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Electric Cars and Environment


The role of information technology is to facilitate the development of solutions to the problems that face humanity on earth. The emission of greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has ben considered as one of the leading causes of climate change. Excess use of fossil fuel in the production of energy necessary in running machinery such has motor vehicles has necessitude the need to develop electric cars a way of improving on environmental protection and conservation. The main objective of this research paper is to demonstrate how the development of electric cars can enhance environmental protection and conservation.

Automobile pollution and the threat of global warming

According to the 2012 statistics of carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere, automobile engines were considered the greatest emitters of the greenhouse as in 2012 accounting for 21% of all emissions in the United States. Global warming which is primarily caused by combustion of coal oil and gas threatens the world population. This is because, when emitted into the atmosphere, carbon dioxide causes heat retention within the atmosphere hence resulting into rising temperature and heating of the earth overtime.

In different regions of the United States, wild fire seasons have become longer and severe as more people live in vulnerable areas and this makes their homes and property susceptible to destruction. Such serious impact global warming has become inevitable necessitating policy makers and innovators to develop techniques and technologies that can ensure a reduction in the levels of carbon dioxide emissions in to the atmosphere. Through technological innovations such as the development of electric cars, it would be relatively easier to ensure that the transport sector, which is a major contributor of greenhouse gases, is involved in the preservation of the worst impact of global warming (Ridlington et al 11).

Electric cars and the reduction of pollution dependence on fossil fuel energy

Electric cars are modeled in different forms, but they share the feature of using electrify instead of fuel energy in their operations. This is considered crucial in the emission of greenhouse gases and the elimination of gasoline as a source of energy. Electric cars have the ability to complete an entire trip through exclusive use of electric power. This is unlike hybrid cars that need the operation of an internal combustion engine to facilitate driving a short distance (Ridlington et al 13).

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV)

This model of electric cars operates through an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. This means that for successful operation, PHEVs can be plugged into an external power source to charge an internal battery. When fully charged, the battery can power the car over a given distance. Chevy Volt is an example of PHEV (Ridlington et al 11). This car has a 38-mile electric range when the battery is fully charged. An additional type of PHEV is the Ford C-Max Energy, which has a 21-mile electric range. For an extension on the range beyond the specified distance, PHEVs engage the internal combustion engines. The benefits of this technology with regard to environmental conservation is that even in areas considered to be using polluted electrify generating power plants, PHEVs have a relatively lower emission rate compared to the amount emitted by cars solely powered by fossil fuels.

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs)

Unlike PHEVs, BEVs do not have an internal combustion engine. Instead, they are involved in exclusive use of battery power. This means that these cars can only take trips within the range of their battery power before making stops to recharge. Nisan Leaf is an example of a BEV model. This car has an estimated range of 84 miles. There is a larger version of this car called the Tesla model, which has an estimated range of up to 265 miles (Ridlington et al 12). BEVs are considered more beneficial than their PHEVs because they operate on battery electricity that does not have direct emissions considering that their operations do not necessitate the consumption of any fossil fuel energy. From an environmental perspective, BEVs are cleaner compared to an average fossil fuel powered engine (Ridlington et al 12).

Efficiency of electric cars compared to conventional fossil fuel cars in relation to the environment

In electric cars such as the BEV models, there is an assumption that about 50% of their battery modules must be replaced at least once during the lifetime of the car. The sensitivity of this partial replacement of batteries in BEVs can be tested by calculating energy intensity and emission intensity. This is done by assuming different circumstances in which either a battery will have to be replaced or where it will not have to be replaced (Aguirre et al 16-17).

Table1.0 battery life cycle of electric cars

It is notable that the battery technology used in BEVs is in constant evolution in terms of improving on its level of efficiency. Inasmuch as there exists and assumption that approximately half of the BEV batteries will have to be replaced once in the lifetime of a BEV (Hajian et al 1). This assumption will not hold true in the future of electric cars considering that less replacement will be required. Furthermore, the realization that BEV battery will be improved to cover a wider range and last for a longer period can be considered as an essential motivator for members of the public to engage in the purchase of the vehicle (Hajian et al 1). Through constant improvement on the technology of battery life for electric cars, it will be easier to arrive to the conclusion that an increase e in the battery lifetime range would make battery replacement unnecessary hence improving the efficiency of BEVs in relation to the production of fewer emissions compared to fossil fuel energy. Inasmuch as battery efficiency is important in the over a life cycle emission, the charging and use face of BEV batteries has a greater impact on the lifecycle emissions of the batteries (Aguirre et al 17).  

From an economic perspective, PHEVs can be considered as attractive alternative for commuters. This is because it is installed with a battery that runs approximately 21 miles. In societies such as the United States, the average fossil fuel consumption is 11. 8 liters for every 100 kilometers, assuming that for the average commuter, 20 miles is the average distance travelled daily, and the average cost of fuel is $0.8 per liter with the average cost on each commuter at $3 per day (Hajian et al 2). This when compared to a PHEV battery capable of storing energy worth 8 kilowatts and able to travel 20 miles, fossil fuel energy is relatively expensive. This is because, with an efficiency of about 90% for the charging system and the cost of electricity as at 2007 in the united states was $6.7 cents/kwh, the approximate electric cost for the owner is at $0.6 per day. Economically, with the price of $0.8 for gasoline, the price of electricity would be approximately $350 MWh to ensure that the use of gas was as economical as electricity (Hajian et al 2).

When compared to conventional cars powered by fossil fuel energy, the use of battery and electric power make BEVs and PHEVs more efficient in energy conservation and environmental protection with regard to pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The pollution impact of fossil fuel powered emissions can be compared with those of electric cars, which do not produce tailpipe pollution, through a measure of lifecycle emissions (Hajian et al 4). These emissions include pollution resulting from vehicle production, production, and transportation of fuel, and pollution emitted when fuel is being used. For instance, life cycle global warming pollution released form a fossil fuel powered vehicle is inclusive of all pollution resulting from the production, refining, and transportation of fossil fuel and tailpipe pollution emitted from engine combustion in the cars. Inasmuch as an electric car does not produce any pollution when drawing electricity from the battery to operate the engine, its life cycle pollution is inclusive of the global warming pollution that is released from the power plants that produce electric energy (Aguirre et al 19).

According to research studies by varieties of government agencies and academic institutions, there exists an assumption that electric cars have a relatively lower life cycle emissions compared to the conventional fossil fuel powered cars even when the vehicles are charged with a grid characterized by coal-fired power plants. This can be used in arriving to the conclusion that driving an electric car, whether BEV of PHEV, produces less pollution compared to an average fossil fuel powered vehicle. For electric vehicles, their level of emission with regard to environmental pollution is dependent on their source of electric energy (Grunig et al, 32).

The process of driving an electric vehicle is often similar to driving a gasoline powered conventional car. It is notable that well designed electric cars can travel at a speed similar to conventional gasoline powered vehicles while providing similar performance capabilities. Despite the similarities, the engines of some of the electric vehicles are designed to automatically shut off when stopped at a red traffic light or when braking as an energy conservation strategy (UNEP 19). This can be relatively disturbing to drivers in the initial stages. Electric vehicles are in the long run convenient in serving the needs of the customers because what these vehicles give up in range, they compensate in refueling convenience. This is because drivers of electric cars can refuel their vehicles by plugging it into special recharging outlets in their homes (UNEP 19). The effectiveness and the efficiency of the recharging process is however dependent on the voltage of the charging station, the prevailing environmental conditions such as an ambient temperature, the remaining electric energy in storage and the type of battery pack. From a general perspective, the process can take several hours, but continuous improvement in technological innovation of electric cars has enabled the development of car batteries that can be recharged more quickly and that have the ability of retaining more electric energy. Inasmuch as electric cars may be significantly expensive compared to the conventional gasoline powered vehicles, they are more efficient in terms of environmental protection and the protection of the drivers from possible health hazards resulting from fossil fuel energy. In addition, these vehicles are designed to efficiently meet the average power requirement on the cars considering that onboard batteries handle the surge requirements of power (UNEP 20).

Technical consideration of electric cars

Inasmuch as PHEVs are not fully electric vehicles because they are installed with a fuel combustion engine, they are playing an essential role in the promotion of environmental protection and conservation considering that an increase in their fleet from a global perspective is considered as a movement to the eventual embracing of electric vehicles in the transport sector. The advantage of PHEVs over BEVs is that they do not require any major infrastructural changes such as special fueling stations of electric grid modification. From a general perspective, BEVs and PHEVs outperform conventional cars with regard to fuel consumption and emission of pollutants (UNEP 19). However, the level of BEV and PHEV performance and the resulting cost saving initiatives are largely dependent on their application, which is inclusive of the types of trips, the degree of service and maintenance, fuel and electric price, and the availability of optimal fuel and electric quality (Aguirre et al 18).

Basics of electric car technology

A conventional gasoline powered car has a mechanical drive train, which is inclusive of a fuel tank, gearbox, combustion engine, and a transmitter to the wheels. Electric cars such as PHEVs have two drive trains, which are the electric and the mechanical one. The mechanical drive train is similar to that of the gasoline-powered cars, while the electric drive includes an electric motor, a battery, and power electronic for controls. The electric drive in PHEVs is similar to that of BEVs, which only have an electric drive. In PHEVs, these drives can be interconnected to ensure that they share certain components such as transmission and the gearbox. The current PHEV models of electric cars use gear boxes but the technological innovations in this sector will necessitate the development of a single gear transmission considering that the configuration of PHEVs electric drive train has the ability has the ability of handling a variety of loads and speeds without losing its efficacy (UNEP 19).

Figure 1.0 Basic outline of mechanical versus electric drive trains.

In terms of their degree of hybridization, PHEVs are designed to deal with energy losses using different types of technological innovations, which have been developed to harness and utilize lost energy (UNEP 20). For instance, PHEVs are designed to minimize emissions and energy loss by automatically shutting down combustion engines and the electric circuit during idling or long stopovers. Both BEVs and PHEVs have the ability of recuperating energy lost from regenerative braking. Furthermore, PHEVs also have the ability to use the battery energy in assisting the combustion engines as a strategy of downsizing the engines. In the process of enhancing their hybridization, PHEVs also have the ability ensuring that combustion engines run at their maximum load in situations where the engine efficiency is maximized (UNEP 21). The technology of enlarging the battery pack and recharging capacity with energy from a wall plug has been essential in improving the mile range and performance of PHEVs and BEVs is essential in the reduction of fossil fuel energy consumption. This is because in BEVs fuel consumption will be completely replaced by electric energy while in PHEVs fuel consumption will be partly replaced by electric consumption. It is notable that in PHEVs fuel consumption is highly dependent on the distance driven after electric recharge and the capacity of the batteries installed in these cars (UNEP 22).

Inasmuch as plugging in facilitates the reduction of pollution by vehicles at the tailpipe, it may also be a contributor to an increase in levels of greenhouse gas emissions at the power plants. Such emissions are strongly dependent on the fuel burned and the electrical efficiency. The emissions from recharging BEVs and PHEVs are dependent on the electricity generated in a specific country and the time the electric cars are charged considering that some fuels are more likely to be burned in off-peak night hours. However, in situations where electric cars are recharged with power generated from renewable energy sources such as wind energy and solar power are potential for low to zero greenhouse gas emissions from electric cars (UNEP 23).

A BEV driver is expected to achieve a 100% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions while a PHEV driver is expected to realize at least 15% reduction in the total carbon dioxide emission compared to a driver of a conventional fossil fuel powered car. Furthermore, for PHEVs charged in areas where the electric grid is powered from sources with low carbon dioxide emissions, there will be a reduction in the levels of emissions hence a reduction in the creation of smog and ozone. Spare battery power in PHEVs and BEVs plugged in cane also serve an essential role in the distribution of the compact power supply whenever necessary. In this system, the stored battery power can flow back to the grid through the wall plug. This can serve a local emergency energy supply considering that it can be practical in areas experiencing unreliable power supply (Aguirre et al 18).

The benefits of electric vehicles over the conventional fossil fuel powered cars are dependent on how the car is driven in normal conditions. The advantages of recuperating braking energy and reducing energy loses when the engine is idle make electric vehicles better alternatives with regard to environmental conservation and protection (UNEP 23).

As the popularity of electric cars continues to increase in the society, they will begin offering the electric grid with a modular and a widely dispersed significant volume of storage capacity for electric energy. This will ensure that they contribute to the ability to integrate higher amounts of solar and wind energy into a country’s electric system. Currently in the United States, elastic production has been matched with daily consumption, which means that while there are large plants running at different times, others are switched on and off to match the variations in demand. Electric cars and their batteries have the ability to provide additional benefits by feeding stored power back to the grid in times of high demand for electricity (UNEP 23).

Challenges facing electric cars with regard to environmental protection

Battery disposal has ben considered d as a major impediment to the objective of electric cars to enhance environmental conservation. This is because of the possibility of metal leakage in the environment in their afterlife (UNEP 23). Inasmuch as most batteries can be recycled, there has been a growing concern that a minimal percentage of poisonous metals constitution these batteries such as cadmium and lead have a high possibility of leaking into the environment and affecting the ecosystem and human health. Despite these challenges, recent technological innovations in the development of batteries have eradicated the use of lead acid and nickel cadmium batteries. The most recent version of car batteries, Lithium-ion and nickel-metal hydride, have no serious threats to the environment. The technology was based on the need for an efficient technique of recycling system of batteries (UNEP 23).

The price of BEVs and PHEVs is higher compared to that of gasoline-powered vehicles. This is because of the technological complexities involved in the design and manufacture of electric cars. However, the lower fuel consumption of PHEVs and the life cycle cost of buying and owning an electric car can be equal or even lower than buying a gasoline-powered vehicle. This is because when purchasing an electric vehicle, the life cycle cost is not only inclusive of the purchasing and maintained cost (Ridlington et al 22). 


Excess use of fossil fuel in the production of energy necessary in running machinery such has motor vehicles has necessitude the need to develop electric cars a way of improving on environmental protection and conservation. Electric cars are modeled in different forms, but they share the feature of using electrify instead of fuel energy in their operations. This is considered crucial in the emission of greenhouse gases and the elimination of gasoline as a source of energy. It is notable that the battery technology used in and PHEVs and BEVs are in constant evolution in terms of improving on its level of efficiency.

Works cited

Aguirre, Kimberly., Eisenhardt, Luke., Lim, Christian., Nelson, Brittany., Norring, Alex.,

Slowik, Peter & Tu, Nancy. Lifecycle Analysis Comparison of a Battery Electric Vehicle and a Conventional Gasoline Vehicle. California Air Resources Board, 2012

Grunig, Max., Witte, Marc., Marcellino, Dominic., Selig, Jordan and van Essen, Huib. An

Overview of Electric Vehicles on the Market and in Development. ICF International, 2011. 

Hajian, Mahdi., Zereipour, Hamidreza and Rosehart, W.D. Environmental Benefits of Plug-in

Hybrid Electric Vehicles: The Case of Alberta. IEEE

Ridlington, Elizabeth. Frontire Group, Madsen, Travis and Environment America Research &

Policy Center. Driving Cleaner: More Electric Vehicles Means Less Pollution. Environment America Research & Policy Center, 2014   

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). Hybrid Electric Vehicles: An Overview of

Current Technology and Its Application in Developing and Transitional Countries.  United Nations Environment Programme, 2009

Sample Literature Essay Paper on Song: To Celia essay help online free

Song: To Celia

The theme of the poem is love, precisely unrequited love. The persona in the poem has dire love for a woman, Celia. He recently sent her a wreath of flowers, though she returned them to the sender. However, the flowers do not wither and continue to grow, owing to her ‘breath of life’ on them. The metaphor of drinking is majorly used in the poem. The unquenched thirst represents the love the persona has for Celia, with drinking representing the reciprocation of the love. Quenching the thirst represents reciprocation of the love, therefore relating directly to the major theme of the poem. The metaphor is an effective elucidation of the overall major theme of the poem, explaining the situation of the persona, and his dire need for love from the love of her life, Celia.

Paradise Lost

In Milton’s “Paradise Lost,” Satan depicts a number of heroic character traits, despite his immorality and evil nature. The greatest elucidation of his heroism is the success he achieves in corrupting humankind, after managing to overcome all his weaknesses and doubts. He succeeds in his mission, making him a hero, despite his evil cause. A hero achieves what he has set out in life, and thus the achievement of Satan’s goal makes him a hero in Paradise Lost. Another depiction of the heroic nature of Satan is his bravery and lack of fear to the threats of being punished by God, and being damned eternally. He is uncowed by the terrifying chaos of death by God; making him a hero in the book. He is unafraid of the consequences of his actions, making him an achiever of his set objectives, and thus a hero, despite his evil nature.

Sample Ethics Essay Paper on Justice high school essay help: high school essay help


I believe that the liberal state should play a limited role in marriage policy because of the private nature of the relationship that one has with a loved one. The state does not have a legitimate role or right to limit marriage to two-person, monogamous romantic relationships because such a limitation would infringe on the personal freedoms of individuals and their rights to self-determination in their lives. Despite the issue of choices in marriage involving the subject of morality, the government’s obligation to uphold personal freedoms and rights ought to limit its enforcement of a marriage policy in the society.

One of the highly important theorists in relation to the conception of justice in the society is John Rawls. Identifying liberty and equality as two essential principles of justice, Rawls argued that all individuals in a society have equal rights to fundamental liberties that are inalienable. Advocating for a lexical priority scheme in which rights that are more fundamental override others, the theorist identified certain rights and freedoms as critically fundamental, arguing that the government cannot amend, remove, or violate them in the lives of citizens. Rawls’ argument was that the principles of justice ought to form the primary foundations of basic institutions in the society, including the constitution and its provisions. This implies that the constitution, which is the basis of laws and government policies in a society, ought to guarantee and protect the fundamental liberties. Rawls’ contention is that the foundation of basic institutions on these fundamental liberties underlies the crucial structure of society. Within this structure, people have the freedom to reach decisions that cannot be subject to further evaluations, such that people’s adherence to the rules of a just system ensures the justice of their actions.

I believe that individuals’ choices in marriage represent some of the extremely fundamental rights in the background of Rawls’ argument. Despite being a universal social institution, marriage is a highly private relationship with significant and long-term effects in the personal lives of individuals. Personal choices about the number of partners and the spouse have consequences on the involved parties themselves, rather than the society. This assessment justifies the classification of marriage choices as fundamental liberties that the government should not remove, amend, or violate in citizens’ lives. By developing and enforcing a marriage policy in the society, a liberal state would be denying citizens their rights to the fundamental liberty of self-determination concerning a matter that affects their lives in the long-term. Limitation of marriages to two-person and monogamous relationships would involve denial of justice to citizens in relation to the inalienable liberty to choose the marriage relationship to pursue in life.

One potential ground for such restriction in romantic relationships and marriages would relate to the argument by Jerry Cohen that Rawls’ conceptualization of justice is narrow and impractical in real life. Cohen argues that personal attitudes and decisions often have consequences for the society and opportunities in people’s lives. Cohen argues that justice in the society should incorporate focus beyond just institutions and rules to feature the correct and appropriate ethos and attitudes. This means that justice in the society concerns adherence to the appropriate varieties of attitudes among society members. In such context, Cohen would argue that the government could have the right to intervene and enforce marriage policy that ensures the correct forms of marriage among citizens, rather than allowing them to decide the relationships to pursue freely. Arguing that two-person, monogamous forms of marriage represent the ideal variety of relationships owing to the adverse effects of polygamy on children and rival spouses, besides the likelihood of conflicts over property and relations, proponents of the Cohen school of thought would argue that government intervention to enforce the right kind of ethos in marriage is valid and necessary. In this way, the proponents would contend, citizens and marriage partners would have desirable kinds of attitudes towards each other, without conflicts, thus promoting genuine justice in the society.

This reasoning fails to fulfill the requirements of liberal neutrality because it would involve the government’s promotion of one specific conceptualization of an ideal or morality. Liberal neutrality concerns the government’s treatment of all citizens equally, strict adherence to obligations, and allowance for equality among citizens in political decision-making. By enforcing a specific policy for marriage among society members, the government would be intervening in a matter that is outside its obligations in the society. Such enforcement of marriage policy would also violate liberal neutrality through the liberal state’s failure to treat citizens equally and demonstrate equal and unbiased regard for the diverse conceptions of “good” in the society. Justice in the society requires the government’s treatment of all citizens equally and without discrimination, despite differences in their orientations and conceptualizations. The government’s decision to enforce a marriage policy in the society would portray cultural bias in political decision-making and undermine the equal status of all citizens despite diversity in their conceptions. It would involve the state’s provision of unequal political rights among citizens, especially considering the obligation of government to guarantee equal weighting in political decision making among the different conceptions of citizens.

Sample Geology Coursework Paper on Volcanoes essay help from professional writers


QUESTION: The map in Fig. 1 shows the major volcanic centers in the Cascade Range and surrounding population centers. Which volcano(es) pose(s) the greatest geologic hazard to the following population centers listed in Table 1 below?   

Table 1

Population CenterVolcanoesSeattle/Tacoma, WA Glacier peak and Mt. RainerBellingham, WAMt. BakerMt. Vernon, WAMount St. HelensEugeneBelknap Shield volcano, Mt. Bachelor, Creator lake, Mt. Washington, Mt. Jefferson, South sister, Three Sisters Broken topPortlandMt. Hood and Mt. St. Helens

QUESTION: Which do you think has the potential to be more destructive: A convergent margin volcano like Mt. St. Helens that erupts about once every century, or one that erupts at much longer intervals? Why do you think this is so? 

A convergent margin volcano is less destructive as compared to that that erupts at a much longer interval. This is because the even though convergent margin volcanoes have a lesser reoccurrence period, only a smaller percentage of the eruption cause fatalities and hazard to crops due to the ashes produced. On the other hand, the volcanoes that erupt after much longer intervals are result to very large eruptions that cause serious fatalities thus being more hazardous even though they are mostly dormant.

QUESTION: Study Figure 3 (Cascade Eruptions During the Last 4000 Years) and 4 (Annual Probability of Tephra Accumulation). Where is the main area of concentration of tephra accumulation? 

The main area of concentration of Tephra accumulation is at Mount Saint Helens in Washington.

QUESTION: What are the main factors that control the spatial pattern of the annual probability of 10 cm or more of tephra accumulation in the Pacific Northwest from Cascade volcanoes?  

This includes; the rate of release of gasses dissolved on the magma, the size of the tephra particles released as small particles and the column height of the released particles rise more than 10 km upwards and covers longer distances downwards. Besides this, the eruption volume from the ash cloud may lead to thicker layers or thinner layers of particles formed on land.  Wind speed and direction of flow also control the spatial pattern.

QUESTION: On the day of the main Mt. St. Helens eruption, seismometers 3.5 miles from the blast origin stopped transmitting 77 seconds after the eruption, when they were overridden by a dense pyroclastic blast cloud. Based on this information, how fast (in miles per hour) was the blast cloud moving? Show your math.   

60 seconds =  1 min

77 seconds = ??                       77/60

Therefore, if Mt St Helens erupts 3.5 miles for 77/60 min, what will it be in 60 min

77/60 = 3.5

60    =??      (60 X 3.5) / (77/60) = 163.64miles per hour

QUESTION: What population centers are built on top of the Osceola Mudflow? You will need to zoom in on the map to read the names of the towns.

Orting, Sumner, Auburn, Puyallup, Buckley and Enumclaw centers


CommunityDistance from base of the volcano (km)Distance from base of the volcano (m)Response Time (seconds)Response Time (minutes)Enumclaw202000016976Auburn14.21420012720Kent    16.816800181080Tukwila     10.110100241440          

 QUESTION: What physical and ecological changes have affected many of the river valleys (lahar flow paths) since the arrival of European settlers in the 19th and 20th centuries?    

Industrialization and increase in number of vehicles have been known to increase the rate of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Besides this there has been an increase in the rate of burning of fossil fuels together with deforestation which largely contribute to global warming. The high temperature from global warming results to melting of glaciers and ice snows which forms water that mixes with lahar eventually resulting to lahar flow paths.

QUESTION: What impact might such changes have on the potential distance and flow velocity of a recurrent flow? 

The above changes results to reduced velocity of the lahar flow thus increasing the speed at which the lahar flows. Therefore, the lahar flow path is able to flow to longer distances due to its reduced velocity.

QUESTION: Assuming an average recurrence interval of 10,000 years for an Osceola-sized lahar event, how would you advise city planners in Enumclaw, WA, regarding site location within city limits for:   

A. An elementary school      

The school should not be located in a valley landscape area. It should also be set far away from any volcanic mountain and the school should be equipped with warning system which would help in alerting everyone in the school in case of lahar threats. The elementary school should thus be built on a higher ground. This is because the lahar flows downwards according to the area’s gradient and topography.

 B. A nuclear power plant 

The nuclear power plant may result to grave damages in case it is destroyed by the lahar event. It is thus not advisable to construct the nuclear power plant in the area since there will be likelihood of a lahar event.

QUESTION: Study Figures 5 (Glacier Peak Eruption History) and 6 (Areas Inundated by Glacier Peak Debris Flows).  What relationship do you see between the recurrence interval of volcanic eruptions and the size of the debris flow?     

The longer the recurrence interval of volcanic eruptions the larger the size of the debris flow and the shorter the recurrence interval the smaller the size of the debris flow.

QUESTION: You will notice that a large debris flow inundated the Stillaguamish River valley between 12,500 and 13,100 years ago. What factor(s) might account for the subsequent large debris flow event to inundate the Sauk and Skagit River valleys 6300-5900 years ago and no longer flow into the Stillaguamish River valley? 

The factors that are likely to be accountable include the large size of River Sauk and Skagit, The channel gradient of the rivers such that Sauk might have a steeper gradient as compared to Stillaguamish river valley and the rate of erosion of Sauk’s river bed thus increasing the size and space for deposition of the large debris.

QUESTION: Study the USGS map HA-729 Sheet 2, “Modern Debris Avalanches and Debris Flows at Mt. Rainier, Washington.” (ON CANVAS) What are the three most common factors causing debris avalanches on Mt. Rainier?   

Volcanic eruptions causing instability of the slopeVibrations caused by earthquakeUndercutting of cliffs and banks by waves or river erosionIntense or prolonged rainfall, rapid snowmelt, or sharp fluctuations in ground-water levels

QUESTION: Based on information provided to you from the above volcanic hazard map, do you think that debris avalanches pose a threat to any of the URBAN areas of the Puget Sound region? Why or why not?

Yes. This is because of the fact that Puget Sound region is found a lowland area which has a steeper gradient. Besides this, the rate of melting glacier is rapid thereby posing danger to Puget Sound area. A landslide is likely to occur in such areas and may result to great fatalities such as destruction of houses and properties and worse; death.

QUESTION: An outburst flood from which glacier system would pose the greatest risk to the town of Longmire?

Mt. Rainier river system

QUESTION: A velocity of about 50 meters per second, which was increasing at the point of measurement, was reported for the 1980 debris avalanche at Mt. St. Helens. If these data can be extrapolated to a potential Mt. Rainier debris avalanche, how long would the citizens of Longmire have to react to a debris avalanche generated at the terminus of the Nisqually Glacier?     

10 seconds

Sample Music Essay Paper on Reaction log F90005 essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Reaction log F90005

Studio orchestras exist entirely in a television studio or movie or video game or even in recording. They are managed exclusively by television or movie studios. Studio orchestra does not include any form of public performances or concerts with audiences. The album sketches of pain were recorded in between November 1959 and March 1960 by Miles Davis.

This album contains an ideal example of a studio orchestra. That is, the song ‘Will o’ the Wisp’. The instructions of the tempo are given by swing of the hand and utterances of words such as go. This album is considered an archetypal recording since it incorporates European classical music, a little of jazz music and styles from world music. The song has slow tempo jazz.The song expresses unity of purpose in the studio orchestra based on the electrifying effects of the instruments used. Thus it is more appealing to the senses.

The song ‘ESP’ shows a second style in Miles Davis work of studio orchestra. In the song ‘ESP ’exposes his great music ideas. From this song his prowess in band leading is shown. Instructions of tempo are given by Davis by using his hands.  The song is seasoned with beautiful tracks and spices of sweet melody and improvised drums are heard from this song.A part from drums, trumpets, pianos sax and bass are beautifully employed. Immediately I start listening to this song, I get swept away by the melody. 

The bitches brew is an exclusively terrific song with greatly amazing lines and sound tracks. This song defined the new genre of music popularly known as the jazz-rock.The instruments used in this song are all electronic. This marks his electric period that satisfies the senses of a listener by the use of electric bass, electric piano and other effects like the multi tracking, face loop and other editing techniques. The tempo changes are similar to the long, slow crescendo more common to Indian raga. Listening keenly to the song, there are solo voices of soprano saxophone and the trumpets.

The song on the corner is another master piece from the album sketches of pain. Turns are arranged into a partly jazz – partly symphonic form. With a chorus in between the melody just appears awesome. In simply terms the song just is play over the funk grove unlike the other songs in the same album.

Work Cited

Miles Davis, Dave Liebman. Sketches of Spain.Manhattan School of Music Jazz Orchestra.Columbiia University Press, 2004.

Sample Philosophy Essay Paper on Free Speech college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Free Speech

            Freedom of speech has been a sensitive subject since time immemorial, especially concerning leadership, politics or authority. Nothing said is harmful until it threatens or criticizes authority. Every person has a right to express their own views about different kinds of situations and to acquire any information that they please (Mill and Rapaport 16). However, the most important consideration is to ensure is that self respect and respect for others is upheld. The modern world or society is sensitive on many topics or issues. The high diversity of opinion on the same topics is surprising. In this modern society, it is legal to express your views but what matters most is the accommodation of civility in your speech.  How do we measure civility? Is it via culture, background, race, status, religion or political affiliation? Despite the choice dilemma in defining civility, freedom of speech is inevitable. Curtailing speech is not the way to bring peace instead it only destroys democracy.  A country or society can only be said to be democratic if it grants the freedom of speech to any individual, group and the media (Rudinow and Graybosch 52). Free speech brings about a healthy and free nation that is desirable and it is a guard against a corrupt and tyrannical government. The same perspective runs in the private lives of individual citizens.

           Free speech can be positive or negative but its effects are what matters the most. If the idea being put across is going to build rather then destroy, then it should be heard and accommodated.  It is important for someone to consider the consequences of their views before sharing with other people.  Free speech enables people to speak out their grievances and support what they think is right. People stand out to talk about issues that affect them in as individuals or as a society. These issues could range from cultural beliefs to poverty, as long as they address an existing or future concern. It is clear that a country or society that has been denied the freedom of speech always resorts to violent means in order to be heard. The underlying factor is miscommunication. Most times, people choose to predict rather than listen to what someone has to say.  As a result, when the individual finally speaks, they selectively listen to what they want to hear. As a result, there is misinterpretation and interruptions that form precedence for future communication between the two parties. The precedence is what is called perception and perceptions shape an individual’s opinion (Mill and Rapaport 16). Opinion is rigid and can turn disastrous when individuals attempt to change. Certain groups in society face a lot of challenges because of being denied the freedom of speech. Poverty and discrimination are the main aspects that prevent people from being heard at certain levels within a society.

Free speech contributes greatly to creativity and innovation. In a business organization, employees can bring forth ideas that will help to improve the business position within the industry. Allowing employees to share their thinking and experiences is one way of customizing products and services. Employees provide a feasible sample of the customer base thus resonate with consumer preferences. In some instances, trying to voice your opinions can cause great harm including the risk of losing a job. This especially happens when an individual is opposing the company’s or superiors’ position. Suppression of speech brings about a decline in the prosperity of a business because whether the management was right or wrong, some discord takes place. The employees either sabotage the operations or rebel against the leadership. The result is a declining level of productivity.

              Legal restrictions on the freedom of speech attempt to state the parameters and boundaries to be observed through free speech. Different governments have different definitions of free speech. This perception is entrenched in the values, tradition and culture of the citizens. Legal restrictions can have harmful effects depending on the application or context (Rudinow and Graybosch 55). Some ideas that are presented to us are unpleasant and horrible. However, some of these ideas have some fraction of truth which we readily ignore.  There are some utterances, though hurting to some people have a positive impact to the society. Although the government sometimes plays a role in curtailing speech for its own reasons, some individuals also contribute to the suppression of speech of the minority.  A government or a society will often consider actions, products, services, policies, and rules that bring forth the good for its majority and the least harm. Free speech with regards to established legal restrictions applies the same principle within the society. In the present society negative utterances are shunned and treated with a lot of prejudice without extensive comprehension of the idea trying to be put across. For example, the refusal of publishers to publish hence preventing distributions of some books because they oppose the ideas those books highlight. This is in contrary with the ideals of free speech. Free speech should be interpreted the way its literal meaning purports (Rudinow and Graybosch 55). There is no consideration from different perspectives but a common understanding that should possess the same meaning from any kind of perception. Selective application or interpretation based on consequences must not overrule the essence of free speech.

            In most cases, suppression of ideas or expression stems from selfish background. This happens due to secondary and artificial interpretations that define free speech either temporarily or on permanent terms. People discourage free speech because they are afraid of the consequences of particular truths. Truth in such cases shifts individuals from their comfort zones into uncertainty (Mill and Rapaport 17).  Therefore, they make all efforts to suppress the truth in a bid to retain their status and wealth. For example, individuals who speak out against politicians may end up losing their lives. A good citizen who upholds free speech will accept the fact that free speech has its own disadvantage such as; being opposed, being insulted or offended. The current circumstances full of political, social and economic should not deter the interpretation of free speech. Perception of free speech should accommodate and provide room to assess whether an individual was right in the end. Power does not allow individuals to apply subjective free speech because it amounts to suppression that translates to oppression in the long run.

         Some individuals restrict speech because they imagine they are being attacked. They feel pity for themselves even when the idea put across does not affect them. For example, a satiric cartoon portraying politicians as fat, greedy hedonists was removed from a gallery when a “woman of size” complained that it insensitively equated greed with fatness. The purpose of this cartoon was just to bring out the greediness of the politicians but the woman found it offensive. When almost everything that is said is being seen as victimisation, then the freedom of speech is being suppressed (Rudinow and Graybosch 57).  If an individual’s actions or utterances are insignificant to a whole population then it is no use paying attention to them or seeing one as a victim. Misinterpretation of some acts and utterances is what causes disagreements among different people and certain groups. Some photos and speeches which are intended to condemn bad acts are being banned and branded as hate speech. Information brought forth to teach people especially on social media is being seen as pornography hence avoided. Schools should start teaching students how to accommodate free speech. Education exists so that people can comprehend ideas that are communicated, to avoid perceiving them as attacks. Education should establish free speech, especially as positive ideas that can benefit the society.

            There have been circumstances where free speech is fought with excessive force. This occurs where an individual or individuals decide to protect someone identified by the society as evil and a danger to the rest. Typical example through history is when witches were shunned and would be set on fire in medieval Europe. The society had vague definition of who a witch was and would pick on peculiar habits or belongings to identify witches. Therefore, some circumstances were and are malicious thus call for individuals to protest on behalf of victims (Collste 328). Such individuals or witnesses cannot freely share their input of someone already branded including; witches, rapists, murderers and extortionists among other categories. Very few individuals will intervene for a suspect witch or thief in the presence of a lynch mob. Speaking out about such issues could only bring uproar from the people. It is clear that rape should be totally condemned but trying to protect a person considered a rapist could have detrimental effects.

                True commitment and upholding of the freedom of speech is a very difficult task for people. Although they support it, they tend to suppress it in instances where they imagine they are being attacked even if the idea being put across is beneficial. If such individuals are the ones graduating from schools, in future the freedom of speech will be totally curtailed. More restrictions are being put on speech preventing ideas that could help the society. For example schools are shunning debates that they think are affecting their cultural and religious beliefs.

Society has a great role to play concerning the freedom of speech. It is the one that stops the government from offending the people by speaking out about acts of unlawfulness. It speaks out about the morality that should be upheld. This is to enable the younger growing generation to grow up into reasonable and moral human beings. Such acts as abortion are what the society could focus on. If the freedom of speech is curtailed on such matters of great importance then the present society will grow into a spoiled group of people. The young generation grows up not knowing the truth about certain important facts (Collste 331).  After this young generation reaches the adult phase, it is almost impossible to be corrected. They indulge in acts they think are right and only realise they are wrong when is too late.

With the increase in people who view themselves as victims of free speech, there is also an unfair treatment brewing up. People are treating others according to the views they believe and subscribe. The transgender and the gay people are the ones suffering much. They are discriminated because of what they believe in. Some countries and societies are shunning them claiming it is a breach of their culture/ religion to support their practices.

Some groups who consider themselves powerful are attacking the media because they are against the ideas being aired out. They attack movies, television programs and advertisements with an intention of silencing ideas that they consider offensive to themselves. Free speech should be without restrictions and exceptions (Rudinow and Graybosch 58). People should be allowed to air out their views without being subjected to stigmatization and victimization. What people need to understand is, one can never know if you are right unless they listen to someone else who has a conflicting opinion.

The problem is some individuals are making utterances that cause pain to others in the name of exercising freedom of speech. This is a lack of sensitivity and compassion to other people’s feelings. It is a selfish kind of behaviour that brings out the freedom of speech as a bad thing.  For example racism is one factor that brings up many views from different kinds of people. However the fact is that utterances and acts that uphold racism inflict long-term pain and suffering especially to the African American society. People being discriminated against race, is not acceptable even by the law.

Freedom of speech should be regulated appropriately so that it can uphold human rights. The important aspect to determine is the limit that should be placed concerning the freedom of speech. The limit should not be set too high so that it renders people silent but rather be adjusted so that it can suit everyone (Mill and Rapaport 17).  A lot of freedom is not good either. Hurtful utterances can cause pain or suffering to an individual or a certain group of people.  It is important for people to form opinions carefully and not impose them on anyone unless they are surely very true. Ethics should be advocated for, in pursuit of the freedom of speech. A person has the right to say or do anything they wish according to their own judgement. However, if those actions or utterances affect others negatively then the person has to be held accountable for their speech or actions.

