulations put by the antitrust laws has made the company to operate efficiently without killing others firms or creating a burden to the consumers.  

Works cited

Bies, Sylvester W. “Retractable blade knife.” U.S. Patent No. 4,233,734. 18 Nov. 2010.

Browne, Lynn E., and Eric S. Rosengren. “The merger boom: an overview.” Conference Series;[Proceedings]. Vol. 31. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 2014.

Caves, Richard E. “Effects of mergers and acquisitions on the economy: an industrial organization perspective.” The Merger Boom, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Boston, MA (2007): 149-168.

Heinick, Rick. “Overcoming Merger Risks.” Retrieved October 4 (2010): 2011.

Jarrell, Gregg A. “Financial innovation and corporate mergers.” Conference Series;[Proceedings]. Vol. 31. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 2014.

Moerland, Pieter W. “Efficacy and freedom of mergers and acquisitions.” Competition in Europe. Springer Netherlands, 2011. 115-133.

Rhoades, Stephen. “The Effect of Diversification on Industry Profitability in 241 Manufacturing Industries.” Review of Economics and Statistics 55 (2014): 146-55.

 Smith, Preston G., and Donald G. Reinertsen. Developing products in half the time: new rules, new tools. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1998.

Sample International Relation Essay Paper on International Monetary Fund and World Bank buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

International Monetary Fund and World Bank

Response to Logan

Logan, I love the fact that you clearly differentiated the missions and functions of the IMF and the World Bank by discussing them separately making it easy to point them out. In regards to the contribution that these two institutions have towards the international economic arena, I agree with you that the IMF offers loans to various nations for them to meet their international obligations. IMF is playing its role in the economic arena by being a credit union enabling its members to have access to different resources (Masters 1). This is the best way in which they show their financial commitment to the world. On the other hand, I agree with you regarding the role of World Bank which is supporting nations to reform their inefficient economic sectors. The main aim of World Bank is to ensure that the world is free from poverty a mission which is possible to achieve through greater equity that is pushing for currently to solve the conflict in the international economic arena (The World Bank 1). However, Logan, based on your statement that IMF results in the nations repaying the loans they obtain with hefty interest rates, does it mean IMF is bringing more harm than good in the international economic arena? Can IMF be regarded as efficiently useful in resolving world economic problems?

Response to Matt

Matt, I love the fact that you started your essay by enlightening the readers about IMF and World Bank in your introduction. I also noted that you managed to identify the similarity between these two major institutions in the world. I agree that the goal of World Bank is to eradicate poverty and ensure that less people are living below the dollar a mission which is possible to achieve (The World Bank). This is a long-term purpose just like you have indicated in your post because eradicating poverty in the world will take some time and requires good strategies. You have also mentioned that IMF has been conceived as an institution that deals with immediate and acute economic instability which can result in international economic and political conflict. This is true because of the high interest rates that it charges for the loans that it gives the nations to solve their monetary problems. How best can these two institutions especially IMF contribute efficiently without bringing more problems to the economic arena?

Works Cited

Masters, Jonathan. “The international monetary fund.” Web. 9 Oct. 2013.

The World Bank. “Ending Extreme Poverty and Promoting Shared Prosperity.” Web 19 April 2013.

Sample Nursing Article Review Paper on Depression essay help free


Almost everyone on earth has, in one way or another, been affected by depression. Depression does not have the limit to age and affects even the toddlers. In lay man’s term, depression is described as not being in the mood. Depression always has quite some warning signs. It is usually described as feeling blue, and it presents itself in forms such as low appetite, heavy eating, sleeping too much and many other extreme behaviors. The worst mistake is to get stuck in seclusion when someone is depressed. This essay is a summary of the brochure on depression.

Summary of the brochure

Being depressed presents itself in so many abnormal ways. For sexual partners, one would be seen to complain about not being in the mood for sex. In other instances, someone loses the urge to enjoy their meals or if they eat they tend to eat so much food without paying any attention to its deliciousness. Depressed individuals also seem to have low energy and they cannot think straight in most instances. The worst feelings are the sense of worthlessness and agitation which results in withdrawal from the public.

For anyone who is depressed, there is always an option of considering treatment. Treatment involves a package of counseling, medicines, and coming together to support groups. It must be noted that failure to treat depression would be catastrophic to someone’s health. Abusing drugs have accelerated depression in most individual affected even though it has always been considered a quick remedy.

Everyone affected or not should always get to understand the significance of therapy in depression cases. One should get to know that the best way out of depression the problem is to talk about it. It is very important for an individual to understand the best therapy that would work for them. Central to this, however, is letting out one’s feeling and thoughts by sharing with the most trusted persons. It is also prudent to understand the treatment that best works in a given case.

Achievement of the brochure

The brochure has clearly depicted the various signs and symptoms of depressed persons. It easy, after reading the brochure to identify any case of depression in the patient or on self. The brochure has also clearly depicted the various therapy methods available and proposed the use of all treatment methods for effective results. The brochure also focuses on the contribution of friends and relatives in seeking the cure for depression. It is, therefore, wise to conclude that it gives depression a wholesome view. On the contrary, it does not discuss the medications available but only mentions that medication is important. Moreover, the brochure presents the information in brief form which may make it hard for someone to understand some of the points put across.

Evaluation of the brochure

Reasons why the topic is of interest

The topic of downheartedness is of great interest because depression has been one of the leading causes of deaths and low morale in life in today’s world. Moreover, melancholy has no respect to age and can affect even the just born babies. This makes it necessary to study and understand depression for better management so as to reduce its negative impacts.

Significance of the information in the brochure

The material provided in the brochure is as beneficial as it provides a blueprint of what depression is and how to come out of a depressive problem. The key to overcoming depression is in understanding depression, and that is what this article provides.

The information presented in the brochure is short and concise. That makes it easy to read and understand by everyone. The most important thing is that it is provided in point form and with leading questions. The leading questions make it easy to internalize the message present. The current healthcare openly supports the information presented in the brochure. Healthcare researchers agree to this article that depression cases have increased greatly. The researchers also share the view that melancholy knows no age and affects anyone.

The information presented in the brochure is most useful to parents and the youths. This is because the parents are more often left in a hopeless situation especially while struggling to fetch for their children. The information would also make them proactive in an identification of any change of behavior in their children and return take necessary steps to help the young ones. The information would also be useful to the health care providers in any health center.

The information in the brochure would help increase the safety of the patients. The patients with this information would be quick to understand that they are under stressful situations and then look for the necessary cure. Moreover, they get to understand that solitude and abusive drugs do not offer relief but instead increases the dangerous effects of melancholy.


It is important to understand depression. It presents itself in different extreme cases. Therefore, an understanding of depression helps one to notice quickly when they are stressed thus seek medication. The treatments taken should focus on the wholesome well-being of an individual and not an elimination of the melancholic situation. The health care also must have the deepest understanding of depression since a majority of cases in hospitals nowadays are due to the stressful situation.

References 7, 2016. August 7, 2016.

Sample Marketing Business Plan Paper on Molly Moon Marketing Plan summary and response essay help

Molly Moon Marketing Plan

1.0 Executive Summary

            Molly Moon is a small-sized enterprise that specializes in producing home-made ice-cream. The firm’s mission is to create happiness to its target customers through provision of high quality home-made ice-cream. The firm is focused on achieving sustainability by focusing on the   social, financial and environmental dimensions of sustainability. Nevertheless, the firm faces a challenge from the high industry concentration in Seattle (Molly Moon Ice Cream, 2016). This marketing plan presents a strategic analysis of Molly Moon with reference to the internal and external environment.  The PESTLE and SWOT model is employed in the strategic analysis. The plan further proposes the strategic approaches that the firm should consider in order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.   

2.0 Environmental analysis

Competitive force; the firm faces intense competition from different fast food companies in the US such as Starbucks and McDonalds.

The firm is also influenced by diverse political, economic, social, technological, and legal forces as examined herein. 

Political forces; the firm’s operations are enhanced by the prevailing political stability in the US.Legal force; the firm’s operations are subject to extensive safety regulation by food law in the US (NDSU, 2016).Economic forces; the firm’s profitability is influenced by the prevailing economic cycles such as economic boom and recession.Technological force; Molly Moon faces intense competition from adoption of online shopping by competitors.Social force; the firm’s profitability might be affected by change in consumer behavior arising from growing health consciousness amongst consumers.    

3.0 Target market

To maximize sales revenue and profitability, the firm has targeted the mass market in Seattle (Molly Moon’s Homemade Ice Cream, n.d). The firm’s target market is comprised of consumers from different demographic characteristics. This has arisen from recognition of the growing behavior towards consumption of convenient products.

4.0 Current marketing objectives and performance

To develop outstanding and delicious ice-cream by partnering with farmers and raw material producers. The firm sources 90% of its ingredients directly from farmers.To increase sales revenue by growing the firm’s market reach.To ensure that the marketing activities are sustainable. The products are packed in 100% compostable packages.

5.0 SWOT Analysis

a. Strengths:

Conveniently located retail shops hence increasing customers’ ease of accessThe firm’s use of organic ingredients in producing ice cream appeals customers’ health consciousness.The extensive product portfolio increases the firm’s customer base. Good reputation; the firm has invested in corporate social responsibility hence improving its corporate reputation.

b. Weaknesses

The firm has largely concentrated its operation in Seattle hence limiting its market presence.   Limited application of online marketing.

c. Opportunities:

High potential for growth by diversifying its product portfolio.  The firm should seek market growth by employing growth strategies such as franchising. 

d. Threats:

Intense competition from new firms entering the homemade ice cream market in Seattle. Change in consumer perception towards fast food products might affect the firm’s revenue generation capacity.Economic changes might affect the consumer’s disposable income and hence the consumption of fast food products.

