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Sample Art Essays On Defining Interdisciplinary Studies My Essay Help Uk

Defining Interdisciplinary Studies

My approach to problem solving can be described as interdisciplinary. According to this approach, during problem-solving, there is a conscious integration of separate disciplinary data, methods, concepts, and theories that result in the production of an understanding that can be described as interdisciplinary of an intellectual question or problem. Even though the interdisciplinary approach to problem-solving is similar to the multidisciplinary approach in seeking to overcome the disciplinary monism, the former seemingly is more inclusive of what disciplinary theories, methods, as well as concepts could be appropriate and effective to the solution of a problem. The interdisciplinary approach preference for problem-solving is also owed to the fact that it integrates alternative methods of inquiry, and it achieves this by using different disciplinary tools, and by carefully embracing the estimation of the degree of usefulness of a specific tool versus another in its bid to shed light on a problem.

Similarly, my course of study, which is Business management with a minor in computer studies, can best be described as interdisciplinary. Agreeably, my course of study relies on various disciplines such as business and management for its perspectives, concepts, theories, data, and insights in its integration of theories and insights. Reliance on various disciplines also helps the course’s construction of a more comprehensive understanding of particular problems.  Another aspect of Business Management as a course that makes its approach be described as interdisciplinary is that while it focuses on integration across disciplines, it remains open to voices from beyond, which play an integral role in its development and improvement. Business management is also described as interdisciplinary because it has competing impulses where on one hand, it entails the search for a wide-ranging and total knowledge and on the other hand, it entails more radical questions that look into the nature of knowledge and the attempts to organize and communicate it.

Sample Homeland Security Essay on Texas Homeland Security Strategic Plan essay help app

Texas Homeland Security Strategic Plan

In the article “Governor Abbott releases Texas Homeland Security Strategic Plan 2015-2020” appearing in the writers inform of a joint strategic plan towards securing Texans by the Texas Office of Homeland Security and Texas Homeland Security Council. The strategic plan released by Texas governor Greg Abbott runs between 2015 and 2020 and provides a vision for the state. The plan addresses developing security challenges within the state, with the aim of formulating the best approaches in the prevention, prevention and mitigation of the effects of any potential attacks and disasters. The plan additionally provides a framework for the response and recovery from such eventualities if they occur (, 2015).

Within the plan are guidelines on handling of numerous other issues such as border security, the consequences of criminal organizations as well as terrorist and cyber attack risks. Other issues in focus according to the plan include the threats to critical infrastructure, natural disasters and industrial accidents.  Conclusively, the Texas Office of Homeland Security has the responsibility of coordinating the implementation of the strategic plan (, 2015).

The strategic plan is not only ambitious, but also takes care of some of the most current threats to important sections of the Texans. Thus, by formulating a strategic plan that involves interagency coordination, the plan is more than welcome as it assures Texans of their security, as well as a response plan in case of any disasters. It is important however that the plan takes into consideration other units of law enforcement and disaster response, including these agencies to ensure coordinated responses  to prevent any disaster from happening, during the disaster as well as during the recovery period from the disaster.

References (2015). Governor Abbott releases Texas Homeland Security Strategic Plan 2015-2020. Retrieved from

Nursing Essay Sample Paper on Educational Preparation online essay help: online essay help

Educational Preparation


Many scholars have argued that nursing education and quality care provision should be structured in a better manner to obtain a qualified workforce in relation to the challenges and changes of the modern health care system. According to the AACN fact sheets, the current nursing workforce is followed by research in terms of knowledge and the amount and readiness of the university education, as a way of enhancing the current degree of knowledge in the country (Herbert, Moore, & Rooney. 2011). The differences between associate degree and baccalaureate degree can be noted even from their definitions. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the implications and diverse perspectives applying to the nursing education among college and university education levels.

 Associate Degree Nursing:

This can be defined as the nursing education that takes 2 to 3 years to complete. Students need to complete NCLEX RN to be licensed as Registered nurse. The associate degree was started in the late 1957 to deal with the shortage of nurses following the world war by reducing the duration of education to only 2 years and improving nursing education (AACN, 2014). This program was seen to be very successful, as the associate degree graduates pass the NCLEX and always implied the adequate level of clinical nursing competence. Thus, the graduates of the colleges can qualify to work, as nurses in major hospitals due to the level of knowledge.  

Baccalaureate Degree Nursing:

It defines an education level, which entails the concepts of nursing, which is offered by any acceptable tertiary school. It also lasts for 4 to 5 years involving the 2 years of general education and 3 years of core nursing units which offers the nurses with experience and ability to undertake professional roles and further graduate studies.