Works Cited

Collste, Goran. Ethics and information technology. New Delhi: Delhi New Academic Publ., 1998. Print.

Mill, John and Elizabeth Rapaport. On liberty. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co., 1873. Print.

Rudinow, Joel and Anthony Graybosch. Ethics and Values in the Information Age. Boston, M.A: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2002. Print.

Sample Nursing Article Review Paper on Sedation and Pain Management; Sedation scales a level english language essay help

Sedation and Pain Management; Sedation scales


Article summary

One of the greatest challenges faced in the medical and nursing professions is the management of pain among patients, although the inception of sedative processes and procedures has helped overcome the same. There are several studies giving insights into sedation and pain management while also giving a glimpse of preferable sedation scales. To start with, Hogarth and Jesse in their article focus primarily on key concepts including sedation, analgesia, and mechanical ventilation. Hogarth and Jesse (40) state that the primary objective of sedating patients is to see the provision of relief while minimizing a possible development of drug dependency and over sedation. The article also mentions that mechanical ventilation and sedation go hand in hand because during mechanical ventilation where the patient is provided with increased oxygenation or an airway is secured; the patient has to be provided with an adequate comfort that is only achieved through sedation. It gives an example that most patients admitted to an ICU for mechanical ventilation often receive 1-3 sedative medications.

According to this article, there are several reasons for sedation, one of them being to overcome the respiratory drive from a climbing carbon IV oxide level especially for patients undergoing a strategy for permissive hypercapnia as well as ensuring that a patient receives safe and proper care. This article highlights some complications that might accompany sedation such as impaired metabolism related to frequent organ failures associated with critical illnesses and drug accumulation with protracted depression of the function of the central nervous system. This article also pinpoints some drugs used for sedation such as opioids, benzodiazepines, propofol, and haloperidol. Careful management of sedation is a responsibility of medical and nursing professionals, and some of the recommended practices include daily interruption of sedation and intermittent administration of sedation. Concerning the topic in focus, this article does not highlight sedation scales used by medical or nursing professionals.

Pasero (186-90) also focuses primarily on the concept of sedation, its assessment and the impact of poor sedative practices in health care organizations. This article begins by stating that one of the most serious of the adverse effects of sedation is life-threatening respiratory depression. However, one of the strategies or interventions of preventing significant respiratory depression is having nurses perform systematic assessments of sedation levels of their patients. Patients experiencing gradual increases in sedation ought to be attended to with a prompt reduction in opioid dose and frequent monitoring and examination until they demonstrate acceptable levels of sedation. One of the primary objectives in sedative environments is to ensure clear communication between members of the healthcare team as well as evaluating trends in the levels of sedation in patients. The achievement of this objective relies on the designing of a simple and easy-to-understand sedation scale, which is commonly used in hospitals in the US. Pasero (186) opines that one of the most commonly used sedation scales in health care organizations is the Pasero Opioid-induced Sedation Scale (POSS). POSS is critical to sedative processes because it links nursing interventions to the various levels of sedation and it also helps nurses to make appropriate decisions about how to proceed with opioid treatment.

Sedation scales help nurses make critical decisions such as increasing the opioid dose in patients who are easy to arouse and report unacceptable pain relief as well as holding or decreasing the opioid dose in patients who are excessively sedated. This article also identifies other sedation scales such as the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and Ramsay Scale that are not recommended for use during opioid administration for pain management but are used to assess purposeful and goal-directed sedation during procedures or in ventilated critically ill patients. Essentially, according to this article, several hospitals, and other health care organizations opt to use sedation scales depending on the goals of treatment; whether for assessment of sedation during opioid administration for pain management and purposeful sedation. On the topic in focus, this article focuses more on sedation scales and overlooks or fails to give a clear explanation of the role of sedation in pain management.

Jarzyna et al (118-145) also examine and give detailed explanations of the concepts of sedation and pain management. The article is of the opinion that an increase in the complexity of analgesic therapies has resulted in the establishment of priorities of care with the aim of balancing aggressive pain management with measures to prevent or reduce adverse implications and to ensure the provision of safe and quality care to patients. Notably, one of the primary pharmacologic interventions for managing pain in hospitalized patients is sedation, which, however, can result in adverse events such as unintended advancing sedation and respiratory depression. This article opines that the occurrence of the mentioned adverse events can be influenced by factors such as route of administration, opioid dosage, duration of therapy, desired goals of therapy, and patient-specific factors.

Sedation should serve the purpose of pain management rather than result in adverse events, and as such, it is imperative to educate all members of health care teams about the dangers and potential or possible attributes of administration of sedating medications concomitant with opioid analgesia as well as the importance of initiating rational multimodal analgesic plans to help minimize or prevent adverse events. The roles of nurses during sedation cannot be overlooked, and they include identification of patients at risk for unintended advancing sedation and respiratory depression from opioid therapy, implementation of plans of care with the aim of assessing and monitoring patients, and intervention with the aim of preventing worsening of adverse events. Despite focusing on the concepts of sedation and pain management, this article does not highlight sedation scales, which also form part of the topic in focus.


The topic “Sedation and pain management; sedation scales” is highlighted and examined in the studies or articles summarized above.  In recent years, health care organizations and providers have placed more emphasis on sedation and pain management, given the increase in the number of neurologically compromised patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Besides, the emphasis on sedation has been triggered by the desire or perceived need for patients to receive pharmacotherapy with the aim of controlling pain. In the ancient times, pain management was not taken seriously by health care providers and practice where high doses of medication were purposefully administered to render patients unresponsive was common. However, this has changed in recent years with more organizations and health care professionals championing for the need for attending to an awake yet comfortable patient. The evolution of pain management among patients, especially in ICUs, has seen more emphasis placed on analgesia guideline and improved sedation as well as reducing or doing away with the use of neuromuscular paralysis (Jarzyna et al 118).

With the embracing of the perspectives of sedation and pain management, critically ill patients are likely to be more awake and responsive than previous eras of critical care. Moreover, with sedation and pain management, patients are less likely to suffer adverse effects of neuroactive agents. The fact that sedation and pain management have taken center stage in health care organizations and that they have played an integral role in revolutionizing the health care sector makes them of great importance in modern society. Today, with sedative practices, nurses, and other medical professionals have an easy time attending to critically ill patients because physical aggression among patients caused by irritation and excruciating pain is minimized. In nursing practice, sedation is used when attending to patients who have undergone surgical operations, removal of wisdom teeth, and other significantly painful treatments. The failure to use sedation in such situations is likely to compromise the provision of quality and safe care, and this is why nurse and medical professionals and practitioners ought to be educated on the need of using sedation. It is imperative for nurses and medics to assess sedation to determine whether to increase or reduce sedation levels of patients, an objective that is achieved by leveraging on different types of sedation scales. These and other concepts related to sedation and pain management will be addressed in the capstone project.


Research indicates that the perspectives of sedation and pain management are yet to be embraced fully in the global health care sector. This is a surprising fact given the high levels of pain that patients experience while undergoing treatment in various health care organizations. Moreover, with the advancement of medical and nursing knowledge and skills, sedation and pain management ought to be part and parcel of operations and procedures in health care organizations. As such, the primary target of this presentation will be nurse practitioners who are yet to understand the importance of sedation and pain management. This project will be presented to nurse practitioners in the staff lounge during lunch break, a period set aside for families and friends to visit patients.


Undoubtedly, the presentation of this project’s information to nursing practitioners will have positive implications on financial, regulatory, accrediting, safety, and patient satisfaction aspects. As already mentioned, this project aims at ensuring that sedation and pain management is embraced in all health care organizations to pave the way for the provision of safe and quality care to critically ill patients. From a financial perspective, the provision of this information to nurse practitioners would ensure that sedation drugs and pain management interventions are used during the treatment of critically ill patients thereby reducing the period of stay in health care organizations translating to a reduction in the cost of services provided (Jarzyna et al 120).  Besides, the provision of this information would help enhance the safety of critically ill patients as nurse practitioners would embrace sedation and pain management interventions while attending to them.  Moreover, the provision of this information would impact positively on accreditation of more health care organizations as more of the same would be obliged to implement standards for sedation and pain management in hospitalized patients. From a regulatory perspective, the provision of this information to nurse practitioners who are the targeted audience would ensure that more health care organizations abide by the regulations put in place by bodies such as the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Most importantly, the provision of sedation and pain management information would have a positive impact on patient satisfaction because pain during experiences such as surgical operations would be minimized.


The following objectives of the presentation are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely (SMART). The first objective as listed below is timely as it is expected to be achieved immediately by the end of the presentation. The final objective’s timeliness is expected to be achieved between 2 weeks to 30 days after the presentation.

It is expected that at the end of this presentation, the targeted nurse practitioners should be able to define the concepts of sedation, pain management, and sedation scales.With this information, the targeted nurse practitioners should be in a position to administer sedation drugs to critically ill patients.A long term objective (2 weeks to 30 days) of this information is that the targeted nurse practitioners will collaborate with newly established health care organizations to ensure that sedation and pain management are integrated into their operations.


Some of the content topics that will be presented during the project are as follows:

Definition of the concepts of sedation, pain management, and sedation scales.Administration of and types of sedation drugsThe reasons for sedation and the importance of having all health care organizations embrace the practices of sedation and pain management.


Article synopsis

As seen above, the responsibility of implementing sedation and pain management interventions in health care organizations rests with nurse practitioners. Klein (1-8) focuses on the nurse practitioner role and scope of practice, and she defines a nurse practitioner as a registered nurse in possession of additional preparation and skills in psycho-social assessment, management of health-illness needs in primary health care settings, and physical diagnosis. The article also focuses on the factors that influence the nurse practitioners’ scope or practice and why there is a great concern when nurse practitioners practice outside their scope.  Klein’s article also examines the regulations regarding nursing practice and common questions often asked regarding the same. Essentially, this article relates to the project’s chosen area of interest, which is nurse practitioner as it highlights what is needed of nurse practitioners in the execution of their duties and responsibilities. In fact, the nursing practice competencies emphasized in the article are critical to the implementation of sedation and pain management practices when treating or handling critically ill patients in health care organizations.

Why was topic chosen?

The topic “Sedation and pain management; sedation scales” was chosen for this project because of the emphasis and worldwide campaigns on the need for sedation and pain management practices in modern health care organizations. The fact that more organizations and health care professionals have championed for the need for attending to awake, yet comfortable patients in recent years makes this topic of great importance.

Importance of topic

This topic is important as it ensures that all stakeholders in the global health care sector are made aware of the ways of providing quality and safe care to critically ill patients. The importance of this topic is also evident in the fact that it plays a crucial role in improving patient satisfaction outcomes in health care organizations, which is one of the primary objectives of health care providers.

Who will benefit from research?

As already mentioned, among the individuals who will benefit from this research are nurse practitioners who are yet to understand the importance of sedation and pain management. In fact, this research will campaign for the embrace of sedation and pain management in every health care organization thereby enabling nurse practitioners to attend to critically ill patients with ease and without interference from the patients.

Cultural/spiritual influence on chosen area of interest

Despite the emphasis on quality care and service delivery, nurse practitioners’ execution of duties and responsibilities is often jeopardized by myriads of cultural and spiritual issues (Klein 4). For instance, in certain parts of the world, a Muslim nurse practitioner may be restricted from providing services to a non-Muslim patient. Moreover, cultural beliefs of a patient may compromise a nurse practitioner’s service delivery, and this is evident when certain male patients are restricted from receiving medical services from female nurse practitioners.


Capstone Reflective Journal

Module Journal Entries A separate Journal entry is required for Modules 1-6 by 2359 Saturday of each indicated module.  Provide details of your thinking, including insights, challenges, paradigm shifts, and goals. Identify previous course topics, readings, or research that relate to the prompt.  Journal Entry  Module 2: Identify 3 key points for this module.  Reflect on how why each point is important, how it impacts on your work experience or nursing practice, and how will you change your practice in the future based on each key area.Key Point 1Sedation- this is the administration of anesthetic drugs to produce a state of calm or sleep in a patient. It is important for nurse practitioners as it provides relief while minimizing a possible development of drug dependency and oversedation and it also helps nurses attend to patients with minimal aggression (Jarzyna et al 118).Sedation impacts on nursing experience as it ensures that critically ill patients are attended to with minimal interference that could result from pain or aggression.Sedation is likely to be integrated in every nursing practice procedure when dealing with not only critically ill patients but also other patients including those nursing minor injuries.Key Point 2Pain Management- this is an interdisciplinary approach that eases the suffering or improves the quality of life for patients or individuals living with chronic pain. In nurse practice, pain management is important as provides comfort and peace to people living with chronic pain and also it prolongs life as it reduces adverse impacts of pain on a patient’s body.Effective pain management results in patient satisfaction, which is one of the primary objectives of the nursing experience (Jarzyna et al 119).Future nursing practice is likely to integrate pain management as a way of ensuring patient satisfaction and achieving other organizational objectives.Key Point 3Sedation scale- this is a medical scale that is used to measure a patient’s sedation or agitation level. In recent years, it has become one of the most essential components in hospitals that have helped enhance how nurses respond to critically ill patients.Sedation scale impacts on nursing practice as it helps nurses make critical decisions such as increasing decreasing the opioid dose in critically ill patients (Pasero 187).Currently, sedation scales are used in selected hospitals, although this will change as nursing practice will have to integrate the same in every operation prompting a change in how nurse practitioners deliver services.

Works Cited

Hogarth, D. Kyle, and Jesse Hall. “Management of sedation in mechanically ventilated patients.” Current opinion in critical care 10.1 (2004): 40-46.

Jarzyna, Donna, et al. “American Society for Pain Management Nursing guidelines on monitoring for opioid-induced sedation and respiratory depression.” Pain Management Nursing 12.3 (2011): 118-145.

Klein, Tracy A. “Scope of practice and the nurse practitioner: Regulation, competency, expansion, and evolution.” Topics in Advanced Practice Nursing eJournal 5.2 (2005).

Pasero, Chris. “Assessment of sedation during opioid administration for pain management.” Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 24.3 (2009): 186-190.

Sample International Relations Essay on Quality of the Governance of International Organizations admission essay help: admission essay help

Quality of the Governance of International Organizations

The rule of law, responsibility, and transparency are not only procedural aspects of administrative regimes, but also outcomes of good governance. The quality of governance determines what the public should get from the governing body, and how it would get it. The initial establishments of the international system underlined the role of secretariats as a support to intergovernmental negotiations, but due to the exponential growth of the public sector internationally, the role of secretariats has changed into that of management (Muldoon, Aviel and Reitano 237). Facilitation of good governance goes beyond the states’ powers or political will to incorporate fairness in delivery of services.

International governmental organizations (IGOs) are established to facilitate resource allocation, solving of disputes, and directing regimes on how to exercise power to improve quality of life. The main criteria for judging the quality of governance, as demonstrated by IGOs include accountability, rule of law, and service delivery. Accountability in governance is articulated through enforcement of norms. According to Muldoon, Aviel and Reitano, norm enforcement ensures that states have complied with the obligations that have been granted by the signatories (240). The United Nations has contributed in the promotion of human rights through compelling its members to respect rights of women and children.  

The rule of law entails consistency in abiding to the legal agreements signed by organizational members. For instance, the UN undertakes the rule of law as a principle of governance where states are accountable to legal provisions that are publicly promulgated and those that are in line with the international human rights standards. Rule of law expresses good governance through effective coordination of strategies. Good governance also involves effectiveness in delivery of services without favoring any side. Good governance is receptive to the wishes of the whole community. Such governance should be capable balancing competing interests appropriately and timely. Poor delivery of services leads to loss of public trust.

The UN Charter has endeavored to offer a blueprint for good governance through accountability, as well as rule of law. By convincing many countries to ratify the Charter, the UN has proved to be the most suitable agency for demonstrating good governance. The core responsibility of the UN is to promote international cooperation by offering conflict resolutions and humanitarian support. The call to establish and maintain institutions that promote human rights within member states is an indication of good governance (Zhang 45). Through its chapters, the UN Charter offers strategies to resolve international conflicts and means to carry out social, political, and economic activities within the legal provision. 

States have the audacity to ignore decisions and policy implementation dictated by the UN Charter, but such states usually lack the will to establish their own mechanisms to solve global problems, such as climate change, illegal immigration, terrorism, nuclear weapons, and human trafficking (Muldoon, Aviel and Reitano 250). What seems to be missing in the application of international rule is the capacity to enforce the rule when persuasion and pressure becomes futile.

Personally, I believe that the UN Charter offers the best example in the practice of good governance because it incorporate views from different humanitarian grounds. The UN offers a forum where representatives from different states speak with one voice concerning the international community. It was through the UN that racial equality was adopted as a global norm, in addition to delegitimizing apartheid as a principle and system of government (Muldoon, Aviel and Reitano 255). The UN, through its agencies, has emphasized on civil society, peaceful conflict resolution, and accountability, as the appropriate aspects of good governance.

Works Cited

Muldoon, James P. Jr., JoAnn Fagot Aviel,and Richard Reitano. The New Dynamics of Multilateralism: Diplomacy, International Organizations, and Global Governance. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2010. Print.

Zhang, Wei. Human Rights and Good Governance. Leiden ; Boston : Brill Nijhoff, 2016. Internet resource.

Sample Nursing Paper on Research critique of phenomenological study cheap mba definition essay help

Research critique of phenomenological study

Question 1: What level of evidence does the article represent? Explain.

According to the research design used in the study, the article belongs to the seventh level of evidence because semi-structured interviews were conducted and phenomenological analysis was used to analyze the data. This level of evidence comprises of both qualitative studies and single descriptive studies (Fain, 2013). It is the second last level in terms of research design. With regard to the American association of critical care nurses (AACN), the article belongs to level E of evidence because it is theory-based evidence from an expert opinion. In this case, the authors are the experts providing their opinions on the issue as they see it from research participants. On the other hand, it is theory-based because its arguments are based on theory. In both cases, the article ranks in the second last level of evidences meaning that it has minimal influence on nursing practices.

Question 2: Does it have a logical format and is it written well without grammatical errors?

The article appears to have a good logical format because of the following reasons. First, it contains an abstract that although not identified as abstract, it provides the objective of the study. It also highlights the method, design and result of the study as well as the study’s conclusion. Second, it introduces the subject matter by defining the term sickle cell disease (SCD) and its impact on quality of life (Coleman et al, 2016). After introducing the subject matter, it flows from one area of the subject matter to the other logically. For example, after defining the term (SCD), it links this term to life by evaluating its impact on quality of life. Then it proceeds to other areas plausibly with the help of sub-headings. More importantly, after evaluating the method used to collect the data, it provides the results and discusses them (Fain, 2013). With regard to grammatical errors, it does not contain such errors. This notwithstanding, the article is not organized in a manner that appeals to the reader.   


Coleman, B. et al. (2016). How sickle cell disease patients experience, understand and explain their pain: an interpretive phenomenological analysis study. British journal of health psychology, 21, 190-203.

Fain, J. (2013). Reading, Understanding, and Applying Nursing Research. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.

Sample Business Studies Essay Paper on Application for Graduate School easy essay help

Application for Graduate School

One of my accomplishments in life is to graduate in a leading learning institution, in defiance of the encountered challenges in life. Much of the frustrations were related to low-paying jobs especially working as an accounts clerk in one of the financial institutions. However, through my commitment and a focus to complete my degree course, I managed to strike a balance between education and work. My professor was able to evaluate all the course work units needed to be accomplished, and I neither got an A nor B as a mean grade but got an opportunity to put more strength in my weakest areas. I have also managed to submit a copy of research work to the dean of our department, being a requirement for a graduate student to complete before graduation.

My main career objective through studying English language and Master of Science (MSc) in Finance is to gather a vast, challenging and motivating experience in the field of Banking, Finance, Marketing and Accounting sectors as a lecturer. Consequently, the educational background (BSc. Arts – English and ACCA) and five years experience in both banking and education sector are contributing factors towards working in a leading organization and be able to ensure goal achievement. The mentioned career objectives are supportive evidence that I have completed the course work and ready for graduation. After my graduation, I aspire to work in a reputable organization that will help me build my career with great professionalism. Some of the duties the college prepared me to handle in a working environment include the following;

Preparing invoices and payroll for the club’s employeesReviewing members’ account records and initiate a follow-up for the pending paymentsMaintaining a register of all the receipt books issued within departmental and office units for the supplies to the clubKeeping the records of newly registered studentsWriting project proposals for the organizationAccounting for any grant received by the organization and ensures that the funds are properly used for the intended purposePreparing payment vouchers for staff salaries and supplies to the clubProcessing of payment (cheques) to various payees and receiving other cheques for members’ annual subscription and service depositsAssist in filing system and to ensure proper custody and tracking of finance documents such as payment vouchers and registration recordsPreparing bank reconciliations on a monthly basis and month end closure processesMaintaining a register of all the receipt books and office units for the supplies to the clubPreparing bank reconciliations on a monthly basis and month end closing processes

A clear, logical mind with a practical approach to customer relation and a drive to accomplish the objectives set are some of the strengths I gained during the course work, equipping me for a better future in work industry. The learning exposure enables me to learn and deliver high standards set by any organization, and I enjoy overcoming challenges and have a genuine interest to work in any business related field or as a tutor. Indeed, as an undergraduate student, much of the focus was to obtain a degree in a graduate school and my career. Through the hurdles of graduate study, I have managed to complete the undergraduate course in the English language as well as to register for MSc in Finance at Illinois Institute of Technology. I, therefore, appeal to the university senate to graduate in this year regarding the completion of the course work.

Sample Economics Essay Paper on Economic Impacts of Brexit best college essay help: best college essay help

Economic Impacts of Brexit

            The parties arguing against the decision of the United Kingdom to exit the European Union were mainly concerned with maintaining a union that reduces the risk of tyranny and conflicts. The formation of the European Union was based on the notion that countries that have close economic ties are less likely to be in conflicts. The economic cooperation of the 28 member countries reduced the intensity of conflict due to political differences.  The member states enjoy great profits from trade due to reduced trade barriers such as trade tariffs. Majority of the EU members also enjoy a central monetary system that allows the organization to implement uniform monetary policies for the member countries (Dhingra, Ottaviano & Sampson (2015). 

            Although the EU makes uniform monetary decisions in favor of the economic welfare the states, it is inefficient because of the diverse political, economic and cultural state of the nations.  This is the main reason that some members such as the United Kingdom and Denmark have been operating their monetary systems independently.  The monetary independence allows the countries to make economic decisions that best address the country-specific challenges.  The countries also have the advantage of being the lender of the last resort in cases of economic crisis (Ottaviano et al., 2014). Through their central banks, the non-euro nations have the capacity to increase the liquidity in the economy by buying bonds, but the euro members are not able to do this because the unified central bank does not buy bonds from the member states.  The monetary independence is also effective in controlling inflation through mechanisms such as interest rates.  The monetary independence by the United Kingdom affects different sectors of the economy including the financial sectors, households, tourism sector and government policies.  

Economic impacts of the monetary independence decision for UK and EU economy

            Although the UK is only one member state among 28 countries, its decision to exit the EU has the ability to benefit or harm the economic welfare of the tourism and hospitality industry, consumers, financial sectors as well as foreign trading agencies (Sevcikova, 2016). The UK economic status is also likely to be affected by the exit because it has to operate in a new economic environment.

Positive impacts

            The decision by the UK to operate outside the Eurozone may benefit or adversely affect the economic situation of the UK, especially the tourism and hospitality industries that greatly depend on foreign income.  Having an independent monetary system has a positive impact on the growth and development of the United Kingdom economy due to increased flexibility in decision making. In the Eurozone, member countries depend on the European Union to make its economic decisions but the United Kingdom is able to make its decisions freely. One of the primary decisions that enhances the economic growth and development of economy in the UK relates to the stimulation of local demand (Dhingra, Ottaviano & Sampson (2015). Using fiscal tools such as low interest rates on investment loans, the government encourages investors to expand their activities thus increasing the aggregate demand.   The increased investments would boost local tourism as the consumers have high disposable income. With high aggregate demand, the economic development goals are easily achieved but this would not be possible with the UK being a member of the European Union. Sevcikova (2016) also supports the exit of the country from the European Union, citing that it provides the UK the economic flexibility needed to make sound economic decisions such as offering attractive taxation policies.

            The other positive impact that results from the monetary independence is reduced contribution to the European Union budget. The amount of monetary contribution that UK makes to the EU exceeds the benefits that it reaps from the union, according to a report by Ebell & Warren (2016), implying that the exit has a positive economic impact. In a study conducted by Dhingra, Ottaviano & Sampson (2015), the United Kingdom is no longer obligated to contribute towards the EU budget thus it is able to focus its resources on national building initiatives such as providing incentives to the tourism and hospitality industry. The other benefit that the United Kingdom is likely to benefit from is the possibility to achieve a reasonable Sterling weakness, which benefits the United Kingdom exporters. In a study by Sevcikova (2016), the tourism and hospitality sector is among the sectors that are likely to be affected by the exit of UK from the European Union because it exports its services to foreign nations.

            In the European Union, the decision to exit may positively impact the economy. One of the positive impacts that the EU benefits by the exit of UK is increased demand for its products. Countries within the EU that compete with the UK in trade are likely to enjoy huge trade profits due to the high cost of doing business in the country, which makes it unattractive. The tariff and non-tariff barriers that the UK is likely to experience have the potential to reduce the number of investors in the country.

A study conducted by Fichtner et al. (2016) indicates that the EU member states are likely to benefit from the decision of UK to exit due to expected low demand for its products. The authors cite that the high uncertainty of UK economic success may discourage investors from trading with the country, leading to slow economic development and growth in UK (Sevcikova, 2016). As a result, the high demand for EU products may lead to economic development in the member states.  The other benefit that the EU is likely to experience is increased profitability by households living in EU member countries. The increased demand for the products implies faster economic growth thus increased income for the households. Firms such as those operating in the financial sector are likely to develop due to increased liquidity in the economy.

Negative impacts

            The exit of United Kingdom from the European Union has adverse impacts that affect its ability to develop its economy.  The exit implies that the firms operating in the tourism and hospitality industry will have to pay higher tariffs to trade with the country. Being a non-member of the European Union denies the United Kingdom the trade benefits it enjoyed as a member such as inexistence of trade barriers between the member countries. To trade with the European Union members, the United Kingdom must pay trade tariffs that are paid by other non-EU countries.  A study conducted by Ottaviano et al. (2014) indicates that the United Kingdom’s economic welfare is likely to be negatively affected by the increased tariffs due to reduced earnings.  The authors explain that the reduced welfare gain from trade is likely to adversely affect the growth and development of United Kingdom’s economy. Apart from the high trade tariffs, companies operating in the United Kingdom are also likely to suffer from non-tariff costs that are even higher than the trade tariffs.  Some of these barriers as identified by Ottaviano et al. (2014) include legal barriers, transaction costs and high transport costs.

            One of the economic activities that contribute towards economic development of the United Kingdom is exports, mainly in the form of earnings from tourism sector. When foreigners from other nations visit as tourists, they pay for the goods and services offered by the industry but the earnings are likely to reduce with the United Kingdom out of the European Union. A study conducted by Dhingra, Ottaviano & Sampson (2015) indicates that the tourism industry is likely to be adversely affected by the exit of UK from European Union due to increased trade barriers. This implies that the tourists visiting the United Kingdom from the EU member states will have to pay higher compared to when the country was a member of EU. The increased costs discourage the tourists from visiting the countries and may opt for other destinations that are cheaper.  The reduced earnings by the firms operating in the tourism and hospitality industry is likely to affect other economic aspects such as employment as the companies strive to maintain low operating costs.

            Reduced competition is the other adverse impact that is likely to result from the decision by United Kingdom to exit from the European Union. Among the primary advantages of the economic union of members of European Union is high competition as the countries strive hard to be the leading economies.  The reduced competition among the firms in the United Kingdom reduces their effort to produce high quality products. As a result, the demand for local products is likely to decrease and this affects economic growth negatively. The other negative impact that is likely to be experienced by the individuals operating in the tourism and hospitality industry is reduced earnings that are likely to lower their living standards. According to Sevcikova (2016), the individuals are likely to suffer the adverse impacts of reduced foreign income from the tourism and other industries. Further, the financial sector in the UK is likely to suffer from reduced liquidity resulting from slow economic growth and development. The author cites that there is high likelihood of reduced foreign direct investments due to high tariffs and non-tariff barriers. The high uncertainty about the economic success of the country is also factor that is likely to reduce the number of direct foreign investments in the country due to perceived high business risks.

            The tourism and hospitality industry in the UK is also likely to be affected by its weak bargaining power on matters pertaining to tourism (Sevcikova, 2016). One of the major benefits that the EU members reap is the ability of the organization to bargain business deal with other regions collectively. This implies that countries that are not in the EU have to negotiate trade agreements on their own, which is less effective, compared to the collective bargaining done by the EU. Consequently, the United Kingdom is less likely to negotiate better terms of trade such as trade tariffs that affect its tourism and hospitality sector. The EU member states benefit from commonality of policies, making it easier to regulate economic activities such as tourism. In the current scenario, the tourism and hospitality industry in the UK is likely to be adversely affected by the exit from EU due to increased difficulties in managing the sector (Tarlow, 2016).

            The European Union’s economy is likely to be negatively affected by the exit. One of the parties that are likely to incur huge economic costs is the firms trading in foreign goods, especially those dealing with products between the UK and the EU members. The reduced trade between these parties due to increased tariff and non-tariff barriers will affect the amount of money that the companies earn (Sevcikova, 2016). The employees working for these firms are likely to be affected by the exit through increased risk of losing their jobs as the companies strive to maintain high profitability. The firms operating in the financial sector within the EU are also likely to experience low business as a result of the UK exit because of reduced liquidity, but the impact may only last in the short term. The EU may also face the risk of unfavorable trade agreements due to reduced bargaining power. The bargaining power of the union is enhanced by the number of members, thus the exit of UK weakens the European Union.  Without the UK in its membership, the EU may seem unattractive to other trading blocs because the country has a great stake in the union. This is a risk for the union as other member states may be tempted to exit due to the reduced benefits of EU membership.

Measures that can be taken to overcome the challenges

            The firms and households operating in the tourism and hospitality industry, the financial sector as well as companies that trade in foreign products need to formulate measures that prevent adverse impacts of the UK exit from EU. The adverse impacts of the exit have the potential to reduce the welfare of the society, but this can be avoided through implementation of effective measures. One of the factors that are likely to affect the welfare of the above parties is reduced earnings due to increased tariff and non-tariff barriers (Barrett et al., 2015).

            To ensure that the parties overcome this challenge, it is crucial for the UK government to negotiate for better terms of trade in favor of the parties. The fact that the UK government has an independent monetary system makes it possible to use fiscal tools to stimulate business (Purdue, Huang & Economics, 2015). This implies that the government may stimulate the economy by reducing tariffs that exporters incur to ensure that they continue enjoying the benefits of international trade. The government may also use fiscal tools such as low interest rates on loans to stimulate local demand. This reduces the need to import products from the other countries, thus overcoming the challenge of dealing with high tariff and non-tariff barriers.

            The other measure that the UK government needs to implement to overcome the challenges is provision of incentives for foreign direct investments. Among the challenges that the UK economy is likely to face is reduced earnings due to low direct foreign investments. This is because the investors shy away from conducting their activities in a nation where the economic progress is uncertain (Schoof et al. 2015). To overcome the challenge of reduced direct foreign investments, the UK government may implement different incentives such as tax holidays for foreign investors. The government may also consider investing in diverse industries to ensure that a fall in the demand for tourism services does not greatly affect the entire economy.

            The preventive measures also apply to the European Union as it is also affected by the exit of UK.  One of the measures that the organization may consider implement is revising the unified monetary system to avoid the risk of having other member states exit. The organization should consider allowing each member state to formulate their economic policies that address their varying needs. The organization may also consider revising the non-tariff trade barriers such as quotas to ensure that the firms and households that depend on products sold to and bought from UK do not suffer reduced demand (Schoof et al. 2015). This is also a measure to reduce the huge financial losses that may occur in the financial sector. It is clear that the UK and EU economies are likely to be affected by the exit but the negative consequences outweigh the positive ones. It is thus crucial for the UK government and the EU to implement effective measures to prevent the possible adverse impacts. The reduced welfare of the parties does not only affect the European Union and UK economies, but also the other nations that trade with the countries. It is thus important to ensure that the potential adverse impacts of the UK exit are addressed amicably.  


Baker, J., Carreras, O., Kirby, S., Meaning, J. & Piggott, R. (2016). Modelling events: the             short-term economic impact of leaving the EU. Economic Modelling, 58, 339-350.

Dhingra, S., Ottaviano, G. & Sampson, T. (2015). Should we stay or should we go? The   economic consequences of leaving the EU. CEP Election Analysis Paper, (22).

Ebell, M. & Warren, J. (2016). The long-term economic impact of leaving the EU. National           Institute Economic Review, 236(1), 121-138.

Fichtner, F., Große Steffen, C., Hachula, M. & Schlaak, T. (2016). Brexit decision is likely           to reduce growth in the short term. DIW Economic Bulletin,6(26/27), 301-307..

Ottaviano, G. I., Pessoa, J. P., Sampson, T. & Van Reenen, J. (2014). The costs and benefits         of leaving the EU.

Purdue, D., Huang, H., & Economics, N. T. M. A. (2015). Brexit and its Impact on the Irish         Economy. National Treasury Management Agency, Dublin.

Schoof, U., Petersen, T., Aichele, R. & Felbermayr, G. (2015). Brexit–potential economic             consequences if the UK exits the EU. Policy Brief# 2015/05.

Sevcikova, M. (2016). Analysis of The Main Causes of Brexit and Its Potential      Consequences. on European Integration 2016, 961.

Tarlow, P. (2016). Brexit and its impact on tourism. ESRI Research Series, 48.

Sample International Relations Essay Paper on International trade high school essay help

International trade

Response to Elena

Elena, you have mentioned refugee and migrant crisis as ways in which international regimes affects international trade. It is the reason why the direct result in the international economy has not been regulated to facilitate fair and more balanced distribution of world economy as you have stated in your post. I believe that this is because of the great powers in the world that tend to govern the global regulatory. For instance, European Union and United States are great power nations. When they faced minimal cost adjustment, they recognized substantial benefits because of coordination which in turn led to the establishment of technical standards and a swift common regulatory (Drezner 1).

However, the economic environment will not be the same without these two powers. Take for example the case of US which experienced bad economic effects when it decided to leave international trade without regulations. You have mentioned its auto-manufacturing industry and how it was greatly affected by the exit. I, therefore agree with you that to avoid these effects, it is important to create more law-based instead of power-based global economic environment. However, do you believe that these laws will affect the ways in which countries relate in the international environment?

Response to Mike

I agree with you that the presence of international (regulatory) regimes helps in leveling up the playing field in international trade. You have mentioned The World Trade Organizations (WTO) and International Standard Organizations (ISO) whose aim is to protect developing nations from discrimination for them to also benefit from international trade. I believe that the aim of WTO and ISO is to prevent great powers such as United States and Europeans nations from controlling the ways in which world trade takes place. Fairness is the basis for cooperation in a democratic society to prevent constrains of individualism that is allowed in the society resulting in equality and freedom for the greater good of all the participants in international trade (Sanford 112).  I agree with you that these great powers influence the ways in which WTO makes resolutions to favor them. However, do you believe that this practice is unfair especially to developing nations which have no powers or say on the ways in which international trade is being conducted?

You are also right to wonder what will happen if these organizations were absent in international trade. They help in regulating the rate in which great powers bully small nations. The good resolutions that these organizations have is the reason the small nations are able to take part in international trade and benefit from it despite the fact that great powers controls everything.  However, do you think that the regulations made by WTO and ISO are mainly controlled by great powers?

Works Cited

Drezner, Daniel. All politics is global: Explaining international regulatory regimes. United States: Princeton University Press, 2008. Print.

Sanford, Silverburg. International Law: Contemporary Issues and Future Developments. Boulder, US: Westview Press, 2011. Print.

Sample International Relations Essay Paper on Multilateralism or Multi-Layered my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

Multilateralism or Multi-Layered

Response to Sara

Sara, I agree with you regarding Knutsen point being more important than Hammer’s psychological theory of multilateralism. By mentioning that NATO would have become a mere tool of foreign policy, it becomes clear the reason they do not exist in Asia.  When it comes to international affairs reciprocal relations is important without which, there will be no stable expectations (Lipson 2). I therefore agree with Knutsen for looking into the future of NATO in case they decided to become part of Asia. They would not acquire any stability and the policies could have affected their future in a negative way. On the other hand, Sara, you have made a clear point to explain the reason the two viewpoints of Knutsen and Katzenstein cannot be reconciled. However, since the two authors discussed the issue of capitalism and its contribution to NATO not being part of Asia, do you think that they had the same ideas but expressed it in different ways and period thus the reason you think the viewpoints cannot be reconciled?

Response to Rob

Rob, you have provided your own thought regarding how you feel about NATO thus the reason for agreeing with Knutsen and not Katzenstein’s viewpoints. This shows that you understand what the author was talking about and that you relate well with the points that he has made to explain the reasons behind NATO not being part of Asia. One point that strikes me is where you have mentioned the US being the strong arm of NATO. This brings us to the issue of power and security. Realist, Robert Art mentioned that majority of states benefits from a particular degree of security, they therefore seek power in order to pursue policies that would enable them defend themselves (Fiammenghi 126). You are therefore right to have mentioned the desire for protection which NATO did not acquire from Asia thus decided not to exist in this area. However, you have mentioned that NATO is the largest peacetime alliance in the world, how do you think it will deal with the US in case it decides to use nuclear war to intimidate them?