6.0 Matching strengths to opportunities/ converting weaknesses and threats

The firm should employ effective online marketing technologies to improve its market presence.The firm should entrench continuous improvement in its product development to ensure that its products are aligned with the customers’ consumption behavior. Continuous product improvement should be based on findings of a market research.The firm should consider increasing its retail stores in order to cope with intense competition.

7.0 Marketing objectives

The firm intends to improve its market domination by ensuring that its brand is effectively developed and memorable amongst target customers.The firm intends to grow its profit by 50% over the next 5 years. The firm further projects to grow its market share by 25% over the next 2 years.To reduce the marketing cost by 15% within 1 year.

8.0 Marketing strategies

Target market; the firm has targeted the mass market, which is comprised of children, teenagers, and the youth. The rationale of targeting this market arises from large size of the market and hence the probability of maximizing sales revenue and profit.   

9.0 Marketing mix

The firm will employ the 4p marketing mix strategies in its marketing process.

Product strategy; the firm is committed at improving its product portfolio by developing new organic convenient products.Price strategy; the firm will integrate premium pricing strategy. This strategy will not only be used as a way of maximizing profit but also to communicate the value of its products.  Promotion; Molly Moon will employ integrated marketing communication approaches in creating market awareness of its products.Place; the firm intends to reach the target customer groups by improving its distribution network (Wu, n.d).

Marketing organization

            The firm will establish franchise outlets in different parts of the US.  This will ensure that the franchise outlets succeed in maintaining the quality of the firm’s products and services (Sawyer, 2011). The firm will continuously monitor the operations of the franchise outlets.

Activities, responsibility and timetable for completion

The marketing plan is expected to be rolled out within the next 1 month and take 6 months to fully implement as illustrated by the time table below.

ActivityDurationResponsibilityConsumer and competitor market researchSeptember 1st to 30th  Marketing departmentNew and continuous product developmentOctober 1st to 28th  Marketing and research and development departmentsMarketing communicationSeptember 1st to December 1stMarketing departmentEstablishment of franchise outletsOctober 3rd to December 30thOrganization’s top management in collaboration with other departments Introduction of new products January 2017Marketing department

Evaluation and control

The firm will continuously monitor its performance with reference to customer base, amount of revenue and profit generated. These performance standards will be assessed after every 3 months. Marketing resources will be optimally allocated through a comprehensive budgeting process.


Molly Moon’s Homemade Ice Cream: Wallingford, Seattle Eater.(n.d). Retrieved from <>

Molly Moon Ice Cream: Molly Moon’s Homemade Ice Cream. (2016). Retrieved from <>

NDSU: Food law; regulation of the US food processing sector. (2016). Retrieved from <>

Sawyer, C. (2011). How to Franchise Your Business: The Plain Speaking Guide for

            Business Owners, First edition.  London: Live It Publishing.

Wu, Y. (n.d.). Distribution: Molly Moon. Foster School of Business, University of Washington. Retrieved 24 June 2016 from <>

Sample Marketing Business Plan Paper on Molly Moon Marketing Plan

Molly Moon Marketing Plan

1.0 Executive Summary

            Molly Moon is a small-sized enterprise that specializes in producing home-made ice-cream. The firm’s mission is to create happiness to its target customers through provision of high quality home-made ice-cream. The firm is focused on achieving sustainability by focusing on the   social, financial and environmental dimensions of sustainability. Nevertheless, the firm faces a challenge from the high industry concentration in Seattle (Molly Moon Ice Cream, 2016). This marketing plan presents a strategic analysis of Molly Moon with reference to the internal and external environment.  The PESTLE and SWOT model is employed in the strategic analysis. The plan further proposes the strategic approaches that the firm should consider in order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.   

2.0 Environmental analysis

Competitive force; the firm faces intense competition from different fast food companies in the US such as Starbucks and McDonalds.

The firm is also influenced by diverse political, economic, social, technological, and legal forces as examined herein. 

Political forces; the firm’s operations are enhanced by the prevailing political stability in the US.Legal force; the firm’s operations are subject to extensive safety regulation by food law in the US (NDSU, 2016).Economic forces; the firm’s profitability is influenced by the prevailing economic cycles such as economic boom and recession.Technological force; Molly Moon faces intense competition from adoption of online shopping by competitors.Social force; the firm’s profitability might be affected by change in consumer behavior arising from growing health consciousness amongst consumers.    

3.0 Target market

To maximize sales revenue and profitability, the firm has targeted the mass market in Seattle (Molly Moon’s Homemade Ice Cream, n.d). The firm’s target market is comprised of consumers from different demographic characteristics. This has arisen from recognition of the growing behavior towards consumption of convenient products.

4.0 Current marketing objectives and performance

To develop outstanding and delicious ice-cream by partnering with farmers and raw material producers. The firm sources 90% of its ingredients directly from farmers.To increase sales revenue by growing the firm’s market reach.To ensure that the marketing activities are sustainable. The products are packed in 100% compostable packages.

5.0 SWOT Analysis

a. Strengths:

Conveniently located retail shops hence increasing customers’ ease of accessThe firm’s use of organic ingredients in producing ice cream appeals customers’ health consciousness.The extensive product portfolio increases the firm’s customer base. Good reputation; the firm has invested in corporate social responsibility hence improving its corporate reputation.

b. Weaknesses

The firm has largely concentrated its operation in Seattle hence limiting its market presence.   Limited application of online marketing.

c. Opportunities:

High potential for growth by diversifying its product portfolio.  The firm should seek market growth by employing growth strategies such as franchising. 

d. Threats:

Intense competition from new firms entering the homemade ice cream market in Seattle. Change in consumer perception towards fast food products might affect the firm’s revenue generation capacity.Economic changes might affect the consumer’s disposable income and hence the consumption of fast food products.

6.0 Matching strengths to opportunities/ converting weaknesses and threats

The firm should employ effective online marketing technologies to improve its market presence.The firm should entrench continuous improvement in its product development to ensure that its products are aligned with the customers’ consumption behavior. Continuous product improvement should be based on findings of a market research.The firm should consider increasing its retail stores in order to cope with intense competition.

7.0 Marketing objectives

The firm intends to improve its market domination by ensuring that its brand is effectively developed and memorable amongst target customers.The firm intends to grow its profit by 50% over the next 5 years. The firm further projects to grow its market share by 25% over the next 2 years.To reduce the marketing cost by 15% within 1 year.

8.0 Marketing strategies

Target market; the firm has targeted the mass market, which is comprised of children, teenagers, and the youth. The rationale of targeting this market arises from large size of the market and hence the probability of maximizing sales revenue and profit.   

9.0 Marketing mix

The firm will employ the 4p marketing mix strategies in its marketing process.

Product strategy; the firm is committed at improving its product portfolio by developing new organic convenient products.Price strategy; the firm will integrate premium pricing strategy. This strategy will not only be used as a way of maximizing profit but also to communicate the value of its products.  Promotion; Molly Moon will employ integrated marketing communication approaches in creating market awareness of its products.Place; the firm intends to reach the target customer groups by improving its distribution network (Wu, n.d).

Marketing organization

            The firm will establish franchise outlets in different parts of the US.  This will ensure that the franchise outlets succeed in maintaining the quality of the firm’s products and services (Sawyer, 2011). The firm will continuously monitor the operations of the franchise outlets.

Activities, responsibility and timetable for completion

The marketing plan is expected to be rolled out within the next 1 month and take 6 months to fully implement as illustrated by the time table below.

ActivityDurationResponsibilityConsumer and competitor market researchSeptember 1st to 30th  Marketing departmentNew and continuous product developmentOctober 1st to 28th  Marketing and research and development departmentsMarketing communicationSeptember 1st to December 1stMarketing departmentEstablishment of franchise outletsOctober 3rd to December 30thOrganization’s top management in collaboration with other departments Introduction of new products January 2017Marketing department

Evaluation and control

The firm will continuously monitor its performance with reference to customer base, amount of revenue and profit generated. These performance standards will be assessed after every 3 months. Marketing resources will be optimally allocated through a comprehensive budgeting process.


Molly Moon’s Homemade Ice Cream: Wallingford, Seattle Eater.(n.d). Retrieved from <>

Molly Moon Ice Cream: Molly Moon’s Homemade Ice Cream. (2016). Retrieved from <>

NDSU: Food law; regulation of the US food processing sector. (2016). Retrieved from <>

Sawyer, C. (2011). How to Franchise Your Business: The Plain Speaking Guide for

            Business Owners, First edition.  London: Live It Publishing.

Wu, Y. (n.d.). Distribution: Molly Moon. Foster School of Business, University of Washington. Retrieved 24 June 2016 from <>

Sample Music Essay Paper on La Boheme, Puccini, La Scala, 1979 law essay help: law essay help

La Boheme, Puccini, La Scala, 1979


Music was one of the most beautiful art forms. It was used to elicit and share emotion from the listeners. It was composed to make people feel important and alive. It also gave life a great sense of worth since it allowed people to access inner human mind workings and intellect. La Boheme opera pieces offered a performing and learning role within most musical, psychological and physical challenges. Puccini’s opera, La Boheme, was the story of friends making efforts and struggling to find their position in the world and then developing relationships with one another. The opera is in four acts by Italian composer Giacomo Puccini, which premiered on February 1, 1896, at the Teatro Regio in Turin, Italy. The piece, a romance that was sweetly tragic, was based on the episodic novel Scènes de la vie de bohème (1847–1849; “Scenes of Bohemian Life”) by French author  Henri Murger(Basilici 4-10).The piece was greatly successful from the beginning, and was  one of the most often performed of all operas. My expectation before attending the performance was high based on my key interest and anxiety to see the liveliness and the captivating pieces. I got a positive impression of the piece and its artistic creativity.