 The graduates of BSN are qualified to become RN and can take the NCLEX.  Baccalaureate was initiated in 1946 when the U.S congress passed the GI bill of rights. This sought to bring up veterans to obtain vocational training and college education. This program leads to the increased enrolment of the nurses in the military as they benefited from taking up the nursing education degree. It also helped in the creation of entry nursing concepts.

  Competencies of the ADN:

  It takes two to three years of nursing knowledge, which exposes the candidates to improved nursing knowledge, will minimal research. This has influenced the current health care systems due to the dynamic approach of health care. Nurses are provided with the knowledge to promote holistic patient care and their involvement assists in creating new standards of the health care system (Herbert et al., 2011). Nurses would not be able to accomplish their tasks well compared to other medical practitioners. Recent surveys and research have indicated that most hospitals expecting to gain quality care are reducing the recruitment of ADN nurses. However, the ADN are commonly known for providing bedside care at reduced costs.

 Competencies of the Baccalaureate Degree Nursing:

A Baccalaureate Degree Nurse has adequate exposure to a longer period of education with wider knowledge of the nursing curriculum. BSN involves advanced nursing courses including leadership, nurse management, administration, and extensive patient care among others. BSN nurse can work well as administrative nurses as well as offering bedside nursing services. They also possess skills to present themselves more professionally as other health care team such as doctors (Herbert et al., 2011). At times, they can act as the advocates for their patients in the different levels. Moreover, they are trained to conduct in-depth research on the improvement of health care. The BSN graduates also able to offer more unique skills to their nursing work as they provide safe patient care. The nurses usually obtain recognition among other health care experts. Since, it offers an experience and additional skills on education on nursing obtained during the BSN education.

Patient Care Situation:

An example of patient care situation is the palliative care. Patients are not able to relay their requirements, to withdraw and deny themselves. An ADN nurse would progress to record patient refusal of drugs without better assessment or an understanding of the problem. Since, they are trained to offer medication, feed the patients and check their vital signs (Grand Canyon University College of Nursing Philosophy, 2015). The palliative care relates to educational background and the strictness of the various clinical perspectives without clear preparation for graduate programs. This limits their knowledge and requirements towards the patients only.


In such situation, a nurse will understand the spiritual importance in a terminally ill patient and thus, emphasize on the involvement of their families and implication of the spiritual issues. A BSN nurse will talk and listen to the nurses slowly. This will assist in improving the relationship and trust between the patients, family, and caregivers.Finally, the report by “The Nation’s Magnet Hospitals” indicated that nursing excellence and improved patient outcomes would require for nurses and nurse managers to have completed a baccalaureate or graduate degree in nursing.


 AACN. (2014). The impact of education on Nursing Practice. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. P. 6. Retrieved from

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)(2014): Fact sheet: creating a more highly qualified  nursing workforce as a resource. Retrieved from

Grand Canyon University College of Nursing Philosophy.(3/22/2015). Retrieved from NRS430V.v10R.GrandCanyonUniversityCollegeofNursingPhilosophy Student 3-24-14.docx.

Herbert.K, Moore. H, & Rooney. J, (2011): The ochsner journal. Retrieved from

Sample Leadership Studies Essays on How should Jake manage the board write my essay help

How should Jake manage the board?

A company’s board of directors is responsible for financial, legal, insurance cover, creation of rules and regulations within the company. They set policies and regulations, while the management of the company enforces them. Everyone starting from the company’s board chair to the customer is charged with the responsibility of protecting and careful handling of data and improving the security of the company. Jake should manage the board by making explanations to the board about these prerequisites.

Fraudsters are becoming sophisticated each new day thus making it difficult to track (Rollins 27). Jake should elucidate this situation to the company board and make a calling of a unified voice that brings together all stakeholders, corporate communications, executive management, operations and technology in the in setting strategies to mitigate future hacking. Jake should also bring to the attention of the board that no company that uses the internet for anything can guarantee its customers 100% data safety. Further, the company board should take the hacking seriously as a global threat, and collectively find and implement a remedy.

Jake should further bring to the attention of the board members that crisis planning and management should be a continuous process that should involve the reflection and discussion of all potential risks facing SimplePay Company, lessons learnt from the hacking and putting right strategies to mitigate the problem.

Should Jake resign? If not, what should he do?

Based on the fact that hacking was propagated by external fraudsters and that no company across the globe can guarantee its customers 100% safety of data, Jake should not resign. As CEO, he took the appropriate steps of quickly informing the stakeholders about the security breach. Jake should instead carry out a reflection and discuss the situation with the SimplePay Company’s board on how to strategize by improving technology to mitigate future hacking. At personal level, Jake should exhibit operational leadership in navigating out of this scenario.