Works Cited

Fiammenghi, Davide. “The Security Curve and the Structure of International Politics.” International Security, Vol. 35. No. 4 (2011), pp. 126-154. Print.

Lipson, Charles. “International Cooperation in Economic and Security Affairs.” World Politics, Vol 37, No.1 (1984), pp. 1-23. Print.

Sample Marketing Essay Sample Paper on Branding college essay help free: college essay help free


Celebrity Endorsement a Literature Review

The article discusses the significance of marketing communication of products and services through celebrity endorsement campaigns. In the current business environment, marketing communication is significant and requires that businesses design strategies that offer a competitive advantage for their products and services. This entails marketing mix elements, such as product design, branding, packaging, designing, pricing, and place among others. Most organizations use celebrities in their communication strategies to boost their brands. This process involves huge investments in terms of money alongside endorser qualities, such as attractiveness, likeability, and trustworthiness aimed at generating desirable campaigns.

The following factors need to be considered in selecting celebrity endorsers for the campaign to be successful:

Attractiveness and credibility of the celebrityProduct and celebrity matchThe message and product match with the celebrityThe degree of celebrity involvementNumber of endorsements by the celebrityThe general meaning

Other factors that are considered in using celebrities in brand marketing are the economic visibility of the endorsers, regulation factors, compatibility, and marketing strategies.This article asserts that celebrity endorsement is an effective competition strategy in a highly competitive market. Nevertheless, the findings also stipulate that this strategy can only be achieved by choosing the right celebrity for the campaign.

A Consumer Perspective on Foreign Market Entry: Building Brands through Brand Alliances

The article discusses about organizations that seek to penetrate into other nations’ markets that encounter huge expenditures in establishing brand awareness and image. The financial investments that are required by an organization to enter into a new market can be a barrier to the entry. Establishing a brand in another nation calls for total commitment and determination, particularly for small organizations. The common costs in this venture include brand awareness expenditures, transportation and distribution costs, and communication campaign in establishing a brand image.

These factors have made several organizations to seek for different strategies of introducing branded products to cut down the expenditures and maintain high returns. Therefore, for small organizations entering into foreign markets, building brand alliances is significant in lending important reputational asset.

The research and findings of this article indicate that co-branding can take place under strategic alliance between organizations. Nevertheless, for organizations to fully benefit from the alliance strategy, such a deep relationship is not mandatory. In the analysis of the brand alliance concept with regard to the entry of unknown brand into a different nation’s market, the article has found out that brands can improve their evaluations through an alliance with well-known established brands in the market.

Why You Aren’t Buying Venezuelan Chocolate

Chocolate El Rey is an organization that processes one of the best cacao beans globally. The organization also commands a high premium for its cacao, which is a similar ingredient used by chocolate powerhouses in Switzerland and Belgium. El Rey has also come up with its own chocolate brand that sells globally. However, this brand is restricted to its home market in Venezuela. Moreover, many people are not willing to pay the same price as compared to other chocolate brands like Godiva or Lindit because the product is from Venezuela.

Consumers have been conditioned to believe that quality and excellent chocolate is made in Europe. This provenance paradox has made different products across the world to be authenticated with the country of origin. Many consumers have associated particular products with certain geographies and that is why some product names are associated with nations, for instance, French wine and Swiss watches. Competing products from developing nations, as it is in this case with Venezuelan chocolate, are considered inferior even when they are excellent products making them not to command a fair price.

Brand building and market positioning as in the case with products from Japan, for instance, auto organizations’ products that command the global market, can reverse this situation. Using social media, organizations can overcome this provenance paradox through consumer reviews and creating a level field of all brands.

Sample Criminal Justice Research Paper on Policing Levels in the Local, State and Federal essay help online

Policing Levels in the Local, State and Federal

American policing is a large and complex system consisting of more than 20,000 agencies at the local, state and federal levels. These agencies operate along with private security industry which has its employees. According to Crank (2014), the reasons behind the fragmented form of the policing system into three levels are based on two beliefs. First, it is historically evident that earlier, the Republican citizens feared federal police force. Secondly, Americans believe that it is more convenient, and best results can be obtained when local problems are handled at the local level. Fragmentation, however, creates three main problems which include lack of uniformity in recruitment, management and policies across police departments, wasteful duplication of efforts in the system and finally, ineffective communication and sharing of information across and between agencies. There is no formal central unit for controlling and coordinating the activities of the three levels hence these levels may work independently in certain situations towards same roles and responsibilities of protecting the society from crime. All the levels are administrated by specified set of rules, responsibilities, and procedures.

Policing function at the local, state, and federal organizational levels

The local police include municipal, regional, county and tribal police. These units were created and are governed by the local government body. Their main function is upholding jurisdiction laws, providing patrol and investigating local crimes. Both the local and state agencies have a policing culture where officers on patrol are free to make independent decisions without consultation. The common activities that attract independent decisions making include those that do not require conducting arrests or making reports to a supervisor (Kurke & Scrivner, 2013).

The state police agencies are involved with all police functions of the state that comprise law enforcement, prevention of crime, investigation, and persecution of offenders. They are also involved in highway traffic enforcement through involvement in traffic patrols, investigation of accidents and incidents of highways, and conducting of measures on the safety of citizens on highways. The other functions of this level of organization is providing investigation and intelligence services statewide.The agencies also have the responsibility of managing state emergencies, supporting state and local law enforcement efforts, and maintaining criminal records and identification systems to ensure all resources related to criminal, non-criminal, and judicial functions are comprehensive, reliable and effective.

The federal police agencies follow the authority of the federal government, and their main purpose is handling issues concerning enforcement and security which are outside the boundaries of the state but affect regions of the country or the American nation as a whole. These agencies include the federal bureau of investigations, firearms and explosives, border patrol, FBI, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, drug enforcement and administration U.S Immigration and Customs Enforcement. The duties of federal officers include police response and patrols, investigating criminal offenses and providing inspection services, security, and protection.

Differences and similarities

Local, federal and state police levels all work towards protecting the society from crimes. They are all administrative bodies empowered by the jurisdiction of the government that create them. The other similarity is the related activities resulting from cooperation and collaboration within organizational levels. The state police provide highway patrol servicers on state roads including those transversing a community even if it has its police force. Both the state and county police attend to crucial matters like rape by providing investigation assistance to smaller agencies. In order to minimize overlapping of investigations, the federal police allow the local and state police to access their databases and systems. They also call upon the other levels in cases where there is cross jurisdictional boundaries like immigration and drug trafficking.

There are differences found in the policing levels. Firstly, the policing levels practice their jurisdiction authority on different regions as designated by their responsible bodies. The local police have jurisdiction over crime within the local communities, the state police have jurisdiction over state roads and enforcing law nationwide including in rural areas with no local policing entities while federal police agencies have jurisdiction over federal crimes. Secondly is the difference in the employment procedures. The local police officers are hired by their city government through specified rules and regulations. The state police officers are appointed differently depending on the level of management. This is because of the specialized and fragmented form of the agencies. The top management is usually made up of political appointees while the middle-level managers are appointed from within the force.Finally, each level is overseen by a governmental body which authorizes its functions and operations. The local agencies are governed by the city government, the state police agencies are governed by laws set out by their statutes of operations, while the federal police agencies follow the federal laws.

Leadership characteristics and responsibilities

The local police agencies should ensure each member of the team have leadership qualities which are community oriented, for the effective providence of services and accomplishment of organizational objectives (Cordner, 2014). The agencies should lead effectively through creating reliable and effective partnerships with the community, application of efficient problem-solving strategies and incorporation of the culture of the community. This way, the community can be united together in identifying and addressing the issues of crime. For a local police leader to be effective, he or she should have technical and human skills. Technical skills are essential in applying available tools and techniques required to carry out their duties and responsibilities. They should be good observers of culture and behaviors and should be able to effectively enhance cooperation to facilitate the gathering of information.

Considering the state police agencies are highly specialised and fragmented, the agency should provide effective leadership through proper guidance and direction to ensure smooth running of the operations (James, 2013).  The complexity that exists in the management of personnel and crime cannot be solved without police leadership. The police agencies are therefore required to evaluate missions and visions at a larger angle since they play a bigger role in the society. The individual police officers should be leaders and followers at the same time in enforcing laws and maintaining order in serving the public. Leadership development programs are a critical responsibility in this level in enhancing leadership skills of the employees, supervisors, and managers.

            The federal police officers should have effective leadership skills to enhance their dealings outside the states boundaries. First, they should have the ability to nurture the internal and external relationships of a country. They should also have skills that facilitate cooperation and partnership and finally, should value diversity in every function of their work. All agencies at all levels should apply leadership responsibilities in all levels of management with top managers overseeing the entire organization while the officers respect the code of ethics to achieve best results in their activities.


American policing is a critical operation that requires improvement and development to maintain peace, order, and safety of the society. The complexity of the system due to fragmentation has created the need for the development of leadership through law enforcement training and education. To avoid duplication of efforts in different policing levels, there is also the need for more cooperation and coordination through the creation of a central body to govern all the levels. Innovation may also be an in integral strategy to solve failures within the policing agencies, for example, those brought by the complex system.


Cordner, G. (2014). Community policing. The Oxford handbook of police and policing,


Crank, J., & Crank, J. P. (2014). Understanding police culture. Routledge.

James, G. (2013). Preview (Doctoral dissertation, Empire State College).

Kurke, M. I., & Scrivner, E. M. (2013). Police psychology into the 21st century.

 Psychology Press.

Sample Criminal Justice Creative Writing on Critical evaluation of the Sedgwick Co Sheriff case college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Critical evaluation of the Sedgwick Co Sheriff case

            A sheriff represents the executive or even the administrative power of a county. They are usually in charge of enforcing law related to offenses against the public and keeping peace mainly through arresting people that commit crimes, traitors and felons.  In the Sedgwick Co sheriff case, Tom Hanna had been chosen by the public to serve in Sedgwick County with the hope that he would give good services unlike the former Sheriff, Randy Peck, who was arrested for breaking the law. Hanna was however faced with claims that he engaged in actions that put his moral commitment into question. He was accused of forcing a mentally disabled woman to engage in sexual intercourse with him. As such, Hanna was arrested and was going to be charged for sexually assaulting the woman. The moral question to be answered is, “was arresting Tom Hanna and charging him for sexual assault without real evidence morally permissible?”

            To answer this question, it is important to understand the moral requirements of a sheriff. In relation to the moral requirements of a sheriff, he/she should serve for the best interest of the public. He also should not be convicted or even plead guilty of any immoral actions that violate standards of justice as stated in United States’ law. He as well should not have his/her fingerprints taken for the purpose of criminal investigations or be a subject of investigation at the local, state or even the national level.

            As such, arresting Tom Hanna without real evidence but simply on basis of verbal claims given by a mentally disabled person was morally unacceptable. This is because taking such actions would affect his career by making him to be fingerprinted, become a subject of investigation and be convicted for an action linked to violation of public justice. Taking the action is as well likely to affect the wellbeing of the community especially because most people in the community belief that he is wrongly accused. It can therefore be concluded that arresting Tom Hanna and charging him for sexual assault without real evidence is morally unacceptable.

Sample Agricultural Studies Research Proposal on Challenges facing Australian Merino Sheep Farming essay help site:edu

Challenges facing Australian Merino Sheep Farming

1.0 Introduction

Australia prides itself as a home for 70 million merino sheep and over a century, Australia has dominated wool production industry across the globe and constitutes the country’s largest source of revenue(Bowerman 85). However, over the last five years merino sheep farming industry in Australia has recorded continued losses. Volatility in the industry, fluctuations in the market price, unpredictable rain patterns, and limited market opportunities have been cited as plausible reasons behind the losses being incurred. Additionally, the distraught industry has attributed its present woes to the small scale farming. Most operators in the industry are small or medium-sized sheep farmers.

The majority of industry operators, 60%, are small and medium-sized family businesses who rely on owner-operators and the family members as a source of labor. Notably, this study is ingrained in the challenges facing merino sheep farming in Australia. Additionally, examining the magnitude of the problem and giving recommendation on how to address the challenges in order to restore the profitable lost glory of the merino sheep farming in Australia will cover the scope of this study.

2. Aims and Background

The study aims at giving the challenges facing merino sheep farming in Australia an in-depth analysis, the plausible causes, and recommending approaches to salvage this sheep industry that is operating in losses for the past five years. In order to address the challenges facing merino sheep farming in Australia and realize the forecast annual growth of 1.5% in the sheep industry over the next five years, George portends that there is need for improved pasture feed, reduced cost of merino sheep keeping through government subsidies, engaging commercialized farming, and market expansion through access of far-flung market opportunities.

The introduction of government tax, subsidies, and trade restraints has been cited to having an impact on the demand and supply of wool in the Australian market. When the government introduces tax, the industry records a reduction in the supply of wool to the market. On the hand other, when the government introduces subsidies, more wool is supplied to the market (Piros 12).

Free trade should be advocated for. Classical economists argue that free trade fosters a global level of wooloutput because of the free trade permits that specialize among wool producing countries. Specialization gives room for a country to direct its scarce resources in the production of wool with other countries based comparative advantage (Martin 40). Open market policies should be left to flourish because they enhance flexibility and competitiveness in the market.

In addition, embracing free trade will enable local production of wool in the Australian market record an increase in the domestic consumption offrom 12 metric tonnes to 16 metric tonnes. The benefits associated with specialization, free trade fosters economies of scale, and further enhances global woolproduction possibility (Landau 67).

3. Research Questions

In order to carry out an in-depth study on the challenges facing sheep farming in Australia,the following research questions will guide the researcher:

What are the challenges facing merino sheep farming in Australia?What is the relationship between embracing technology and profitability inmerino sheep farming in Australia?What are the remedies to addresschallenges facing merino sheep farming in Australia?

4. Research Methodology


The sample for this study will involve 320 respondents. In order to choose respondents, random sampling will be done.The researcher will interview and administer questionnaires to 320 merino sheep farmers in Australia seeking to determine challenges facing merino sheep farming in Australia as a source of data.

Research Design

A research design is an arrangement of conditions necessary for data collection and analysis in a manner that endeavors to combine the relevance of the study purpose and economy of the procedure (Landau 73). The researcher will utilize a descriptive design that involves collecting research information using interviews and questionnaires. Thus, the choice of this study design is appropriate for the carrying out an in-depth analysis on the challenges facing merino sheep farming in Australia.

Research process

The researcher will employ questionnaires and interviews as data collection criteria. Additionally, the anonymity will enable participants elicit candid responses.Further, the researcher conduct validity test before using them for data collection. Additionally, peer review will be done before embarking on the main study.Importantly, the researcher will embrace reliable instruments by conducting a pilot study. Further, calculating the Cronbach coefficientwill be aimed at assisting the researcher embrace reliable research tools.In order to answer the research questions, the researcher will conduct hypothesis testing:

There is no relationship between embracing technology and profitabilityinmerino sheep farming in Australia (Null hypothesis)

 There is a relationship between embracing technology and profitabilityinmerino sheep farming in Australia (Alternative hypothesis)

Further, t-test will be conducted to determine the difference in effectiveness of the remedies to address challenges facing sheep farming in Australia.

5. Significance

The findings of this study will be beneficial to both small and medium-sized merino sheep farmers who rely on owner-operators and family members as a source of labor. Getting an insight on how to embrace technology, commercialized farming, and expanding their market through accessingfar-flung market opportunities will be a great milestone to these category of farmers.

6. Timetable

Gantt chart     

Works Cited

Bowerman. Important Determinants of Consumer Behavior.Journal on strategic business Approaches, 234, 67(1). 2013. Print.

George. Protective or free trading; An examination of the tariff question, with especial regard to the interests of labor. New York: H. George. 2011. Print.

Landau, Shefler. Research ethics. Jerusalem: Hebrew University Magnes Press.2012. Print.

Martin.If we don’t, Australia will be left behind. Retrieved August 6, 2016, from

Piros. Investment decision making in Local and international economics. Journal on productive farming, 456, 56 (2).2012. Print.

Slade. Case-based reasoning: A research paradigm. The New Havens, CT: Yale University, Dept. of Computer Science.2011. Print.

Burns, Burns.Business research methods and statistics using SPSS. Los Angeles: SAGE.2012. Print.

Decker. Economic Ties.Retrieved August 6, 2016, from


To obtain the sample size, you take 30% of the total wool farmers in a given region. Thus,for us to get 320 respondents; take the selected region to have 1,070 wool farmers.


This study is premised on wool farming in Australia. Though other scholars have done research on wool farming in Australia; none has investigated challenges specifically facing Merino sheep. Thus, this study is original.



Slade 33

33 is the page number. However, as observed the page number might have been captured wrongly. To avoid confusion, the section has been removed in this revision.

George 55

55 is the page number.

Sample Criminal Justice Essay Paper on Tautological dilemma essay help from professional writers

Tautological dilemma

The divine command theory is mainly related to religious believes. It means that it is strongly linked to religion as a way to determine morality. When objectivity of ethics is in question in courts, sometimes divine command theory is used to offer solutions. For instance, in a murder case, divine command theory can be used to make the argument that murder is wrong whether it is done in self defense or not. The basis of the argument in this case is that murder is deemed wrong because God commands humans not to kill in the Ten Commandments. However, the main argument that can be made here is whether murder is wrong because God commands humans not to kill, or God commands it with the knowledge that murder is wrong. This brings us to the tautological dilemma when trying to clear-cut the moral reasons behind murder case and in this case when it is done in self-defense. It means that people should not commit wrong murdering because God says so.

However, another person may argue that if God had commanded man to commit murder, will it will be right to kill because he says it? In this case, obscuring a valid reason to support the moral conclusion is what matters. The circular reasoning behind divine command theory is what creates the tautological dilemma in this case (Wainright 156). This is because, the logical behind the reasoning will validate God being seen as good thus anything that he says will be termed or considered as good in the eyes of man. There is no force that is behind this argument thus making it tautological statement. A theological concept regarding what is wrong and right is to be considered when dealing with something that is commanded or not commanded by God.

Works Cited

Wainright, William. Religion and Morality. Burlington, Verm.: Ashgate, 2005. Print.

Sample Literature Paper on “Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: Oskar’s Grandparents and How They Attempt to Pass Their Experiences to Future Generations in Their Letters college essay help free: college essay help free

“Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: Oskar’s Grandparents and How They Attempt to Pass Their Experiences to Future Generations in Their Letters

            Jonathan Safran Foer’s novel, “Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close”, revolves around the life of Oskar Schell, the protagonists, as he traverses through New York City in search of the truth behind a mysterious key and how it might be connected to his own father, Thomas Schell Jr., who died in the 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Centre in New York. Crucially, the novel principally examines the issues of grief occasioned by the cultural developments post-9/11 America, punctuated with narratives by Oskar’s grandparents. Curiously, both of their lives are comparable to that of their grandson in very significant ways. Whereas Oscar’s Grandma shares her story via letters addressed to him, on the other hand, Oscar’s Grandpa shares his live through letters that he wrote to his son (Oscar’s father), spanning through a few decades. The premise of this paper is to explore the ways that Oskar’s grandparents attempt to pass on what they have learnt from their experiences to future generations in their letters.

            In one of the first of several chapters titled, “Why I’m not Where You Are”, Thomas Schell Sr., (Oskar’s grandfather) is writing a letter to is trying to explain to his unborn child, Thomas Jr. (Oskar’s father), why he had to leave grandma (his wife). The letter is dated 51st may, 1963. Thomas Schell Sr’s story starts in Dresden, Germany, where as a teenager he meets and falls in love with a girl named Anna. She later falls pregnant with their child. Sadly, she, along with her entire family, except for a younger sister (who, through a twist of fate grows into Grandma), die in the bombing attack. Grandpa carries the scars of this tragedy for the rest of his life. Ultimately, he leaves Dresden for New York City.  In New York, grandpa lost the power to say the word ‘Anna’, followed by all the words that resemble Anna in utterance. Eventually, he lost the ability to even speak the word ‘I’. In a bid to communicate with those around him, grandpa had to write everything in a day book and soon enough, his apartment was filled with these day books. He even had the words ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ tattooed on both his right and left hand, respectively. This was indicative of the world around which his life now revolved- between Yes and No. 

            However, all is not lost for Grandpa. He meets Grandma in New York City and the two forge a strange, albeit an emotionally distant relationship. Soon after Grandma becomes pregnant, Grandpa panics and leaves New York for Germany. He does not get to see grandma and their unborn child again, until 09/11, on the fateful day when his son, Thomas Schell Jr. dies in the aftermath of the terrorist bombing.  All this time, he has been writing unsent letters to his son. From his letter, it is quite evident that he is still nursing the wound of a trauma that happened decades earlier, ““…sometimes I can hear my bones straining under the weight of all of the lives I’m not living.” (Foer 113).  This particular statement is a clear indication of the guilt that Thomas Schell Sr. experiences due to the Dresden bombings but more importantly it is a chance for the reader to get a glimpse of his hitherto stilted emotional life. Oskar’s grandpa’s guilt largely revolves around Anna, and he remembers the plans he had to make upon realising that she was carrying his child. While grandpa is obviously regretful that Anna and their unborn child did not live to grant him his wish for a happy family, he had a second chance to make things work with Grandma and Thomas Jr., and yet he abandoned them when it matters most. This helps to reveal a vicious circle of pain and regret that is reminiscent of grandpa’s life. He admits to having lost two potential lives- one out of choice and another by fate. On account of the pain and guilt that accompanies his actions, he therefore leads a solitude life, where he suffers silently and is daily tormented by the unrealized possibilities in his life.

            Even after returning after so long, seeing his grandson Oskar, getting to live in Grandma’s extra room and assisting with the graveyard scheme for his son whom he never met alive, it is quite clear that Thomas Schell Sr is still haunted by his past. He thus finds it hard to commit to the relationship and leave once more.

            Grandma has also sought to give the narration to her life in the form of letters addressed to Oskar. She writes these letters from the airport where she had followed Thomas Sr. but failed to convince him not to leave. In the letters, she traces her life as a young girl growing in Dresden, Germany, how eventual move to New York City as an immigrant following the fateful Dresden bombings in which her entire family perished, and how she met and married Grandpa whose character she is yet to know.   Grandma endeavours to explain her decisions, all of which are characterised by depression and self-doubt, in the hope of influencing Oskar find a closure to his strained relationship with his own mother. As the novel comes to a close, grandma leaves Oscar in pursuit of Thomas to the airport, and hopes to spend the rest of her life with him. It is quite evident from letters that grandma writes Oscar that she would want her to avoid the pitfalls that she underwent in life and simply embrace things as they come: “you cannot protect yourself from sadness without protecting yourself fro happiness” (Foer 180).  This statement relates to a conversation that grandma had with grandpa when she had followed him to the airport after abandoning her and their unborn child.

            Nonetheless, the sentiment is crucial to Oskar’s life, seeing as the statement caries with it a succinct summation of lesson she intend Oskar to learn regarding her file story. Most of grand ma’s life story entails elements of depression and self-doubt that bears significant parallels with Oskar’s current emotional state. More importantly, grandma wishes Oskar to come to terms with the fact that she too transcended the paralysing emotions facing her largely due to the deep love that she had for her family. In the same way, mainly due to supportive individuals like Grandma, Oskar manages to confront his self-doubt and depression by resigning to the fact that the past is gone and hence he needed to move on with his life. More importantly, he manages to embrace a more emotional world-view in which sadness is very much a part of life just as happiness is. In this way, Oskar is able to embrace happiness without any feelings of guilt. This is what grandpa, grandma and indeed his parents would want him to do: “When I look at you, my life made sense. Even the bad things made sense. They were necessary to make you possible.” (Foer 232). In sum, grandma, in her letters to Oskar, wishes that he can embrace his life, and move past his sadness by demonstrating his love for others. Here, grandma explains how she managed to move past her depression. In their relationship, grandma and grandpa had made a couple of rules that would define their relationship and when she became pregnant, one of the rules was broken. Her subsequent abandonment by Thomas Sr caused her great pain but after she overcame her self-obsessions, she experienced a more powerful effect in her life and was thus able to focus more on the world outside of her.

            Grandma tells Oskar that he needs to embrace both happiness and sadness as opposed to only dwelling on sadness.  By stating, “I’m not going to share this grief with you.” (Foer 274), grandma is in effect declining to allow Thomas Sr re-enter her life fully after being away from her for decades. It has a number of implications. To begin with, the statement in conformance with how the author explore the theme of grief namely, as an entirely personal affair. In other words, each of us deals with grief the best way we know how. Secondly, by refusing to entirely let Grandpa into her life, this is an indication that Grandma is yet to fully move past her emotional hang-ups, after having been abandoned by him. It is nonetheless very clear from grandma’s letters that she is deeply concerned about Thomas Sr, and let him leave initially in order that she might have a family. She managed to transcend the emotional coldness that characterised their initial relationship by finding more reasons to love. Upon his return however, she realises that guilt and resentment are very much in her. When she eventually embraces her true feelings, she opts to join him at the airport and in this way, abandons Oskar. The key lesson that we, along with Oskar, can learn form this is that our lives resemble an emotional journey in which we must always endeavour to balance our happiness and sadness.

Letters from Grandma and Grandpa in Safran Foer’s novel, “Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close”, carry important lessons to their grandson Oskar. Grandpa, in his letters addressed to his unborn son, Thomas Schell Jnr., reveal that he is still holding resentment for having abandoned Grandma and their unborn child. He lived a life full of pain, guilt, and regret. On the other hand, grandma’s letters are addressed to Oskar and in them she reveals the importance of balancing happiness and sadness. This is evidenced by her decision to let grandpa come and live with her even after he had abandoned them. She also decided to follow him to the airport and this is perhaps an indication that forgiveness is a key element in helping us move on in our lives.

Works Cited

Foer, Jonathan S. Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close. Boston, Massachusetts:

Houghton Mifflin, 2005. Print.

Sample Tourism Essay Paper on Dark Tourism easy essay help

Dark Tourism


Dark tourism is associated with taking a tour to a death filled environment, for instance, visiting the death camp of Auschwitz, the 9/11 memorial in New York or the Hiroshima Peace Museum in Japan. The paradox of different tourists visiting such sites across the globe is referred to as dark tourist. The dark is associated with this kind of tourism as a result of the negative attractive features of the tourism sites, which are normally brutal in history. The topic of dark history is not a new concept despite having been explored deeply in the recent past. This essay focuses on the dark tourism typology that contributes to the growth of international tourism with a case study of the apartheid memorials in South Africa.

The concept of dark tourism has been poorly researched over time, especially with regard to the motives behind tourists visiting such sites.[1] Therefore, different elements of dark tourism have not been clearly understood to date. Tourism can be defined as an attempt by people to understand otherness. Since people began traveling across the globe, they have been attracted and drawn to different places, sites, and events that are associated with negative historical events, for instance death, violence, disaster, or suffering. As suggested in the name, dark tourism is associated with human activity that is triggered by an eagerness in the dark features of human reality. The history of dark tourism is traced back to the era of the Roman times when people gathered in different arenas to witness gladiator’s wars and public executions, particularly in the mediaeval ages. [2]This shows that dark tourism began a long time ago and only the name has been tagged in the recent past. Stone described travel to death sites in 2005 as an old concept in the new world. There are different types of dark tourism but the following are the common ones:

Attending public execution processTouring sites of mass deaths or personal deaths after their occurrence, for instance, earthquakesVisiting burial and memorial sitesWitnessing the actual proof of deaths at different places

Other forms of dark tourism include museums that have stored weapons of death, attire of murder, and other objects.[3] Therefore, dark tourism is significant to some extend in helping people to understand their own death and not merely for entertainment purposes. [4] Dark tourism mainly thrives around war situations, slavery, murder, and other death memorials, which have an impact on human lives. Dark tourism sites have distinct characteristics that are categorized into four main attributes. Firstly, the site must involve a human perpetrator and a human victim. When these characteristics are present, people identify themselves with the perpetrators or victims, thus triggering them to visit the sites. Secondly, the perpetrator must have intentionally committed an action of brutality and the victim must be inferior with no capacity to control the situation. In this case, due to the fact that the victim is aware of the evil actions of the perpetrator, the act is ferocious. For a site to be also considered a dark tourism destination, the events or occurrence must have been exceptionally serious with unusual characteristics. This implies that the events need to be extra ordinary; beyond the normal understanding of human nature. The event should be remembered, therefore, requiring knowledge and memorability. A history should also be attached to it, for instance, the issue of terrorism and the 9/11 terror attacks in the United States.

Current Dark Tourism

According to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), tourism has become one of the leading industries in the world. The industry is flourishing because of the constant new trends of tourists in travelling to different parts of the world that make their adrenaline to rush. Dark tourism has developed to become the latest trend in tourism, despite being imminent for the past years. Therefore, the concept of dark tourism has become an important subject in the tourism industry globally. Apart from being acknowledged as one of the main forms of tourism, dark tourism has also been used as a promotional tool in the industry. Dark tourism, like other forms of tourism, is beneficial to a given place because of financial gains and other benefits accrued from the visiting tourists for offering them educational knowledge. In some instances, dark tourism is considered controversial due to its direct connection with death.[5]

Apartheid Memorials

There are different ranges and categories for dark tourism sites. The Apartheid memorials found in South Africa presents one of the sites with dark tourism characteristics. This is because of the brutality and killings of the black Africans during the oppression period in their nation, which is considered to be an atrocity. Before discussing the dark tourism of these sites, a brief history of the apartheid is provided.

The apartheid is the period between 1948 and 1994 when the National Party in South Africa incorporated exploitive rules and policies, which were aimed at subjecting the majority of black population in the nation. Under these repressive rules, the black population was forced to live in segregated places away from the whites that dominated the government. Everything, including public facilities, was separated and used on the basis of race. In as much as the policies and rules received national wide and global condemnation, they were upheld for close to 50 years in South Africa. This forced repel of the rules in the nation, thus forming a foundation of the apartheid.

Before the 20th century, racial segregation in South Africa had taken root as supported by the white population. This was mainly steered by the Controversial Land Act in 1913, which gave more supreme powers to the white population in the land ownership in the nation. This law ensured that blacks were allowed to live in rural areas and could work as sharecroppers. This led to the formation of the South Africa National Native Congress and later the African National Congress. The great depression and Second World War effects were also felt in the nation, which made it to heighten its social policies. For instance, citizens were categorized into four classifications: Black Africans, Asians, Mixed race, and Whites. All intermarriages between these categories were banned and later children were segregated as either white or colored. The unfair treatments from the whites to the majority black community in South Africa led to resistance that was in form of demonstrations, strikes, mass actions, and armed rebellion. A general rally by ANC leaders was convened in 1952 and was interrupted by the police. Several leaders were arrested and the police killed approximately 67 people. This led to a series of murder of African leaders and their arrests. The apartheid also led to the arrest and imprisonment of the leader of the ANC, Nelson Mandela, in 1963 that elicited national wide condemnation. The brutal killing of 600 students in Soweto in 1976 by police who were agitating for better education was the climax of the apartheid in South Africa.

As a result of the apartheid, several sites in South Africa are visited by tourists as part of dark tourism. For instance, the Robben Island cells are part of the sites where the nation icon, Nelson Mandela, spent 18 years of his 27 years in prison. This is also a site where Mandela fought for equality rights for his people while being roughed up, beaten and humiliated. He thought he would never live again. Moreover, the District 6 Museum located in Cape Town was also the site for regular protests and civil wars in the nation.[6] The museum comprises large elements that enable tourists and other visitors to have an authentic experience. For instance, there is a bench that only the whites could sit on and banners that the former residents of the district six and their remaining close relatives have shared their memories. The apartheid museum in Johannesburg also provides a rich educational information about the history of the apartheid.[7] Upon entering the museum, people are segregated along racial lines to demonstrate a feeling of how the situation was during the apartheid. These are the main and common attractive sites in South Africa that promote dark tourism

Robben Island

Robben Island is one of the acknowledged apartheid memorials in South African republic. The site is also among the most frequent visited attractions in Cape Town area.[8] The place has a long rich history of where many black outcasts and rebel leaders were abandoned and confined respectively. During the apartheid peril, Robben Island became the famous place where many of the majority rebel black leaders were detained between 1962 and 19911. Internationally, Robben Island is recognized as the place where the late Nelson Mandela was imprisoned for more than 18 years. He spent the other years in different places. During the perched period, the place was referred to as the Island and has become one of the most attractive sites for tourists who experience the way life must have been for the former freedom fighters in South Africa. Previously, the place was an incarnation site that has been turned out to be a tourism attraction for dark tourism and heritage site.

Initially, the place served different roles. It was a prison, a medical facility for socially segregated people, and a military base. The unwanted members of the society were also taken to the Island. With its symbolism during the apartheid struggle, the site presents a clear picture of the way freedom and democracy overran oppression and racism in South Africa through the world icon and celebrated figure Nelson Mandela.

District Six

The District Six represents the famous sixth municipal district of Cape Town, which was created in 1867. This was a community for everyone in the nation, for instance, the freed slaves, merchants, and other populations regardless of their race or skin color. It was among the lively neighborhoods close to the city center. Nevertheless, on the onset of the 20th century, segregation of people in South African began and many blacks were evacuated from this region in 1901. This made the place to become one of the disliked places due to the brutality of city council. Later in 1966, the place was declared to be a white territory zone alone, thus ending its initial livelihood. Many black people were forcefully evacuated from the area and their housed were destroyed. To preserve the memories of the area, the district museum was established in the year1994, which shares the experiences of the horrifying events. Currently, this is one of the most visited attractions in Cape Town for dark tourism.[9]

Apartheid Museum of Johannesburg

The apartheid museum in Johannesburg provides a rich historical information about the brutality experiences by the South African population. As part of the dark tourism attraction site, many tourists engage in the emotional and informative aspect of the apartheid in the museum. This is provided through exhibitions that focus on the oppression faced by the black people in South Africa. This is demonstrated at the entrance of the museum where people are segregated on racial backgrounds, an aspect that symbolizes the experiences that were present during the apartheid. The museum has attracted numerous tourists across the globe and local ones. The sites have deep roots in the concept of dark tourism as a result of the reasons and motives behind the tourists’ visitation.

Dark Tourism in South African sites is as a result of human nature in the fascination of death. Currently, death has become one of the facets that are part of the society’s consciousness. The curiosity about death, especially the students and other people killed during the apartheid is among the drivers of international dark tourism to the apartheid sites in South Africa. As a result of media portrayal and other promotional activities, most tourists become interested in visiting the death sites to satisfy their curiosity.[10] Due to the fact that no one has ever died and come back, most tourists also want to visit the apartheid sites in South Africa to connect with the unknown fear and get the experience that gives them some measurable pieces of death. This helps them to also accept death as part of human life.

Moreover, tourists visit apartheid sites a part of dark tourist to gain further knowledge and information.[11] Information gathered in the museums and other areas provides first hand data that is crucial in recording history and serving other purposes like research. As this happens, visitors from different parts of the world enhance international tourism in the nation. Most people also visit the apartheid sites in South Africa since they see it as an ethical responsibility once an individual is in the nation. Despite being like other forms of tourism attraction, apartheid memorials have a more significance in the history of the nation and the world. Due to the fact that they give a picture of dark tourism, as a result of the severity of the experiences that happened, the sites cannot be compared to other normal tourism attracting destinations. The motive for visiting the destinations have far more reaching experiences other than entertainment. Many people, due to the empathy facet, find it unethical not visiting the sites while on a visit to South Africa to experience the struggle, suffering, and deaths that people went through in the hands of white powers. This process enhances international tourism. Other people are motivated by the media presentation of the destination and films, for instance, after watching movies like “sarafina” that present an analysis of the apartheid in South Africa [12]


Dark tourism is not a very new concept in the current world of tourism since it has been present for several years without being identified. There are different motivations and reasons why people take part in dark tourism to understand the trends in the tourism industry. This is the same notion with apartheid memorials dark tourism. Understanding the typology of dark tourism in the memorials and other sites is significant for educational purposes and helps in the management of such sites. There are different types of dark tourism sites with different levels of lighter and darker shades. Dark tourism is, therefore, part of the larger tourism industry that had not been exploited in the previous years. The concept of dark tourism in South Africa has opened several avenues in the tourism industry by people having other motives that are not only entertaining in their visits. This enables a tourist to share feelings and experiences of some of the historical occurrences, which were horrific to human kind. In South Africa, apartheid memorials provide one of the best dark tourism sites for not only entertaining but also sharing human experiences at the same time introducing the concept of empathy among people and source of income. There are several other concepts that have not been exploited that with time will enhance the dark tourism sector in the sites that will be beneficial to both the nation and the global tourists.


Busby, Graham, and Miss Helen Devereux. “DARK TOURISM IN CONTEXT: THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK.” European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation. 1(6), 27-38. (2015).

Casbeard, Rebecca, and Charles Booth. “Post-modernity and the exceptionalism of the present in dark tourism.” Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism & Recreation Research (JUPTRR) 4, no. 1 (2012).

Corsane, Gerard. “Transforming museums and heritage in postcolonial and post-apartheid South Africa: The impact of processes of policy formulation and new legislation.” Social Analysis (2004): 5-15.

Isaac, Rami Khalil, and Erdinç Çakmak. “Understanding visitor’s motivation at sites of death and disaster: the case of former transit camp Westerbork, the Netherlands.” Current Issues in Tourism 17, no. 2 (2014): 164-179.

Korstanje, Maximiliano E., and Babu George. “Dark Tourism: Revisiting Some Philosophical Issues.” E-review of Tourism Research 12 (2015).

Kulcsár, Erika, and PhD Rozalina Zsófia Simon. “The Magic Of Dark Tourism.” Management and Marketing Journal 13, no. 1 (2015): 124-136.

Mudzanani, Takalani. “Why is Death so Attractive? An Analysis of Tourists’ Motives for Visiting the Hector Peterson Memorial and Museum in South Africa.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 5, no. 15 (2014): 570.