   La bohème ‘s  world premiere performance took place in Turin on 1 February 1896 at the Teatro Regio. It was conducted by Arturo Toscanini. Its Unite States’ premiere took place the following year, 1897, in Los Angeles. Since then, it became part of the standard Italian opera. Its historical period was the ROMANTIC period. A general overview of the styles and time periods featured on the concert (Basilici 3-6).

The piece portrayed various musical concepts. It portrayed emotion-eliciting from every note and every rest. For instance, in Act IV when Musetta sang about Mimi, she had a series of sixteenth notes with very short rests added in the middle of the sentences. These rests symbolized desperation and breathlessness. This was very significant in understanding the musical aspects that created the emotion, for example, why the rests were placed in the piece at exact durations. (Basilici 8-13).

   The first and last piece of music played also depicts various musical aspects. The compositions of the first half of the piece and its concert performance were from the classical Baroque periods. This was the only piece that was performed during the concert. The performance of this piece displayed a perfect collaboration of music, visual emotion and words that heightened the experience. These three components created an atmosphere that carried audience members into another realm on the verge of reality (Basilici 5-6).

           My thoughts about the performance were that the opera was a unique world of insanity and suspended disbelief. It was this fine line between insanity and reality in it that was so attractive. I also thought that performing in the opera required the knowledge of one’s own emotional and mentality limits. My expectations of what I thought I would hear before I attended the performance was one of really a strong impulse to observe the reality of the greatness I had always heard about the opera and its performances. All my expectations were met through the observations I made on the great musical, artistic performance.

I thought the performance was never a real portray of the authors themes, but it turned out to define his real arts of creativity which made me like it. I made various interesting observations about the performance, the performers, and the music. The opera clearly resonated with audiences and had a profound effect on me as a music lover.

The concert had various musical elements. The opera shows a distinct use of Western tonality, Japanese Yang and Ying and Chinese pentatonic systems. The piece also manifests a structural potential for the later application of the Chinese and Japanese systems( Cheng 6-11).It also gives the general historical context for women’s literacy, access to education and the development of a female subjectivity (Mitchell 127).


•€€ Music was one of the most beautiful art forms. It was used to elicit and share emotion from the listeners. La Boheme opera pieces offered a performing and learning role within most musical, psychological and physical challenges. My expectation before attending the performance was high based on my key interest and anxiety to see the liveliness and the captivating pieces. I got a positive impression of the piece and its artistic creativity. La bohème ‘s  world premiere performance took place in Turin on 1 February 1896 at the Teatro Regio. It was conducted by Arturo Toscanini. The piece portrayed various musical concepts. It portrayed emotion-eliciting from every note and every rest. The first and last piece of music played also depicts various musical aspects. The compositions of the first half of the piece and its concert performance were from the classical Baroque periods. My thoughts about the performance were that the opera was a unique world of insanity and suspended disbelief. It was this fine line between insanity and reality in it that was so attractive.

€€€€€€€Works Cited

Basilici, Micaela. “Performing a role: learning, interpreting, and portraying Musetta in Giacomo Puccini’s La bohème.” (2015).1-15

Cheng, Ya-Hui. The Harmonic Representation of the Feminine in Puccini. ProQuest, 2008.

Mitchell, Katharine. “Literary and Epistolary Figurations of Female Desire in Early Post-unification Italy, 1861–1914.” Italian Sexualities Uncovered, 1789–1914. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2015. 125-142.

Sample Health Care Research Paper on Tuberculosis university essay help



Studies have pointed out that tuberculosis has been responsible for many deaths in the community; the disease can be transmitted from one person to another especially upon contamination with the drops containing the microbes. The symptoms may vary from one person to another but in most cases suspected cases of tuberculosis have had symptoms like lack of appetite and weight loss, high temperature, sweating at night, extreme tiredness and fatigue among others. As discussed below the methods to contain the disease include administrative measures, environmental controls and use of respiratory protective equipment and devices, and treatment is available through drugs. Experts have opined that in order to reduce the spread of TB all-encompassing research should be conducted to highlight ways of controlling the contagion to the populace.

History of the disease

Over the past decades tuberculosis has been known to humans and most people believed that it had the capability of consuming the entire body of patients. This was supported by the ability of the disease to cause severe weight loss to the patient and the extreme pallor that was evident among those individuals who were infected by the disease. Despite the developments in dealing with the disease through comprehensive screening and diagnosis, many people are still exposed to infections with the number estimated to be 90 percent mostly in the developing countries across the world. Moreover, the surfacing of HIV infections had led to a dramatic resurgence of tuberculosis with experts estimating that about 8 million cases of the disease are reported and a further 2 million people are believed to be dying from it.

Historically, medical specialists have opined that the organism causing the disease existed between 15,000 to 20,000 in Egypt and China with archaeologists discovering Pott’s disease associated with tuberculosis among the Egyptian mummies. In the middle ages, a disease that was termed as king’s evil that could be closely linked to tuberculosis affected the cervical lymph nodes; it was widely believed that only the kings of England and France could heal the patients from the ailments simply by touching them.

Medical experts have asserted that in the 18th century the disease reached its peak with an estimated 900 out of 100,000 people dying courtesy of the disease (Lange et al, 2012). The deaths and the high prevalence rate of infections were blamed on poor ventilations and overcrowded housing, poor sanitation and malnutrition among the population; it is during this time that extreme pallor emerged. It is worth pointing out that there are some famous people who suffered from the disease and notably they comprised poets John Keats and Percy Bysshe Shelley, the authors Robert Louis Stevenson, Emily Bronte, and Edgar Allen Poe, the musicians Nicolo Paganini and Frederic Chopin among others.

Discoveries that were pertinent to the disease was demonstrated by individuals such as Robert Koch, who in 1982 discovered that the organism causing the disease had a unique protein coating that made it impossible to comprehend. However, Wilhelm Roentgen developed X-rays that was vital in improving and advancing diagnosis of the disease in 1895, this prompted early diagnosis of the disease and isolation of the already infected individuals to mitigate the spread of the disease to other individuals of the population.

In the 19th century the concept of isolating infected individuals gained more ground with Hermann Brehmer and Edward Livingston initiating the first sanatorium in the United States. This was considered a milestone as infectious patients were isolated from the community for treatment, rest and improved nutrition; this mitigated and controlled the spread of the disease to other members of the society. Developments were also witnessed with United States establishing National Tuberculosis Association which later evolved into the American Lung Association in 1904 (Lange et al, 2012). 

As the world witnessed major developments in the field of medicine, Louis Pasteur began developing vaccines that could be used against diseases like anthrax, chicken pox and rabies around 1880s. Similarly, in 1908 Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin, French scientists grew Koch’s bacillus in several mediums to decrease their virulence and increase the capacity to produce immunity (Lange et al, 2012).  It is believed that their efforts led to the now famous vaccine called BCG introduced in 1921 and named after the two founders (Lange et al, 2012). 

It has been established that James Carson a Scottish physician began the treatment that involved draining pleural effusion from around the lungs and found out that surgery helped prolong life (Lange et al, 2012).  However, myriad techniques evolved, but due to lack efficiency disappeared later after the inventions of anti-tubercular drugs that could help treat the disease. It was established that these antibiotics were useful against tuberculosis until 1944 when streptomycin was discovered (Lange et al, 2012). However, due to the resistance against antibiotics, scientists developed PAS that was oral unlike streptomycin. Consequently, more effective drugs were developed and currently there are fewer than 20 agents with activity against mycobacterium (Patterson and CDC, 2006). 


Medical practitioners have opined that the symptoms of TB profoundly are contingent on where the contagion ensues as it usually develops slowly (Patterson and CDC, 2006).  Studies have established that the main symptoms of the disease include lack of appetite and weight loss, high temperature, sweating at night, extreme tiredness and fatigue (Patterson and CDC, 2006).  In addition, a patient may show other symptoms depending on the part of the body that is infected for instance, pulmonary TB that infects the lungs will have symptoms like a persistent cough that lasts more than three weeks and usually brings up phlegm, which may be bloody breathlessness that gradually gets worse. On the other hand, Extra-pulmonary TB that is not common and infects areas outside the lungs, bones and joints, digestive systems, bladder, reproductive systems and the nervous systems (Patterson and CDC, 2006).  This kind of tuberculosis is associated with symptoms such as persistently swollen glands, abdominal pain, and loss of movement in the affected bone, confusion, a persistent headache and seizures.

The cause of the disease

Experts have confirmed that tuberculosis is caused by a type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Patterson and CDC, 2006).  It is worth noting that the condition can be spread from one person to another especially if the former exhibits an active TB infection, this is made possible through coughs and sneezes where the latter inhales the expelled droplets from the patient with an active infection. Studies conducted further affirm that an individual spending prolonged time next to an individual with the infection may be easily infected and that is why TB infections usually spread between family members who live in the same house (Patterson and CDC, 2006). 

Significantly, it is believed that the populace with TB may be infectious however children with TB or people with TB that occurs outside the lungs may not spread the infection to others easily (Patterson and CDC, 2006). This is described as latent TB and so may make it possible for the bacteria to infect the body but does not cause any symptoms, or the infection begins to cause symptoms within weeks or months (Patterson and CDC, 2006). 