Operational leadership

Operational leaders ensure that things get done in an effective and efficient manner within the company. These leaders create systems to transform needs into solutions.

Fraud-management policies

Jake should implement fraud-management policies by putting in place infrastructure and technology needed to address the immediate concern and future mitigation of the problem. Jake should also conduct a complete overhaul in the IT department and find out what works and what does not. He should then steer for changes in the technology used by the company in order to mitigate future hacking. Hackers use sophisticated and modern technology (Rollins 36). Jake should put in place and keep reviewing the company technology to ensure that it is up-to-date.  All IT experts should identify weak links and prescribe the right remedies.

Enhancing communication channels to restore public trust

The CEO is an architect of enhancing communication channels within the company (Maxwell). Jake should monitor the company’s daily operations, supervising the undertakings of each of its operational units, and the discharge of duties of the company’s employees in all areas. He should further create policies, guidelines and instructions to ensure that things happen the right way and at the right time within the company.

Jake should also encourage employees to report any discrepancy. The communication department should be prompt in addressing the customer concerns. This will ensure a smooth running of the company as well as faster recovery of the injured reputation of this the SimplePay Company. For instance, Michelle should help him in engaging with customers and the media.

Creating solutions and mitigating the problem

Jake should be a problem solver by create a permanent solution to ensure the company is always ahead of hacking fraudsters. He should ensure that the company puts in place latest technology and employs competent IT expertise. He should further propose and suggest to the company board additional capacity so as to initiate and create a long lasting solution to the company.

Can forcing a resignation make things worse? Why?

I agree with Cary Horenfeldt, the vice president of MasterCard Processing at MasterCard, Asia Pacific that forcing a resignation will make the situation worse. This is because forcing the CEO, Jake, to resign will give victory to the crime perpetrators by shifting the crime the CEO. Based on the fact that the hacking was done by external fraudsters will mean that forcing the CEO to resign will be a scapegoat to addressing the real problem. The company board needs to understand fully the hacking process and how best to remedy future hacking instead of forcing Jake to resign.

Forcing the CEO to resign will further hurt the injured reputation of SimplePay Company. The CEO and his team handled the situation well by quickly informing all stakeholders and customers about the security breach. They were indeed sincere and acted swiftly as is required of a CEO. This demonstrates his commitment and sincerity towards the company. Forcing resignation will further put SimplePay’s public image in bad shape.

Many companies have reported a decline in sales immediately after forcing a top manager to resign. For instance, Target Company recorded a 3% drop in stock when its CEO Steinhafel was forced to resign (Maxwell).

SimplePay Company should take the incident as an opportunity to re-organize and create a unified approach that brings together corporate communications, executive management, technology and operations in the bid to secure that SimplePay Company’s system is secure against future hacking by fraudsters.  

Work Cited

Maxwell, John. “The operation leader often influences success of others”. Houston Business Review. 2004. Web. 01 Nov 2015. <Http://>

Rollins, Steven. Essential Project Investment Governance and Reporting Preventing Project Fraud and Ensuring Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance. Boca Raton: J. Ross, Incorporated, 2014. Print.

Sample Business Studies Dissertation Methodology on Mixed Methods Research for Nursing and the Health Sciences melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

Research Methodology

1. Research background

            The paper aims at researching the academic integrity of business online courses offered in Saudi Arabia. The study on the integrity of online teaching is limited, as most researchers and scholars have not dwelt much on it. The academic integrity of the online courses is very wide and to this effect, this research will focus on the best methodology to apply in the study with regard to the teaching practices. Many higher learning institutions in Saudi Arabia have embraced the concept of online teaching but the outcome of the courses offered through online means may differ from the traditional ones because of the teaching methods (Baghdadi, 2011). The ability of educators to deliver their message to the students effectively influences their academic success (Alshwaier, Youssef & Emam, 2012). There are learning institutions that combine the in-person and online teaching methods but there are also others that use full online teaching where the students do not meet face to face with the teachers. Different students have varying methods of understanding thus it is important for the institutions of higher learning to implement more than one strategy of instruction.