Phelan, Chris. “Confronting mortality moments: death, dying and the consumption of dark tourism.” Diffusion-The UCLan Journal of Undergraduate Research 1, no. 2 (2015).

Philip Stone, Dr. “A dark tourism spectrum: Towards a typology of death and macabre related tourist sites, attractions and exhibitions.” Tourism: An Interdisciplinary International Journal 54, no. 2 (2006).

Stone, Philip, and Richard Sharpley. “Consuming dark tourism: A thanatological perspective.” Annals of tourism Research 35, no. 2 (2008): 574-595.

[1]. Philip Stone and Richard Sharpley, “Consuming dark tourism: A thanatological perspective.” Annals of tourism Research 35, no. 2 (2008): 574-595.

[2]. Chris Phelan, “Confronting mortality moments: death, dying and the consumption of dark tourism.” Diffusion-The UCLan Journal of Undergraduate Research 1, no. 2 (2015).

[3]. Rebecca Casbeard and Charles Booth, “Post-modernity and the exceptionalism of the present in dark tourism.” Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism & Recreation Research (JUPTRR) 4, no. 1 (2012).

[4]. Maximiliano Korstanje and Babu George. “Dark Tourism: Revisiting Some Philosophical Issues.” E-review of Tourism Research 12 (2015).

[5]. Erika Kulcsár and Rozalina Zsófia Simon, “The Magic of Dark Tourism.” Management and Marketing Journal 13, no. 1 (2015): 124-136.

[6]. Takalani Mudzanani, “Why is Death so Attractive? An Analysis of Tourists’ Motives for Visiting the Hector Peterson Memorial and Museum in South Africa.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 5, no. 15 (2014): 570.

[7] Ibid

[8]. Gerard Corsane, “Transforming museums and heritage in postcolonial and post-apartheid South Africa: The impact of processes of policy formulation and new legislation.” Social Analysis (2004): 5-15.

[9]. Takalani Mudzanani, “Why is Death so Attractive?

[10]. Philip Stone,”A dark tourism spectrum: Towards a typology of death and macabre related tourist sites, attractions and exhibitions.” Tourism: An Interdisciplinary International Journal 54, no. 2 (2006).

[11]. Rami Khalil Isaac and Erdinç Çakmak, “Understanding visitor’s motivation at sites of death and disaster: the case of former transit camp Westerbork, the Netherlands.” Current Issues in Tourism 17, no. 2 (2014): 164-179.

[12]. Graham Busby and Miss Helen Devereux. “DARK TOURISM IN CONTEXT: THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK.” European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation

1(6), 27-38. (2015).

Sample Literature Coursework Paper on The Qur’an vs The Prince essay help cheap: essay help cheap

The Qur’an vs The Prince

1. Summarize the Quran

The Qur’an is Islam’s religious text. Muslims believe that the Qur’an is Allah’s (God’s) revelation to his prophet Mohammed through Jibril (angel Gabriel).  This revelation took place gradually starting on December 609 CE up to 632 CE when Muhammad died, a period of nearly 23 years (The Quran 11).  Accordingly, Muslims all over the world view the Quran as a proof of Muhammad’s prophethood and his most significant miracle. Muslims also regard the Quran as the climax of a sequence of divine messages that began with messages that God revealed to Adam and came to an end with Muhammad.

2. Summarize The Prince

The Prince is an Italian political treatise written in the 16th-century by Niccolo Machiavelli, a political theorist and diplomat. The Prince, often highly regarded as the maiden works of modern philosophy, has however been shown to directly conflict with dominant scholastic and Catholic doctrines of the time on issues of ethics and politics (Machiavelli and Bull 29).  The Prince is thus regarded as a practical guide to aid in ruling, especially because Machiavelli dedicates his book to Lorenzo de’ Medici, who ruled Florence at the time. The Prince has a straightforward logic and is simple. It is hence not especially abstract or theoretical. These are important traits of Machiavelli that underscore his willingness to offer easily understandable and practical advice.

3. The Theme of “tradition vs. change” in both the Quran and The Prince.

The theme of tradition vs. change is best exemplified in The Prince by analyzing power. During the Middle Ages and Renaissance, rulers who were on the cusp of assuming power would often be counseled to behave in line with the conventional ethical standards of goodness. This was aimed at inculcating morally upright and virtuous leaders. However, Machiavelli seeks to criticize this moralistic views of authority by arguing that no moral compass exists with which to one can judge between illegitimate and legitimate uses of power.  Machiavelli views power and authority as being co-equal so that those in power also command; on the other hand, goodness is not a guarantee of power, while a good person is not a guarantee that he/she will have additional authority. Machiavelli contends that the idea of legitimate rights as regards rulership does not contribute anything in as far as the possession of power is concerned. This view is in stark contrast to the conventional practice of following the set rules of moral standards as a means of becoming a leader.

On the other hand, the Quran affords religious authority and validity to all other religious source in Islam. The Quran is a timeless constituent of Allah’s revelation to his prophet Muhammad and as such, its teachings do not change with the times but instead, the contexts of events have to suit the teachings of the Quran. While Islam which is an eternal and universal religion underscores the importance of “reformation” of mankind, it is defined by inner and outward meanings. In other words, the Quran contains external laws that are aimed at benefiting the society, as well as simple doctrines that act as the preservers and guardians of these laws.    

4. Thesis Statement

The Quran and The Prince, though written at different historical settings and for different audiences, nevertheless share something in common; they both are characterized by the theme of Tradition vs. Change.

5. Why do The Quran and The Prince work best in exploring the theme of Tradition vs.


The Qur’an and The Prince work best in exploring the theme of Tradition vs. Change because even though they were written more than hundreds of years ago, their teachings are still relevant and hence, the two books are examples of classic publications whose lessons are still relevant today.

Works Cited

Machiavelli, Niccolo and George, Bull. The Prince.  Rev Edition. London: Longman, 2003.


The Quran (Oxford World’s Classics). Trans. M. A. S. Abdel Haleem. USA: Oxford

University Press, 2008. Print.


Sample Computer Science Research Paper on Regular expressions custom essay help: custom essay help

Regular expressions

The formal language theory together with the theoretical computer science defines regular expressions as a system that can be used in pattern matching in the context of the text data with the help of either the strings or string matching. It should be noted that regular expressions are mostly applied in the UNIX systems, but some individuals can also use them in their personal computers (Mcnaughton, 2013). Regular expressions which can also referred to as rational expressions are useful parameters for the word or even the multiple characters’ search within the strings. The brief history of the regular expressions reveals that it originated during 1960s, when it was officially formalized by Stephen Kleene. He used a mathematical notation that he called regular set (Habibi, 2014).  

The main purpose of the regular expression is to assist in quick searching with the intention of identifying a whole or a given number of the textual content of the predetermined pattern. Apart from regular expression assisting in the searching of data, it can also serve as an editing tool through facilitating automated editing task using the method of replacing either a binary data or even a text. It is worth noting that regular expressions when used as an editing tool is most appropriate with the EdidPad Pro. Besides, the regular expression can serve the purposes of files splitting, files renaming, files merging, and files coping (Habibi, 2014).

Examples of the regular expressions

Whitespace Trimming

An undertaking of the regular expression of search and replacing can be used for trimming of the unintended whitespace in both the string and the text file data. In this case, the task performed is the searching of the ^[ t]+ together with the nothing replacement resulting into the whitespace deletions. Whitespace deletion can also be performed by undertaking a searching task of the [t]+$ that results in the trimming of the whitespaces that are trailing. Both whitespace deletion and the trimming of the trailing whitespace can be performed simultaneously using the regular expression.  This is performed by combining the two respective expressions to come up with a single expression of ^[t]+|[ t]+$. In the event that the character class is to be expanded, the expression [t] that represents a tab or a space can be replaced with the expression [trn]. The regular expression [trn] can also serve the purpose of trimming of the line breaks (Steve, 2010).

HTML Tags Grabbing                                         

A specific HTML tag can be opened or closed using the regular expression <TAGb [^>]*> (.*?)</TAG>. All the tag contents represent the backreference. Moreover, the question mark is used in this regular expression as a way of making the star to be lazy. Making the star lazy means that the expression terminates before the last tag instead of the stopping prior to the first closing tag. Therefore, it makes the star to operate in a similar manner as the greedy star. Moreover, the regular expression <([A-Z][A-Z0-9]*)b[^>]*>(.*?)</1> has the ability of matching both the opening and closing of any pair of the HTML tag. One striking aspect that should be kept in mind while using this regular expression is that case sensitivity should be kept insensitive at all time. Another important aspect that should be noted is the use of the backreference 1. It ensures that all the data that are found within the tags features within the second backreference (Habibi, 2014).

IP Addresses

Regular expression can be applied in the matching of the IP addresses. It offers an exact fast, and, reliable method of matching and identifying of the IP addresses. An expression such as . bd{1,3}.d{1,3}.d{1,3}.d{1,3}b has the ability of matching and identifying any IP address. However, the main shortcoming for this expression is the fact that it can also match and identify the code 999.999.999.999 as another IP address. An appropriate regular expression can be used to restrict the four numbers that are found in the IP address. A good example of the regular expression is the   (25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?). The regular expression restrict these four numbers by storing all the four numbers in a group called capturing group. Moreover, the capturing groups can further be used in coming up with the new IP addresses (Steve, 2010).  

Shortcomings of regular expressions

Just like any other system, regular expression has also its own demerits. One of its shortcomings is a phenomenon known as catastrophic backtracking. Catastrophic backtracking is characterized by the regular expression operating at a very slow speed and the crashing of the application. The good news is that this shortcoming can be remedied by simply becoming more precise on the data to be matched. This is because, when the data to be matched is more general then the search engine will generate more matches exponentially that will in the long run slows the searching and matching process. Therefore, it is inappropriate in the event that an individual intends to match a scenario which is more general (Habibi, 2014).

Another shortcoming of the regular expression is the possibility of matching zero length string in all the searches in the event that everything is made optional. Consequently, it necessitates that only selected parts of the regular expression should be made optional to be in line with the present parts. Another shortcoming of the regex is its inability to mix Unicode and the 8-bit character codes. This is because, there is a possibility of realizing unexpected or even unintended results. Therefore, the regular expression is inappropriate in the situation where the data to be searched and matched contains a combination of both the 8-bit character codes as well as the Unicode (Mcnaughton, 2013).


Habibi, M. (2014). Regular Expressions. Java Regular Expressions: Taming the Java.util.regex

Engine, 1-54.

Mcnaughton, R. (2013). An Introduction to Regular Expressions. Applied Automata Theory, 35


Steve, F. (2010). Regular Expressions. Beginning Perl, 153-177.

Sample Human Sexuality Paper on Conflict Resolution – Setting Ground Rules medical school essay help

Conflict Resolution – Setting Ground Rules

 Imagine a scenario in which you and a new partner are discussing testing for sexually transmitted infections. Devise a strategy for addressing this issue with your partner. Write out a role-play conversation with your partner using the effective communication strategies discussed in this lesson. 

The conversation is regarding STI (Sexually transmitted Infections) when I was sitting with my new partner in a park at evening time. The word “I” will be used for me and the word “partner” for my new partner. The communication starts as:

I:  Good evening dear.

Partner: Good evening to you as well.

I: Weather in evening at this park is too much good today.

Partner: Yes. It is so calm and enjoyable weather at the park.

I: Finally, today from the busy schedule of our life I get time to talk with you. I am here to talk with you without any disturbance and I am hopeful you would enjoy the conversation given that last time we could not talk much.

Partner: Yes, last week I was busy a lot with business tasks and was unable to give you the sufficient time.

I: Actually, I would want to discuss one of my problems with you.

Partner: Yes, sure why not.

I: It is a bit sensitive and I am shy on how to start it.

Partner: you should not feel shy; you know you could share anything with me. Is everything fine? Please tell me.

I: I….it is hard for me to say it. I feel embarrassed.

Partner: What is wrong?  Please tell me.

I: I have an STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection).

Partner: What? Where did you get it from and for how long have you been hiding this from me? I: I was to inform you last week but I could not as you were too busy.

Partner: Yes, you are right.

I: How do you think we should approach this? I fear it is getting worse every day

Partner: First, you abstain from sex until it is safe to have it.

I:  Is there no other solution? I am used to having sex regularly and abstaining from it is hard for me.

Partner: The other alternative is making use of condoms or dental dams while having sex. I don’t recommend this as it will hurt more and you might easily infect me.

I: We can use prevention for some days if it takes long to heal.

Partner: Ok I also agree.

I: I would also prefer we consult a doctor. After check up and suggestion of doctor, we will take further protection.

Partner: Yes, I agree.

I: So, when we will go to the doctor’s clinic.

Partner: We should go tomorrow before it is late.

I: Yes, I agree.

Partner: I love you so much.

I: I also love you. I need your support at every stage of my problems and this is not exceptional. Only then I can face any problem strongly otherwise It will be difficult for me to face difficulties.

Partner: I am always with you and I will support you at each stage of life. With cooperation and love we will find solution for our problems.

I: Thank you.

Partner: It is okay. I love you and I am grateful for your openness. So, it is our duty to understand each other and cooperate with each other. If I will be in a problem, then I am also sure that you will also support me in such situation. STI is a big concern for both of us. Then how could I ignore it? You do not be anxious we will locate optimum solution regarding this with the suggestion of doctor.

I: Yes, you are right.

Partner: Now, let us go at home.

I: Yes, sure, let us go. (Skills for Youth)

Works Cited

Skills for Youth. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Sample International Relations Admission Essay Paper on Diffusion of Norms assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Diffusion of Norms

Peer 1: Tim

What are the impacts of an administration that does not abide by the terms of human rights? It is true to state that a nation that enhances strong human rights standards eventually assists in the facilitation of its strength and reputation. Human rights are learned autonomously with rules that ensure that they are applied accordingly (Seppala 401-408). Human rights in a state are composed of elements that bring into comprehension how citizens under those rights should address each other and the manner in which the administration should handle its subjects. Human rights suit both civilians and their governance in that the rights equalize every member of the society no matter their ranks. Human rights act as protection of the civilians from ruthless acts hence making the confident that no cruel action can be done against them. Citizens of any state are delighted when its authorities adhere to the human rights standards. Residents tend to back the government in all means if it adheres to the terms of the human rights.

Work Cited

Seppala, Nina. “Business and the international human rights regime: A comparison of UN initiatives.” Journal of Business Ethics 87.2 (2009): 401-417.

Peer 2: Nick

Should the civilians of a given state be involved in the formation of human rights? Every nation has different human rights standards because of the fact that people in all countries have dissimilar perspectives on issues. People in a given nation are bound together by the same government, and as long as a country has its administration, it has to set human rights. Each state has its methods of employing human rights. Human rights play a major role in ensuring that nationals are addressed like humans. Some emergent countries have a problem of abusing the rights of the citizens. Such cases could lead to the formation of human rights for them by the modernized nations (Betts 69). Through the creation of human rights by another country, an emergent state may be underrated or negate information being passed among nations. Abuse of human rights may cause hatred of a state by other nations resulting in segregation. The impact is demolishment of such a country’s economy as no powerful nation would desire to be associated with a state that does not uphold human rights (Hafner-Burton 689).

Works Cited

Betts, Alexander. “Regime complexity and international organizations: UNHCR as a challenged institution.” Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 19.1 (2013): 69-81.

Hafner-Burton, Emilie. “Sticks and stones: Naming and shaming the human rights enforcement problem.” International Organization 62.04 (2008): 689-716.

Sample Nursing Article Review Paper on Legal/Ethical Assignment assignment help sydney

Legal/Ethical Assignment

Individuals who belong to some religious groups, for instance, Jehovah’s Witness, reject acknowledged blood transfusion and blood products, which is in line with their teachings. When in the necessity of health concern people demand quality care by health professionals (Chand, Subramanya, & Rao, 2014). However, their religious loyalty and faith might act as a barrier for suitable treatment thus causing moral and medical challenges for caregivers. Due to high growth of the association of this group globally, doctors and nurses must be informed adequately to handle such patients’ concerns effectively. Suitable administration of such patients involves comprehension of legal affairs and giving careful health administration to reduce blood loss and hence, lessen the risk of subsequent need for blood transfusion.

Patient’s independence and human rights need getting enlightened approval prior to any medical involvement (Chand et al., 2014). This is basic for superior medical performance. The declination of blood transfusions creates a moral dilemma amid the patient’s liberty to allow or refuse a medical action leading to death and the nurse’s role of offering optimal intervention. It is a universal legal and moral principle that legitimate permission must be attained before beginning treatment, or giving health attention to a patient. This principle reveals the right of patients to decide what occurs in their bodies and is a basic part of fine practice. A health professional who does not obey this principle may face both legal move by the patient and a strict measure by their proficient body.

I belief that some situations call for blood transfusion in order to save the life of a patient. In this regard, If I am in a situation where blood transfusion is needed to a Jehovah’s Witness patient, I would inform the parents or other family members that it will have to be done unless they obtain a court order to bar it. Although respecting religious beliefs of the family members and patients is vital, as a nurse, I am obliged to uphold quality care for positive patient outcomes.


Chand, N. K., Subramanya, H. B., & Rao, G. V. (2014). Management of patients who refuse blood transfusion. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 58(5), 658. Retrieved from

Sample Political Science Research Paper on The War in Syria college essay help near me

The War in Syria


Syria, one of the most admirable nations in the Arab region, is arguably the most war torn nation across the globe embroiled in an unending civil war. The ongoing crisis has led to loss of thousands of lives and displacement of millions of people. The crisis has also strengthened the Al- Qaeda affiliated terror organization, Islamic State in Syria, whose impacts are being felt across Europe. The President of Syria, Bashir A-Assad, triggered the war when he launched a severe crackdown on the citizens during the rebellion that was elicited by the Arab Spring. This was as a result of the Syrian people seeking a democratic government and space. Despite the fact that most nations that took part in the revolts in the Arab spring have returned back to normalcy, the situation in Syria has worsened and attracted a global intervention and participation both at regional and super powers levels. The United States has been one of the parties interested in the Syrian war, especially in foreseeing the persistence of the conflict. After a chemical attack that took place in 2013, the U.S. threatened President Bashar of its military intervention in Syria. The current international conflict in Syria is a result of theories of international relations that have been applied as it happened in other nations like Iraq and Libya where the U.S. played a vital role. The concepts that are being applied in Syria represent the features of the realistic theory of international relations where the U.S. is driving its own agenda rather than ending the war. This is the main reason why concepts like the responsibility to protect or humanitarian intervention are being doubted, which are as a result of the selfish interests the nation can be aiming to achieve. This paper presents different theories that are at the center of the Syrian war and why humanitarian intervention or right to protection despite being a legitimate international concept is only being driven in Syria as a result of personal interests by the United States and other Western powers. The paper also explains why the aggressiveness of Hillary may see this war being termed as Hillary’s War if she is elected the President of the United States.

The War in Syria


In August 2012, the President of the United States, Barack Obama, warned the Syrian government against the use of chemical weapons to its own citizens. The white house categorically stated that the act would trigger military intervention from the United States. After some period of time during which the war in Syria did not seem to cool down, the Syrian government decided to use chemical weapons against its own people. This act impelled President Obama to suggest a military action on Syria, which was to be a response to the humanitarian crisis that the government had instilled on the citizens. Several scholars, through theories, have understood the exchanges between Syria and the United States differently. Due to the nature of globalization and the way the world is connected, one theory cannot be enough to give meaning to different actions regarding the Syrian war. Nevertheless, the realism theory is one of the theories that give a clear explanation of the nature of war and conflict between the United States and Syria. Through realism, one is able to understand and ascertain the United States declared intentions in the Syrian war and the objectives it is expected to attain. According to realists, the need for power provides a clear opportunity to understand both the intentions of the United States in Syrian that are leading to the current stalemate in the nation and globally. Therefore, in asserting that its military intervention in Syria is driven by the humanitarian needs and going against the requirements of the United Nations, the United States has clearly demonstrated that in as much as it presents itself as an international protector, it is always aiming at attaining its own personal interests. 

Historical Background

The relationship between the U.S. and Syria has not been good in the past, as it is the case with other nations in the Middle East. In terms of foreign policy, the Middle East nations have historically had strained approaches to the U.S. policies. This was until the mid of the 20th century when President Roosevelt of the United States avowed in 1941 that protection of the Middle East was equally significant for the protection of the United States. The Soviet Union in the meantime had extended its influence in the Eastern part of Europe and at the onset of the Second World War, the union was targeting the Middle East. The intention of the Soviet Union to expand its influence in the region worried the U.S., especially the fact that Syria would become a part of international communism spearheaded by the union. In November 1970, Hafiz Al-Assad established himself as the Prime Minister of Syria through a bloodshed coup, who went on to be the President of the nation (Lennon, 2007). During that period, President Assad was acknowledged as the force behind the political stability in the nation that was divided. Nonetheless, his detractors affirmed that the stability was attained through social injustices, for instance, unfair arrest and assassinations to opposition leaders and other outspoken minds that were against his ruling (The World Factbook, 2013). According to Lennon (2017), numerous unrest and riots from the opposition made President Assad to start bombing his cities, at the same time killing and arresting civilians (Ziadeh, 2011). According to human right organizations, it is estimated that more that seventeen thousand citizens were never accounted for, an aspect that tarnished the reputation of the Assad administration (Ziadeh, 2011). Assad’s foreign policy to the international community, mainly other Middle East nations, the Soviet Union, and close ties with Washington had a great influence on the relationship between Syria and the U.S.

In the year 1947, the United Nations General Assembly voted in favor of an action to partition Palestine, a move that angered Syria. This led to fierce demonstrations in Damascus and torching of all embassies of nations that supported the move at the General Assembly, which included the U.S. (Rabil, 2006). In the subsequent years, the U.S. and the Soviet Union unrelentingly persisted in their fight to set foot and control the region. Nevertheless, the Soviet Union in its support in the Arab side of the region provided both economic and military support to Syria. Since Syria had positioned itself as an ally to all sides through a positive neutralism policy, this implied that it would seek aid to where it could (Rabil, 2006). This did not go on well with the Western nations, especially with the escalating Cold War since the region was fighting western imperialism. In 1976, the U.S. Congress passed the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act and an Export Administration Act in 1979. These acts prohibited all forms of international assistance to all nations that seemingly supported terrorism. Syria was to be affected by this edict, which was the main reason of cold relations between the U.S. and Syria (Rabil, 20006). This situation was aggravated by the direct involvement of the U.S. in the Lebanon conflict in 1975. At the time of the formation of UN coalition against Iraq in 1990-1991 Gulf war, Syria joined the coalition. The move was welcome by the U.S. and led to the opening of economic ties between Washington and Damascus. Furthermore, Washington was also pessimistic that the peace process between Israel and Syria would enhance their chances of dominating the region (Gasirowsi, 2011).

In June 10, 2000, Bashar Al-Assad took over as the President of Syria from his father. Due to his knowledge, he saw the need for harmonizing the relations between Syria and the Western nations. Nevertheless, his efforts were fruitless since Syria continued to support Lebanese Hezbollah wing, which made its relationship with the U.S. to remain tense. The U.S. did not completely trust Syria in policy adjustment (Gaasiorowski, 2011). After the end of the U.S.- Iraq war, the U.S. accused Syria of several issues, such as hiding Iraq’ s weapons of mass destruction, which was the root cause of the war. In 2003, the U.S. imposed sanction on Syria through the Syrian Accountability Act (Fact Sheet: Implementing, 2008). This act worsened the relations between the two nations. In late 2010, there was a arise of the Arab Spring and revolutions that were spread in Syria in 2011. The revolution was directed to Assad administration that led to an eruption of a civil war. In as much as the president promised several reforms in the nation, the demonstration and anti-government chants became fierce and led to clashes between the government forces and the protestors (Syria-Complex Emergency, 2012). This process led to the rise of several other anti-government armed groups. The civil war has claimed thousands of lives and many other people have been displaced. The Assad administration has also received international condemnation especially after the use of chemical weapons against its people. The United States announced a military intervention in Syria after the use of chemical weapons on the Syrians. Nevertheless, it retreated this move to allow Russia to go on with its intended diplomacy in finding a long lasting solution in Syria (Landler, 2013).

Realism in the Syrian War

Historically, the cold relationship between the U.S. and Syria was mainly as a result of the Syria government support of the U.S. antagonists in three main conflicts: the Arab Israeli war, the Cold War and the present day war on terrorism. Consequently, any military conflict or intervention between these two nations can be presumed to mean a U.S. strategy to command influence in the region. This assertion concurs with the realist norm of domination. According to Carlin (2013), smaller nations of the world are opting to support terrorism as a rejoinder to the apparent supremacy of the U.S. Due to its position and supremacy in the world, especially the military might, the US must implement its control to uphold its position in the hegemon. Nevertheless, in the Syrian conflict, the U.S. military through President Obama seemed weak since they could have crashed the Syrian forces. Furthermore, by letting Russia go ahead with its diplomacy mission, the U.S. authority at the international level was put to question (O’Reilly, 2013). However, through realism, the U.S. military power remains superior by not engaging with the Syrian forces.

This power politics triggers realism. According to realism, foreign policy is all about struggle for power and security among nations. This struggle is mainly attained through the use of force or the threat to use force (Genest, 2004). This also entails a process in which nations strive to further their own interests in a global arena. Having clearly understood the past conflicts that have involved the U.S., this perspective can be easily understood. For instance, in the Iraq war, the U.S. maintained it was triggered by Saddam regime’s use of chemical weapons with no proof. In the Iran Iraq war earlier, the U.S. supported Saddam’s use of chemical weapons and received significant intelligence on Iran (Carlin, 2013). The discrepancy on the government of the United States support the notion that it puts its interests ahead of anything else in times of conflicts as in Syria.

According to realism, the use of force to attain nations own interest in time of war also demonstrates the anarchy that is present in the international system. The current world has not seen the power of the UN in stamping its foot and taming nations like the United States. In the Iraq invasion, the U.S. demanded a UN backing through President Bush. The fact that the US invaded Iraq without an honest backing from the UN demonstrates a clear anarchy within the international system. President Obama almost approached Iraq in the same way after Assad chemical weapon attack to its people. According to realists, this kind of anarchy system brings about security dilemma and mistrust among different nations. For instance, why would the U.S. engage with Syrian forces. Russia is the main ally of Assad government and it supplies the troops with military equipment. Russia is also the defender of the Syrian government, especially from the United Nations Security Council. The U.S., on the other hand, supplies weapons to the rebel groups despite its initial position due to their extremist characteristics. This arises the question as to why the U.S. is justified in arming the rebel groups in Syria. Therefore, the nature of states relationships and their prospect in forming alliances in wars is purely self-gains and not from international system because they are failed systems.

Humanitarian Intervention (Right to Protection)

The concept of humanitarian intervention in Syria by the United States is not also legitimate. According to the United Nation Policy for the Prevention of genocide, sovereignty no longer protects nations from other States’ interferences (The Responsibility to Protect, 2012). The international community is mandated to safeguard any population from human right abuses as well as imposing a collective action in instances where there are crime actions (The Responsibility to Protect, 2012). These responsibilities are clearly stipulated and make sense with bodies like the United Nations. Nevertheless, powerful nations like the United States only adhere to these provisions if they are in line with their won national policies and interests. Under this case, the U.S. has been an offender of human rights, for instance, in the 199 Kosovo war and the war in Iraq in 2003. All these interventions were against the United Nations Security Council. According to the United Nation Security Council, all member nations have power to propose any international action and is the only body that is mandated to allow any international intervention by a nation. However, the member states of the body have turned out to be motivated by their own political objectives thus making decisions on humanitarian intervention to be hard. According to Waxman (2009), this position is upheld by famous assertion by politicians in the U.S. that the nation needs to be prepared to act solely or with like-minded nations in urgent cases without necessarily the approval of the United Nations.

According to realists, it is apparent that the theory of humanitarian intervention only appears helpful on the outward outlook but it is mainly concerned with the power acquisition with no moral objective. It is therefore not certain that any powerful state would engage in military action against any other nations, which is threatening people’s rights without having any selfish motivations involved. According to Baraka (2013), the U.S. concept of humanitarian intervention or right to protection is purely propaganda aimed at making the international community to have a feeling that the nation has some effective ideologies while in real sense it is a gendarme of capitalism. In the Syrian case, the U.S. claim of Assad use of chemical weapons to its civilians did not have independent confirmation. This was the same case with Iraq where the U.S. did not have tangible evidence to support its assertion of the nation having weapons of mass destruction in 2003. These are some of the apparent reason to demonstrate how the U.S. is using the concept of right to protection as a smoke screen to drive its self-interest agenda and objectives.

Furthermore, it is clear that the antagonism by the United Nations is not the reason the U.S. is reluctant to use military force in Syria since in previous times, it has gone ahead to carry out such actions without its approval (Sustar, 2013). The main reason the U.S. has reluctantly engaged in military action in Syria is the fear of a political repercussion of high amount of causalities. According to Sustar (2013), it is apparent that the main reason of the U.S. right to protection or humanitarian intervention in Syria is driven by its need to install a western power in the nation to drive the agenda of majority opinion. The recent move by the United Nations to destroy Syria’s piled stock of chemical weapon has lessened the international tension with regards to the use of such weapons in wars, especially against its own civilians. Therefore, any intervention by the U.S. at this time can also be warranted if there are fresh imminent threats, but according to history, the U.S. can take action and force of a threat as in the case of Iraq.  Therefore, the concept of humanitarian intervention or right to protection by the U.S. in the Syria conflict is not a legitimate international approach but a move by the super power to continue driving its own interests in the region.

The U.S. government humanitarian doctrine of humanitarian intervention has seen the White House drive its right to protection agenda in several other nations like Libya. This model of military intervention in regions, through forces under umbrellas like NATO, UN and AU are aimed at stopping further humanitarian crisis among nations (Wayne, 2011). Libya was a victim of these forces where rebel groups were backed by the U.S. and NATO led forces in eliminating the regime of the Mummar Qaddafi. The situation in Libya did not guarantee any seriousness that warranted the intervention of the U.S. and other global powers. This was driven by domestic interested groups since there was no national security alarm. Since there were Liberal humanists in the power structure that was being supported by the U.S., the Obama administration ordered the use of military intervention in the name of humanitarian intervention to drive their selfish interest and preserve the Liberal base, thus finding the military action necessary. The case of Libya is another demonstration of the U.S. and other influential nations use interventions to drive their interest. There are several conflicts in other nations, for instance, the newest nation in the world Southern Sudan and Yemen, which have demonstrated that the US and other Western nations’ humanitarian purposes are not honest but motivated by their interest to pursue their own selfish interests.

The war in Syria will continue to escalate given the different interests of world powers in the nation. This is the reason different nations have taken different approaches and different sides in the ongoing war in Syria. In the current situation in Syria, especially with the rising of the Islamic State, the only solution that will end the conflict is by the United States cooperating with Russia to eliminate the common enemy, which is the ISIS. After that, the two nations can push for their respective allies into negotiations that will integrate different ethnicities, sets and all factions involved in the conflict to address their objectives and create an inclusive government. On the other hand, the ISIS can also be incorporated in this agenda to find a long lasting solution to the Syrian conflict that has attracted international players.

If the Democratic Presidential candidate, Hillary Clinton, wins the coming U.S. election and becomes the POTUS, the Syrian conflict will become Hillary’s war. This is because she has clearly indicated that she will involve the U.S. in the Syrian war in a different way as being done by the Obama administration. This is in line with her contribution to the Libyan case when she was the Secretary of States. According to the Clintons foreign policy advisor, Jeremy Bash, it is apparent that Clinton will seek to make it clear to the world how brutal the Assad regime has been to its own people, which is a violation of human rights, killing them, including innocent children and women (Sputnik News). This is not actually a true representation what is on the ground since this is a provocation by the rebels that trigger the government to use force that has never been seen by the United States. Clinton has preferred a hard line position of the U.S. to Syria, predominantly imposing a no fly zone aimed at protecting Syrian civilians (Mcadams, 2016). However, this move is viewed as a too late action by the U.S. since the Syrians have resolved that the U.S. has not intervened in their case, especially when they needed their help. Furthermore, the Syrian war has taken the interest of many other international powers like Russia since its inception in 2011 with the government forces engaging with different other forces and extremist groups. Moreover, the issue of President Assad has dominated the Syrian peace talks that has attracted international players. This action with Clinton will trigger a further conflict, especially from Syrians and other world powers. Russia, for instance, has maintained that the conflict and issue surrounding Syria should be left to the Syrian people to find an amicable solution without any interference from external forces. At the same time, other players like the Riyadh, which is the opposition force in Syria, Saudi Arabia and other Western nations have insisted that the solution in Syria can only be achieved after President Assad leaves office and allows a transitional regime and period to take shape. Therefore, Hillary’s aggression to Syrian conflict may result in a further conflict, the Hillary’s war.

            According to history, the United States has not been at the forefront in protecting the rights of civilians or nationals. The U.S., like other Western powers, has always been motivated by self-interest gains at the expense of other nations’ breakdown as demonstrated in Libya and Iraq. The situation in Syria is not different. The Syrian case is even more complicated, especially with the involvement of Russia, which has had cold relation with the U.S. as a result of regional control and mighty power struggle. In as much as the U.S. military is one of the best in the whole world, it is not apparent that its involvement in different nations was as a result of unselfish reasons. The realist theory is one of the best models that help to understand the motive behind the U.S. policy towards Syria, particularly factoring in the aspects of power and dominance. Therefore, the U.S. suggesting the use of military action as a way of humanitarian intervention is only a means through which the nation seeks to stamp its authority and further its interests. In as much as there are serious humanitarian issues in Syria, it is difficult consider the responsibility to protect action by the domination nations, given their vested interest in the war torn nation.


Baraka, A. (2013, June 19). The Naked Imperialism of Humanitarian Intervention. Counterpunch. Retrieved from

Gasiorowski, M.J., Reich, B., & Long, D.E. (2011). The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.

Genest, Marc A. (2004). Conflict and Cooperation (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Landler, M., & Weisman, J. (2013, September 10). Obama Delays Syria Strike to Focus on a THE US IN SYRIA 17 Russian Plan. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Lennon, A. T. (2007). The epicenter of crisis: the new Middle East. MIT Press.

Mcadams, Daniel (July 2016). PEACE AND PROSPERITY. Hillary to Deliver Syria to Jihadists? Retrieved From:

O’Reilly, B. (2013, September 17). Bill O’Reilly: The winners and losers in the Syrian controversy. Retrieved from

Rabil, R. G. (2006). Syria, the United States, and the war on terror in the Middle East. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Sustar, L. (2012, September). What is the future of the Syrian Revolution? International Socialist Review, (85). Retrieved from

Syria – Complex Emergency [Fact sheet]. (2012, October 12). Retrieved from:

The Responsibility to Protect [Fact sheet]. (2012). Retrieved from

Wayne, Madsen. (2011). Libya and The Humanitarian Intervention Deception. Imperialism Masked As Humanitarian Interventionism. Retrieved from

Ziadeh, R. (2012). Power and policy in Syria: Intelligence services, foreign relations and democracy in the modern Middle East (Vol. 98). IB Tauris.

Sample Criminal Justice Research Paper on Police Brutality against African American Males in the United States get essay help: get essay help

Part One

Police Brutality against African American Males in the United States

            One of the primary ethical issues in criminal justice system in the United States relates to police conduct. It is the role of the police to ensure peaceful co-existence of the citizens through monitoring criminal activities, responding to emergences, making arrests and helping in investigations. It is clear that the roles played by the police help in creating a peaceful nation, but there are ethical issues that are associated with the police as they carry on with their activities. Ethical behavior in the police department is determined by the extent to which their actions affect the civilians, either positively or negatively.

            In the recent years, the campaign against racial discrimination in the United States has been intensified by organizations such as human rights activists and religious unions as a way of enhancing national unity (Chaney & Robertson, 2013). However, the police department is yet to embrace the concept of equality for all as indicated by the conduct of police. There are numerous reports of police brutality as they deal with the civilians, mainly in the form of verbal and physical abuse. In addition, the brutality is linked to racial and gender bias ideologies where the African American males are perceived to be more likely to commit crimes. The brutally shows abuse of power by the officers and is likely to negatively affect the perception of the citizens towards the criminal justice system.

Part Two

An event on police brutality against African American males

            The African American males are the main victims of injustice in the country as they are discriminated against by the police. They are termed as more aggressive than the rest of the American population, a fact that makes them more violent and less likely to follow the law. Two years ago, a white police shot an unarmed black male aged 18 years for allegedly stealing cigarettes (Chaney & Robertson, 2013). The victim, Michael Brown, was accompanied by his friend to a shop in Fergusson, Missouri where the surveillance videos showed someone steal cigarettes. Upon notification, Darren Wilson, the police in charge of security in the shop identified Brown as the one who fit the description of the thief and proceeded to shoot him in the back.  At the time of the shooting, Brown was unarmed and he had his hands held up in surrender but Wilson shot him anyway. The action by the police was unfair because Brown was not even given a chance to prove his innocence, but was brutally murdered. The incident is among the many cases where the police have used excessive physical force on individuals based on their gender and racial profiles.

Ethical issues involved

            In an era of advanced information technology, news about injustice spread wide across the globe making it necessary for the officers involved to ensure they uphold professional ethics in their work. For criminal justice system to function efficiently there must be a harmonious cooperation between the police and the public, but this is impossible if the public loses trust in the police. Police brutality is among the primary unethical behaviors reported in the media in the recent years, especially involving black males (Chaney & Robertson, 2013). Consequently, the mistrust between the police and the public decreases making police work even harder as the public shy away from cooperating in criminal investigations.