Studies have found out that anyone is at risk of being infected especially those who live in, come from, or have spent time in a country or area with high levels of tuberculosis where there is prolonged close contact with someone who is infected living in crowded conditions (Patterson and CDC, 2006). Secondly, individuals with a condition that weakens their immune system, such as HIV stands a greater chance of being infected. Third, individuals involved in the treatments that weaken the immune system, such as corticosteroids, chemotherapy or tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may also acquire the disease easily (Patterson and CDC, 2006). Fourth, those members of the community who are too young or very old may acquire the disease because the immune systems of such people tend to be weaker than those of healthy adults. Lastly, medical professionals have established that who are in poor health or with a poor diet because of lifestyle and other problems, such as drug misuse, alcohol misuse, or homelessness may also acquire the disease through infection.

Method to spread the disease

Methods of spreading the disease are dependent on the contact between an individual with an active TB condition and an individual without. Significantly, medical experts have established that when a person with the disease in their lungs or throat cough, laugh, sneeze, sing, or even talk, the germs that cause TB may be spread into the air (Patterson and CDC, 2006).  Consequently, if another individual breathes these germs there is a possibility of contamination and hence will become infected. It is important to point out that it is always not easy for someone to be infected with the disease however usually a person has to be close to someone with tuberculosis disease for a long period of time (Patterson and CDC, 2006). Research studies have established that even if someone becomes infected with TB that does not mean they will get active TB disease (Patterson and CDC, 2006). 

Methods to contain the disease

Transmission of the disease is well documented in health care settings where health care workers and patients come in contact with those individuals with the TB disease (Street and Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, 2012). In communities individuals come in contact with friends and families with the disease and so there is need for mechanisms to be put in place to contain the spread of the disease (Street and Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, 2012).  Concerns have been raised on the people who work or receive patients in medical facilities; they are at a higher risk of being infected with the disease. This means that there is need for prompt detection of infectious patients, airborne precautions, and treatment of people who have suspected or confirmed TB disease; this should also apply to the individuals occupying the community (Street and Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, 2012).

In order to contain the spread the disease in all health care settings and community, particularly those in which people are at high risk for exposure to TB, policies and procedures for TB control should be developed, revised intermittently, and evaluated for efficacy to determine the actions necessary to minimize the risk for transmission of TB (Street and Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, 2012). Measures to contain the spread the disease could be divided into administrative measures, environmental controls and use of respiratory protective equipment and devices.

Administrative control measures are very important in containing the transmission of the disease; they are believed to be management measures that are aimed at reducing the risk of exposure to persons with TB (CDC, 2016). Studies have established that these measures may entail activities such as assigning someone the responsibility for TB infection control in the health care setting, conducting a TB risk assessment of the setting, developing and implementing a written TB infection-control plan and ensuring the availability of recommended laboratory processing, testing, and reporting of results associated with the disease. In addition, there is need to implement effective work places for managing patients, ensuring proper cleaning, sterilization, or disinfection of equipment that might be contaminated and educating, training, and counseling health care workers, patients, and visitors about TB infection and TB disease.

Moreover, it is paramount to ensure that testing and evaluation of workers and those who are at risk of contacting the disease are conducted, applying epidemiology-based prevention principles, including the use of setting-related TB infection-control data and using posters to remind members of the community of the importance of proper cough etiquette and hygiene.

Environmental control measures to contain the spread of TB are aimed at controlling the source of infection through improving ventilation so as to dilute and remove the contaminated air especially in places with large numbers of member in hoods, tents or booths. There is also need to control the airflow so as to prevent contamination of air in areas contiguous to basis midair contagions of the disease (CDC, 2016). This may also involve cleaning the air using high efficiency particulate air filtration.  

Respiratory protection control measures consists the use of personal protective equipment and gadgets in situations that the risk of exposure to TB is high (CDC, 2016). Measures to put in place in containing TB would be to implement a respiratory protection program, train health care workers on respiratory protection and educate patients and members of the community on respiratory hygiene and the importance of cough etiquette procedures.

Number of people infected or affected

According to the World Health Organization, tuberculosis is a top infectious disease worldwide that in the year 2014 accounted for 1.5 million demises out of the 9.6 million that were diseased (WHO, 2016). World Health Organization further points out that over 95 percent of the demises befell individuals in low and middle income states (WHO, 2016). It is worth noting that tuberculosis as a disease is a leading killer of HIV-positive people and in 2015, one out of three HIV deaths was due to tuberculosis (WHO, 2016).  

It is estimated that in 2014, half a million people developed multi-drug resilience tuberculosis that prompted the millennium development goals to be reversed to the tuberculosis epidemic, this was reported by the assertion that deaths due to the diseases dropped by 47 percent between the period of 1990 and 2015. World Health Organization further points out that a projected 43 million lives were salvaged through TB analysis and treatment between 2000 and 2014. Therefore, it is clear that bringing to an end the tuberculosis epidemic by the year 2030 is among the health goals of the newly adopted development goals.

According to CDC a third of the world’s populace is infected with tuberculosis (CDC, 2016). In respect to United States the cases were 9,421 in 2014 however, it is appraised that the stated cases represented a 1.5 percent decline in comparison to 2013 (CDC, 2016).  “In United States a total of 66 percent cases of tuberculosis were reported among foreign-born individuals, this was 13 times higher than the cases reported among the United States born persons” (CDC, 2016).  “The breakdown of tuberculosis case in United States is as follows; 5 tuberculosis cases per 100,000 persons among the American Indians, Asians account for 17.8 cases per 100,000 persons, 5.1 cases per 100,000 persons among the African Americans” (CDC, 2016).  “In addition, Native Hawaiians registered 16.9 cases per 100,000 individuals while Hispanics registered 5 tuberculosis cases per 100,000 persons and the whites had 0.6 TB cases per 100,000 persons” (CDC, 2016).

Figure 1: Reported TB cases in United States, 1982-2014

Public health costs

Research studies have discovered that the costs associated with tuberculosis consists of both patient-incurred costs and provider costs (Patterson and CDC, 2006). Tuberculosis treatment costs for patients are estimated to be 14,659 dollars in high income countries, an estimated 840 dollars in upper middle income countries, 273 dollars in lower middle countries and 258 dollars in low-income countries thus showing a positive correlation.

The cost of hospitalization in United States for one tuberculosis patient is estimated at 483,000 dollars which is nearly 25 times the average for all primary hospital stays for tuberculosis (WHO, 2016).  Medical professionals have opined that in order to make new tuberculosis vaccines to the whole world in the next 15 years the cost to be incurred may range from $600 million to $1 billion and will be dependent on the probability of success of the different candidates.


Medical professionals have affirmed that treatment of tuberculosis have additional consideration for instance, people living with HIV and additionally have TB disease can be efficiently treated of the ailment (Patterson and CDC, 2006). It has been pointed out that the initial step would be for such people to be tested for tuberculosis and then start treatment based on the results from the tests conducted. For individuals with HIV virus the recommended treatment for latent TB would be a daily dose of isoniazid for nine months and for adult patients with HIV is a six month dose of regimen that consists of an initial phase of isoniazid, a rifamycin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for the first two months (WHO, 2016).

For pregnant women, untreated tuberculosis may present a greater hazard to the woman and her unborn child and so treatment should be initiated whenever the probability of tuberculosis is moderate to high (CDC, 2016). Experts have confirmed that if tuberculosis is left untreated then the effects would be felt and include reduced birth weight and to extreme circumstance, the baby may be born with TB (CDC, 2016). The treatment would include Isoniazid daily or twice weekly for nine months, with pyridoxine supplementation, and medical scientists have affirmed that 3HP INH and rifapentine is not recommended for pregnant women or women expecting to be pregnant in the next 3 months. It is worth noting that streptomycin should not be used because it has been shown to have harmful effects on the fetus and likewise pyrazinamide is not recommended to be used because its effect on the fetus is unknown. Nevertheless, pregnant women who are being treated for drug resistant tuberculosis should access counseling services regarding the peril to the unborn (CDC, 2016).  

Medical professionals have asserted that the risk of infection in children to tuberculosis is more than that of the adults and is usually due to fact that adults are affected from past infection that transforms to active contagion after some time later (CDC, 2016). Studies have discovered that a pediatric tuberculosis expert should be involved in treating tuberculosis in children to reinforce the importance of completing the dosage based on instructions (CDC, 2016). In children, the treatment process will entail taking the medicines for six to nine months; in a situation that the child stops taking the drugs threw is high possibility that the child may become sick again. This is because the microorganisms causing the disease may still be alive to become resistant to such drugs, and studies have recognized TB that is resistant to drugs is more problematic and expensive to treat, the treatment may last even longer than expected (Patterson and CDC, 2006). 

Current and future educational efforts

As much as the public health professionals need education in order to reduce the spread of the disease, the patients too need the knowledge (CDC, 2016). Education is necessary for people living with tuberculosis so as to help them know how to take their drugs in the right way, need knowledge on how to limit the spread of the disease to others in the community (CDC, 2016).

Specifically, public health professionals are involved in intensive research towards innovation that would assist in controlling tuberculosis, the fundamental research is aimed at gaining understanding of the biology of various strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis and how they affect and interact with humans and will inform the research and development of better tools for tackling the crisis. Secondly, in the current public health professionals are coming up with new diagnostic technologies that will provide quick and accurate diagnosis of the disease (Patterson and CDC, 2006). The technologies are also important in determining drug susceptibility or resistance of the infection and are also essential to ensuring that patients receive the best treatment and cease to spread the disease.

Majority of the patients have complained of the longer duration that it takes for the patient to complete the medication, future research and education should put much focus on how to shorten the duration of therapy and reducing its toxicity, while also bolstering its efficacy against resistant forms of tuberculosis. Health professionals should also be involved in extensive research and studies to develop a new vaccine that will help in protecting against new infections. Finally a consistent and operational research aimed at investigating the best ways to provide optimal care and implement new technologies for TB patients must take place to develop better policies and strategies for future tuberculosis management and help reduce the spread of the disease (Patterson and CDC, 2006).   


Public health professionals have affirmed that tuberculosis is a killer disease responsible for many deaths in the community and countries across the world (Patterson and CDC, 2006).   The symptoms for the diseases are visible but mostly a cough that goes beyond three weeks may be a suspected case of the disease. Apart from patients completing the medication dose there is need for international agencies to find methods of controlling the spread of the disease in collaboration with local health ministries. However, bulk of the efforts must come from the local stakeholders so as to ensure that tuberculosis treatment reach people where they live, and active case finding is the only way forward in dealing with the disease (Lange et al, 2012). 


CDC. (2016). Tuberculosis. Web.

Lange, C., Migliori, G. B., & European Respiratory Society. (2012). Tuberculosis. Sheffield:

            European Respiratory Society.

Patterson, R. M., & CDC (U.S.). (2006). The CDC’s tuberculosis guidelines: Key strategies for

            compliance. Marblehead, MA: HCPro.

Street, A., & Victorian Infectious Diseases Service. (2012). Management of tuberculosis: A

 handbook for clinicians. Parkville, Vic: Victorian Infectious Diseases Service.

WHO. (2016). Tuberculosis. Web.

Sample Dissertation Discussion Paper on Managerial Economics nursing essay help: nursing essay help

Managerial Economics

It is crucial for managers to understand the mechanics of supply and demand both in the short run and the long run to maximize on profit (Decker, 2014). This study analyzes examples of companies whose business were either helped or hurt by changes in supply or demand in the market in which they are competing. In a perfect competition, the forces of demand and supply are the major determinants of the market price (Keat, Young and Erfle 2013).  It is fundamental for managers to understand the dynamics of the demand and supply forces in order to differentiate their products through engaging in production promotion, brand name, and packing to increase customer awareness in order to outcompete rival companies and record more sales.

ABZ Company selling yoghurts increased its price from $ 10 dollars per 500 ml to $ 12 dollars. Consequently, the company lost its customers to rival companies, Smart Dairy and Brookside Company since they maintained their prices at $ 11dollars. Thus, ABZ Company was hurt by recording a decrease in demand of yoghurt while the competing companies recorded higher returns from the increased demand.

Everten Company that sells Kitchenware products recorded an increase in its sales due to reducing the price of its products by $ 2 dollars and fixing transportation fee at $ 6 dollars regardless of the distance. Consequently, Robin Kitchenware Company, a competitor of Everten Company lost most its customers to Everten Company.

It important for managers to understand and be alert on the mechanics of supply and demand to avoid incurring losses due to product overpricing, stocking obsolete products, or through undervaluing product (Fanning & Campling, 2013). Additionally, it is important for managers to study consumer behavior since it dictates demand and supply of products in order to align business to demand to avoid incurring losses.


Keat, Young and Erfle (2013). Managerial Economics (7th ed.). Pearson.

Decker, K. (2014). Trading post. Retrieved October 19, 2015, from

Fanning, C., & Campling, J. (2013). The general theory of profit maximization. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Sample Music Essay Paper on Open Stage Jazz Concert Report essay help 123: essay help 123

Open Stage Jazz Concert Report

Open Stage Club in Coral gables, Florida holds Jazz concerts every Monday to support local artistes. The owner of the club began the Jazz concerts to cater for the needs of local musicians through the money collected at the entrance. On Monday 20th June 2016, I attended a Jazz concert at the Open Stage Club which proved to be amazing as expected. Having heard about the Monday concerts and how they contribute to the growth of local musicians, I was really interested in getting a first-hand experience of one of such events. I had been thinking about allocating time on one of the Mondays to attend the concert and thereafter make a decision on whether the owner of the club could achieve his goals through the concerts or not.

Consequently, when I was given the task to attend a music event and report on it, Open Stage proved to be the most viable venue since the performances were reliable. I always had a feeling that since the concerts were held every week, it was possible that the people of Coral Gables would have reduced the attendance levels of the concert. Because of this, I expected a very low attendance of the event I chose to attend. The preparation process for the event was not very demanding since all I had to do was to find a means of transportation. Finding something to put on was not a problem since I only had to choose from already available clothes option as there was no dress code for Open Stage Club on Mondays. As for transportation, I was easily sorted since I have friends with whom we have been sharing the interest to attend Open Stage events. We travelled together to the venue and arrived early enough to be seated at the second table from the stage where the live presentation was taking place.

The Open Stage Jazz concert proved to be slightly at par with my expectations. For starters, the attendance was just as predicted since all the attendees managed to find sitting space throughout the performance. Moreover, all those who were in attendance were served accordingly without any issues. The fact that most people did not show signs of awe or wonder at the show proved that those who were present were regulars of the club and therefore used to the performances therein. The venue was typical of a live performance venue with the club being separated into two sections. The performance took place on the dais while the audience sat at tables within the remaining lower section of the club. This made it possible for everyone in the audience to have a clear view of the occurrences on the stage. The actual performance was by a band of four members who included Gary Keller, Billy Hart, Kenny Werner and Drew Gress. The four members of the band each had a distinct role with Billy Hart being the drummer, Gary is the band’s tenor/ Alto saxophonist, Kenny is the synthesizer and Drew Gress plays the electric guitar. Each of these members actively plays their instrument with great interest in the performance.

The coordination among the members clearly communicated a well-organized band in which there were specific codes for communication amongst themselves. While the entire band demonstrated great skill in delivery, the engagement of the audience was limited to providing information about the forthcoming songs. Most of the members of the audience showed interest to the presentations through listening and engaging in various body movements that indicated response to the presentations. Since each of the audience members was engaged in other activities such as eating, drinking and conversations with each other, the participation in the playing music turned to be mainly passive despite few critical responses from some of the people in there. Consequently, it can be said that audience although audience attention was divided among many activities, participation in music through applauds at the end of songs, maintaining eye contact with the performers and body movements such as nodding all indicate the emotional and psychological presence of the audience during the performance.

One of the songs presented by the band which struck me as amazing was a Ballard, ‘Prelude to a Kiss.’ Judging from the reactions of the crowd during performance and after the performance of the song, this performance amazed the entire audience or at least most of those in attendance. The song is characterized by slow beats with an almost romantic undertone. Because of this, the song draws deep emotional connections from the audience. In addition to this, the band also made this an exceptional performance which involved the display of joyful emotions by the synthesizer during the song’s performance. Other songs were also enjoyable during the performance. Although the band performed exceptionally well together, some of the songs presented such as the ‘Prelude to a Kiss’ and ‘Blues for the New Age’ were presented as solo performances by the synthesizer who was marketing his new album alongside other band members’ music videos.

In general, the Jazz performance at Open Stage club on that particular Monday was fulfilling. This is because contrary to disapproving my expectations about the audience, it brought together few but positive people who not only wanted to listen to music, but also had the intention of seeing the growth of local musicians and music groups. I would thus recommend this a place to visit every Monday for the Jazz lovers.

Sample Economics Essay Paper on Capitalism Economic System mba essay help

Capitalism Economic System

Ayn Rand has been a supporter of capitalism economic system and a defender of the moral principles of making profits through privately owned businesses. In her novels, she reveals injustices done to business owners and business executives by the government bureaucratic and communist apparatchiks. In her defence for business, she explains the unstable mixture of freedom caused by the endless government controls which drive the economy into crisis. Instead, Rand gives solutions and says, “there is a need for separation of state economics in the same way and for the same reasons as the separation of state and church”. This would outlay the physical force initiated among men and hence allow individuals to produce freely, trade and pursues their life and happiness.

Reasons businesses should be defended

One of the reasons Ayn Rand thinks businesses should be defended is the need for a society to have creators of value. Businessmen, financiers and industrialists make this possible. As Ayn Rand states in her novel, ‘Atlas Shrugged’, money made from unjust ways is not valuable but wealth is worthy if it is created in a free market in a system of production and trade. The money will satisfy one’s desires, but it will never provide one with the desires. You can have money but spend it unwisely, that is why, having money alone will never be an ultimate goal. The business people will always be the drivers of money, and they deserve the entire honour as they represent the value of work done by other people. According to her writings, a free economy would be the only way to create a society that is more dynamic and justified. This is because, the old wealthy class which is characterized by force of preferential laws, regulations and taxes earn their wealth through undeserved ways. Their dependents and heirs feed on this wealth and provide no real value in return. Introducing an economy where markets can freely operate will eventually swipe out the free riders (Brennan 302).

From her essay, ‘What is capitalism?’ capitalism is a gateway for people to develop by their efforts through one fundamental consideration which is making profits. The only way one can make profits is by increasing production of wealth. Profits will come from inventing new products, producing goods efficiently and creating markets in a faster, better and smarter means. In this way, capitalism will be an open field where people will work hard to improve their skills and get riches as their reward. She gives an example of Microsoft Company pointing out how people make millions of money through their ability to create and sell computer programs. Therefore, businesses play a greater deal in driving the economy through qualified means. Ayn Rand defends businesses because she believes inventions are best drivers of the economy. Inventions, however, will be encouraged if people are free to compete over who can produce best. The social system is busy helping the non- producers by slitting the throats of those that are busy producing. This does not give room for people to accumulate wealth from their abilities but instead reverts the game to who can take most bribes and who can call in more favours.