            The main ethical issues resulting from police brutality against the African American males are racial and gender bias. The professional ethics of the police department prohibits activities that show any form of discrimination be it gender, sexual orientation, racial, cultural, ethnic or religious backgrounds. The police are required to protect all the residents and accord all criminal cases the same level of professionalism without favor. However, the reality shows a different trend where the police treat the African American males with more brutality compared to the African American females and other people from the other races. The racial profile in the country makes it hard for the African Americans to access justice, especially the men. Gender bias that informs police decisions when dealing with the African Americans is unethical as it denies the individuals justice.

            The gender and racial bias among the police mainly occur due to ideologies such as white supremacy that undermines the African Americans. The ideology holds the whites in high regard and thus unlikely to be involved in criminal activities compared to the blacks. The occupational culture in the police department is among the factors that promote racial and gender bias. It refers to the traditions and values that guide the conduct of police force. Although the police training discourages any form of discrimination, the culture that has existed since the colonial times promotes discrimination against the African Americans.  The culture has been promoted by the fact that the criminal justice system does not deal with injustice cases against the African Americans as reported (Barak, Leighton & Cotton, 2014).  This makes it difficult for the police department to end the ideology of white supremacy, leading to increased actions of brutality against the African Americans.  Police brutality is also influenced by politics in the country that also undermine the African Americans.  The media is a primary tool that spreads the political ideologies that undermine the character of African Americans through means such as adverts and movies. The media influences the negative perceptions that the police have against the African Americans.

Part Three


            Police brutality against the African American has adverse impacts on the efficiency of criminal justice system in the country. The brutality does not only affect the criminal justice system, but also the assaulted individuals as well as the entire African American race. The victims’ psychological and emotional health is likely to be negatively affected by the brutality leading to development of health complications such as chronic anxiety attacks. It affects the cooperation of the public with the police, a fact that makes criminal justice inefficient due to inaccuracy of investigations conducted. The individuals affected by the police brutality lose their confidence in the criminal justice system and are unwilling to report any criminal acts they encounter. Police brutality has been known to affect the confidence of the African American race in the criminal justice system, leading to increased incidents of unlawful actions. The brutality affects the image that society has on the police and may lead to their inability to interact freely with the citizens.  The duty of the police is to protect all the residents against criminals regardless of their race and gender. It is thus crucial for the criminal justice authorities in the country to promote acceptable behavior among the police for efficiency.


Barak, G., Leighton, P., & Cotton, A. (2014). Class, race, gender, and crime: The social realities of justice in America. Rowman & Littlefield.

Chaney, C., & Robertson, R. V. (2013). Racism and police brutality in America. Journal of African American Studies, 17(4), 480-505.

Sample Sports Coursework Paper on Discuss and Design a workout for someone with Breast Cancer narrative essay help

Discuss and Design a workout for someone with Breast Cancer


In the recent past, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise throughout the world. The disease has been ranked among the leading causes of deaths in many states. When an individual has been diagnosed with breast cancer, it is important for her to receive extensive medical care since this condition affects the quality of life and well-being. This is the reason medical practitioner’s advice cancer patients to participate in physical exercise (Cheema 16). Exercising is crucial in enhancing the recovery process among patients suffering from breast cancer. Involvement in physical activity aids in controlling the adverse side effects that result from cancer treatment. On the other hand, it helps to increase the completion rates of treatment, recuperate psychological and physical results as well as improving the patients’ quality of life. Professionals recommend patients suffering from breast cancer to participate in exercise because it is efficacious and safe at the same time. Also, the good thing about exercising is that it helps to lessen the likelihoods of recurrence and improve a person’s survival rate after diagnosis of breast cancer (Courneya 4399). Therefore, after receiving treatment and breast cancer surgery, it is advisable that the patient starts working out.

Why Exercise is Effective in Fighting Breast Cancer

Working out is important as it helps to reduce inflammation levels naturally. Also, it aids breast cancer patients to maintain a healthy body weight as well as lowering stress. Thus, it contributes to alleviating further growth of breast cancer among patients. Also, researchers reveal that when an individual is active in life, she manages to significantly reduce breast cancer as compared to those who are inactive from participating in workouts(Hansen 50). In case a person who is active in exercising develops breast cancer, she can quickly recover in contrast to those who are inactive (Ransohoff 310).

When receiving cancer treatment, it is good for the patient to break a lot of sweat as it upsurges energy levels. It also gives the patient physical strength and emotional resilience which is needed when treating breast cancer. Studies indicate that when patients exercise for a minimum of 30 minutes a day while undergoing high-dose chemotherapy experience less fatigue in comparison to the other cancer patients not participating in workouts(Sharif 482). Working out helps breast cancer patients to overcome anxiety and fear which may impede their healing process. Other studies revealed that a combination of strength training and cardio boosts the energy levels among chemo patients (Ohira 1042). Therefore, it is important that a patient identifies the best exercise that suits her to fasten the breast cancer healing.

Best Workout Plan for Breast Cancer Patients

Warm-Up: Conducting warm-up makes the breast cancer patients ready for exercising as it opens lymphatic channels. In this, a person should do shoulder rolls and retractions, neck rotations as well as deep breathing.

Cardiovascular Exercise: The patients should also get involved in cardiovascular activities such as swimming and walking. This requires her to schedule a 30 minute exercising period in 3 to 5 days weekly. The cardiovascular exercises aid the patient to maintain a healthy body which minimizes breast cancer effects.

Strength Training: Previously, cancer patients were discouraged from participating in strength training. However, over times health experts have proved the importance of implementing strength training in breast cancer patients’ life. To have successful strength training, the patient should start with a warm-up for the body to adopt. Then the patient should be keen to observe on whether her body responds appropriately to the target areas. Any swelling is an indication of excessive exercising thus the patient should watch as the routine improve day to day (Kolden 447). The exercises should focus on improving the shoulders muscle and back. The patient should also work the abdominal area to enhance the flow of lymphatic to the thoracic duct. The patient should design a 2 to 3 days work out in a week to fasten the recovery process.

Spider walk: Patients should work out by standing some eight inches facing a wall. The key thing about this exercise is to place the fingertips on the affected part of the body to the wall at waist level as the palm face down. One should hold a hand for over 15seconds while relaxing the arm and repeat the same process for several minutes. This can do great in ensuring that breast cancer patients work out efficiently on the affected areas.

Pendulum: In this, the patient should exercise by bending her body at waist level while allowing the affected areas of the arm hang forward to the floor. Then make a small circle like movements with the hand while moving the arms effortlessly. Do over 20 anticlockwise and clockwise momentum runs from time to time. This also will enable the patient to successful work out without many struggles.

Chest Stretch: Chest stretching is vital in exercising the affected areas of the patient’s chest. The patient can do this by standing in a door while pressing forearm against the door frame. Keeping the elbow at your chest height is important. Then lean forward in a gentle manner until the chest stretches. Repeat this for over 30 seconds with the other arm so as to balance the workout. This exercise is significant to the breast cancer patients as it targets the chest area where the cancer tumor concentrates.

Identify the reasons why you have chosen to design the prescribed workout

The reason for creating this particular workout is to enhance patient understanding of the best exercise that best suits her body. Many breast cancer patients have a misunderstanding on training. Some feel that participating in strength exercises may further their condition which is not true. Therefore, it is important that this design will be informative and educative to assist cancer patients in learning how to deal with their condition. This design will help the breast cancer patients to start off exercising while monitoring changes in their body. As well they will be aware when the practice is becoming harmful and how to deal with the same.

Workout (balance/variety):

From the above discussion, we realize that patient’s breast cancer patients are required to balance exercising of areas. This is great as it helps one not to concentrate on one part as well as use different exercises to realize goals. It is also important for breast cancer patients to follow routine training for effective strengthening of body muscles and lessening fatigue which results from irregular exercising (Wright, Burkitt, Holcombe, and Salmon 865). Therefore, patients should be committed in their training program to enhance healing after chemotherapy.

Workout justification (rationale):

It is clear that medical doctors discouraged patients suffering from chronic illness from participating in physical activities. However, research shows that when patients undergo cancer treatment, exercise helps in improving their physical well-being (Pinto 118). Also, it helps the patient to survive or counter any future recurrence of the condition. Inactiveness may weaken the body muscles; hamper proper functioning of the body making it difficult for patients to respond quickly to cancer treatment. Regular exercise in cancer patients improves balance, lowers the risk of broken bones among patients (Schmitz 67). Most importantly, it saves the body from muscle wasting resulting from a person’s inactivity. Workout helps in lowering heart disease risks and improves the flow of blood of blood thus averting blood clots. Not to forget, exercise improves the patient’s self-esteem, reduces anxiety which may lead to depression.


Evidently, breast cancer is a major health challenge throughout the world. Cancer is ranked among the top killer diseases. Breast cancer patients should design a workout plan since it fastens the healing process. Exercise help to stop recurrence on cancer once the patient finishes treatment. Also, it helps patients to complete treatment by improving psychological and physical results which add value to the patient’s life. Health professionals advocate that breast cancer patients should work out since it is safe and efficacious. The survival rates of breast cancer participating in regular body exercising are higher as compared to those who are inactive. Cancer patients should start implementing work out in their life by starting with simple warm-ups. This helps to prepare their bodies for strength training and cardiovascular activities.

Works Cited

Cheema, Bobby, et al. “Progressive resistance training in breast cancer: a systematic review of clinical trials.” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 109.1 (2008): 9-26.

Courneya, Kerry S., et al. “Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.” Journal of Clinical Oncology 25.28 (2007): 4396-4404.

Hansen, Lisa K., et al. “An educational program to increase cervical and breast cancer screening in Hispanic women: a Southwest Oncology Group study.” Cancer Nursing 28.1 (2005): 47-53.

Kolden, Gregory G., et al. “A pilot study of group exercise training (GET) for women with primary breast cancer: feasibility and health benefits.” Psycho‐oncology 11.5 (2002): 447-456.

Ohira, Tetsuya, et al. “Effects of weight training on quality of life in recent breast cancer survivors.” Cancer 106.9 (2006): 2076-2083.

Pinto, Bernardine M., et al. “Psychological and fitness changes associated with exercise participation among women with breast cancer.” Psycho‐oncology 12.2 (2003): 118-126.

Sharif, Saba, et al. “Women with neurofibromatosis 1 are at a moderately increased risk of developing breast cancer and should be considered for early screening.” Journal of Medical Genetics 44.8 (2007): 481-484.

Schmitz, Kathryn H., et al. “Safety and efficacy of weight training in recent breast cancer survivors to alter body composition, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor axis proteins.” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention14.7 (2005): 1672-1680.

Ransohoff, David F. “Rules of evidence for cancer molecular-marker discovery and validation.” Nature Reviews Cancer 4.4 (2004): 309-314.

Wright, Emma Burkitt, Christopher Holcombe, and Peter Salmon. “Doctors’ communication of trust, care, and respect in breast cancer: qualitative study.” BMJ 328.7444 (2004): 864.

Sample Psychology Essay Paper on Mnemonic Keyword Method to the Acquisition of Vocabulary mba essay help: mba essay help

Mnemonic Keyword Method to the Acquisition of Vocabulary

 APA-style reference for the article

Atkinson, R. & Raugh, M. (1975). An application of the mnemonic keyword method to the acquisition of a Russian vocabulary. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning And Memory, 1(2), 126-133.

Goal of the Article

The goal of the article was to evaluate the effectiveness of the link method in learning a Russian vocabulary. First, it was to determine how the foreign word is associated with the spoken foreign word with the aim of identifying their similarities. The second hypothesis formulation of a mental image relating to the keyword associated with the English translation. Therefore, the article compares the keyword method to an unconstrained control strategy by use of Russian vocabulary.

List three (3) cognitive psychology terms important for the topic of the articleMental Image- the term refers to the representation of the physical world in an individual’s mind.Memorable- something that cannot be easily forgotten from a person’s mind due to its specialty or unusualness.Cognates- having a certain relation more especially by descent from a common ancestry language.Describe ALL the dependent variables for the designated experiment

The researcher used pronunciation as the dependent variable that was to be determined by the words to be learned. The students who participated in the experiment were to be taught various terms that they could translate and pronounce. This implies that the pronunciation skills that were to be learned depended on the keywords offered.

Describe ALL the independent variables for the designated experiment

The independent variables in the experiment included the English word and the key word. In the experiment, it is clear that the students were able to learn the Russian vocabulary to variations of the English and keywords. In other words, it is the varying of the independent variables that determined the outcome of the dependent variables.

Describe how the experiment was conducted

The learning of the Russian vocabulary test was set and grouped into three parts to be learned and compared within a duration of three days. The subjects were then taken through computer control. They then were instructed through the screens, listened to the foreign terms through the use of headphones and presented their responses by typing. One test was obtained from the three sets sub-vocabularies and forwarded for testing and further study.

Identify all the main effects and interactions

On the first day, the practice part of the experiment was related for both males and women. The total results of the keyboard subjects were averagely 55% that corresponded to an average of 56% for control subjects. The outcomes of this experiment is a clear indication that there was an even matching of the keyword and the control groups.

Steps or conclusions suggested by the article

As per the results of the article, it is a good idea to use keywords in learning for beginners. However, with time, it becomes less important as the subject starts gaining familiarity with the method and language. Consequently, the experiment ascertains that learners apply mediating techniques that are similar to those of keyboard method to learn vocabularies even when not instructed.  Considering the outcomes of the experiment, it was proved that the keyboard method is highly effective in learning a foreign language with a 72% correct score.

Describe two other situations in which one could use the mnemonic keyword method besides learning a foreign language.Link word method can be used to improve one’s memory. The learner can opt to associate various concepts with some familiar objects such as associating a packet of milk with a jug full of milk dancing.Link word method can also be used in learning new terms. For example, one can link a new concept to what they like best such as swimming.What problems do you foresee in using the Link Word method for learning a foreign language?The learning method requires a lot of effort and time for one to establish a scene for every unfamiliar word.The method may be ineffective in some situations as it tends to assume that there is a one-to-one relationship between the first language and the second language of the learner, which may not be the case.

Sample Leadership Studies Essay Paper on Leadership Styles for Aviation Managers best essay help: best essay help

Leadership Styles for Aviation Managers

Leadership Profile Part III

            The aviation industry is marked by complex and dynamic business cycles, stiff competition and strict national and international regulations which affect the general success of businesses operating in the industry. Therefore, effective leadership styles are required to guide organizations to success and overcome these numerous challenges. Some of the commonly desired leadership styles in the industry include transformational, transactional, democratic and authoritarian. Transformational leadership is marked by leaders who inspire team members to achieve success by becoming agents of change. Such leaders are effective communicators and go the extra mile in ensuring that members are committed to and achieve set objectives. Conversely, transactional leaders use a system of reward and punishment to motivate team members. Democratic leaders use a participatory problem-solving approach through guided objective discussions. On the other hand, an authoritarian leader uses tight control, strict and control supervision, absolute power and strict professionalism in managing a team (Olcott, 2014).

Transactional and transformative leadership styles will ensure that Southwest Airlines abides by the industry regulation while also spurring development through motivation and innovation. These styles will allow the leaders and team members to go the extra mile in ensuring organizational success since they are empowered and highly motivated. Democratic style will also spur success through motivation and innovation, and industry standards adherence since decisions made are agreeable to team members as they are reached through objective discussions. Authoritarian style is vital in consolidating power and pushing through vital decisions in the firm. There are operational aspects in the company that require strict supervision and real time decision making such as during emergencies. These are situations that authoritarian leadership style can be highly effective (Olcott, 2014). However, due to the complex nature of the industries and organizational structure commonly exhibited by entities operating in the industry, no one leadership is effective in guiding organizations to success. Organizations in the industry usually opt for a combination of these various leadership results to produce effective and efficient leadership.


Olcott, J. (2014). Leadership Styles for Aviation Managers. AvBuyer May 1, 2014. Retrieved from:

Sample Literature Essay Paper on Personal Freedom and Discovery free college essay help

Personal Freedom and Discovery

Into the Wild is a non-fictional book authored by Jon Krakauer in 1990. It is a true story about a young man known as Christopher McCandless who decided to abandon his life, family and community to roam deep into the wilderness. As a young person who had just attained his university degree, McCandless decided to take a bold step something that is contrary to what the society expected. When an individual graduates from university, the society always expects them to seek for work or be useful in the society by contributing positively but McCandless did something contrary. Krakauer decided to look into the issue of personal freedom and the nature of person quest and discovery when he decided to look deep into the life of McCandless. In the book, he uncovered the truth regarding individual existence and what drives them to do certain things. The main character in the book decided to chase adventure instead of fulfilling social responsibility. His decision might have turned fatal as he lived a short life, but in one way or another was a lesson to many people especially the youths who love their freedom and wants to live a life of adventure. Krakauer’s account regarding McCandless through his journey into the wildness and his personal encounters says more about personal freedom, nature of quest in relation to personal discovery and individual’s role in the society and this is analyzed in this essay.

Krakauer decided to retrace the roots and steps of McCandless to understand what led this young man to make such a huge step to move away from civilization to go deep into the wild an action which led to his death in Alaska. He found out that after university as a young boy at the age of 22, McCandless decided to take all that belonged to him including his personal savings and gave them to charity. The fact that he decided to go to school showed that he was fulfilling his role in the society. He therefore pushed to clear high school to university. The decision to move out of his village was not out of social responsibility, but felt that it was his role to pay back to the society that had molded him. This became a turning point in his life as he took off on a road-trip to United States in a quest for personal discovery. He first began by changing his name, an action which was also based on personal freedom since nobody was there to judge this decision or question it.

McCandless was like a free bird that had just got his wings and ready to discover more about life away from family and authority. His family came to the realization of his personal freedom and independence when he had left to Alaska. However, Krakauer has mentioned in the book that as a young person, McCandless loved solitude. He never opened up to friends or family about his life or what bothered him making it hard to know his thoughts. In one way or another, the readers can view this habit as personal discovery where he was learning more about himself and what he wanted. On the other hand, he never wanted people to know his thoughts or plans thus decided to stick to be alone most of the time to think things through. This is perhaps the reason he never contacted or connected with his family members after he left home to Alaska.

However, the fact that he changed his name from Christopher McCandless to Alexander Supertramp not only showed personal freedom, but personal discovery. Disguised in a new name was a way of adventure because no one could recognize him or relate him with his community members. The trip to Alaska became the ultimate freedom for this young man because he not only experienced various adventures but was away from authority from government and rules from family and community.

McCandless viewed authority as something unpleasant because he felt that he was helpless. In the wild, he was also free from social responsibility plus all the expectations of everyone.  Out there away from everyone, in the forest, there were no laws that he could follow or obey thus lived a free lifestyle doing what he wanted. The only authority that was beyond him was nature but that did not bother him because he had the ultimate freedom that he was seeking for all his life.

However, this kind of freedom can be considered as selfish. This is because it seems that McCandless was running away from social responsibility. He did not want the society to dictate what he should do and not do. On the other hand, this kind of freedom meant that he was not only refuting his family members including his original name, but also the society as a whole. His journey to self discovery meant that he had to leave behind everything and live according to the rules he had set for himself and those dictated by nature. In the wild, he was living only to fulfill his personal interest and living for himself and not others. McCandless never cared whether this kind of living would be disastrous or dangerous to him as long as he achieved his freedom.

Some of the dangerous events that he encountered through his journey include the floods carrying away its car and getting lost. Nevertheless, this did not prevent or stop his adventure and his road to personal discovery. After losing his car, McCandless decided to walk which is a clear indication that he was not willing to go back home but continue with his adventure. He could hike and jump into freight trains for transportation to various parts crossing to Mexico. He also used canals and canoe for transportation and some point ended up getting lost in the process.

McCandless adventures also led him to South Dakota where he ended up working in a farm for a living. Nevertheless, he did not care about what he was going through because to him, it was a way of personal discovery and achieving the freedom that he always wanted. Krakauer has mentioned that while still back at home, McCandless had rejected a car that his family had brought him (Krakauer 21). He saw the act as ridiculous which adds up to his personal freedom attitude of being able to accept and reject what he wanted. The fact that his family was able to purchase him a new car shows that they were wealthy thus the readers cannot understand why he chose to suffer in the wild rather than enjoy the good life back at home. However, Krakauer has mentioned that McCandless’s choice to run away from home was a personal conviction which was driven by the desire for personal discovery.

However, when McCandless rejected the car, it not only showed his personal freedom, but depicted his role as a man in the society. It is the role of men in the society to defend for themselves and work hard to make their lives better. McCandless was merely playing his role by ensuring that the family did not dictate his life or the things that he had in life. On the other hand, his strong self esteem could not allow him to drive a vehicle that the family had purchased for him. He wanted to show that he is a self-centered individual who would not allow other people to cloud his personal decisions and being. 

McCandless also did not want the society to measure his esteem based on what he had rather who he was as an individual. He detested his parent’s wealth and did not want it to define him. Krakauer has stated that to McCandless, “wealth was shameful, inherently evil and shameful (Krakauer 115).” This clearly shows that McCandless was the type of man who did not glorify his family wealth. He believed that his role in the society was to go out there and look for his personal wealth which could hold him at higher standard and regard among his friends and everyone. 

McCandless quest for personal discovery is what led him to endure much in the wild. As an adventurous person, he ended up sleeping in the forests, in the desert and near rivers without fearing the danger within. However, he kept his hope on the price which was having a good life in Alaska. It is clear in the book that McCandless was not like any other ordinary young man in the modern society. He had a strong quest for freedom thus did the unthinking such as rejecting family wealth, selling everything he had and living in solitude amidst danger. This is something that no person can do today thus it is good to commend him for such bold move even though it contributed to his death.  

McCandless believed that the state of self discovery comes from being on your own. This is because in most cases, the society tends to urge or direct the ways in which people live yet he did not want to conform to their standards. Krakauer has shown how he was comfortable out in the wild living alone without anyone around him. It might be because McCandless had the feeling of satisfaction in life something that he was looking for when he abandoned everything.  His ideals in life were different from what the society expected and this made him to become a person who is self-centered to achieve his desires.

Another way that the author managed to elaborate how McCandless played his role perfectly in the society is where he introduced the character known as Gene Rosellini. He was like a mentor to McCandless as he developed a stronger relationship with him. Rosellini taught him how to make leather belt and carve images. This was like a road to self-discovery as McCandless came to recognize his strength and what he can do as an individual. In one way or another, it must have given him courage to go into the wild since he was already equipped with the basic knowledge on how to make things with his hands.

In conclusion, Krakauer has given an account of a young man named McCandless especially his journey into the wildness. McCandless personal encounters say more about personal freedom and nature of quest in relation to personal discovery and this is perfectly elaborated in the book. As a young man, he decided to escape from everything especially authority from government and family. Krakauer has showed the ways in which McCandless previous life before going into the wild played an important role especially enabling him to survive alone away from family and his community. 

Work Cited

Krakauer, Jon. Into the Wild. New York: Villard, 1996. Print.

Sample Agricultural Studies Essay Paper on Australian Beef Industry essay help: essay help

Australian Beef Industry  


Currently, there is a global awareness of the significance of agricultural productivity sustainability among nations. Agricultural productivity is essential in enhancing the long-term concerns of a nation and source of income generation among persons living in rural areas. It also improves food security and ability of a nation to deal with related catastrophes. In Australia, the nation’s ability to make good use of the opportunities for future growth of agricultural and food demand depends on its innovativeness that comes along with productivity improvements. Australia’s beef industry has been instrumental in the agricultural productivity of the nation both domestically and globally. Cattle beef products come from the northern and southern regions. Furthermore, several challenges and opportunities have also influenced the industry productivity. This paper presents a general analysis of the agricultural industry in Australia and focuses on beef industry.

Australian Beef Industry

Agricultural Productivity in Australia

There are several determinants of productivity growth in a nation (Loko & Diouf, 2009). At the farm level, the productivity of a farmer is enhanced by improvements that reflect production of more outputs, for instance, livestock and crops that come from market inputs such as land, labor, market, capital materials, and services. At the industrial level, productivity is quantified in terms of effective resources across farms through positive industrial structure. One of the main determinants of enhanced agricultural productivity is innovation because it enables farmers to minimize production costs by adopting more effective technologies as well as management practices. As the relative farm prices decrease due to innovation and technology, there is profit maximization among farmers that enhances productivity growth and savings. In this case, some farmers may opt to produce normal output but with a reduced cost while others may decide to increase their productivity with an increased input through expansion of farm sizes, thus benefiting from economies of large-scale production (Sheng et al., 2014).

            In Australia, the agricultural sector encompasses a diverse range of industries. The main sector is the bread care sector, which is made up of non-irrigated crops, cattle, and sheep. The sector has been enhanced by the availability of large tracks of land and water supply (Grice, Watson & Stone, 2013). The majority of these lands are arid and semi-arid, a factor that favors livestock grazing and native vegetation. Australia’s broad acre farms contribute to 54% of the gross agricultural production, which is averagely 53 % of the agricultural business (ABARES, 2012). High values of horticultural industries result in the gross value of agricultural productions. Australia’s agricultural sector highly focuses on the export market, whereby the majority of its gross value farm produces are destined for foreign markets.

            Currently, Asia has turned out to be one of the leading destinations for Australia’s agricultural products (Drysdale, 2009). For instance, from 2011 to 2012, the Asian markets imported more agricultural exports from Australia (ABARES, 2012). The key markets are China, Japan, Indonesia, and the Republic of Korea. Similarly, Australia’s agricultural exports to Europe have largely diminished while the exports to the United States have improved. Europe and the United States account for approximately 10 % of the value of Australia’s agricultural exports. Nevertheless, specific industries vary in their scope of production for exports and use of domestic markets. Other high value agricultural industries produce products for domestic market. For instance, from 2010 to 2011, the horticulture production exported only 15% of the value of its produces. Contrary, the broad acre agricultural sector focused on export production. For example, the total export of wheat was 67% as compared to the value of production in 2010–2011 and virtually all the produced wool was exported (ABS, 2012d). Furthermore, the nation’s agricultural imports are also expanding. In as much as the nation remains an important net exporter of agricultural and food products, the total imports in the last 25 years have expanded, almost double the number of Australia’s exports (ABARES, 2012).

Australian Beef Industry

The first cattle to be introduced in Australia were aimed at developing the nation in 1788 (Queensland Government). After several years, the cattle increased in numbers to a level where cattle farming was commercialized. After the commercialization of cattle farming in Australia in the 1850s, there was a rapid increase in the demand of beef in the nation. Currently, cattle farming in Australia is one of the huge agricultural investments across million hectares (Jayasuriya, 2003). The nation has managed to export beef across the globe ranking second after Brazil. Australia prides in being one of the greatest producers of safe beef that is free from infections across the world. The most common beef breed that is used in Australia is the Bos Indicus cattle that is typically fattened, processed, and exported to international markets, such as Japan.

The northern part of Australia accounts for the highest production of beef product in Australia (Gleeson, Martin & Mifsud, 2012). Nevertheless, this production is less than half of what is produced in the whole nation. It is believed that most of the cattle from the northern region are usually forage for feed. The beef product from this region is of lower quality as compared to southern beef. Therefore, most of the beef products from the northern region are intended for export markets in the Asian nations.

To improve the quality of beef quality produced in the northern Australia, the cattle are transported to the south regions where they are given grain feed before slaughtering (Rutherford, 1995). After this process, the beef is boxed and then exported to other nations like the United States, for instance, humbugger. Furthermore, beef farms in the southern regions of Australia are commonly more intensive as compared to the southern regions. Most of the farmers in the southern regions of Australia also breed European and British cattle breeds that are well renowned for their ability to gain adequate weight for meat products that is of high quality (Martin et al., 2013). After slaughtering the animals, which is done at different ages, the meat products are then exported to various high value markets like Russia and Japan.

Challenges and Advantages of Australian Beef Production

One of the main challenges that face beef agriculture in Australia is that the nation’s cattle industry functions in a liberalized setting (Zhao, Mullen & Griffith, 2008). This implies that the autonomous trade liberalization has amounted pressure to the beef industry to compete in the worldwide markets against super beef producers that are greatly subsidized. Due to this facet, Australian beef farmers have been forced to invest significant amounts of cash and other outputs in productivity enhancements. For instance, many developments have emanated from heredities, pastures, and market promotions.

Nevertheless, due to enhancements that have been put in place to improve beef productivity in Australia, many beef farmers and producers in the Australian cattle industry have emerged in strong position to uphold profitability. Moreover, the ability to develop and compete in the global markets has also allowed the beef industry to clinch on and make good use of the opportunities that are apparent in the future of the industry. Another significant challenge that affects the Australian beef producers is the dependence on a comparatively trivial number of export markets destination. This occurred when the national government suspended all cattle exports to Indonesia. The action was a big blow to the beef industry and endangered the farming activities and forthcoming production of numerous northern region cattle farmers (Blanchett & Zeller, 2012). This suspension affected the beef products since they were very few alternatives that farmers from the nation could sell their products to.

On the contrary, one of the major advantages of Australian beef industry is the fact that the meat is disease free, safe, and clean. This was enhanced specifically through the implementation of the National Livestock Identification System that ensured. Through this adoption, it is mandatory that beef cattle be given electronic identification ear tag at the initial stages of their growth. In the process of the animal growth and progression and in supply chain, the animal can be easily tracked through the identification system. For instance, there was an eruption of cattle disease in the U.S., which led the Japanese government to suspend all the U.S. beef imports for several years. This was a great opportunity for Australia as it was able to penetrate the Japanese meat market. If the same outbreak could have been reported in the Australian beef industry, the National Livestock Identification System could have treated the nation’s beef products in isolation, which could have affected the whole industry. The main reason Australia was among the first nation to implement the National Livestock Identification System was due to its endeavors to access large international market for its beef exports.

Australian Beef Products and Markets

Agriculture is one of the main sources of exports in Australia and the nation produces approximately 3.9% of the globe’s beef (Australia Beef Industry Overview, 2015). Within the nation, more than 60 % of the beef production is intended for international markets (Australia Beef Indistry Overview, 2015). Therefore, globally, Australia is among the biggest producers of milk products besides the Unites States of America and Brazil.

The highest form of beef products that are exported from the nation is live exports or processed beef. The live export market is the northern Australia, where the Bos Indicus cattle are destined for Asian nations, for instance, Indonesia. Nonetheless, in as much as the growth of live export has been enhanced in the previous years, the highest amount of export production is processed within Australia and then exported to foreign nations. The main destinations of processed beef products for Australia are Korea, Japan, and the United States among other nations.

In Japan and Korea, Australia trades in high quality, high streaked beef. The beef products that are intended for these two nations are passed through the production system and fed in a feedlot a number of days before being exported. The Australian beef products are also exported to European nations as a result of the presence of the European and British breeds in the nation.

The United States is one of the major producers of beef products (Lowe & Gereffi, 2009). However, due to its increased value markets as compared to Australia, the nation has had an opportunity to deliver for its substantial ‘hamburger’ market. The beef product that is exported to the United States is normally boxed beef, which originates from the Australian northern regions.

Mechanism of Cattle Production

The main starting point for any beef cattle agriculture production is pastures. Cattle production entails the transformation of grass or grain to weight and consequently beef. In Australia, numerous farmers depend on natural pasture or grass that is found in the cattle production belt regions (Wells, 2013). Nevertheless, the nutrient content, protein and energy in this natural pasture, is lower as compared to the manufactured pastures. Despite this fact, the natural pasture is stronger than the manufactured pastures. Moreover, other farmers in Australia in search for cattle pastures will sow different plants and grass, which produces plentiful, highly nourishing silage. In most cases, farmers select the best fodder for their animals. After making the final decision, they use a breed that is well suited for their production purposes, which can adapt to different specific local environments. At present, the Angus breed is the most common breed in Australia. This is because the Angus Breed has the ability to produce premium quality beef as a result of marbling. Other common breeds in Australia, for instance, the Charolaise are recognized for their ability to grow faster. Brahman is a resilient breed that can survive hostile conditions, commonly found and suited in the northern production systems. After settling for a specific breed, a farmer then identifies the correct genetics. The genetics involve the selection of males that may breed their chosen animal. This is mostly done with regard to the Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs).

Future of Agriculture Production

Generally, it is apparent that the demand for protein is expected to upsurge significantly as the rates of incomes across the world increases among nations and people. This facet will result in the increased demand for beef from several developing nations, which will progress Australia’s export prospects. Furthermore, several nations that are facing an increasing demand for red meat are also trying to increase their local production. For instance, in 2010, Indonesia enforced a weight restriction on cattle exports in the nation. This approach was aimed at assisting local producers to increase local beef production, with the aspiration of becoming self-sufficient. In addition, during the peak of the Soviet Union, Russia had plenty of cattle, which fell sharply afterwards.

The implication of this is that the nation had imported many beef products over the years. Nevertheless, it recognized the need of rebuilding the cattle industry and has a dream of increasing its herd to approximately four million by 2020. In the short term, this indicates that the nation is trying to offer opportunities to the local Australian farmers who are selling their live breeding animals locally. In the long term, this process will see the farmers and the nation increase production of beef to global markets and will reduce the imports of the product. Several other nations have set up the policies like Russia and Indonesia. Through the introduction of more sophisticated technology, for instance, the EBVs in the global market, many cattle producers across the globe have also increased the adeptness and beef production. Nevertheless, the increased production is unlikely cater for the increased demand of beef products globally.

Australian Production

Currently, the Australian beef herd is approximately at 28 million head. This average is meaningfully higher than the long- term average. In the recent past, encouraging climatic conditions have triggered and encouraged several farmers to preserve the female cattle for breeding. Furthermore, the decreasing price of wool has also triggered the long-term increase of herd average. This is because several sheep farmers in Australia focus on beef production due to high profits and other benefits. In addition, sheep production in the nation requires a high cost of venturing into the industry, thus making the beef cattle production industry favorable to many producers.

Increased export value markets, for example, Japan and South Korea have also enhanced herd size in Australia. This has been a historic battle between the United States of America and Australia in order to gain access to these markets. The United States has been the main competitor of the Australian market. The disease outbreak in the United States in 2003, however, gave Australia an upper hand in accessing these high valued markets. Nevertheless, in 2006 Japan began the process of lifting the ban of meat products from the United States due to its compliance with the safety measures. This implies that Australia is likely to start facing the competition once again for the high valued markets for meat products.


Beef production is one of the main backbones of any economy across the globe in enhancing lives of people and the positive monetary growth of a nation. In Australia, several approaches have been put in place to support the industry to meet the demand of beef products globally and at a local level. These include the enhancement of pasture productivity, which will enable pasture to be effective in its functioning. Furthermore, enhanced genomics among cattle producers have become significant in allowing beef farmers to appreciate the features of the animals when they are maturing. This process is significant in allowing the selected animals to be bred earlier without any losses. Moreover, the incorporation of animal indicators in their feed consumption will be effective in ensuring the beef producers select the animals that are capable of effectively converting pastures into weight.


Australia Beef Indistry Overview (2015). GLOBAL BEEF INDUSTRY – OVERVIEW. Retrieved From: file:///C:/Users/edu/Downloads/ANZ-Beef_pdffinal.pdf

ABARES. (2012). Agricultural commodity statistics, Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, Canberra. Retrieved From


Blanchett, J., & Zeller, B. (2012). No Winners in the Suspension of the Livestock Trade with Indonesia. U. Notre Dame Austl. L. Rev., 14, 55.

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Drysdale, P. (2009). Australia and Japan: A new economic partnership in Asia. Retrieved From file:///C:/Users/edu/Downloads/Australia-and-Japan-Partnership-Report.pdf

Farmer, B. (2011). Independent Review of Australia’s Livestock Export Trade. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Retrieved From

Grice, A. C., Watson, I., & Stone, P. (2013). Mosaic Irrigation for the Northern Australian Beef Industry. An assessment of sustainability and potential. Synthesis Report. A report prepared for the Office of Northern Australia. CSIRO, Brisbane. Retrieved From publications/Documents/mosaic_irrigation_technical_report.pdf

Gleeson, T., Martin, P., & Mifsud, C. (2012, May). Northern Australian beef industry: assessment of risks and opportunities. In ABARES report to client prepared for the Northern Australia Ministerial Forum, Canberra. Retrieved From

Jayasuriya, R. T. (2003). Farming systems in Australia. Australia, NSW Agriculture.

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Lockie, S. (n.d). Australia’s agricultural future: the social and political context.

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Lowe, M., & Gereffi, G. (2009). A value chain analysis of the US beef and dairy industries. Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness, Duke University. Retrieved From

Martin, P., Phillips, P., Leith, R., & Caboche, T. (2013). Australian Beef: Financial Performance of Beef Cattle Producing Farms, 2010-11 to 2012-13. ABARES. Retrieved From

PriceWaterHouseCoopers (PWC, 2011). The Australian Beef Industry. Retrieved from:

Queensland Government. EDUCATION ON TRACK Sugarcane, Cattle and Coal – Sugarcane, Cattle and Coal –Rail Transportation and Industry Industry. Retreived From: file:///C:/Users/edu/Downloads/sugarcane-cattle-coal-rail-transportation-2.pdf

Rutherford, A. (1995). Australian Beef Exports: Dead or Alive?. Review of Marketing and Agricultural Economics, 63(2), 340-8. Retrieved From

Wells, K. (2013). Australian farming and agriculture: grazing and cropping. Retrieved From

Zhao, X., Mullen, J. D., & Griffith, G. R. (2008). The competitive structure of the Australian beef industry: accounting for trade. University of New England, School of Economic Studies. Retrieved From

Sample Business Studies Term Paper on Not all Companies are viewed as Equal online essay help

Not all Companies are viewed as Equal

In the free business world, not all businesses are considered equal. The public and germane authorities perceive and treat companies differently more especially those that have ethical compulsions. For instance, the law-making authorities institute policies that unfairly target certain companies. In many cases, this results from the ethical concerns that some firms deal in products that are unhealthy for human consumption (Ingram, Rhea, Skinner, and Taylor 241). Establishing such businesses requires a lot of legal obligations and tax imposed is higher as compared to other business. Hence, this paper accents on the responsibility of International Tobacco Companies to protect the public from their harmful and toxic products.