According to Ayn Rand, businesses require a new philosophical-moral approach of objectivity and rational self- interest. Philosophers attempt to study human behaviour without considering that a man is conscious. In political economy, there is also an attempt of studying and devising the social systems that do not reference to the conscious nature of a man’s Ayn Rand continues to defend for businesses in her easy, she states that the political economy came in during the time post-Kantian philosophy was integrated, and no one challenged its base. That is when political economy was studied as manipulation of the community’s or nation’s resources. She wrote, “The nature of these resources was not defined; their communal ownership was taken for granted and the goal of political economy was assumed to be the study of how to utilize these resources for the common good”. Man was simply regarded as a factor of production just like forests and mines. The political economist uses the ‘common good’ as a strategy for some men to treat others as sacrificial animals and take precedence over their good. According to the objectivity theory, the good is evaluated on the facts perceived by man’s consciousness as real according to the rational standard of value. This good is not invented, but it must be discovered. Man has always been producing and trading, and that will remain so. The political economists started observing this in the midstream and then created a problem of devising the best way to dispose of human effort. Man should be allowed to be a free and independent individual as her ability to produce brought the institution of private property into existence through capitalism

The proper defence of businesses

To swipe out the issue of control and freedom in the business arena, Rand suggests for the abolition of all forms of controls in the production and trade. When business people make fortunes without use of force, government assistance and interferences, they will have created new wealth (GHATE 222). One of the solutions she offers is to the government. She urges the government to recognize the individual rights and banish all the deceptive practices and physical force used by the certain groups to violate these rights. The government should be responsible for protecting man’s rights. It should utilize its power to retaliate against the people that initiate the use of physical force. The societal laws, institutions, and the government should determine the relationship and terms of the association between individual living in an area. This relationship should be relevant to man’s natural judgment and interest dictate.

To completely defend businesses from injustices, the government should further untangle those practices like bribery by defining the pros and cons of each practice. By using this format, all the acts that initiate any form of physical force should be fully banned while all acts that bring intrinsic harm regulated. According to Rand, bribery is a dishonest act that initiates a physical force in contracts to the common view that bribery is intrinsically harmful. First, the press should not mislead people by failing to properly distinguish the use of the term ‘bribery’ as described in the literature. Secondly, everyone including the legal authorities should bother to get the right legal definition of the term. Initiatives should be taken to fight for the rights of business owners whenever they find themselves in dealings that are deceptive. If bureaucrats are acting in a free market and they demand actions for example payment by private businesses in exchange for a contract, they will be giving a contract by causing harm. This is a form of bribery because they will be acting like government representatives but in the real sense, the government is the only arm that has a legal monopoly of using physical force. She states that bribery should not be viewed just as any as a simple form of payment but a complex context that should be carefully defined.

People are also brought into play and asked to treat the idea of the free market not just as a means of efficient production alone, but as a moral institution. Business rights would be defended if people concentrated on learning and supporting a just political and economic order that truly reflected the nature of man. Ayn Rand explains that, for a significant change to take place in the culture, every individual needs to evaluate her or her moral statement that justifies her or her self-worth. With this, people will not accept a false guilt as a moral concept of upholding their virtues. As Rand explains in her speech about ‘America’s Persecuted Minority: Big Business,’ American’s businessmen have been forced to believe that they are the cause of low standards of living experienced by workers. This blame is based on actions they take like the negotiations they make with labour unions. The reasons businesses take these decisions is to keep corporates stable and make profits which are the key objectives of business, yet they take the blame for the results that drive up the economy (Robertson 117). In this article, Rand suggests that business people should not be used as a scapegoat for the poor living standards of people while there are so many contributing factors such government interventions. Business people must view these attacks as obstacles preventing them from exploring their full potential of producing and also as a distraction from enjoying their pride of achievement.

Works cited

Brennan, Jason. Libertarianism: What everyone needs to know. Oxford University

           Press, 2012.

Ghate, Onkar. “A Free Mind and a Free Market Are Corollaries.” A Companion to

           Ayn Rand (2015): 222.

Robertson, Paul Mark. Social Movements, Ideology, & Ayn Rand in The

          21 St Century. California State University, Sacramento, 2014.

Sample Management Essay Paper on Food and Beverage Management essay help writer: essay help writer

Food and Beverage Management


Service failure is a common phenomenon in industries such as the hospitality industry, and to overcome the same, these industries come up with various service recovery strategies. Service recovery, in the event of service failure, has been highlighted as an opportunity through which firms regain trust, loyalty, and confidence of customers. Lee and Sparks (2007) believe that the evaluation of customers on how firms in the hospitality industry provide quality services is based on how well the initial services are managed and the actions that are taken to realign provided services to meet the expectations of customers. Unlike other industries such as car manufacturing that offer tangle products to customers, firms in the hospitality industry are likely to fail in service delivery because of intangible or experiential nature of services offered, and this is coupled with simultaneous consumption and production. These factors in mind, it is almost impossible for hospitality firms to guarantee services that are error-free. There are other uncontrollable external factors that play a part in service failure in hospitality firms, and these include customer late arrival and unexpected employee illness.

Moreover, the greater likelihood for mistakes in hospitality firms is attributed to the high level of human interaction involving individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. In situations of service failure, (Lewis and McCann, 2004) believe that it is imperative for stakeholders in hospitality firms to come up with service recovery efforts, which in the long see customers’ return to a state of satisfaction or delight. In respect of the perspectives, this paper discusses and critically evaluates the various factors that cause delight and dissatisfaction among customers in hospitality firms as well as identifying the key factors that lead to the service failure in these firms. It goes ahead to identify and evaluate the consequences of service failure to hospitality firms and the consumers. Also, this paper identifies implementable policies and procedures which can lead to positive service recovery and concludes with a presentation of recommendations.

The various factors that cause delight and dissatisfaction among customers

Customer delight, also known as customer satisfaction, is often viewed or perceived as an attitude-like judgment that is based on a series of interactions between a consumer and a service or product. Mattila and Ro (2008) argue that in the hospitality sector, there are a series of service encounters, and each encounter plays a role in customer delight or satisfaction. Research indicates that the hospitality firms’ service encounters occur in four stages, which are the reception, ordering, meal consumption, and check-out. Customer delight, in most cases, helps in the prediction of behavioral intentions such as the customer’s revisit to a restaurant or hotel. On the other hand, customer dissatisfaction, in most cases, is accompanied by intense emotions as well as perceptions of unfairness. Customer dissatisfaction is often as a result of poor service delivery, which triggers negative customer responses. To enhance customer delight and curb customer dissatisfaction, understanding the various causative factors is important. One of the factors that cause customer delight in the hospitality industry is having positive relationships between employees and customers.

Positive relationships help enhance trust between customers and employees, and this, in the long run, results in delight both on the side of employees and customers. This has seen hospitality firms increase their investments to improve relationships between employees and customers. It should be noted that with better relationship quality, behaviors of customers are enhanced; creating a positive word of mouth as well as increasing repeated guest rates, perspectives that highlight customer delight. Another causal factor for customer delight is enhanced safety and security of customers in hospitality firms. Safety and security imply that managements of hospitality firms prioritize and protect customers from harsh treatment by employees as well as from attacks and harm from potential terrorist attacks. When customers feel comfortable, safe, and secure, they are likely to become loyal and exhibit repeated visits, and these are some of the perspectives that highlight customer delight.

Moreover, providing high-quality services, which are preferred and rated highly by customers, is a starting point and one of the key factors that cause customer delight or satisfaction. According to Lee et al (2011), provision of quality services entails including diets that play a significant role in improving health conditions and living standards of customers. Through this, positive behavioral responses from customers are likely to be witnessed, illustrating delight or satisfaction on the side of customers. When it comes to customer satisfaction in the hotel or hospitality industry, there various factors involved in the same. One of the leading causes of customer dissatisfaction in the hospitality industry is negative attitudes and behaviors of employees. In several hotels where customer dissatisfaction has been reported, complaints about negative attitudes and behaviors of employees often stand out. When employees exhibit negative attitudes and behaviors, their relationship with customers is likely to be in jeopardy, and in the long run, customers often feel ignored, unwanted, or not welcome. As such, repeated visits are often rare or minimal in hotels where employees have negative attitudes and behaviors.

Customer dissatisfaction in hospitality firms is also caused by slow service delivery especially at the till, which makes customers queue for long durations (O’Neill and Mattila, 2004). Nothing interferes with customers’ happiness, and commitment to a specific hotel as long queues and every hotel is committed to addressing this menace by introducing advanced technological equipment or increasing the number of employees providing services especially at reception or till venues. Moreover, there are hospitality firms that receive first-time or new customers who may not be aware of procedures or operations in these firms. A factor that causes dissatisfaction for first-time or new employees is the lack of employee or staff assistance. When customers are left to do everything on their own from ordering to meal consumption to checking out, they often feel ignored, and this plays a significant role in their dissatisfaction. It is important for hospitality firms to prioritize customers by ensuring that they are assisted in every operation in these firms if the issue of customer dissatisfaction is to be addressed.

Key factors that lead to service failure

Hess et al (2003) define service failure as a perspective that arises when customers are dissatisfied because a particular service was not delivered by a hospitality firm as originally expected or planned.  Imperatively, service failures are often determined by the customer and not by the service organization as perceived by many. As such, one of the key factors that lead to service failure in hospitality firms is the unavailability of services. The ‘unavailable services” concept refers to particular services that are often available but are lacking or are absent at the time of request by a customer (Othman et al, 2013). For instance, when a hotel announces that rooms are available during summer but a customer later finds that all rooms are booked, which results in service failure. It is the duty of hotels and other hospitality firms to provide alternative services to customers to prevent service failures. Another factor that leads to service failure in the hospitality sector is unreasonably slow service provision, which relates to services or employees perceived by customers as being inordinately slow in the fulfillment of their functions or responsibilities.

Lengthy queues, which are common in hotels, are illustrations of service failures because customers often expect to complete their activities within a given duration. Also, the failure to meet basic performance standards for the hospitality industry is a factor that leads to service failure (Huang, 2008). For instance, when a hotel room is dirty or when a customer’s meal is cold, these are in contrary to the expectations of the customer, and thus, results in service failure. It is also important to note that the failure to respond to a customer’s special needs contributes to service failure. When it comes to special needs, attention and focus should be on taking care of a customer’s individual requests such as language requirements or medical requests (Komunda and Osarenkhoe, 2012, p 85).

In most cases, hotels or restaurants commit to meeting special needs of their customers, and when they fail to do so, the expectations of customers are compromised resulting in service failure. The lack of response to customer errors is also a factor that leads to service failure in the hospitality sector. New customers are often prone to errors as it is their first time in hotels or restaurants and are not conversant with laid down procedures or guidelines. The failure to respond to customers’ errors or taking steps or measures to correct the problems or errors committed by customers lead to service failure.

There is a close association between customer dissatisfaction and service failure, and this implies that myriads of factors that result in customer’s dissatisfaction also result in service failure, especially in the hospitality sector or industry (Boshor and Staude, 2003, p 34). As already mentioned, lack of attention by employees to customers is a causal factor for both customer dissatisfaction and service failure. Lack of attention is common among employees who develop attitude problems, and this is always in contrary to the expectations of customers, making it a causal factor for service failure. Like in other sectors, employees in the hospitality sector are tasked with paying attention to employees, and failure or lack of the same is often regarded as a factor that leads to service failure.

Additionally, the exhibition of unusual behaviors by employees in the hospitality sector is seen as a factor that leads to service failure. Some of the unusual behaviors exhibited by employees that go against expectations of customers include rudeness, inappropriate touching, and abusiveness. These behaviors go hand in hand with the violation of cultural norms such as stealing from the customer, cheating or displaying false information about the hotel or restaurant, which also lead to service failure (Mupemhi et al, 2006).

Consequences of service failure to the business and the consumer

In such as challenging and competitive hospitality market and industry, the managers of firms in this sector attempt to offer high-quality and satisfactory services to consumers. However, the difficulty faced in avoiding occasional service failures cannot go unnoticed, with some of the common service failures being late service delivery, insufficient information about products and services, as well as poor customer service support or assistance. According to Gursoy (2007), one of the consequences of service failure is that it results in the dissatisfaction of consumers, and this leads to negative word of mouth, which is detrimental to the profitability and growth of the business. In other words, services failure results in dissatisfied consumers, and the more dissatisfied they become, the more likely they are to spread false information and negative word of mouth about their service experiences with a given hotel or restaurant. With the spread of negative word of mouth, potential consumers will be scared or driven away, reducing the firm’s profitability or growth.

Other than spreading false information about a firm and negative word of mouth, service failure can result in a customer becoming disengaged and withdraw or stop buying products or services from a firm where service failure is experienced. Memarbashi (2012) opine that if a consumer stops purchasing services or products, it is highly likely that the business will lose one of its several customers, which in extension, will result in significant loss of income for the business. In extreme cases, a frustrated customer could take away other loyal consumers or customers leaving the business at a competitive disadvantage (Mostert et al., 2009, p 120).

Another consequence of service failure for businesses in the hospitality sector is the development of poor relationships between employees and customers. Chou et al (2009) believe that every business in the hospitality sector aims at ensuring positive relationships between employees and customers as one of the strategies of achieving customer retention. Once service failure is witnessed in a particular business, the relationship between employees and consumers is jeopardized, and the trust of consumers on service delivery is lost. Since customers are critical to businesses, the loss of trust and poor relationships between them and employees could have adverse effects on income generation and profitability. It is common to hear of customers’ defection to competitor businesses, and this is one of the several consequences of service failure. When service failure is experienced by consumers in one business, they defect to competitors with the aim of obtaining quality product or service provision (Sparks and Fredline, 2007, p 243).

The result of customer defection is that their previous preferred business of firm becomes inferior to the new business. It should also be noted that a key consequence of service failure is frequent conflicts from the business perspective. During the recruitment of new employees, managers in the hospitality sector give priority to employees who are likely to meet the special needs and demands of customers or consumers. However, as mentioned earlier, one of the leading causes of service failure in the hospitality sector is the failure to meet special needs of consumers, and when this happens, conflict between employees and managers is experienced.

Implementable policies and procedures that can lead to positive service recovery

According to Warden et al. (2008), service recovery entails actions, policies or procedures put in place by organizations, firms, or businesses in response to service failure, with the objective being to change dissatisfaction of customers to satisfaction as well as retaining them. It is the duty of management of organization to provide full support to positive service recovery because ineffective service recovery would see customers let down for the second time. For positive service recovery, a policy that ought to be formulated and implemented by firms in the hospitality sector is frequent communication with customers who have experienced in the past or who are experiencing service failures. This communication should involve providing customers with feedback regarding the service failure or offering an explanation for the reasons or factors that led to the service failure. Also, it is important for firms in the hospitality industry to hire service-recovery personnel who are professional in their actions, and who will ensure that service failure is not witnessed again. Another key procedure that can lead to positive service delivery is the provision of an apology for the service failure, which should go hand in hand with presenting consumers with some compensation forms such as offering vouchers or discounts.

Petzer and Steyn (2006) indicates that offering discounts or vouchers to customers especially after their experience with service failure, is likely to enhance their retention and loyalty, thereby highlighting positive service recovery. Another policy, which should be implemented by firms in the hospitality sector, with the aim of achieving positive service recovery is the training and empowerment of employees to deal with service failure effectively (Silber et al., 2009, p 732). Employees with the idea or information on how to handle or deal with service failure are more likely to help achieve positive service recovery than those with no such information. Moreover, in the case of service failure, organizations in the hospitality industry should provide assurance to consumers who have experienced service failure that the same will not be experienced in future, and through this, positive service recovery is often assured.


There are various recommendations that organizations, especially those in the hospitality industry, should consider if they are to prevent incidences of service failure. As mentioned earlier, negative attitudes and unacceptable behaviors of employees play a significant role in service failure. As such, it is recommended that employers should strive to manage employees’ emotional response to customers when providing services to them. Hugo (2013) is of the opinion that with the management of employees’ emotional response, poor or ineffective relationships between them and consumers will not be experienced, and possible service failure might be prevented.

Another recommendation is that employers or managements should pay attention to employee satisfaction as this will enhance how they interact with or engage consumers. It is also recommended that firms in the hospitality industries should learn from their service failures and apply what is learned to create a set of knowledge that can be used for continuous transformational change and innovation and to amend their existing systems. Mattila (2006) articulates that the idea of purchasing new systems is more costly than amending existing systems, and this is what firms need to consider. The amendment of existing systems plays a significant role in preventing possible or future service failures.

Moreover, firms, in a bid to prevent or address frequent service failures, should be better equipped to provide customers with better value, and this can only be achieved by putting in place more reliable and continuously updated service systems as the market undergoes evolution over time (Bradley and Sparks, 2009, p 132). Most importantly, in case of service failures, it is recommended that organizations especially those in the hospitality industry should provide feedback to consumers on whether the failure has been addressed or not and providing assurance that the service failure would not be experienced in future. Organizations provide feedback to customers regarding service failures are often more successful in terms of customer retention and enhancement of customers loyalty.


Boshor, C. and Staude, G., 2003. Satisfaction with service recovery: Its measurement and its outcomes. South African Journal of Business Management, 34(3).

Bradley, G.L. and Sparks, B.A., 2009. Dealing with service failures: The use of explanations. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 26(2), pp.129-143.

Chou, C., Hsu, Y.H. and Goo, Y.J., 2009. Service Failures and Recovery Strategies from the Service Provider Perspective. Asia Pacific Management Review, 14(2), pp.237-249.

Gursoy, D., Ekiz, E.H. and Chi, C.G., 2007. Impacts of organizational responses on complainants’ justice perceptions and post-purchase behaviors. Journal of quality assurance in hospitality & tourism, 8(1), pp.1-25.

Hess, R.L., Ganesan, S. and Klein, N.M., 2003. Service failure and recovery: The impact of relationship factors on customer satisfaction. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(2), pp.127-145.

Huang, W.H., 2008. The impact of other-customer failure on service satisfaction. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 19(4), pp.521-536.

Hugo, S., 2013. Understanding Service Failures: Suggesting a Competency Perspective. Journal of Tourism Research & Hospitality.

Komunda, M. and Osarenkhoe, A., 2012. Remedy or cure for service failure? Effects of service recovery on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Business Process Management Journal, 18(1), pp.82-103.

Lee, M.J., Singh, N. and Chan, E.S., 2011. Service failures and recovery actions in the hotel industry: A text-mining approach. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 17(3), pp.197-207.

Lee, Y.L. and Sparks, B., 2007. Appraising tourism and hospitality service failure events: a Chinese perspective. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research.

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Mattila, A.S., 2006. The power of explanations in mitigating the ill-effects of service failures. Journal of Services Marketing, 20(7), pp.422-428.