Evidently, tobacco industries cause a lot of harm to the public and their consumers. Firstly, they are the major cause of air pollution. These firms emit toxic gases to the air causing destruction of the ozone layer. In recent years, many organizations and governments have been advocating for businesses to be environmental-friendly. Though, as much as these campaigns go on, the tobacco companies are doing less in regard to reduction of air pollution. They are becoming the major contributors to global warming. The world climate is changing and imperiling people with ultra-violet rays. Therefore, these companies need to be regulated with tough laws for the benefit of future generations.

Secondly, tobacco products threaten the health of consumers. It is evident that tobacco products like cigarettes cause liver and lung cancer. Despite the struggles to reach a cancer free world, tobacco companies consistently continue posing health dangers to their customers by not providing sufficient awareness of the dangers (Alsop 19). What makes matters worse is that these products are not only harmful to the consumers but also the general public. Hence, these products should be banned bearing in mind that they are unhealthy leading to increased deaths across the world. Therefore, the tobacco industry should not expect equal treatment to other companies and yet they conduct unethical businesses.

Many private owned companies are characterized by economic capitalism. They instigate economic decisions which favor their interests. In many cases, capitalism makes firms not to adhere to social responsiveness. They have selfish motives of manipulating the public with an aim of generating benefits and keep their business running (Alsop 23). Capitalism tends to interfere with forces of the marketplace. Countries that embrace capitalism play infinitesimal role in controlling the capitalist economy. Therefore, capitalism in tobacco industry can compromise the well-being of people. The companies cannot be concerned with the dangers posed by their products to the public rather focus on making more profits through manipulation.

It is time companies learn to accommodate both their interests and those of their customers. Before starting a business, a company should evaluate the ethical concerns that may affect their operations negatively. Through this, they can be able to develop a strategy of ensuring social responsiveness. Besides satisfying customer needs, companies should ensure that their products do not harm the people. Balancing the company interests and those of the consumers can help in building support from the environment where it operates. For instance, the tobacco industry should conduct public education on the dangers of consuming excessive tobacco products. In addition, they should strive to limit emissions of dangerous gases to the environment in order to safeguard the publics’ health.

Works Cited

Alsop, Ronald J. “Corporate reputation: Anything but superficial-the deep but fragile nature of corporate reputation.” Journal of Business Strategy 25.6 (2004): 21-29.

Ingram, Rhea, Steven J. Skinner, and Valerie A. Taylor. “Consumers’ evaluation of unethical marketing behaviors: The role of customer commitment.” Journal of Business Ethics 62.3 (2005): 237-252.

Sample Management Report Paper on Stakeholder Engagement in CSR at Element Java Hotel by Westin my assignment essay help london

Stakeholder Engagement in CSR at Element Java Hotel by Westin


Element by Westin is part of the larger Starwood Chain of Hotels that is supposed to be opened in Java, Indonesia. In a company such as Element Java Hotel, there are various human elements that contribute to the sustainability of the hotel operations. Some of those stakeholders include contractors, investors, suppliers, customers and employees. Each group of stakeholders has different levels of responsiveness towards the company goals and operations depending on the level of interaction between the stakeholders and the hotel. It is thus critical for the hotel to satisfy the needs of each of these stakeholder groups wholesomely in order to avoid dissatisfactions. Since the Hotel cannot operate optimum without any of the stakeholders, the viability of the hotel may be reduced due to dissatisfaction of any of the stakeholders (Wheeler, 2003). Creating satisfaction can be achieved through many ways. One of the most essential ways of achieving satisfaction among all groups is through consciously accomplishing all the corporate social responsibilities according to the hotel’s management program and the societal requirements. Element Lexington in the US can be used by Element Java as a benchmark for effective and sustainable operations with regards to the involvement of various stakeholders.

            Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an instrumental element in the success of any business. In the hospitality industry, the impacts of CSR are even more pronounced due to the prevalence of interactions between various stakeholders. Performance of CSR is inseparable from ethical operations in the industry hence is directly linked to sustainable development. Although the key objective of any business is to gain economically, the diversity of stakeholders in businesses makes it imperative to engage in other non-economically directed activities to achieve long term sustainability. Applying ethical rules in operation indefinitely leads to the accomplishment of economic goals of the organization. According to Bowie (1991) failure to operate within the ethical constraints leads to inevitable failure. At Element by Westin, it will be essential to engage all stakeholders in the organization and accomplishment of CSR objectives to achieve the desirable level of long term competitiveness and sustainability.

Stakeholder Engagement in CSR at Element Java

            The Relationship between CSR and organizational performance can be connected to various aspects of performance. CSR can directly be linked to organizational aspects such as reputation management, risk management, investor relations, competitiveness and learning (Hopkins, 1999). In terms of organizational reputation management, CSR can help organizations to boost their reputation among different stakeholders and subsequently gain greater profitability. Through engagement in activities considered ethical and welcomed among the stakeholders, companies get to boost their reputation leading to greater economic advantages. However, the requirements from different stakeholders vary. Similarly, the requirements vary across industries. For instance, the stakeholder expectations from hospitality industry CSR are quite different from expectations from other sectors.

Similarly, the effects on competitiveness, learning and innovation and risk management all lay within the opportunities brought about by stakeholder engagement in the organizational CSR activities. Hopkins (2004) asserts that engagement of stakeholders in the CSR process planning and implementation is a key step towards organizational performance. From the report of Amato et al (2005), there are two main ways in which organizations can choose to engage stakeholders in the CSR process. The first approach is through an inside out approach where the organization selects the CSR activities and only brings the stakeholders on if and as necessary. On the other hand, an organization may choose to engage the stakeholders entirely throughout the entire process involving idea generation, planning and implementing the CSR activities. This is proposed by Boutilier (2007) who asserts that the inside out approach could produce disastrous results in the long term as various stakeholders feel they are excluded from the decision making process. According to Boutilier, the intentions of the organization in using an inside out approach may be honorable but still produce disastrous results. Based on these arguments, it is recommended that Element Hotel by Westin should engage all stakeholders at all stages of CSR as this is bound to give more sustainable results from CSR.

Engaging Customers

Customers are the greatest asset to a hospitality industry business. Because of this, the way the hotel treats its customers will determine its potential for long term success. The customers develop different perceptions about the hotel depending on its CSR efforts. Different industries treat their customers differently regarding the aspect of CSR. However, ethical treatment of customers in an organization is a common concept since the primal objective of economic achievement cannot be accomplished without the customers. Gaining from a business depends wholly on the interaction between the business and its customers. The choice of customers at the hotel depends on aspects such as the service and product qualities, the safety of the hotel and the availability of all the required services (Toyota, 2012).

In order to acquire, retain and grow their customers, Element Java Hotel needs to focus on innovation in their provision of food items. This could be achieved through aspects such as new recipes, high quality food items, and effectiveness in food delivery. By always making sure that the hotel serves best quality foods through customer friendly employees, it will be possible for the hotel to create lasting impacts on the customers. Distinctive menus and recipes can serve as key points of marketing to the international market. Since the hotel intends to serve tourists, creating a culture that intertwines tradition with the modern Indonesian cultures can help create exceptional impression on customers hence increasing competitive advantage. Sustainable food production can be applied by the hotel through learning from Indonesian cultural practices. Currently, Indonesians are changing in terms of their eating habits towards the preference of more agricultural food materials. Through taking this stance in food production, the hotel can lure more customers as they identify with the Indonesian culture. In addition to this, adopting a sustainable food provision objective, the hotel will also boost its profits while fulfilling its responsibilities to the customers.

Innovation in recipes can also help the hotel to address customer need effectively. It is the responsibility of the hotel to bring the customers a touch of the Indonesian culture. This can be achieved through incorporation of the surrounding communities in service delivery. One of the ways through which the hotel can achieve this is by partnering with local communities to have the customers dine at the homes of some of the locals. Besides enabling the customers to feel incorporated into the cultural practices of the community, it will also give them an exceptional experience concerning the cuisine of the Indonesian people. In addition to this, the hotel can use their green practices to entice more environmentally conscious customers into the hotel.  Provision of materials that eco environmental friendliness such as the recycled bins, carpets and other house hold products made from eco friendly raw materials can help the hotel to attract and retain more customers. This will not be difficult for the hotel as it will learn from Element in Lexington on how to accomplish this.


The government is another key stakeholder in the hotel operations and the hotel thus holds some CSR obligation towards the government of the day. The hotel has to accomplish the obligations it holds towards the Indonesian government in order to be capable of sustainable operations in the long terms. The support of the government is crucial as it determines the reputation of the company to a great extent. Wheeler (2003) suggests that all organizations have the obligations to adhere to government regulations on various business operations. This is an ethical requirement that is inevitable in the business context. Compliance with tax regulations and other mandatory business startup regulations is essential to business sustainability. In addition to this, the government has well laid down structures for the registration of a business as well as the requirements of any business entity. During operations, the hotel will be obliged to remit annual tax returns besides paying the taxes (Wheeler, 2003).

Other obligations include compliance with environmental conservation principles such as by ensuring minimum pollution and reducing environmental impacts of the hotel’s operations. This could be achieved through the use of eco-friendly products such as the use of recycling bins in all the rooms, carpets made from recycled materials and low VOC paints for the interiors. Such measures will be recognized by the government as contributing to environmental conservation hence the government will be more likely to provide financial support as motivation for the company to continue engaging in environmentally friendly purchases and operations. The hotel will also comply with safety laws with regards to the operations of the employees. This is taken as a form of CSR towards the government in that it is the government that sets the regulations to provide protective equipment to all workers and to subject employees to fair working conditions that do not jeopardize their safety. Adherence to anti-trust laws will also be instrumental to building the hotel reputation and subsequently increasing shareholder value (Toyota, 2012). The government can help the hotel to achieve these aspirations through provision of guiding policies on the implementation of labor laws, compliance with green building requirements and upholding human rights in the work place.

Community engagement

The business community also forms an essential component to the success of the hotel. With regards to this, the community is not only the people living around the hotel. It extends to include the local government in the general essence, the natural and physical environment, special interest groups, special action committees and consumerists. The hotel has ethical and social responsibilities towards these groups in different measure and different points of interaction. The characteristics described by Etzioni (1996) as pertaining to the community include: the presence of true needs of all members (collective needs), there is a balance of autonomy and order; there is a system of defined values without which living results in inferiority impression. Furthermore, Selznick (1994) posits that communities can be defined through their common commitment to shared values. These characteristics explain the rationale behind having some of the distinct groups as part of the hotel community. The aspect of autonomy and order in the community relates to the fact that the community may comprise of certain units that are distinct in their operations yet have shared values and commitment to those values like the whole community. Based on these characteristics, it is important for the hotel to recognize the points of interest in the hotel community and subsequently to embed their CSR practices to the community needs and values.

Failure to adhere to the values that the community holds in high esteem may result in failure and lowered reputation. For instance, in an environmentally conscious society like that in Indonesia requires the hotel to be environmentally conscious too. Failure to comply with this leads to a dip in the reputation of the hotel. The relationship between the hotel and the community is symbiotic in that the hotel fulfils the needs of the community while the community provides a favorable business environment. The obligations of the company towards the community involve investing in operations that provide favorable future returns to ensure business sustainability. The hotel is bound to provide benefits to the communities through availing new employment opportunities, sustainable environmental practices and adhering to societal norms (Clarkson, 1995).

In terms of providing employment opportunities, the hotel should concentrate more on local labor capacity in Java. Although it may not be possible to obtain all skilled labor sources from the area, it is possible to get sufficient labor for the hotel since the education levels in Java are higher than the rest of Indonesia (Kuipers, 2011). This implies that through recruitment and in- service training, the hotel will be able to build the labor capacity in the area. Locals can work effectively in areas such as housekeeping, service and routine maintenance areas with minimum training. Through added experience in the hotel, the workers will eventually be capable of tackling more demanding responsibilities.

The community which supports environmental conservation requires the businesses to operate with environmental sustainability as the motivating factor behind their purchases. By engaging local distributors and suppliers, it will be giving back to the society socially. Social contribution by the hotel to the community comes through engagement in practices that uplift the community while also upholding their autonomy and values. Ethical treatment of employees, motivation of the community members through actions such as providing support to local artistes, actual physical involvement of the community in aspects such as environmental cleaning and charity activities directed to children and the poor also form part of social contribution to the community (Toyota, 2012). For the hotel, focus should be on how to maintain profitability through the use of locally available resources.

Marketing strategies employed by the company should thus allude to the benefits that the start-up will give to the community as well as the practices that will enhance the symbiotic relationship between the hotel and the community. Providing a favorable business environment implies that the community will support the growth of the hotel through provision of positive criticism, providing impetus for law compliance and providing the necessary resources such as land and labor, at a price of course. This thus contributes to the community’s economic growth.

Investors and Owners

The investors and the owners of the hotel are key stakeholders in its operations due to the fact that they are the power behind the idea itself. As such, the driving motivation behind every business, which is profit making lies squarely with them. The investor decisions determine the continuity of the business. However, the business itself has to fulfill the needs of the investors and owners to be considered viable. Economic needs surpass all other needs but cannot be fulfilled without the accomplishment of other needs such as the CSR needs of the investors. The business is considered to be the property of all those who invest in it. The investment can be through outlay of money, time and other resources towards the success of the business. All the investors in any company expect an outcome which depends on the relationship established between the investors and other stakeholders in the business (Etzioni, 1998; Freeman, 1984).

For the Element Java Hotel, the outcome to the investors can only be favorable depending on the interactions with customers. The hotel has the social responsibility of producing favorable profitability to the investors. This can only be done through engagements that enhance the hotel reputation among potential customers and which also lead to the realization of the hotel objectives in sales. Profitability must be achieved ethically through procedures that do not violate any ethical expectations. For instance, investors are only attracted to businesses that have the capacity of providing a return on investment.

In addition to this, the hotel owes the investors the CSR to select investors through a just process that gives an opportunity to all the potential investors. While the investors need the hotel to gain economically, the hotel also needs investors who are worthy of the opportunity. This implies that there has to be a rigorous process of selecting the most suitable investors. It is the responsibility of the hotel to select investors who are conscious of the community needs, whose goals align with the business objectives and who will help the hotel to accomplish its CSR obligations towards other stakeholders. The investors are thus entitled to a fair and just process of selection devoid of any corruption. Furthermore, the hotel has to practice honesty and integrity with respect to dealing with investors, particularly in aspects such as payment of dividends among others (Etzioni, 1998).

The hotel owners, like the investors has the need for economic benefits which is associated with the hotel operations. This can also be achieved if the hotel operates profitably. To achieve this objective, the hotel has the responsibility of dealing fairly with the owners, maintaining accountability and transparency in dealings and carrying out constant communication with the owners (Freeman, 1984). Similarly, the owner, working under the guidance of the Starwood Hotel code of ethics, is obligated to provide sufficient capital assistance. In addition to this, moral decision making guided by the code of ethics is a mandate of the hotel owner. The decisions made should be based on information provided by the hotel management for the benefit of the hotel and its sustainable growth.

Employee CSR

The employees are also part of the resources held by the hotel that will help the business achieve its objectives. The hospitality industry is particularly crucial because how the employees are treated is reflected on their interactions with the customers who are the key stakeholders in the hotel. CSR drives organizations towards maintaining employee engagement to the organizational goals. The employees at the hotel will judge the CSR efforts based on three major aspects. Sciarelli recognizes the fact that employees will perceive the ethical efforts of any organization based on the procedural aspects of CSR, the interactional aspects and the distributive aspects of CSR (1991). This outline is also given by Aguilera et al (2004) who describe the procedural aspect as involving the way in which the CSR concept is embedded in the organizational operations. The distributive aspect includes the outcomes from the CSR efforts while the interactional aspect refers to how the organization treats all those with whom it interacts (Aguilera et al., 2004).

As a way of internal marketing, employee CSR goes a long way in achieving the organizational goals since it results in high productivity; customer satisfaction and increased revenue among other outcomes. To gain from these benefits, Element Java Hotel will have to incorporate aspects of CSR such as providing equitable employment and remuneration opportunities, engaging the employees in essential operational decision making and providing fair working conditions (Toyota, 2012). Fair working conditions in this case are characterized by lack of physical, verbal abuse or sexual harassment, favorable working hours and safety in the work place. Additionally, the hotel can also raise its reputation among the employees through understanding and fulfilling their needs, ensuring that the employees are engaged in direct community CSR activities such as charitable events and strengthening the employee identification with the hotel (Bhattacharya et al., 2007). Practices such as the use of forced labor, child labor, violation of workers’ rights, and violation of human rights contravenes the obligations of CSR towards the employees hence the hotel should focus on eliminating such activities that lower their reputation. Through initiatives that indicate that the hotel is against such practices, it is possible to send a positive marketing message to potential and existing employees as well as to the society.


While dealing with suppliers, the hotel has to be very careful. This is because of two main reasons. First, the suppliers hold the key to effective hotel performance. Secondly, the suppliers deal with perishable goods in most instances. Tripathi and Singh (2014) suggest that businesses should be aware of the environmental impacts of their operations prior to engaging any suppliers. Although the hotel is socially responsible to the suppliers for maintaining a fair process for the selection of suppliers, it also has to critically evaluate each of the suppliers. Being in an environmentally conscious community, it is critical for the hotel to engage only suppliers that are similarly environmentally conscious. Suppliers who produce recycled products should have an upper hand for consideration. Moreover, the hotel should also try as much as possible to consume local products in their operations rather than importing the products.

According to Tripathi and Singh, maintaining price competitiveness is one of the obligations of the suppliers towards any business. Moreover, the suppliers also have to form a habit of accomplishing timely deliveries and accuracy. In response to the accomplishment of all these, the hotel is responsible for providing a corruption free trading environment for the suppliers and protection of the confidential information in relation to suppliers (Toyota, 2012). Communication between the hotel and the suppliers also has to be two ways to enhance effectiveness.


The Element Java Hotel will have to hire the services of renowned contractors. The hotel intends to use the standards of Element Lexington Hotel in the US to attain ‘green’ construction standards. The Lexington Hotel is a leader in this segment having been awarded certification by the Green Building Council for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. Element Java thus intends to only acquire the services of contractors who are capable of designing and constructing every aspect of the hotel in compliance with LEED standards. This will require the contractors to be capable of demonstrating to the owner and the investors that they will be capable of addressing issues of energy and water. The energy consumption in the building will have to be at least 20 percent less than that in conventional buildings since the hotel intends o follow in the footsteps of Element Lexington (Vamosi, 2011). Other aspects of the LEED certification requirement that the contractors are expected to satisfy are well described in the attached appendix. Since compliance with LEED requirements implies that additional costs will be incurred in construction, the hotel is required to supply the capital requirements for the project. The quality control process for the construction project will be undertaken by the Starwood group of hotels and will be in compliance with the group’s policies and regulations.


The hospitality industry involves a lot of interpersonal interactions. This implies that engagement in the hotel business will demand proper application of ethical values. The various stakeholders at the Element Java Hotel, created by Westin expect the hotel to address different CSR expectations. However, the expectations of the stakeholders differ and so does the range of actions that the hotel can use. The customers are crucial to the profitability of the business hence have to be treated with utmost care. For instance, the customer information has to be kept confidential. They also expect quality in service delivery at the hotel. The government expects compliance with various laws and regulations as well as with tax requirements. The investors on the other hand expect to be treated with respect, fairness and justice and to be provided with a return on their investments. The hotel owner is deserving of constant communication with the hotel as well as transparency and accountability in all dealings. Since the employees are the key organizational resource, the hotel has to work in conformity with the workers’ rights, to provide fair working conditions for all employees and to apply fairness and equity in employment and remuneration. The suppliers on the other hand expect constant two-way communication, anti-corruption practices and price competitiveness among other factors.

Apart from the discussed stakeholders, the hotel will also get to interact with others such as contractors and casual laborers. In all dealings, the most important ethical aspects in CSR compliance include maintaining integrity, honesty and upholding dignity and respect for all humans. This will help the hotel to maintain long term sustainability.


Aguilera, R., Rupp, D., Williams, C. & Ganapathi, J. (2004). Putting the S back in Corporate Social Responsibility: A Multi-Level Theory of Social Change in Organizations.Champaign, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Amato, A., Henderson, S. & Florence, S. (2009). Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Business: A Guide to Leadership Tasks and Functions. Center for Creative Leadership.

Bhattacharya, C.B., Sen, S. & Korschun, D. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility as an Internal Marketing Strategy. Sloan management Review.

Bowie, N.E. (1991). ‘New Directions in Corporate Social Responsibility.’ Business Horizons, July- August Issue.

Boutilier, R.G. (2007). ‘Social Capital in Firm Stakeholder Networks: A Corporate Role in Community Development.’ Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 26, 121- 134.

Clarkson, M. (1995). A Stakeholder Framework for Analyzing and Evaluating Corporate Social Performance. Academy of Management Review, 20, 92-117.

Etzioni, A. (1996). ‘The Responsive Community: A Communitarian Perspective.’ American Sociological Review, 61.

Etzioni, A. (1998). A Communitarian Note on Stakeholder Theory. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(4).

Freeman, E. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pittman.

Hopkins, M. (1999). The Planetary Bargain: Corporate Social Responsibility Comes of Age. Basingstoke: MacMillan.

Hopkins, M. (2004). Corporate Social Responsibility: An Issues Paper. Policy Integration Department, Working Paper No. 27.

Vamosi, S. (2011). The True Cost of LEED- Certified Green Buildings. Retrieved from

Kuipers, J. (2011). Education. In Frederick, W. and Worden, R. (Eds.) Indonesia: A Country Study. Library of Congress Federal Research Division.

Sciarelli, S. (1991). ‘Corporate Ethics and the Entrepreneurial Theory of Social Success.’ Business Ethics Quarterly, 9(4).

Selznick, P. (1994). The Moral Common Wealth. Berkely, CA: The university of California Press.

Toyota (2012). Supplier CSR Guidelines. Toyota Motor Company.

Tripathi, R. & Singh, V.P. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Ethical Issues in Marketing. International Journal of Management and International Business Studies, 4(3), 297- 308.

Wheeler, D., Colbert, B. & Freeman, R. E. (2003). ‘Focusing on Value: Reconciling Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainability and a Stakeholder Approach in a Networked World.’ Journal of General Management, 28(3).

Appendix: Literature on LEED Certification

Environmental and Human Health, Inc. LEED Certification: Where Energy efficiency Collides with Human Health, An EHHI Report Summary. Accessed at:, S. (2011). The True Cost of LEED- Certified Green Buildings.

Accessed at:

Sample Economic Research Paper on Economic Systems in Mexico and Canada as compared to that of USA compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

Economic Systems in Mexico and Canada as compared to that of USA


This paper compares the economies of Mexico and Canada to that of USA.It explores trade relationship between the states, their most influential sectors, and their level of development and finally, describes differences and similarities found within their economic operations. The paper uses the statistics from bilateral free trade indexes and statistics collected by other studies to show the levels of economic developments of these states. The paper further states reasons for the differences in levels of development exhibited by these states and suggest the need to use comparative advantage to win a competitive edge in the world of trade. The conclusion of this research clearly describes the significance of integration and its potential to fully explore the comparative advantages of different states for better and promising future.

Economic Systems in Mexico and Canada as compared to that of USA

Mexico, Canada, and U.S. have grown economically since the previous century. The economic growth has been contributed by globalization and high levels of integration through development of economic ties. Economies of these states, however, differ regarding growth and level of development because of differences in resource endowment and industrialization. These differences encourage these states to trade with each other to uplift their economies and take advantage of their comparative advantages. The economic systems within the states are in some aspects similar, yet different. This study compares the Economic systems of Canada and Mexico to that of U.S, using statistics of economic determinants including those researched by the bilateral-free trade agreement (FTA) and the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Literature Review

Economic globalization is the key factor strengthening economic ties between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Trade between the three countries has become increasingly significant hence accelerating economic growth. Integration of these economies has been accelerated by the Free Trade Agreement of 1989 (FTA) and The North American Free Trade Agreement of1994 (NAFTA).A decade ago, United States, Mexico, and Canada launched NAFTA, a trade policy that which covered merchandise trade, Investment activities, environmental policies and Labour markets. So far, the agreement has increased trade and financial flows between the partners and contributed in making North America to be among the most integrated regions in the world. There has been increased interdependence of these three economies that make them share many similarities in the progression of the economy. The GDP of each country currently increase at an increasing rate making them rank top in the list of most developing economies.

US- Mexican Economy Relations

According to the study carried out by Inglehart, Nevitte, and Basanez (1996), in 1982-85, Mexico was faced by severe economic depression that led to the formation of many Economic reforms. The Mexican economy has been very resilient in the face of the challenging economic environment and with the help of economic reforms, regulatory efficiency has been enhanced, and investments liberalized. There was a system of protective policy in Mexico before formation NAFTA, in which U.S. and other states faced restrictions in investing in Mexico (Baugh and Ericson, 2013). The policy also controlled exchange rate in order to promote domestic growth. Since NAFTA, there has been a sharp increase in U.S. investments. Economic liberalization in the late 1980s resulted in a ship in the Mexico shift that has since helped in bringing the gradual flow of investments in the country. The effort the reforms are making to develop economy has been however slowed by political interference and corruption which undermines long-term commercial competitiveness. Implementation of economic and judicial reforms is still limited. Mexico is therefore yet to see expected increase in foreign investments that can mostly be made possible by a stronger rule of law and more competition.

Mexico is one of the U.S trading partners, and it is the second country making most of U.S exports and third when imports and exports are combined. From the study carried out by Inglehart et.a1, (996), it was found that the economic relationship between US and Canada was supported by Mexico’s proximity, the intensive trade activities and the strong economic and cultural ties between the two countries. Mexican economy relies heavily on US relations of trade especially as an export partner. Trade between Mexico and U.S has significantly strengthened economic ties between the two countries, but the U.S Per capita remains higher than that of Mexico. Mexico per capita is however relatively high by global standards.

US-Canada relations

Canada and U.S trade have been highly integrated making it rank second leading trading partner of U.S in merchandise trade. Some of the reasons for its strong ties include the geographical closeness to each other and t cultural similarities. This makes their trade less expensive and easier. However, the two countries diverge economically in various ways. According to study done by Hale (2013), the U.S GDP is higher by 9time that of Canada and 11 times higher in times of purchasing power. Since it is highly dependent on the U.S trade, U.S. economic slowdown highly impacts its economy.

Modeling Economic systems of Canada and Mexico as compared to that of United States

In order to compare the economic growth of Mexico and Canada relative to that of US, in this section, theoretical model and quantitative measurements of economic variables between Canada and US as well as between Mexico and US are used. Bilateral Trade Intensity Index for 1970-2014 and other statistics collected by trade reforms relating to the growth of this economise are used.

Levels of economic development of the United States, Canada and Mexico

The US is the most powerful economy in the world, It has a per capita GDP of $49,800.The economy of the nation is more liberal with private individuals and business firms mostly making market decisions. The government and the State have the responsibility of buying the needed goods and services by the private sector.US business firms have a high flexibility in expanding capital plant as compared to other economies. However, they face barrier whenever they want to establish its market in rival firms as compared to foreign firms entering US markets. One advantage behind the success of the US economy is its high level of technological advancement especially in Computers, military equipment, aerospace among others. The challenge accompanied by the Onrush of this technology is the increased divergence of technological skills and education leading to the difference in payment increment between the people with lower levels of skills as compared to those with high education skills.

Since US economy is dependent on the economies of other countries, an economic downturn of its partner impacts its economic growth, For example, the Economic depression of 2008 which pushed the United States into recession in 2008.However, with policy intervention and more economic reforms, the economic growth continued. The US trade has significantly increased from previous century because of globalization and growth of Economic Integration led by the formation of economic reforms.NAFTA has been the most effective reform between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico since its formation in 1993.US trade has grown more with NAFTA partners than with non-NAFTA partners. According to Cooper  (2014),the US Department of Commerce indicates that, since the announcement of NAFTA, the US exports Mexico has grown by 93%, while exports to Canada increased by 35% which was more than trade increment between the non –partners. On the other hand, The US imports from Mexico and Canada increased by 190% and 69% respectively.

The economic system of Canada resembles that of US in terms of technological advancement and market orientation. Canada is the U.S number one supplier of energy including gas, oil, electric power and uranium. Canada’s abundance of natural resources, skilled labor and modern capital plant accelerated economy since 1993 to 2007 upon formation of NAFTA.It was then affected by the global economic crisis of 2008 just like the US but accelerated again from the start of 2009.

Mexico economy system highly accelerated in the manufacturing sector with the formation of NAFTA.The per capita income of Mexico as compared to that of US roughly amounts to one-third that of U.S.So far, Mexico is the second largest export market of US and third-largest import source of imports.Moreso, Mexico has over 50 countries with free trade agreements making its 90% of trade under the free trade agreement.

For Mexico and Canada, United States market is their most important destination for exports.  Lester, Mercurio,and Bartels(2016) state that trade between Mexico and U.S increased between 1970 and 2014 showing a high intensity of economic interdependence between the two countries. There is, therefore, a higher significance of US economy in Mexican products.

Most influential sectors of Economy in Canada, U.S, and Mexico

The difference in economy growths of United States, Canada US is contributed by the differences in the industrial development in each country. The major contributing factors of these differences include the countries level of development, the natural resource endowment and the level of economic integration. Sectors with any advantage rank first in the economies of the country thus contributing a high percentage of growth.

United States

The US economy leads in the world in terms of size and it is the most competitive and productive. The service sector is the key economic sector which contributes about 67.8% of the country’s GDP.The major parts that form this sector are information, technical, scientific, retail and professional services.

The Oil and Gas sector is another primary sector because of its wide coverage and high employment rates supporting at least 9.2 million jobs. Though the US maintains its traditional technological advancement, it stiff competition from the growing economies in this sector including Canada, Europe, and Asia. At least more than 10,000 US companies including both small businesses and to globally operated enterprises, provide goods and services that work in exploring petroleum, drilling, and other related operations both at international level and domestic levels ( King, 2015).

U.S is also the biggest supplier of the mining and processing equipment in the mining industry all over the world. It provides equipment to be used for both surface and underground mining. These equipments are designed with high level of technology which enable US export to be most competitive in the international marketplace.


Since World War II, Canada’s manufacturing, mining and service industry has developed enormously leading to the creation of affluent society. The most important sector of the economy in Canada is the manufacturing industry. The industry contributes about 14% of Canada’s GDP.American and Japanese auto industries heavily rely on Canada’s skilled and low-cost labor force. The leading products of this sector include transportation equipment, paper products, petroleum, natural gas, machinery and clothing among others. The Canada’s success in the economy is highly contributed by its abundance of natural resource and it remains to prosper.

Canada is the world’s largest source of mineral due to its abundance in oil and natural gas. It is the third largest oil producer and leading producer of hydroelectric power. This sector makes up to 2.9 % of Canada’s GPD.The agricultural sector is also found in the list of the leading suppliers of agricultural products in the world. The US provides the bigger market of Canada products due to their strategic location to each other. The sector provides employment to 2% of its population and contributes 8% of the GDP.

Canada shares similar characteristic with the US as it is among the strongest countries in the technology industry in the world. Canadian Starup Visa is a government provision that aims at attracting companies with new technology from all over the world (Wolfe, 2014). The technology industry prospers in most areas such as wireless technology, e-commerce, digital media and general internet services. The service industry accounts for 80% of Canada’s GDP and employs three-quarters of the population. Industries making a larger portion within the sector include retails, education, business, and tourism.


Mexico’s economy is distinct because of its high degree of contrast existing between industries. Its industries are highly modernized and advanced contributing a significant portion to its GDP.The first most important sector in Mexico is the service industry, Most of the industries major activities are directed towards serving the USA market. These activities have increased since the formation NAFTA.The major portions forming part of this industry include hospitality, social and economic infrastructure and professional and personal services (Story, 2014).

The manufacturing sector is the second most important sector with automotive industry leading within the sector. Many car manufacturing companies have been set up in Mexico including Ford, Toyota, and General Motors among others. The automotive industry is technologically advanced such that it functions both as an assembly for manufactures and centre for research and development. Within the sector, Mexico is the second largest producer of electronics to the US after China as analyzed in 2007 trade statistics.

Agriculture is the third most important sector which accounts for 4.2% of Mexico’s GDP in 2010.The sector plays a major role in providing employment accounting for 13.7% of Mexico’s workforce. The main agricultural products produced include corn, sugar, dry beans, beef, avocado, tomatoes, poultry, pork and dairy products.

Major differences and similarities in the economies of US versus Canada and the US versus Mexico

In 2009, U.S and Canada held the world’s largest bilateral trade relationship in which their merchandise of exports and imports totaled $429.7 billion. The economies of these two states are highly integrated, an economic state made possible by the formation of NAFTA.Both states have industrialized economies ,same standards of living and same industrial structure. Both countries have membership in World health Organisation and are partners with Mexico in NAFTA.The two economies, however, diverge in per capita income, productivity, size and net savings. Canada leads as the single-country trading partner of US with automobiles and auto parts being the largest sector traded.

There is a strong economic relationship between US and Mexico, and this interests US policy makers because of favoring factors including their proximity, strong bilateral trade and the cultural and economic ties between the countries (Cooper, 2014). Just like Canada, Mexico and US economies diverge in the level of development and share membership in most of the trading reforms. The US GDP is $17.9 trillion which rank first in the world while that of Mexico is $1.14 trillion ranking 15th in the world. The US manufacturing industries like automotive, appliances, and machinery rely on Mexico manufacturers for assistance.


Comparing Mexican and Canadian economies to that US clearly defines the relationship between these economies, which determine their rate of economic growth. Since the US highly depends on Mexico and Canada for services and products in some of its sectors of the economy, good trade relations are beneficial to encourage more of their trade activities.NAFTA being one of trade agreement already in place, more of these reforms are required to explore every bit of resource within the countries for future development. The United States of America is the most developed economy in the world, it is therefore a backbone of the economies of many of its trading partners including Mexico and Canada as its market dominates their economies. Economic integration has had a significant contribution to economies of countries with the level of economy now higher as compared to the level of economy before integration. Countries should use their comparative advantages, and trade with other countries to ensure effect of industrialization is felt by many nations in future.


Baugh, T. G., & Ericson, J. E. (Eds.). (2013). Prehistoric exchange systems in

North America. Springer Science & Business Media.

Cooper, W. H. (2014). Free trade agreements: Impact on US trade and implications for

 US trade policy. Current Politics and Economics of the United States, Canada

and Mexico, 16(3), 425.

Hale, G. (2013). Transnationalism, Transgovernmentalism and Canada–US Relations in

 the Twenty-first Century. American Review of Canadian Studies, 43(4), 494-511.

Inglehart, R., Nevitte, N., & Basanez, M. (1996). The North American trajectory:

Cultural, economic, and political ties among the United States, Canada, and

Mexico. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

King, P. B. (2015). Evolution of North America. Princeton University Press.

Lester, S., Mercurio, B., & Bartels, L. (Eds.). (2016). Bilateral and regional trade

agreements: Commentary and analysis (Vol. 1). Cambridge University Press.

Story, D. (2014). Industry, the state, and public policy in Mexico (Vol. 66). University

 of Texas Press.

Wolfe, D. A. (2014). Innovating in Urban Economies: Economic Transformation in

Canadian City-Regions. University of Toronto Press.

Sample Sports Case Study Paper on Equality in Sports cheap mba definition essay help

Equality in Sports


            Sports play an integral part in the society. Different cultural backgrounds and ethnic groups participate in sports as a way of entertainment while for others, sports acts as a way of keeping fit and looking good. The world has come up with different sporting activities, which play a vital role in providing careers to those who participate in them and earning income as active employment opportunities for governments and agencies all over the world. the construct of modernity has brought about merits in sports which acts as a lobby to bringing people from different ethnic groups together – establishing to keep differences which co – exist at bay and embracing the thrill which comes about as a result of actively engaging in sporting activities (Davis, 2002, P. 21).

            Laws and policies have been instituted to ensure that all have the rights to engage in sporting activities all over the world regardless of the cultural backgrounds, physique and cultural/religious beliefs. At the apex of this equality in sports lobby for the sports, are the people with disabilities. Disabilities simply means individuals with special abilities or some form of impairment that may be cognitive, physical, mental or sensory which restricts the abilities of individuals restricting them from performing some activities that others can participate in actively (DePauw & Gavron ,2005, P. 23). These laws are meant to protect such individuals and make them part of the sports team.

            This case study meticulously looks at the merits brought about by equity in participation when it comes to sports. The individuals with disability have every right to participate in sporting activities as do those who are considered physically fit with not disability of whichever kind. This case study pays keen attention on 16 individuals (8 women and 8 men). These adults are participating in swimming as a sport and are from Plymouth and District Special Olympics group. This group of sports persons is composed of seven non – swimmers and the remaining have some capabilities which was derived from their beginners up to the level of the confident swimmers who can swim for 200m. Further, this case study is divided into three parts; a lesson plan for the introductory session, an outline framework meant for developing four of the clients handpicked from the group displaying some abilities and potential with the capability of participating at the regional level. The stroke technique is also key among these members of the team (Beard & Wilson, 2006, P. 17). Lastly, the final section deals with a report on the challenges facing Special Olympics team concerning incorporating swimming into their branch of activities about solutions on ways of solving such problems (Mabbs, 2006, P. 71).

A.    Lesson Plan for the Introduction

The lesson plan for this group of 16 adults ought to start with basic training on the requirements at the pool environment. First, the team would have to be told regarding the terms and conditions, which ought to be followed by all regardless of an individual’s physical or emotional state. Moreover, the team must be made well aware of the fact that safety is the primary concern while at the pool area and this goes beyond the construct of racial segregation, ethnicity or religious ties (Martin, 2006). The plan should incorporate the requirement concerning clothing and the right costume while swimming, including the light shower just before getting into the pool.