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Sample Psychology Thesis Paper on Substance Abuse summary and response essay help

Substance Abuse


The utilization of medically and non-medically specified drugs that lead to periodic adverse social impacts, for instance, failure to complete the set undertakings, legal matters, or interpersonal disagreements normally imply substance abuse. This results in stern social effects such as legal penalties, slackness, and loss of employment, which may be unfavorable to the abuser and other individuals. In this regard, the abusers necessitate treatment for them to surmount the various problems they experience. The psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic approaches offer successful interventions that seek to boost client self-responsiveness and decrease or eradicate substance abuse predicaments. Many features of the psychodynamic therapy have advanced from psychoanalytic theory and have been medically utilized to a broad scope of psychological difficulties. Studies affirm that brief psychodynamic therapies attain their efficacy when abstinence is realized. They may be significantly helpful for clients who have modest use of substances. The behavioral movement focuses on the deliberation, cognitive plans, certainties, attitudes, and ascriptions that sway a person’s sentiments and mediate the connection involving precursors and conduct. The purpose of the behavioral approach is either decreasing impairment or promoting abstinence. Deterrence of relapse highlights the significance of getting prepared for the possibility of its occurrence and establishing the means of avoiding it by stopping the practice rapidly and with little or no damage. The humanistic movement deems human nature excellent because of the intrinsic capability to sustain healthy, substantial associations and making judgments in the concern of oneself and other people. Humanistic therapists deliberate on assisting the abusers to get rid of their detrimental conducts by targeting the existing conscious practices. Therapists endeavor to create a therapeutic connection that is responsive, accepting, and focused on the abusers’ inner inspiration to realize a healthy course.

Substance Abuse


People who are regularly late for work due to late-night alcohol consumption, other substance abuse issues, experience difficult work days because of hangovers, and regularly call in ill may indicate cases of possible substance abuse. Instances of parents failing to take care of their children, a partner not catering for the needs of the other, and frequently consuming too much alcohol are warning indications of substance abuse (Knapp, Kieling, & Beck, 2015). The use of medically and non-medically stipulated drugs that lead to recurrent adverse social impacts, for instance, failure to accomplish the set tasks, legal issues, or interpersonal disagreements characteristically signify substance abuse. This results in severe social outcomes such as legal penalties, negligence, and loss of employment, which may be detrimental to the abuser and other people. In this regard, the abusers require treatment for them to rise above the numerous problems they face. The psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic movements offer effective interventions aimed at boosting client self-awareness and decreasing or eliminating substance abuse problems.   

Psychodynamic Movement

Psychodynamic therapy centers on unconscious practices since they are evident in the present conducts of the client (Mundon, Anderson, & Najavits, 2015). The objectives of psychodynamic therapy are client self-consciousness and comprehension of the impact of the past on the current conducts. Psychodynamic movement facilitates the client’s evaluation of unresolved conflicts and indications that occur from past dysfunctional associations and become noticeable in the requirement and desire to abuse alcohol and other drugs. Many aspects of the psychodynamic movement have evolved from psychoanalytic theory and have been medically employed to a broad scope of psychological problems. Studies affirm that brief psychodynamic therapies realize their efficacy when abstinence is well ascertained. They might be greatly valuable for clients who have no higher than moderate use of substances.  

It is vital for the psychodynamic therapist to understand regarding the properties of the abused substance and its subculture to initiate a successful recovery plan. Psychodynamic therapy represents the oldest of the contemporary therapies, which denotes that it is founded on greatly advanced and multifaceted approaches to human development and interrelations. Supportive-expressive psychotherapy as a psychodynamic technique has been acclimatized for application with individuals who have substance abuse problems; it has been tailored for utilization with opiate dependence alongside methadone upholding therapy and use of cocaine. The core conflictual relationship theme (CCRT) perception also may assist clients in addressing relapse, which is reckoned by nearly every professional as a fundamental and natural element of recovery. Relapse provides the client and supportive-expressive therapist the chance to evaluate the manner in which core response from others and response of the self can operate as prompts and develop approaches to prevent the induction in the future. Lastly, supportive-expressive therapy is beneficial to the contribution of clients in organizations, for example, Alcoholics Anonymous, or could be employed as a means of establishing the reluctance to take part in such groups (Mundon et al., 2015).

Behavioral Movement

Cognitive-behavioral therapy has realized extensive utilization in the management of substance abuse (Cautela & Ishaq, 2013). It originates from the behavioral theory and centers on both standard habituation and operant learning. It is strongly connected with the cognitive social learning theory where notions regarding observational conduct, the significance of modeling, and the task of cognitive anticipations in the determination of conduct are obtained. Behavioral movement concentrates on the consideration, cognitive plans, convictions, attitudes, and attributions that sway a person’s sentiments and mediate the association involving precursors and conduct. In the majority of substance abuse therapy settings, cognitive-behavioral approach holds outstanding features. Before centering particularly on the cognitive-behavioral approach, there is a need to examine the attributes that act as the basis of and contribute considerably to substance abuse therapy.  

Contrary to the community reinforcement approach, which integrates a broad scope of people in the treatment progression, behavioral self-will training centers on the abuser and the efforts to decrease or stop drug abuse with or without assistance. The objective of the behavioral movement is either decreasing harm or fostering abstinence (Cautela & Ishaq, 2013). In the case of alcoholism, behavioral approach embarks on a number of steps. To start with, the client determines the highest quantity of beer per day. The client then starts to evaluate the amount of alcohol consumed and the drinking situation to offer the foundation of a functional assessment. The client starts to adjust the level of alcohol consumption by changing from a brand having high alcohol content to one that contains less, drinking slowly for a long time, or expanding the intervals between instances of alcohol consumption. The client has to build up the ability to reject drinks boldly if offered (Sobell, Sobell, & Ward, 2013). He should develop a fortification approach to reward the realization of the drinking-associated objectives.

Through the practice of self-control, the client should have the ability to establish the social, psychological, and environmental cues that elicit excessive drinking (McCarthy, Keefe, & Barber, 2016). He should learn new tactics of addressing problems and avoiding alcohol consumption and employ them instead of depending on alcoholism as a way of escaping setback resolution. Finally, the client ought to try to practice the means of avoiding relapse. Though therapists may assist abusers in behavioral self-restraint, the abusers uphold primary responsibility for modification of conduct. Prevention of relapse underscores the significance of getting ready for the likelihood of its occurrence and establishing ways of avoiding it by stopping the practice quickly and with little or no harm. The objective is to assist the abusers in the establishment of a better balance and boosting involvement in worthwhile and pleasant actions while decreasing the rate and sources of distress.        

Humanistic Movement

Humanistic and existential approaches employ a broad scope of approaches, therapeutic objectives, intervention policies, and research techniques (Madson, Bethea, Daniel, & Necaise, 2008). They are related by their highlighting of the comprehension of human encounters and concentrating on the clients instead of the symptoms. Psychological challenges (such as drug abuse) are taken to be the outcome of inhibited capacity to create dependable, consequential, and independent decisions concerning the means of living. Interventions seek to enhance self-consciousness and self-understanding of the clients. The humanistic movement considers human nature good because of the inherent ability to sustain healthy, considerable associations and making judgments in the interest of oneself and other people. Humanistic therapists concentrate on assisting the abusers to get rid of their harmful conducts by targeting the current conscious practices. Therapists attempt to generate a therapeutic connection that is friendly and accepting and that is focused on the abusers’ inner motivation to realize a healthy course.

Under the humanistic movement, therapists tackle the aspects that shape drug abuse problems, for instance, loss of hope, dread of death or collapse, segregation from other people, and poor spiritual insight. The humanistic movement might be especially significant for short-term drug abuse instances since they have a tendency of enhancing therapeutic relationship, boosting self-control, centering on possible inner aspects, and determining the client as the person accountable for recuperation. Since the approaches under the humanistic movement seek to tackle the underlying facets of drug abuse problems, they might not all the time directly deal with the act of abuse (Galizio & Maisto, 2013). As long as drug abuse is the mainly occurring challenge and stays in the forefront, the humanistic movement is most successfully employed alongside traditional approaches in assisting the recovery of abusers. Nonetheless, most of the basic attitudes that have been established to back the humanistic approach may be employed in nearly all other forms of therapy as a means of enhancing the client-therapist interaction.  


Substance abusers are usually late for or absent from work attributable to such things as late-night consumption of alcohol and substance abuse issues, the experience of intricate work days because of hangovers, and often calling in ill. The psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic therapies offer valuable interventions aimed at improving client self-awareness and decreasing or eradicating substance abuse problems. Psychodynamic movement centers on unconscious progressions since they are apparent in the present conducts of clients. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has attained all-embracing utilization in managing substance abuse. Via the practice of self-discipline, the client should have the aptitude to establish the social, psychological, and environmental signals that elicit too much drinking. Because the approaches under the humanistic movement seek to undertake the underlying facets of drug abuse difficulties, they might not all the time directly handle the act of abuse. As long as drug abuse is the mostly occurring challenge and stays in the forefront, the humanistic movement is most productively employed together with traditional approaches in assisting the convalescence of abusers.


Cautela, J. R., & Ishaq, W. (Eds.). (2013). Contemporary issues in behavior therapy: Improving the human condition. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science & Business Media.

Galizio, M., & Maisto, S. A. (Eds.). (2013). Determinants of substance abuse: Biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science & Business Media.

Knapp, P., Kieling, C., & Beck, A. T. (2015). What do psychotherapists do? A systematic review and meta-regression of surveys. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 84(6), 377-378.

Madson, M. B., Bethea, A. R., Daniel, S., & Necaise, H. (2008). The state of substance abuse treatment training in counseling and counseling psychology programs: What is and is not happening. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, 7(2), 164-178.

McCarthy, K. S., Keefe, J. R., & Barber, J. P. (2016). Goldilocks on the couch: Moderate levels of psychodynamic and process-experiential technique predict outcome in psychodynamic therapy. Psychotherapy Research, 26(3), 307-317.

Mundon, C. R., Anderson, M. L., & Najavits, L. M. (2015). Attitudes toward substance abuse clients: An empirical study of clinical psychology trainees. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 47(4), 293-300.

Sobell, L. C., Sobell, M. B., & Ward, E. (Eds.). (2013). Evaluating alcohol and drug abuse treatment effectiveness: Recent advances. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

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