Equipment used during emergencies

            The team has to be made aware of the fact that there are swimming costumes and lifesavers. The costumes ought to be used by anyone who gets in the pool area and must be mandatory for any individual swimmer. The lifesavers are used by those individuals who are swimming for the first time, especially those who are not professionals. Moreover, the team has to be taught on the procedures of handling emergencies. Equally important, is the skill of breathing in and holding oxygen before diving and ways of diving into the pool to avoid accidents. This is instrumental in keeping accidents at bay and knowing how to behave in case of an emergency.

Basic Principles of Swimming

            The team is composed of swimmers with mixed abilities. The knowledge of the design of the pool is a primary concern and ought to be made well known to all the swimmers. In this respect both the deep end and the shallow end ought to be pin pointed to the beginners including which areas to cling on while taking a deep breath for the purposes of safety in the pool. The movements and adjustments, which ought to be made thereof including the first aid, which should be done to downers, and how effective and accurate it ought to be has to be taught to the swimmers.  For the purposes of security, especially for the team members, there ought to be four professional swimmers in the pool area during training. The professionals work would be to ensure that the swimmers do not drown, and are only meant to act in times of emergencies.

Ways of Identifying the Potential of Clients

            The only sure way of identifying the ability of these 16 clients is by requesting them to change and get into the pool after orientation. There ought to be health professionals to ensure that those with nose bleeding problems are handled during the training, including those who faint (Farrell, 2006, P. 11). The lifeguards ought to keep vigil when the clients get in the pool for the first time. As the coach, the clients should be asked to swim in different styles including the strokes. The more skilled swimmers will obviously have the ability to float on the deep end of the swimming pool while those in need of further training will be confined to the shallow end or swim with the aid of the lifesavers.  This would be an effective way of identifying the confident swimmers from those in need of further training. However, there is also an option of asking them out. This method is less effective in comparison to the former.

B.     Framework for Developing Clients

From this group for 16 adult clients at Local Plymouth Group, four members ought to be trained on ways of competing at the regional level. The skill of these four ought to show abilities to handle 200 meter and skills in swimming such as the stroke. The Special Olympics incorporate rules and regulations, which ought to be followed by all in the process. There ought to be special equipment availed to facilitate the training of these special team clients and ensure that they perform well at the regional level. The policies concerning training and terms of the contract ought to be ironed out and selection of the four ought to be on a competitive basis.

The performance of these four clients for the regional competition can be effected through regular exercise and the survey of their weak points (Stratton, 1997, P. 20). Their emotional and physical well – being is a prime factor to put into consideration during the training of these individuals. The policy, for the eighteen months of training, ought to start immediately with regular medical checkups. This policy would ensure that all the training and engagements between the players and the couch is legal. Modern sporting activities are vulnerable to illegalities such as doping and swimming as a sport is not an isolation. Therefore, the coach ought to ensure regular medical check – ups in a bid to ensuring that his clients are free from drugs and are okay both physically and emotionally.

The clients in the team are sixteen in number. Therefore, the selection of the four members to participate on the regionals has to be on a competitive and fair basis. This has to be in terms of the rules and regulations, which are set, including such things as physical fitness during training and drug and substance abuse. The competitive selection process grants chance to all interested parties ensuring that there is a transparent selection process without malice, prejudice or discrimination of any kind.

This fairness would assist in ensuring that there are good relationships among the members of the team. The coach should also ensure that those who do not perform favorably continue training with the four. The best way is to continue in the competitive training of the entire team of sixteen because there might be injuries if training are only restricted among four. The selection ought to be done some few weeks to the main event. This would serve to increase the competence of the entire group and not benefit the four only.

Motivation of the clients also becomes key especially where performance is concerned (Lindsey, 2006, P. 19). This can be in terms of providing training opportunities with champions who have won gold medals to train with the team. Moreover, special training kits branded with such names as champions would be effective in shaping the talents and abilities of the team members towards winning the championship. Moreover, there can be a prize to be won by the first four of the team players during the training so that all the sixteen of the team members put their dedication and effort towards accomplishing success in the competition. The pool area and the facilities therein should be customized to accommodate individuals with disability so that the training can be equal for those who the society refers to as ‘normal’ and the disabled.

C. Report

            Disability is not inability; therefore, any person considered ‘normal’ in the medical context has the ability to perform tasks, which others considered physically handicapped could perform. Training in swimming is dangerous, it is all about balancing breathing and acquiring some tactics with regards to skill, which would ensure that an individual is safe when swimming. Many especially talented swimmers at times land in trouble and end up losing their lives while swimming just because of a simple mistake. The ability to hold ones breath under water and stay composed while coordinating both the hands and feet are critical skills which comes with swimming.

            These skills are not easy to acquire and requires years of practice to perfect with constant practice and very skilled personnel teaching on ways of perfecting such swimming skills. Although modernity and technology has brought about important facets in swimming – training and personal contact with a trainer becomes key (Hundley & Billings, 2010, P. 11). Accidents in water are challenging to tackle because at times vision is impaired and the depths, which the saviors will have to go require the skills of professionals to pull through. The greatest challenge to incorporating swimming to the Special Olympics team is about the challenges that are more likely to be faced in the process. These challenges are such as; inadequate professionals to train the individuals with disability, special equipment will have to be customized for their use in the process; finances involved in the training are quite high, in the case of physical disability, regular medical check – ups while training is needed (Depauw & Gavron, 2005, P. 77).

            The inclusivity of the disabled persons in sports and sporting activities in general was accomplished in 1982. During this year, the United Nations went a step further in the development of the World Program of Action which was a global strategy aimed at the enhancement of the prevention of disability and the provision of equal opportunities for individuals. Therefore, this encouraged all forms of sporting activities, especially of the disabled persons and further promoted the provision of adequate facilities, activity organization and programs for the disabled (Lindsey, 2006, P. 17). Moreover, during the United Nations International Decade of Disabled Persons, which lasted from 1983 to 1992, in which governments were encouraged to conduct an implementation of the provisions, which have been stated hereby (Hundley & Billings, 2010, P. 93).

            Training of people with disabilities when it comes to swimming requires professionals who are specialized in training the handicapped on swimming. This is challenging because only doctors fully know the physical deformity or inabilities of an individual who is disabled (Tweedy & Vanlandewijck, 2011, P.  20). Therefore, this means that the therapists for the individuals who are disabled have the ability of successfully training these individuals to pull through training and gain the requisite skills (Havens, 1992, P. 47). Moreover, some individuals with special abilities suffer from depression, which is often linked with suicidal tendencies, in case they fail to succeed in learning how to swim the emotional tantrum that they might engage in might require the services of counselors and therapists, which might both be expensive and challenging (Gaskin, Andersen & Morris, 2010, P. 22).

            Further, there is difficulty when it comes to ranking these persons with disability. For example, how effective can it is ranking an individual with physical disability and mental disability (Cregan, Bloom & Reid, 2007, P.  31). Therefore, ranking would further lead to disenfranchisement of these individuals that further causes inequality just like placing them in special schools. It becomes hard placing individuals with disability in groups to compete in the Special Olympics team because they would feel further discriminated than before (DePauw & Gavron, 2005, P. 61). The criteria or technique used in this respect would be significant in showing the respect that the society has for the people with disability. Performing actions of humility to the people with disability often seem weak in the eyes of some; they would feel that these actions are performed simply because of their physical or emotional well-being and out of pity as opposed to being genuine.       

            Some individuals with disability lack some vital parts of the body necessary for swimming; this might include hands or legs (Wilson & Clayton, 2010, P. 11). There would be need for special equipment to aid in their competence so that the ranking of these individuals as far as the Olympics is concerned becomes fair (Howe, 2008, P. 35). This can be in terms of prosthetics, which are very expensive. Training must be continuous and constant so that the skills that are to be acquired have a lasting effect. Very few individuals with disabilities can acquire prosthetic limbs not unless; the government decides to acquire the prosthetics for the handicapped in the country, which can adversely affect the national budget (Le Clair, 2013, P. 65). Prosthetic limbs refer to artificial limbs, which can be used by the disabled persons to substitute the natural limbs that might be lacking.

            Moreover, the laws and regulations put in place in countries to protect the rights and freedoms of people with disability are not sound enough. Participating in Olympics simply means that all nations will have to put into law those regulations meant to protect the rights and freedoms of the disabled, which comes in as a challenge, especially in the case of developing nations (Brittan, 2010, P. 15). Developing nations still lack the requisite resources to handle the handicapped – let alone the adequate medical professionals to make the right call about the diagnostic requirement of individuals with disability (Anderson, 2009, P. 15). These countries are still in the verge of coming up with newer technologies and resources which will satisfactorily handle the affairs of the individuals with disability.

            The Standard Rules for the Equalization of Opportunities were adopted by the United Nations in 1993, which was specifically meant for individuals with disability. These rules also addressed the rights of the various individuals with disability in sports. The Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons soon followed thereafter from 1993 to 2002, then 2012, after which, the African Decade of Disabled Persons (200 – 2009). From 2006 – 2016 (currently) the Decade of the Americas for the Rights and Dignity of Persons took suit.


            In a bid to ensuring that swimming is incorporated into the Special Olympics, governments must place strict rules and regulations, which serve to protect the rights and freedoms of such individuals with disabilities (Themed edition of the Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning: challenges and experiences in outdoor education in Latin America, 2013, P. 41).       Before swimming is incorporated into Special Olympics, there ought to be rights and freedoms duly incorporated within the constitution of countries aimed at ensuring that the individuals with disability are strengthened in terms of education so that they are able to know their rights and freedoms (Rowe, Adams, Beasley & England, 2004, P. 9). This would be instrumental in protecting the disabled against discrimination and exploitation because of their mental state or physique.

            The government and human rights agencies aiming to promote the welfare of the disabled in the society will have to invest in purchasing training equipment for the individuals who are disabled and dedicate time in looking at talent while, suiting such individuals in light of the special abilities, which they have (Cregan, Bloom & Reid, 2007, P. 55). This would be effective in accomplishing the feeling of belonging and equality among the disabled which would give them the psyche and morale to practice and become part of the society (Kerr & Stafford, 2005, P. 33). Moreover, a sport is not a prime concern if the living conditions and facilities are not customized to incorporate those with disabilities in terms of healthcare, training and education (Ashton-Shaeffer, Gibson, Autry & Hanson, 2001).

            The curriculum should incorporate Special Sports, which is not restricted on special education whose constructs only focuses on ways of communicating to the disabled or teaching such individuals (England, 2001, P. 59). This Special Sports ought to ensure that the curriculum is revised so that it can include training on physical fitness through such activities as sports, particularly swimming. Healthcare professionals should also be available to ensure that the physical and emotional well-being of these disabled individuals is in check both before and after training. This is possible because technology has enabled doctors and physicians to come up with better ways of treatment including equipment, which can be employed in times of treatment and diagnosis of disabled individuals (Rouse, 2004, P. 57).

            Research has revealed that there is a great correlation between disability and poverty. This is not only the case in developing nations, but also in developed nations, which are equally victims. On March 2007, United Nations open a charter to be signed by the member nations particularly members suffering from disability (United Nations Convention). This was in a ploy to include the people suffering from disability in sports. In 1978, (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) UNESCO identified sports as one of the important means of including the people with disability under the International Charter of Physical Education and Sport (Rouse, 2004, P. 58). This charter encouraged the development of the persons with disabilities through their inclusion in sporting activities through physical education which is deemed fit with regards to their state.


            The Special Olympics can include swimming as a sport if the law and some critical issues as emotional and physical well – being of the individuals are tackled (Thomas & Smith, 2008, P. 63). These calls for systems that would serve to ensure that doctors and therapists are available in the training sessions and rules will have to be tightened in the process to ensuring that these individuals are safe from any form of danger. The government and other non – governmental organizations would have to come up with policies and laws, which protect the rights of the disabled in the society and revise the curriculum in the schools and the society to promote the rights of such individuals (French & Hainsworth, 2001, P. 12). Availing prosthetics would even be more effective in ensuring that there is equality when it comes to ranking the swimmers. This is not an effort with a single country; other countries ought to get on board in a bid to ensuring that such securities for the disabled becomes an international affair as opposed to any one state.


Anderson, D. (2009). Adolescent girls’ involvement in disability sport: Implications for identity development. Journal of Sport & Social Issues,33(4), pp.427-449.

Ashton-Shaeffer, C., Gibson, H.J., Autry, C.E. and Hanson, C.S. (2001). Meaning of sport to adults with physical disabilities: A disability sport camp experience. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18(1), pp.95-114.

Beard, C., & Wilson, J.P. (2006). Experiential Learning: A best Practice handbook for educators and trainers. London: Kogan Page. Print   

Brittan I. (2010) The Paralympic Games Explained.  London: Routledge. Print

Cregan, K., Bloom, G.A. and Reid, G. (2007). Career evolution and knowledge of elite coaches of swimmers with a physical disability. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 78(4), pp.339-350.

Cregan, K., Bloom, G.A. and Reid, G. (2007). Career evolution and knowledge of elite coaches of swimmers with a physical disability. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 78(4), pp.339-350.

Davis, R. (2002) Inclusion Through Sports: A guide to enhancing short experiences. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. Print   

DePauw, K.P. & Gavron, S. (2005) Disability and Sport (2nd Ed)  Champaign IL, Human Kinetics. Print 

DePauw, K.P. and Gavron, S.J. (2005). Disability sport. Human Kinetics. Print

Disability: Practical Strategies. Routledge: London. Print

England, S. (2001). Disability survey 2000. Young people with a disability and sport. Headline findings. London: Sport England.

Farrell, M. (2006). The Effective Teacher’s Guide to Sensory Impairment and Physical

French, D. and Hainsworth, J. (2001). ‘There aren’t any buses and the swimming pool is always cold!’: obstacles and opportunities in the provision of sport for disabled people. Managing Leisure, 6(1), pp.35-49.

Gaskin, C.J., Andersen, M.B. and Morris, T. (2010). Sport and physical activity in the life of a man with cerebral palsy: Compensation for disability with psychosocial benefits and costs. Psychology of Sport and Exercise,11(3), pp.197-205.

Havens, M.D. (1992) Bridges to Accessibility Dubuque, Iowa Project Adventure, Inc & Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Print

Howe D. (2008) The Cultural Politics of the Paralympic Movement. London: Routledge. Print

Hundley H. and Billings, A. (2010). Examining Identity in sports media. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Kerr, A & Stafford, R. (2005). Coaching Disabled Performers. Leeds: Coachwise. Print

Le Clair, J. (2013). Disability in the Global Sport Arena. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis

Lindsey, H. (2006). Brotherly Dreams Transcend Disability. Neurology Now, 2(1), pp.28-29.

Mabbs, D. (2006). Disability Awareness in Rock Climbing. Conway: MLTE. Print            

Martin, J.J. (2006). Psychosocial aspects of youth disability sport. Print

Rouse, P. (2004) Adapted Games and Activities.  Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. Print

Rowe, N., Adams, R., Beasley, N. and England, S. (2004). Driving up participation in sport: the social context, the trends, the prospects and the challenges. Driving up participation: The challenge for sport, p.6. Print

Stratton, G. (1997). Children’s Heart Rates during British Physical Education Lessons. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 16(3), pp.357-367.

Themed edition of the Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning : challenges and experiences in outdoor education in Latin America. (2013). Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 13(3), pp.277-278.

Thomas N. & Smith A. (Dec 2008) Disability Sport and Society.Abingdon: Routledge. Print

Tweedy, S.M. and Vanlandewijck, Y.C. (2011). International Paralympic Committee position stand—background and scientific principles of classification in Paralympic sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(4), pp.259-269.

Wilson, P.E. and Clayton, G.H. (2010). Sports and disability. PM&R, 2(3), pp.S46-S54.

Logistics Essay Paper on Globally Optimized Operations/ International Logistics college essay help online: college essay help online

Globally Optimized Operations/ International Logistics

            Global optimization refers to the concept of perceiving multi-silo supply chain problems from a wider perspective (Ibrahimov, Mohais & Michalewicz, 2016). According to Iyer and Genpact (2013), constant reduction and optimization of costs without amplifying logistics risks can be attained by the combination of the industry-specific analytics frameworks, suitable technology tools, logistics processes engineered for efficacy, and greater usefulness. For companies, aiming to achieve sustainable growth while partnering with numerous international partners and regulations come with a wide array of operating challenges. To manage these international management challenges, it is essential to apply technology by maintaining partner collaboration and investing wisely in information technology, offering clear and concise communications and examining legacy of information technology infrastructures.

            Using technology, the IT sector can support the global market demands. Having the suitable software platform is essential in avoiding economic stagnation and enhancing partner relationships while reducing costs, guarantee growth and growing return on investment. Technology is another useful strategy in keeping the skills of the staff updated. This can be through a quality-assured process for documentation and learning resources (Thomas Publishing Company, 2010). Setting goals encompasses reviewing implementation process and taking actions for correction wherever necessary. To ensure that goals are achieved, it is imperative that effective strategies and organizational milestones and a work plan to achieve them are set.

            Managers in this sector are called to keep an open mind by being receptive to positive change and encouraging customers to participate on various forums and ownership optimizes management of the global supply chain. Managers can involve trading partners with common, integrated, and distinctive application offers greater control on the logistics processes (Thomas Publishing Company, 2010). Investing in the IT solutions offers opportunities for reviewing processes and effective and efficient allocation and use of organizational resources, capital and noncapital. 


Ibrahimov, M., Mohais, A. & Michalewicz, Z. (2016). Global Optimization in Supply Chain Operations. New York: Springer.

Iyer, S. &  Genpact, A. R. (2013). Smart Strategies for Logistics Cost Optimization:

Taming a complex supply chain requires a smart mix of process, analytics and


Thomas Publishing Company. (2010). Optimizing Global Supply Chain Management.

Sample Education Dissertation Methodology Paper on Exploring Elementary Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Teaching Practices towards cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Exploring Elementary Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Teaching Practices towards



This chapter aimed towards the establishment of the procedures that would be followed in completing the study. It will involve the collection, measurement and data analysis procedures. In this section, the researcher will identify the procedures and techniques that would be used in the collection, processing, and analysis of data.

Study methodology

The methodology that will be used in this research is a qualitative case study. Qualitative research is interested in understanding a social phenomenon. A qualitative approach has the keen interest in discovering people’s behavior, attitudes, and opinions. Case study offers an exhaustive, in-depth method of research focusing on real events, but using multiple sources of data (Sarah, 2008). In qualitative research, one can also conduct multiple case studies that are very helpful in comparisons, especially when in different settings (Houghton et al., 2013). The study will adopt an explanatory approach based on   descriptive survey design to investigate cases studies in different schools and compare the different experiences of teachers working in different contexts. Descriptive survey designs would also be   used in preliminary and exploratory aspects of the study   to allow for the research information   gathering, summarizing, presenting and interpreting for the purpose of clarification. Descriptive survey research would be   intended to produce the statistical information on various aspects of the gathered data. By incorporating different groups of people, the proposed study would fit within the cross-sectional sub-types of descriptive survey designs (Sarah, 2008).

One of the appropriate research perspectives would constitute of positivist, interpretive, and the realist approaches. In this research study, the approach of   Interpretivisim   shall be effectively applied due to the exploratory nature of the study research. The methodology that will   be in application will mainly focus on the degree and the   extents to which the various study aspects that shall have been identified for the research study would be made to effectively enhance the organization of the study. Consequently, the research study will also seek to establish the reasons for the various study concepts. Therefore, by using the formation of inductive study approaches, a theory would be established to determine the various study objectives (Johnson, 2015).

 The conducting of the   cases studies in different schools and comparing the various experiences of teachers working in different contexts would also be achieved through the qualitative approach. Using a qualitative approach also has other advantages like it is discovery-oriented. This is a very good advantage especially when taking into consideration the fact that what we want in the current research is to discover how teachers’ perception of their knowledge and training might influence their teaching of ELL students and the various strategies that elementary teachers need to know so as to be effective when teaching this group of students reading comprehension (Mukhopadhyay & Gupta, 2014). This research also does not require one to have prior hypothesis. It helps to discover various themes and hypothesis that were entirely unknown to existing theories and other researchers. This type of research methodology also helps to bring out respondents’ voices in the form of their responses to various open-ended questions posed. This can help to gain a deeper insight as well as an extensive picture of the phenomenon. It also provides room for researcher’s subjectivity and flexibility, which might be necessary to discover highly complex phenomena (Johnson, 2015).

However, some criticisms have been posed against qualitative research case study methodology. For instance, it has been accused of lacking in rigor. Some people believe that this approach is more craftsman-like and not grounded on scientific discovery. This criticism will be addressed in this research by using multiple data collection methods.  Secondly, this research is criticized as having less ground for generalization. Since this approach is context specific, many people believed that its findings cannot be easily transferred to other areas. Also, when dealing with this method, data is usually subtle. As a result, when creating a theory from the data, it often brings out questions from the critics. Lastly, there are practical difficulties. This method of research is often time-consuming regarding collecting data, carrying out analysis of the data, and generating the final reports. It also requires extensive numbers of field work, handling a large number of documents, and gaining access to a site and a substantial amount of time as compared to other methods such as secondary data source-oriented or survey in quantitative research (Mukhopadhyay& Gupta, 2014).

The argument above presents both the challenges that will result from using the qualitative case study approach and the merits of using it. In general, we can say that this case study had sought to discover the teachers’ experience this method offered a rich approach that can help us to learn many things even those that we never anticipated. We can address most of the challenges and bear some like the high demand for time so as to establish a good solution to the problem.

Nature of the Research Design for the Study

Data Collection Approach

Data will be collected from a variety of data sources for the purpose of this research. This will ensure data from a single perspective is not collected, but instead a variety of perspectives, which will enable us to view the phenomenon under investigation from multiple angles and thus help us to understand and reveal it better. Collecting data from multiple sources also helps to enhance data credibility. The data collection will be done using questionnaires prepared for the various participants selected for the study while in-depth interview schedule as personal interview will also be carried out. Questionnaires are considered ideal for collecting data because the respondents will individually record and interpret these instruments. The personal interviews will be considered appropriate for the opinion of the participants of the research study (Baxter & Jack, 2008).

Therefore, for the purpose of this research, data will come from multiple sources like documentation, interviews, archival records, and direct observations. The appropriate design for the research will be the cross-sectional design since the data would be collected more than a single case using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, structured observations and document analysis. In data collection, both secondary and primary techniques would be applied including surveys and collection of information from past reports, journals, magazines,  and newspapers. Each of these data sources represents a part of the puzzle, with every one of them helping to gain a picture of the whole phenomenon. This convergence in data sources helps to strengthen the empirical findings generated as we bring different strands of data together to get the greater case understanding or data triangulation. It involves a collection of data at different times or from different sources. By combining say documentation with an interview as a source of information in this study, it will be possible to gain better understanding of the research problem. Combining these methods also helps to cancel out weaknesses of each method. For instance, while direct observation is an excellent method for generating qualitative data, it cannot explain the reason behind observed actions. In comparison, interviews are an excellent way to gain an understanding of the reason why people behave in a particular way. Through the combination of these methods, it is possible to see behavior in action as well as listen to respondent describe the motive behind their actions. Using multiple sources of data will help to ensure data completeness and accuracy (Speziale et al, 2011).

However, collecting data from multiple sources can result in massive data bringing challenges regarding organization. This data will be managed through a computerized database. A computer package like CAQDAS (Computer Aided Qualitative Data Analysis Software) provides a great opportunity to organize data and facilitate easy retrieval. This package also helps to record the time data was collected and from which source as well as the date of data collecting, search capabilities, and storage (Baxter & Jack, 2008).

Data Analysis Approach

Categorization of data will be the main method of data analysis in this research. The method is effective in education research since its helps to bring out the key features of the phenomenon being investigated. Categorizes can be derived from the problem or even from the data itself. It is also a product of the researcher’s reflection. Also, these categories are sometimes developed through the coding, annotating, and iterative process of reading the data as well as specific data bits (Scott & Morrison, 2007).

The fieldwork and the data collection will also be carried out by the principal researcher. The basic statistical techniques will be used to analyze various items of the questionnaire. These will include average percentages since they effectively communicate the findings of the research work to majority of the readers to cross check data collected  using the main instruments. Frequencies easily show the number of subjects in a given category. A number of tables and chats will be used to present the data findings. Data collected will be analyzed according to response. Upon completion of the coding, responses will be transferred into a summary sheet by tabulating. This will then be tallied to establish frequencies of each response, the number of respondents giving similar answers will be converted to percentages to illustrate related levels of opinions. Interviews will be carried out in sampled schools and responses transcribed. The transcribed data will then be organized and the clear categories emergence shall be seen. This will be the overall output scale of all the transcribed data (Scott & Morrison, 2007).

This method of analysis is also known in other books as categorical aggregation. It is an analysis method that involves identification of underlying categories for those ideas or expressions that appear more than once. As one starts combining the ideas that emerge from overlapping categories, patterns are generated. It also brings out generalization from the case, which helps to communicate something about the population being investigated (ProQuest, 2007). In this case, the various categories that will be formed during analysis of our data will start to help us answer the study research questions.

Population and Sample Collection

The sampling method to be used in selecting participants in this research will be purposeful sampling. This method of sampling involves selection of participants based on researcher’s evaluation of the most useful or representative units. The major advantage of using this method lies in its capacity to pick respondents considered to be richest regarding information so as to carry out a more in-depth study (Lodico, 2010). A case is considered to be information rich when it helps the researcher to learn more issues that are of importance to the theme of the research. Therefore, the main goal of this research is to get detailed information that is highly needed so as to answer the research questions. The purposeful sampling will help us to identify teachers who will be our key informant during the in-depth interview process.

This research targets to conduct the interview of 28 elementary teachers teaching from grade one to four in a public school who will help us understand the teachers’ perception about knowledge and training when working with ELL students. The key informant interviews will also help to discover the various strategies that teachers are employing when teaching ELL students on reading comprehension. A questionnaire shall be used to extract information from the key informant with a mix of both open-ended and closed questions.

Definition of Terms

Reading comprehension

Reading comprehension refers to   the act of comprehending what one is reading and is an active, intentional, interactive process that takes place prior, during, and after one reads a given text (Hall-Whittier et al 2009).

Elementary Teacher

      An elementary teacher is a person certified by the Department of Education as a teacher of all subject matters at the elementary level (Department of Education, 2008).

English Language Learners (ELL)

According to Hall-Whittier et al (2009), English language learners (ELL)  is a group of students in K-12, attending school within the United States, but lacking proficiency in English. This definition encompasses many students from different ethnic backgrounds, spoken languages, and experiences.

English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)

The term English for Speakers of Other languages refers to an English language program meant to teach language skills to people intending to use English, but coming from non-English language backgrounds (Whittier et al, 2009).

English as a Second Language

English as second language (ESOL) refers to special classes that are attended by students who are ELL. Specially trained teachers teach these classes (Whittier et al, 2009).


     Perception refers to   a person’s awareness, consciousness or view of a subject or topic (Collins English Dictionary, 2009).

Ethical considerations

The responsible authorities will be consulted for authorization of the study before its commencements. The consent forms stating the overall purpose and any kind of risks or benefits of participating in the study will also be developed and issued to participants. There will also be caution over any potential risks that would be involved in any of the questioning as emotional distress and dignity. The participants ‘confidentiality as anonymity and the feedback of results will also be considered during the study.

Assumptions, Limitations, Delimitations


The purpose of the study is to establish the various perceptions held by elementary teachers regarding their training and knowledge when working with ELL students. The assumption made in coming up with this research questions is that teachers’ attitude influences their preparedness to work with these students and thus achievement of this group.

It was also assumed that certain teaching strategies would be better than others when instructing ELL students on reading comprehension. This theory is based on the assumption that all ELL students will react positively to certain instruction strategies than when being taught with others. Whereas it may seem to be obvious that certain methods will lead to the success of these children, some researchers have proved quite to the contrarily. For instance, there is evidence suggesting that the background of a child’s characteristics combined with other social factors have more influence on his or her performance as opposed to classroom instruction (Rader-Brown, 2010). However, because the background characteristics have some strong influence, there is the likelihood that some given instructional strategies might have the positive impact on academic performance. There is also the fact that teachers may not be using the same strategy to teach the students.

The assumption that teachers applying a certain set of strategy will positively influence reading comprehension of ELL students is also informed by the fact that if teachers do not have knowledge of certain strategies, they may not use them. It has been established that untrained teachers do not use effective practices (Rader-Brown, 2010).


A major limitation of the study is small sampling size. Because of financial support, it may not be possible to conduct this research using a large number of research participants. In addition, the technique picked for selecting those who will be the study respondent is purposive sampling. These two factors will compromise representation of the study population. A small size of the sample means that the data for the study may not be easily transferable. In addition, the sampling method picked for the study is meant to pick respondents who can offer the richest information through in-depth interview, but not more representative (Raymond, 2014). This means that the current study may not be generalizable for all elementary teachers working with ELL students. However, it is expected that through data sources triangulation we can overcome this bias.


This study’s delimitation was deciding to pick a topic that looks at the elementary teachers’ perceptions and instruction strategies for ELL. It has been determined from previous research that teachers were holding a perception that they can address the needs of all students; manage to find knowledge and skills necessary to succeed when teaching a class with diverse students (Raymond, 2014). Thus, this need to inspire a positive perception about ELL students pushed me to study this topic and not others like student’s readiness to learn a second language. The choice of an elementary level was also compelled by the fact that this is the formative stage, and it has implications for the rest of the schooling years. Studies have also established that ELL students perform poorly in literacy during these early stages and that they never catch up with their counterparts non-ELL students (Cheung &Slavin, 2012). Therefore, the opportunity to intervene when it matters also compelled me to select this topic.

Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Study

Using academic articles, this study has established that speakers of English as a second language are the fastest growing school age population and teachers are less prepared to deal with them. The English language learners (ELL) often take part in helpful language assistance programs, such as English as  Second Language, bilingual education and High Intensity Language Training to help them in attaining proficiency in  English, establish and develop very high  academic attainment levels  in English, and achieve  the  academic contents  and  standards that all the other  students are often  required to meet. Participating in the various types of programs could greatly improve the students’ English language proficiency which would also be associated with the improved outcomes of education. The English language learner (ELL) students often take part   in appropriate programs of language assistance, such as English as a Second Language, High Intensity Language Training, and bilingual education, to help ensure that they attain English proficiency, develop high levels of academic attainment in English, and meet the same academic content and academic achievement standards that all students are expected to meet. Participation in these types of programs can improve students’ English language proficiency which, in turn, has been associated with improved educational outcomes

There has been much attention by researchers been focused   to the  perception of teachers , their knowledge and  training  adequacy after participating in specific training, but there has been little effort  being  put on the  discovery of  how prepared the  elementary teachers would be in  dealing  with the  escalating problem. Due to this reasons, the current research study aims to carry out a qualitative case study on the elementary teacher to determine the effective strategy of teaching they could employ to instruct the ELL students. The use of   qualitative approach would be  the best suiting  method in such an  investigation due to the fact  that it would  seek to discover the behavior and experiences  of  teachers  when they  work with the ELL students.


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Hall-Witter, C., Siebe, G. M., &Zitta, J. M. (2009). A Study of the English Language Learners (ELL) Population in Relation to Teacher Preparation for Instructing ELL Students in An Elementary English Speaking General Education Setting in the State of Missouri. A Project Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Saint Louis University.

Houghton, C., Casey, D., Shaw, D., & Murphy, K. (2013). Rigour in Qualitative case-Study Research. Nurse Researcher, 20(4), 12-17.

Johnson, J. S. (2015). Qualitative Sales Research: An Exposition of Grounded Theory. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales management, 35(3): 262-273.

language and literacy practices in two junior high school ESL classrooms. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 27 (4), 324–362.

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Le, O., Marten-Rivera, J., Buxton, C., Penfield, R., Secada, W. G. (2009).Urban Elementary Teachers’ Perspectives on Teaching Science to English Language Learners. Journal of Sci Teacher Educ, 20, 263-286.

Lodico, M. G., Spaulding, D. T., Voegtle, K. H. (2010). Methods in Education Research: From Theory to Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Lucas, T., & Villegas, A. M. (2011). Preparing linguistically responsive teachers. In T. Lucas

Manzanares, E. C. (2009). English Teachers and English Language Learners in Middle School Classrooms: Perspectives and Practices. A Dissertation Presented to the Mogridge College of Education University of Denver.

Mukhopadhyay, S., & Gupta, R. K. (2014). Survey of Qualitative Research Methodology in Strategy Research and Implication for Indian Researcher. Critical Review of Literature, 18(2), 109-123.

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Raymond, R. M. (2014). Elementary School Teacher Attitudes Toward Instructing English Language Learners (ELLS), Formative Assessments, Instructional Supportive Practices in Teaching Ells, Higher-Order Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices, And School Leader Support for Ells in High-And Low-ELA Achieving Schools. A dissertation submitted at Dawling College.

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Schulz, K. H. (2015). Instructional Strategies and Teacher Leadership Styles for English Language Learners: A close View of Wisconsin’s Elementary Teachers. Dissertation submitted at Marian University, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin.

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Simmons-Deveaux, H. C. S. (2012). Elementary Teacher’s Perceptions of Preparedness in Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners. Dissertation Submitted to Northcentral University.

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Wong, C., India’s, J., & Wong, G. K. W. (2016). ESL Teacher Candidates’ Perceptions of Strengths and Inadequacies of Instructing Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Post Clinical Experience. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 23(2), 57-64.


Appendix 1

Consent Letter

Institutional Review Board

RE: Permission to Conduct Research Study

Dear Sir

I am writing to request permission to conduct a research study at your institution.  I am currently enrolled in the education degree programme and am in the process of writing my project. The study is entitled, “Exploring the teachers’ perception of effective teaching practices on mainstreaming English Language Learner students in the classroom.”

I hope that the school administration will allow me to recruit 28 teachers in the third through fifth grades with varying teacher experience, from three to twenty-seven years and between three and ten years’  experience using differentiated instruction in the mainstream classroom with ELLs.

If approval is granted, teacher participants will complete the survey in a quiet setting on the school site. The survey process should take no longer than one month. The survey results will be pooled for the project and individual results of this study will remain absolutely confidential and anonymous.  Should this study be published, only pooled results will be documented.  No costs will be incurred by either your school/center or the individual participants.

Your approval to conduct this study will be greatly appreciated.  I will follow up with a telephone call next week and would be happy to answer any questions or concerns that you may have at that time. You may contact me at my email address:_________________________________.

If you agree, kindly sign below and return the signed form in the enclosed self-addressed envelope.  Alternatively, kindly submit a signed letter of permission on your institution’s letterhead acknowledging your consent and permission for me to conduct this survey/study at your institution.


Researcher name and affiliation

Approved by:

_____________________         ____________________       _________

Appendix 2

Quantitative studies

This table defines how the specific data will be collected and analyzed for each clinical questions (qualitative)

Qualitative Studies

Clinical Questions: State the clinical questions that will be used to collect data to understand the Phenomenon being studiedPhenomenon: Describe the overall phenomenon being studied by the clinical questionsSources of Data: Identify the specific approach (e.g., interview, observation, artifacts, documents, database, etc.) to be used to collect the data to answer each clinical questionAnalysis Plan: Describe the specific approach that will be used to (1) summarize the data and (2) analyze the data. State the clinical questions that will be used to collect data to understand the Phenomenon being studiedDescribe the overall phenomenon being studied by the clinical questionsIdentify the specific approach (e.g., interview, observation, artifacts, documents, database, etc.) to be used to collect the data to answer each clinical questionthe specific approach that will be used to (1) summarize the data and (2) analyze the data.  1.         What is the elementary teachers’ perception of their own knowledge and training with regard to ELL students?The phenomenon studies by these questions are the overall perceptions of mainstreaming by teachers as well as their ideas based on the best approaches to teach ELLs. The perceptions based on the societal and environmental influences.This question would be best answered using interviews and focus group discussions. Observation can be engaged to depict teacher’s reaction to learning process of the ELLsThe data will be collected from the respondents, then content analyzed, and figured into themes. The data will be analyzed by comparing the same views/perceptions and recording/interpreting them.2. RQ2What strategies can help to improve elementary teachers’ performance when teaching ELL on reading comprehension?     practice?  This question would be best answered by focus group discussion, interviews, and documentation of any previous studies. Other sources would be previous studies to support the first-hand data sources.

Appendix 3



Name of the respondent/Institution (optional)


Gender            (a) FEMALE

                        (b) MALE

What is your age category?

Age (years)   19-25                 26-35               36-45                   46-55    55 and above

Educational background

Primary school

Secondary School

Diploma or less 

Bachelor Degree

Master Degree 

PhD Degree


Using a Likert 1-5 scale, with

1. ‘Strongly agree’

2. ‘Agree’

3. ‘Disagree’

4. ‘Strongly disagree’,

Question One: What is the elementary teachers’ perception of their own knowledge and training with regard to ELL students?

Please tick () all as appropriate

    Coursework in multicultural education and learning a second language

Factors to consider1234Learning contents are multiple cultural perspective    Teachers learn about students’ cultural backgrounds    Teachers scrutinize learning materials to identify potentially prejudiced and biased material    Multicultural educational programmes based on equality    

Working with LDS

Factors to consider1234Adopting of other literary skills posed by students.    Grouping of students    Identifying the various achievement levels among the students    

     The personal experience abroad

Factors to consider1234Development of new skills based on new lessons    Incorporating group learning    Gaining and improving on diversity  on learnt skills    

Specific training to educate LDS    

Factors to consider1234Teachers background    Teachers level of attitudes    Limited data gathered and examined quantitatively    Important attitude development    

 Question Two: What strategies can help to improve elementary teachers’ performance when teaching ELL on reading comprehension?

Please tick () all as appropriate

     Vocabulary and language development

Factors to consider1234Discussing vocabulary words    Exploring specific academic terms    Building students’ background knowledge    

Guided interaction

Factors to consider1234Teachers  structure lessons    Students work together to understand what they read    Students write collaborations on academic concepts    

     Metacognition and authentic assessment

Factors to consider1234Teachers model and teach thinking skills    Core concentration of Metacognition for new concepts    Teachers use authentic assessments    Teachers acknowledge need of second language    

 Explicit instruction,

            Factors to consider1234Direct teaching of concepts    Use of academic language    Full understanding of comprehension strategies    

Meaning-based context and universal themes

Factors to consider1234Drawing meaning from students daily    Using drawn meanings to interest students in academic concepts    Motivation to students to improve better learning rates    

Modeling, graphic organizers, and visuals

Factors to consider1234Use of various visual aids    Keen attention on ELL Students progress    Making both language and content more accessible  to students    

Sample Philosophy Coursework Paper on Mills: Subjection of Women personal essay help

Mills: Subjection of Women

John Stuart Mill was a strong advocate of equality among the sexes, as he was certain that the intellectual advancement of both sexes would amount to the greatest pleasure for everybody.  According to Mill, it is ethically wrong to perceive one sex as inferior to another, as this would result in deprived human development. His argument focused exclusively on the empowerment of women, who are often perceived as inferior and subordinate to men. Mill argued that since individuals were able to abandon slavery, subjection of women could also be eliminated through giving up some powers. By utilizing utilitarian approach, Mill recommended that the greater good could be attained if women are allowed to develop equally as men.

Mill proposed that women should be tested for what they are capable of doing, as well as their incompetence, since in reality, women’s nature is not well known. Women should be liberated through equality to lessen self-denial that has become an ideal of feminine character (Mill 24). In the modern life, equal association has become a general rule; hence, the true value of human beings is to survive together as equals. Even in history, queens depicted remarkable talents in leadership; therefore, women can become successful in their endeavors if they are liberated. Any mental difference that may exist between men and women should only be perceived in terms of education and circumstances, rather than their nature.  

Mill’s response is normally referred to as ‘liberal feminism’ because it allows women to live their lives the way they would like to within a patriarchal culture, in addition to attaining equal rights under the law. Liberal feminism’s core aim has been to keep in fighting for equality for both men and women, particularly on individual rights. For instance, if a woman is working as a public relations officer in a public office, she should receive the same payment as a man holding the same post in another public office.

Women are equally denied freedom in their marriages, making it hard to prove their capabilities. Mill believed that women are restricted to exercise their autonomy as individuals, despite being qualified to handle various responsibilities. Women have the capacity to influence men to maintain certain standards in society, and a man who is married to a woman who tends to be less intelligent will always find her as a drag (Mill 53).  Men should allow women to exercise their intelligence in making a difference in the family or in society.

Liberal feminism has received numerous criticisms from radical feminists, who question the sustainability of equality argument. In particular, Catharine MacKinnon asserted that while gender is a social construct to demonstrate differences epistemologically, sex discrimination law surpasses gender equality through differences doctrinally (381). MacKinnon underlined that treating matters of sex equality as matters of sameness and difference amount to undertaking a particular approach on equality. Additionally, men have become a standard unit of measuring behavior and intelligence; thus, under the sameness standards, equality is measured according to men’s perceptions. The dominance approach focuses on sex-differential abuses against women, but sex equality law has not been able to confront these issues.

Another critic of liberal feminism is Audre Lorde, who claimed that individuals’ refusal to recognize real differences in humans make them misname certain behaviors, leading to separation and confusion. Lorde accredited the mythical norm that humans hold in their hearts, which define their capacity, as the one that holds the power in society (2). She singled out racism within feminism, which is sometimes ignored, but has a massive influence on the patriarchy. Women should accept that they are different in terms of equality with men, but they should strive to eliminate the internalized patterns of oppression if they want to make social change.

Works Cited

Lorde, Audre. “Age, race, class, and sex: Women redefining difference.”Cultural Politics 11 (1984): 1-7.

MacKlnnon, Catharine. “Difference and Dominance: On Sex Discrimination.”Feminism and Politics (1998): 381-392.

Mill, John Stuart. The Subjection of Women. London: Longmans, 2015. Print. 

Sample Management Research Paper on Revenue Management Redefined essay help: essay help

Plagiarism Declaration

The report submitted herein is my original work and has not been copied from any other person’s work whether unpublished or published. Moreover, it has never been presented for approval at Sydney Harbour Marriott Hotel or elsewhere. Finally, I affirm that I understand the regulations concerning plagiarism in the field of revenue management.


Executive Summary

The revenue management has its principal objective as being timely in offering the desired food service to the consumers. Before coming up with the system, it is important to have an understanding of the customers view point on the products. This view point would be essential in making decisions on the on the value of the outputs. Moreover, it is a significant factor in price determination.

Table of Contents

Plagiarism Declaration                                                            1

Executive Summary                                                                1

Introduction                                                                            3

Body                                                                                       3

Switches of revenue management                                          3

Pricing levels                                                                           4

Systems of inventory                                                              4

Promotion                                                                               5

Channels                                                                                 5

How to manage revenue                                                         6

Data collection                                                                        6

Optimization                                                                           7

Dynamic Re-evaluation                                                          7

Segmentation of the market.                                                   8

The forecasting process of revenue management.                  8

Conclusion                                                                              8

Recommendations                                                                  9


Revenue management is an essential system in any business venture. It is very useful in prediction of consumer behavior in the Hotel management at small scale market level. The revenue system will aid the hotel management in having a well-defined methodical system for control of finances. The revenue management has its key objective as being timely in offering the desired food service to the consumers. Before coming up with the system, it is important to have an understanding of the consumers view point on the products. This view point would be essential in making decisions on the on the value of the products. Moreover, it is an important factor in price determination.

The revenue management has proved to be as important in hotel setting as it helps the hotel management in very busy hotels to standard best prices. For this reason, therefore, the managerial team would be at liberty to spread their branches and not loose forecast on the dependability of their reports. The primary aim of any business venture is usually profit making, and revenue management provides the best answers on how to make profits based on demands of services and goods provided in the hotel.


Switches of revenue management

It is important to note that revenue management entails an array of activities whose sole aim is to increase income. The hotel management can make use of such activities since all of them are always at the disposal of the management. These activities include and are not limited to:

Pricing levels

The hotel management from time to time will be required to update the prices they charge from time to time. While doing price update, the management has to consider the value that will be created by customers. The organization will thus determine the anticipated value for their consumers by putting in place certain prices that would lead to the realization of consumers’ satisfaction. On the other hand, pricing may be done by companies against competitors or parallel to products other products produced by the same company (Bell, P., 51).

The value created however has to follow trends of pricing in the market while at the same time offering values to the hotel management and their customers. The market conditions that affects the pricing are usually the normal forces of supply and demand. The prices created must be dynamic so as to be able to change as market forces change. However, the changes should not affect the value attracted by the goods. During pricing, there should be a tactic and a pricing strategy. The pricing strategy is used to determine what the hotel or company would do. The tactic, on the other hand, encompasses how the hotel will realize the value intended (Bollapragada, S., Cheng, H., Phillips, M. and Garbiras. M., 24)

Amidst all these strategies and tactics, the management has to constantly do price optimization. This done by putting considerations on the price ratios and inventory while being sensitive to the effects of price changes on consumers demand to achieve high levels of profit margins. If a dynamic and robust pricing strategy are put in place, it goes without saying that the management would be able to high profits and still fully satisfy the consumers’ wants.

Systems of inventory

The inventory system is essential to the hotel management when it comes to the preeminent ways of pricing. Whenever there is the need to increase volume or number of consumers the hotel management would reduce prices or offer discounted goods or services. In some situations, however, the hotel would lower the prices with an aim of acquisition of shares in the market, and this will cause an increment in returns. During peak seasons, the hotel has to do overbooking so as collect high profits and avoid problems that might arise due to the cancellation of booked rooms.  Even if some consumers cancel their tickets due such periods, the company would still realize the projected proceeds (Lego here, Patick., 21)


The hotel has to invest highly in promotional activities as it will enable the administration to realize high sale volumes since the values of their services are reduced during such periods. The reduced costs ordinarily attract many consumers. The revenue management team have an obligation to estimate the rate of response of consumers to promotions to be able to determine the period of promotion that would still bring in growth in profits. The objective of the advertisement is to cause profit upsurge even when consumers are reluctant to go for services offered by the hotel. After promotions, most consumers would be willing to sign long-term contracts with the hotel, and this will lead to the realization of revenues for quite a long time.


The revenue collected or expected have to be channeled through suitable systems of distribution. The channels are tailored to meet the wants of the different consumers who desire the services of the hotel. For instance, those who book space online and those who do physical booking differ in their sensitivity to changes in pricing. The two teams of people, therefore, must be offered different channels that entail costs that cost realization of different profit margins. The revenue management team has to come up with better ways of realizing more profits without losing trust the consumers have developed (Agrawal, V., and Ferguson, M, 111).

The promotion has to be conducted as a serious advert both online and physically. The key thing is to have control of items put on the print media for advertisement. The hotel management has to be willing to sacrifice to get advertisement space since such spaces are paid for during a particular period. The more a company invest in the advertisement, the greater the mass of clients it attracts to the hotel. This, therefore, shows the great need to invest in advertisement even as the revenues are managed to ensure the realization of returns (Cross, R., Higbie, J. and Cross, Z.,212).

How to manage revenue

The revenue management is a process that requires a lot of keenness and a good managerial team. The process includes and is not limited to the following processes:

Data collection

The first and most important process in the management of revenue is the data collection process. The data collected has to be extremely relevant so as to ensure the accuracy of the information recorded. The data collected has to be stored for purposes of future references. The data is essential for future determination of prices, inventory purposes and forces of demand. The data collected also has to be concerning prices of products, the nature of products and competition available in the market. After collecting the data, thorough analysis has to be done to ensure the data is up to date and very relevant (Marriott, Jr., J., and Cross, R.232).

The data collection method has to be relevant and specialized so as quickly emerge the needs of the consumers in the market. A good example of such system is found in the governance of European Union in which the European Commission regulates the operations of the businesses and government parastatals. This regulation by the European Union helps to ensure a fair competitive environment in the hotel activities. It is also useful in achieving standards that are required. The hotel has to set standards with which it will be operating. The standard has to be maintained at all cost or improved so as to continue satisfying the consumers. The hotel management has to provide the above information to the employees to ensure the smooth running of the hotel system.


While forecasting suggests what customers are likely to do, optimization suggests how a firm should respond. Optimization is in all cases considered the greatest pillar of revenue management process. It leads to analysis and evaluation of all the available options in the business.  During optimization, the management puts all the available choices in the balance to come up with the most viable option. The first is influential of the objective function to optimize. The hotel business must adopt between elevating prices, total sales, involvement borders, or even customer generation values. Secondly, the company must decide which optimization technique to utilize. For example, many firms employ linear programming, a complex method for determining the best outcome from a set of linear relationships, to set prices to maximize revenue. Regression analysis, another statistical tool, involves finding the ideal relationship between several variables through complex models and analysis. Distinct choice models can serve to envisage consumer performance to goal them with the right foodstuffs for the best prices. Tools such as these allow a firm to optimize its product offerings, inventory levels, and pricing points to achieve the highest revenue possible (Chase, Nicole, 452).

Dynamic Re-evaluation

The revenue management for the hotel needs to have a stable, flexible evaluation system. The re-evaluation always has to keep checking the market prices and align them with the projections of the company. If the management system is dynamic enough, the hotel would be able to make projections that are of great benefit to the hotel fraternity. The evaluation system must be so flexible so as to meet the changes that arise in the market.

Segmentation of the market.

Once the data is much-needed data is collected, the next most important process is the segmentation of the market. This process is essential for maximizing the profits expected by the hotel management. It is also crucial in the control of the prices charged in the market. The success of the hotel management is based on the ability to disperse the consumers into groups based on their capacities to pay a certain amount for the services. It is important to understand that the revenue management is essential in the determination of services prices in very small market systems and larger market systems as well based on the situations prevailing in the market. The most important thing is the success of the hotels whether. There are critical tools necessary to create the set of information that can be clearly be analyzed by the entire management system. Market segmentation lays a good foundation for the next the next process of management of revenue which is the forecasting process. This has to be in line with the tool of cluster analysis which is essential in the segmentation process.

The forecasting process of revenue management.

Forecasting involves the projection of the conventional financing in the hotel management process. It is paramount and should be allocated enough time and resources for the success of the revenue system. Its administration and implantation are time intensive and extensive. The forecasting process has to be both qualitative and quantitative to ensure maximization of profits. The process, however, has to be timely and encompass all the needs of the market not forgetting the available resources in the market.


The revenue management is an essential element of part of any business system. The management of income has proved to be as valuable in the hotel setting as it helps the hotel management in very busy hotels to standard best prices. For this reason, therefore, the managerial team would be at liberty to spread their branches and not loose forecast on the dependability of their reports. The primary aim of any business venture is usually profit making, and revenue management provides the best answers on how to make profits based on demands of services and goods provided in the hotel.


I would recommend the hotel management to adopt the above processes of revenue management so as to be able to maximize profits.


Chase, Nicole. 2007. Revenue management redefined. Hotels, February 1, 2007.

Marriott, Jr., J., and Cross, R. (2000) Room at the revenue inn. In Book of Management Wisdom: ClWritings by Legendary Managers, ed., Peter Krass, 199-208, New York, NY: Wiley.

Cross, R., Higbie, J. and Cross, Z. (2010) Miles assic tones in the Application of Analytical Pricing and Revenue Management. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management

Agrawal, V. and Ferguson, M. (2007) Optimal customized pricing in competitive settings. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management 6: 212-228.

Hormby, S., Morrison, J., Prashant, D, Meyers, M. and Tensa, T. (2010) Marriott International increases revenue by implementing a group pricing optimizer. Interfaces 40(1): 47-57.

Ritual: Aeronomics system expected to help troubled net set prices to fill seats. Advertising Age, 11 May.

Bollapragada, S., Cheng, H., Phillips, M. and Garbiras. M. (2002) NBC’s optimization systems increase revenues and productivity. Interfaces 32(1): 47-60.

Bell, P. (2005) Revenue Management. Plenary presentation at Vision 2020, Ahmedabad, India. 8 January. Retrieved September 21, 2010.

Hansen, L. (2005) Follow the money: high margin growth focused on the customer. Presentation to Revenue Management & Price Optimization Conference; 21 April, Atlanta, GA.

Coy, P. (2000) The power of smart pricing, BusinessWeek, 10 April pp.160-163.

Leibs, S. (2000) Ford heeds the profits. CFO Magazine, August.

Phillips, R. (2005) Pricing and Revenue Optimization, Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.

Cross, R., Higbie, J. and Cross, D. (2009) Revenue management’s renaissance: a rebirth of the art and science of profitable revenue generation. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 50: 56-81.

InterContinental Hotels Group (2009) Annual Review and Summary Financial Statement, accessed 22 September 2010.

Eister, C., Higbie, J.,Koushik, D. (2012) Retail Price Optimization at InterContinental Hotels Group. Informs, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 45-47.

Hogan, J. and Nagel, T. The Strategy and Tactics of Pricing: A Guide to Growing More Profitably.

Legoherel, Patick. Revenue Management for Hospitality and Tourism. Oxford,UK: Goodfelow Publishers Ltd. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-908999-48-1.

European Union Competition Retrieved on 14 December 2012,, Competition

Europe HIT Report Retrieved on October 2012, MKG Group

MEA HIT Report Retrieved on October 2012, MKG Group

Peyton, J. (2009) Mobilizing global resources to transform the revenue management discipline. Presentation to 5th Annual Revenue Management & Price Optimization Conference; 6 October, Atlanta, GA.

Kadet, A. (2008) Price Profiling. SmartMoney 17(5): 80-85.

Kimms, A. and Müller-Bungart, M. (2006) ‘Revenue management for broadcasting commercials: the channel’s problem of selecting and scheduling ads to be aired’, Int. J. Revenue Management, Vol. 1.

Bippert, D. (2009) Simultaneously maximizing consumer value and company profit from beginning to end. Presentation to 5th Annual Revenue Management & Price Optimization Conference; 6 October, Atlanta, GA.Shikander

Lieberman, W.H. (2004b) ‘Revenue management in the health care industry’, In I. Yeoman and U. Mcmahon-Beattie (Eds), Revenue Management and Pricing: Case Studies and Applications (pp.137–142). London: Thomson.

Mauri, A.G. (2013), Hotel Revenue Management: Principles and Practices, Pearson.

Sample Composition Term Paper on Analysis and Technical Writing buy argumentative essay help

Analysis and Technical Writing

Question 1.

            Penrose and Katz agree with Thomas Kuhn’s assertion that science is social. Kuhn’s model as depicted in ‘The Structure of Scientific Revolutions’ imply that the social aspect of science is modeled using sets of assumptions (Penrose and Katz 7; Kuhn xiiv). The “sets of assumptions include observation and imitation of scientists” (7). Observation is an important social aspect that is used by scientists and researchers. Importantly, the use of education and repeated practices imply how science is embedded into a social context. For starters, science is first learned through education and use of textbooks that include a collection and reporting of observations made by previous scientist or practitioners. Like any other social element, science is guided by set of rules and exploration of controlled practices. Penrose and Katz agree use Kuhn’s model of scientific revolution to show that science involves paradigms shifts which is a common social practice. In this regard, there must be beliefs, assumptions, and discussions involving a particular scientific subject (Penrose and Katz 8). For example, the scientific discovery that earth is round started from a discussion and beliefs that it is flat and later shifted to contemporary discovery of the same being flat.

The model of scientific revolution as presented by Thomas Kuhn implies the “validation of scientific knowledge by a community of scientists” (Penrose and Katz 8). The centrality of communication in science is essential in showing how science fits into a social context. The community of scientists exists as a body of scientist with similar expertise and knowledge in matters of science and must communicate to each other through research. The research involves approving and disproving of hypotheses, research techniques and findings.

Question 2.

            Swales description of genre as it relates critiquing documents refers to classification of real world entities (Swales 43). The common understanding of genre as it refers to critiquing of documents refers to categories of literal work in terms of structure and language. In addition, the use of the term discourse community refers to an assumption that certain elements are well known and used among a community of disciplines, professionals, and academic realms. In these cases, a discourse community involves individuals with similar ideas, same social behavior, and desire to attain and maintain certain knowledge.

A common understanding of the discourse communities corresponds with Swales assertions in that common rules are pertinent to this concept. For example, the representation of speech community by people with similar ideas and shred knowledge and rules imply that certain standards must be observed. The characteristics of a discourse community having a common public goals is a true description of how people with common agenda like medical practitioners evolve and use research and common practices in offering healthcare services to the public. Swales perception of discourse community is agreeable that for every discourse community there exists similar intercommunication techniques (Swales 25). For example, anthropologists have unique research methods in analyzing and understanding their subjects. The necessity of having participatory mechanisms in which members of a discourse community get information and feedback is critical to performance and use of information. The participatory mechanism implies that members of a discourse community can further be categorized into genres based on a set of skills and communication techniques used for various performances (Swales 26).

Therefore, it is true in each discourse community, there are different genres. For example, in literary work, there are linguists and poets each representing a different genre but of the same discourse community. The differentiation of a discourse community based on genre is because of the different lexical items. The lexical items are a specialization for each genre and are critical for intercommunication within the discourse community. Finally, a discourse community is characterized by a threshold level of members which can be a number, skills or level of literacy. For example, one cannot become a resident nurse without becoming graduate and intern. The discourse community therefore should come up with the right set of people who are in the same age group. The model of scientific revolution as presented by Thomas Kuhn implies the “validation of scientific knowledge by a community of scientists” (Penrose & Katz 8). The centrality of communication in science is essential in showing how science fits into a social context. The community of scientists exists as a body of scientist with similar expertise and knowledge in matters of science and must communicate to each other through research. The research involves approving and disproving of hypotheses, research techniques and findings.

Question 3.

            Penrose and Katz understand the importance of citation on journal articles. There are reasons why citations are critical for journal article and such depend on publication and the author. Firstly, the publication reason seeks to identify whether there exist similar body of work as is entitled in the journal. In this case, the author becomes familiar with what other researchers or members of discourse community or genre have written on the same subject. Citation allows for criticism and legitimizing of ideas as presented in the journal. Substantiating claims is best done through citation and allows for easy access to the source of cited work. Secondly, the author includes citation for others in the journal article to allow for readers get easy access to the published content.

In essence, author eventually get to know who reds such journals from websites and access of readers in libraries. The author is able to assert authority of ideas in a specific body of knowledge. Importantly, citation is part of maintaining professionalism within the discourse community. The above reasons are rationalized to ensure that journal articles use element of rhetorical situation to have an impact to the intended audience. The use of citation in itself allows the author and reader to critique scientific research articles by analyzing similar works. In addition, access to other similar works is easier through citation as well as the author asserts authority to owning ideas that contribute to a certain body of knowledge or discourse community.

Therefore, the rationalization supplements Hyland’s empirical discussion by allowing praising and criticism of ideas.  Also, the rationalization is critical to evaluation of the literal work using evaluation and reviews. According to Hyndal, the rationalization implies that a social interaction is achieved through citation of journals. Such interactions contribute to broadening of academic genre since the author and the reader engage in co-awareness of ideas through citation of other authors (Hyndal 62).

Question 4.

            In a paragraph, unity is best described when an idea is well presented in the first and subsequent sentences. Therefore, the paragraph seems to have a topic sentence which is subsequently detailed, and well-concluded with a summative sentence. On the other hand, coherence is the ability of the paragraph to allow for a reader’s judgment. In this case, sentences in a paragraph must illuminate deep and surface syntactic relationship. For cohesion to work and imply co and sub-ordination in a paragraph there should be a chain of lexical and grammatical elements that act as a link to a sentence. Importantly, positioning of semantics to have a complete and a sentence with cohesion requires careful structuring. The recurrence of lexical elements or chains is both integral to co and sub-ordination of creating the first level of cohesion (The Cohesive Paragraphs 7). The same is repeatedly used to achieve emphasis in as sentence or paragraph through co and sub-ordination of cohesion and sentence constituents, cohesion and form, and coherence and cohesion. On the other hand, unity in a paragraph is a refinement of coherence. In this case, coherence, structuring, coordination of lexical and grammatical elements leads to a unity of theme and sentences (Cohesive Paragraphs 20). 

Task I

Complaint Letter


Sales Department

100 Avenue Street,

Chicago, IL1234,

(123) 562-1200,

Fax (123) 562-1211

July 4, 2016

Manager, Customer Care,

Baptist School,

123 Illinois 12 Avenue Street,

Chicago, IL5678.

Subject: Laptop computers

On June 19, I ordered ten Samsung laptop computers and the order reference number is SLC9874C. The laptops have 3 years warranty. The models were the same and the sizes were also the same. You can also check the issue with your company’s customer service online portal. The items reached at Baptist School on June 22 and were immediately checked by the school’s head of IT department. The IT department realized that 2 computers were defective and could not function as described from your product catalogue. I returned the defective laptops with an attached a note indicating the defective computers and is yet to receive an acknowledgement letter from your side. It is now two weeks and is yet to receive any formal feedback from your customer service.

The main defaults of the laptops were the fact that they could fully start. Their screens as per the report of our technicians were blurred. It should also be noted that these laptops were not tested for full functionality at you premises. This was due to the good rapport that I have with the company of delivering quality defective-free products to this institution. It would be an honor if you attend to this issue with great concern since there is an issue at hand that needs to carry out. And without the availability of these laptops, the company cannot function well.

In accordance to the rule of law on warranty it is quite important that you as the company meet the obligations of the customer in cases of default. The purchase of the computers was to the agreement that I as the customer get the adequate quality needed for these devices. To this end, I believe that it would be proper for the company to understand my plea and act accordingly. The defectiveness of these laptops has not been caused by our side by it originated from the company. it is therefore deemed to the warranty is valid and a compensation or repair of these devices is an obligation of the company.

I have enclosed a copy of the letter with serial numbers of the items deemed defective, the delivery note, and copy of the invoice. Kindly get back to me within the next one week for use to solve the matter.


Jim Cook.

Procurement officer

Baptist School


Claim Letter


Sales Department

100 Avenues Street,

Chicago, IL1234,

(123) 562-1200,

Fax (123) 562-1211

July 4, 2016

Manager, Customer Care,

Baptist School,

123 Illinois 12 Avenue Street,

Chicago, IL5678.

Subject: Laptop computers

A clearly stated on the claim letter, On June 19, I ordered ten Samsung laptop computers and the order reference number is SLC9874C. Two of the laptops have been declared defective by my technical panel. I am seeking a claim of replacement of these two laptop as per stated in the complaint letter. I believe that it is in your professional standing to offer adequately working goods. This claim I believe is valid since the defect has not been caused by anyone on our side. This only means that it has come from your side. Currently our activities are slowed down due the lack these two gadgets. It should be noted as well that the slowing down of the company operations is critical to the profitability of this company. The laptops are used in various departments to access the current information system installed for the school.

Lack of the laptops increases the level of bureaucracies needed in authorization of some documents. Additionally due to the currently installed enterprise resource planning system, the policies of the school have changed and most of the operations are done through digital platform. In this line of thought, the inadequacy in the laptops, causes high level of risks in the working environment and the schools is likely to run into huge losses. Due to the urgency of the matter, I believe that the company should take upon itself to deliver the laptops in a good condition since it does not only affect out operations but it provides a leeway to reduction in profitability of our school.

Kindly treat this claim with high level of caution as it affects the efficiency of our operations. It is also important to note that as per the selling agreements, any product from your company with a warranty shall be repaired or replaced in the event of damage within the time frame of the warranty. The devices are within the warranty and therefore this claim is deemed valid. I would therefore request a quick response from this claim. 

I have enclosed a copy of the letter with serial numbers of the items deemed defective, the delivery note, and copy of the invoice. Kindly get back to me within the next one week or will be forced to escalate the issue for legal advice.


Jim Cook.

Procurement officer

Baptist School


Task 1 Analysis

            Both letters imply a complaint against a company and supplier. In addition, the letters are of high-level structures because of the inside and outside address and have an enclosure. Both letters have a normal claim because they are addressed directly to an organization’s representation and are short and brief. Importantly, the letters address a specific problem that must be followed by an immediate response. The first letter uses formal and calm language compared to the second letter which is threatening. The first letter seeks to maintain a good relationship with the company while the second letter has little regard for future business relationship. In the letters, it is important to note that the description of the main defaults in the devices has been explicitly explained. The description is deemed to fit the coverage of a warranty. Additionally, the urgency of the whole matter has been discussed in the letter with keen concern on the delays in the operations of the school.

The letters are keen to pinpoint the effect of the inadequacy of the laptops on the profitability of the school. From the letters, the matter would definitely be treated with high level of urgency since we have noted the kind or rapport that the company has with us. The narrations on the validity of the warranty to cover the defectiveness of the laptops are very critical. They provide grounds for argument on the ways in which the electronic company should indeed compensate the consumer. The role of the company in the warranty as explicitly mentioned in the catalogue gives the company a reminder of their obligations to the consumer of their goods.

Task 2


Name: Jim Cook Address: 123-2636 City: NY, Code: 123346 Tel: (123)562-4532


To gain utilize my skills and expertise in creating value to the company while advancing my career in customer service. To get equipped with globalized dynamics of the business with keen attention to expanding my knowledge and skills in the working environment. The vision of advancing my career is pegged on the good working relations and rapport with my colleagues at work.


2 years’ experience in customer care in a food manufacturing company.I have served as a customer care agent in many forums where I have earned certificate of being a proficient customer advisor.Proficient in English language with adequate listening speaking skills. The skill has aided me in my daily customers service activities.Exceptional computer skills specifically Microsoft excel, word PowerPoint and word. 


Bachelor of commerce: Marketing

University of Phoenix, New York

Graduated 2004

Grade: Distinction


Job title:Customer Care

Organization: Real Foods Co.

City: New York

Year: 2005


Processing  customer ordersFiling customer complaintsHandling online orders

Cover Letter

Jim Cook

Address: 123-2636

City: NY,

Code: 123346

Tel: (123)562-4532

Tim Jones,

HR Manager,

Coca cola Ltd,

New York, NY 2345

Dear Mr. Tim:

Please consider my application for a marketing representative position at your company. I graduated from college 10 years ago and experience working in similar position at a food processing company.

For the past ten years, I have garnered enough experiment to work in any food and beverage company as a customer care representative. I have managed to solve customer problems and meet company expectations without much difficult.

I have attended many seminars for customer service and customer management that has enable be to gain knowledge and expertise in this field. My pertinent role in any organization is to help the consumers understand the various products and services offered. In this prospect, I have vast experience in the presentation of product to a customer and making sure that the employees are given the upper hand in the management of the time and resources. With my proficient skills in listening and advising the customers, I believe that my services would be quite helpful to this company.

As a customer representative, I am aware of the skills required to handle marketing. In this regard, I assure you that my skills are enough and will be beneficial to the company.

I have great confidence that my education background, experience will be adequate in meeting your standards of a marketer. Moreover, I understand the challenges in this position and is prepared to be creative to handle any crisis.

If my qualification meets your needs, I would happily accept your offer.


Jim Cook.


Task 2 Analysis

The cover letter use a high-level organization structure to imply it is a formal application. Also, the high-level structure is characterized by the inside and outside address. In addition, the letter has a greeting section as well as introduction, body, and good conclusion. The semantics used in the letter show a high degree of formality. Also, the use of rhetoric especially in the introductory paragraph is necessary for this kind of a letter. The letter is able to follow a hierarchical structure required in an argumentative literal work.

The explicit exploration of the skills and capability makes the cover letter quite authentic with keen concern on the position needed by the company. A closer look at the structure of the cover, it starts with the notion of the experience in the field of customer service. In this line of thought it brings on board the advent of acquired expertise over a longer period of time. Most companies require the employees who understand what tasks they would be up against. In this line of thought, they take keen concern on the experience. With structure giving the first impression on experience, the interviewer will be indeed attracted to this connotation brought out in the rest of the letter.

A closer look at the general content of the letter, it brings more on the talent, expertise and skills attained by the potential employee in various stages. The cover letter is usually meant to add on what is not covered in the resume. All the academic qualifications and the experience have been outlined in the resume. The gist of the matter in the cover letter is for the employer to understand the employee better on the tenets of how they can deliver on their job. With this in mind, it is deemed that this cover letter has been well structured to suit the job description mentioned. According to the requirements of the job, the position required a person with a considerable amount of experience. This part is dealt with in both the CV and the cover letter to ensure suitable of the same. The structure of both the letters is deemed to be official since the letters are precise, in-depth and straight to the point. The main aim of these two letters it to complement other documents such as the academic certifications and services qualifications certificates. The information outlined in these two letters therefore are in coherent with the other documents to ensure integrity, honest and commitment to the task.


Name: Jim Cook Address: 123-2636 City: NY, Code: 123346 Tel: (123)562-4532


To gain utilize my skills and expertise in creating value to the company while advancing my career in customer service. To get equipped with globalized dynamics of the business with keen attention to expanding my knowledge and skills in the working environment. The vision of advancing my career is pegged on the good working relations and rapport with my colleagues at work.


10 years’ experience in customer care in a food manufacturing company.A bachelor of commerce and specialty in marketing.Proficient in English, French and German languages.Adequate computer skills such as Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Access.


Bachelor of commerce: Marketing

University of Phoenix, New York

Graduated 2004

Grade: Distinction


Job title:Customer Care

Organization: Real Foods Co.

City: New York

Year: 2005 – 2015


Processing  customer ordersFiling customer complaintsHandling online orders



John Travolta

Operations Manager

Organization: Real Foods Co.

City: New York

Contacts: 617-672-198


Vivian Cain

Marketing Manager

Organization: Real Foods Co.

City: New York

Contacts: 217-633-138

Cover Letter

Jim Cook

Address: 123-2636

City: NY,

Code: 123346

Tel: (123)562-4532

Tim Jones,

HR Manager,

Coca Cola Ltd,

New York, NY 2345

Dear Mr. Jones:

Please consider my application for a procurement office position at your company. I graduated from college 10 years ago and have a 10 years experience working in similar position at a food processing company.

For the past ten years, I have garnered enough experiment to work in any food and beverage company as a customer care representative. I have managed to solve customer problems and meet company expectations without much difficult. Therefore, I believe my experience and academic background are satisfactory for this position. Additionally, I believe I have the right attitude and expertise for this job since I have worked in a busy business environment that is quite dynamic. I have gain the skills on the art and science of managing customers of different personalities which has helped me understand the nature and psychology of human beings. When given a chance at your company I would use these expertises in providing almost immediate solutions to the customers with keen attention to their responses on our service provision.

As a customer representative, I am aware of the skills required to handle procurement. In this regard, I assure you that my skills are enough and will be beneficial to the company especially in making good procurement decisions.

I have great confidence that my education background, experience will be adequate in meeting your standards of a procurement officer. Moreover, I understand the challenges in this position and is prepared to be creative to handle any crisis.

If my qualification meets your needs, I would happily accept your offer.


Jim Cook



The cover letter is highly persuasive since author does not have adequate qualifications for the position. The letter has a high-level structure as seen in the greeting part and the use of inside and outside addresses. There is effective use of semantics and rhetoric to create emphasis why the under-qualified author needs the jobs. The author crafts the letter using a hierarchical structure for argumentative reasons. This allows the author to clearly state the purpose of the letter in a direct manner that is not ambiguous. From the structure of the resume, it comes out clearly that the author has the proper experience to tackle the job. The resume has been written with respect to the requirement of the job description outlined by the company. The resume in the first instance postulates the main objective of the potential employee. From this, it is easier for the employer to examine if the author has the right attitude for the job. In many organizations, the culture is defined by the attitude of every employee. Additionally, the motivation is derived from the attitude postulated by the employee fraternity. Leadership qualities are vital for employer. Therefore, from the career objective, the employer is able to discern whether the employee has right leadership skills or not.

The two letters is seen to coincide in terms of the content of their information. For example, the fact that the author has 10 years experience in customer service appears in the two letters. This coherence provides a platform of consistency and authenticity. Furthermore, from the cover letter, one is able to discern the kind of conviction and attachment the author has with his job. The art and science of understanding the personality of various persons is at the heart of customer service. It is from this virtue that one can understand the best way to treat a customer. From the cover, the author has outlined the real reasons why the employer should take him in. these reasons touches on the real practical skills gained through the years and not merely based on academic qualifications. Most organizations looks at the immense prowess owned by the potential employee earned through working in a busy working environment. The emphasis on the practical 10 year experience in a food company as a customer care person provides the author with the leverage with which he can be demanded by the employer. This connotation has been clearly outlined both in the resume and the cover letter.

From the arrangement and structure of these two letters, one is able to ascertain the capability of the potential employee. This is because the two letters covers almost every vital detail required by the employers. These details range from required skills to the educational background and experience of the employee while addressing the job vacancy in question.      

Task 4

Review 1

The book by Penrose and Katz “Writing in the Sciences: Exploring Conventions of Scientific Discovery” is an amazing book that should be of great use to both students and researchers. I find the book interesting especially in understanding how science is a social entity. I find the book with strong and credible messages that are backed by good references. However, the book uses strong terms that people with little interest in science may find difficult to read. The authors should use simple language to attract a large audience base.


The review uses simple language and rhetoric that are consistent with communicating with an individual or people in similar discipline. Simple language and rhetoric styles are vital is appealing to the emotions and rationality of the target audiences. In addition, simple language is critical in reducing cases of ambiguity and misunderstandings. In this context, the reader would understand some of the pertinent issues about the book with less straining. After reading the review, one is able to understand the some of the pertinent themes that the author explicates. The role of the role of the review is to give insights to the reader about the book with the main objective of capturing the attention of the reader. For example, the review explains that the book depicts science as a social entity. This goes along way with ensuring that it provides the target readers with the gist of what they expect in the book.

Review 2

The book by Penrose and Katz “Writing in the Sciences: Exploring Conventions of Scientific Discovery” is of critical help to people who seek to pursue the art of science in communication. In the book, the authors discuss how scientific genres are integral in influencing how people communicate based on discourse communities. In this context, each genre is offered with rich information on characteristics that differentiate how people in different field communicate. Some of the important aspects that are distinct in genres include arrangement, language, style, rhetoric, and focus. The book opens a door for further research analysis of scientific discourse and especially in language and communication styles.


The review use simple but formal language directed to representatives of various discourse communities. The review includes argumentative and various rhetoric styles that are critical in understanding scientific discourse as it relates to communication in various genres. Argumentative approach is vital in laying down a platform on which various discourse communities can engage each other effectively. That is, argumentative approach allows for inclusion of evidence and facts and eventually debating their validity and usefulness. In addition, rhetoric approach is crucial in appealing to the emotions and rationality of the targeted discourse communities.

Form the review one is able to understand the connection between different scientific connections. The genre created with within the context of communication is very vital in permitting usefulness and validity. From review is well connected with the real thematic issues in the book. It also explicates the target readers who are expected to be in the field of science. The emphasis laid on science provides grounds for profound analysis through the lens of science. With this notion in mind, one is able to capture the significance of various approaches to discourse such the argumentative and Rhetoric approach. 

Works Cited

“Cohesive Paragraphs” The Reader and Cohesion.

Hylands. Chapter 3. Praise and criticism: Interactions in book reviews.

Kuhn, S. Thomas. The structure of scientific revolutions: 50th anniversary edition. Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 2012. Print.

Penrose, M. Ann and Katz, B. Steven. Chapter 1: Science as a social enterprise.

Penrose, M. Ann and Katz, B. Steven. Chapter 4. Reading and Writing research reports.

Penrose, M. Ann and Katz, B. Steven. Writing in the sciences: Exploring conventions of scientific discourse. London: Longman, 2010. Print.

Swales. Part II The concept of discourse community.

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