            To achieve optimum results in online teaching, the instructors are required to ensure that the students understand the academic integrity of online courses. The teachers must explain to the students the values or principles of online learning. The instructors are also required to ensure that the students understand the need to practice the academic integrity when doing their online examinations and assignments.  Creation of an academic integrity contract between the instructors and the students is an essential way of enhancing integrity in online courses.  However, most of the institutions of higher learning are less concerned with the academic integrity, especially in relation to the methods of teaching adopted. Online courses are very convenient especially for the students who have to attend to other economic activities such as jobs (Sait et al, 2008). The flexibility of the online classes is meant to suit the specific needs of the students and the method of learning is gaining popularity by the days.  Due to the large number of students who depend on the learning method, it is important to assess the performance of the students who take online courses with those taking similar courses in the regular system (McCabe, Trevino & Butterfield, 2002).  There have been cases of cheating and plagiarism among the students who pursue online courses. It is thus impossible to assess the real impact of the teaching methods used due to the cheating. The nature of the teaching methods adopted in online learning is partly to blame for the poor academic integrity in the courses because it is the responsibility of the teachers to sensitize the students on the need to uphold the integrity.

2.      Research questions

The study will be aimed at answering the following questions;

What are the perceptions of the teaching staff and the students on the academic integrity of online courses?What are the factors that shape the perceptions of the students and the teaching staff on academic integrity of online courses?

3.      Paradigm

To carry out the study effectively, it is crucial to consider the paradigm or a guide that helps in decision making. It helps the researcher focus on a more specific area of study thus enhancing accuracy. The study will adopt a post-positivism type of paradigm to investigate the perception of the academic integrity in the business online courses in Saudi Arabia. The research will narrow down to the teaching practices used in the online courses to come up with the best conclusion on how the methods used in teaching may affect the academic integrity of online courses. Post positivism holds that any theories that exist can be revised considering new research findings (Creswell & Plano, 2007). This is the most appropriate paradigm for the study as it will be helpful in establishing new insights on the teaching methods adopted in online learning.  

4.      Methodology

            Going by the nature of the research problem, the most suitable methodology is the exploratory mixed method research. The online mode of studying does not have many years in practice thus the amount of past research available is inadequate (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004). In fact, the study on the perception of students and the teaching staff on the academic integrity of online courses will be the first one to be done in Saudi Arabia. This makes the exploratory mixed method research methodology the most suitable. Further, the methodology is suitable for collection of data where the variables and instruments are not available in a particular region. The exploratory mixed method research is also important in helping the researchers make explicit philosophical positions (Plano-Clark et al, 2008). Multiple methods of data collection will be used in the study to enhance the accuracy of study results (Creswell & Plano, 2007).  The quantitative research applied in the methodology will aim at assessing the frequency of constructs. To enhance the understanding of these constructs, the research will use qualitative method. The integration of the different forms of data from the qualitative and quantitative research will enhance the strengths of data while minimizing the weaknesses (Jick, 1979).  

4.1. Phase One: interviews (qualitative method)

            The study will consider a convenience sample of the two study groups, that is, the students and the teaching staff. The number of individuals who will be interviewed from the two groups ranges between eight and ten. This is a convenience sample size that will be helpful in determining the perceptions of the groups on online courses and the factors that shape their perceptions. Using interviews as primary data collection method enables the researchers to explore the perceptions of the interviewees accurately (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009). It is thus an appropriate method of data collection in the study. The study will employ the structured interview used in qualitative research (Hollway & Jefferson, 2000). This entails asking the respondents predetermined questions and the interview does not take long compared to the structured and semi-structured one. The maximum time that the respondents will spend in the interview is twenty minutes, thus making the study less time consuming.

By using the interviews, it will be possible for the interviewees to understand the social phenomenon under investigation in a deeper way as compared to using quantitative methods such as questionnaires (Boeije, 2002). Interviews are especially useful in situations where there is inadequate literature about the study question (Crouch & McKenzie, 2006). The interview questions will be open-ended so as to obtain as much information from the respondents as possible. The open –ended questions allow the respondents to explain their answers further beyond giving a yes or no response (DiCicco‐Bloom & Crabtree, 2006). The method is most suitable for the study because it will allow the researchers to determine the perceptions of the respondents on online learning. The use of close-ended questions would not be appropriate because it does not give the respondents space to express their feelings and it may be difficult for the researcher to determine their perceptions (Kitzinger, 1995). The use of pilot interview will help the researchers to determine if the research questions are easy to understand so as to decide whether to go ahead with the major data collection or change the research questions (Fossey et al, 2002).

4.1.1. Analyzing the data collected from interviews

            In order to enhance the understanding of the responses provided by the participants, it is important to carry out a qualitative data analysis. Data cannot be helpful unless it is accurately analyzed. The analysis helps in identifying the similarities and differences in the views of the respondents. The most appropriate method of data analysis in the study will be coding because it is easy to understand. The main elements that are used in data analysis include labeling that helps the researchers distinguish similar views for the rest thus making work easier. Coding also helps in identifying similar concerns raised by the respondents (Weston et al, 2001).

            Open coding is the first step in the data analysis and it enhances the accuracy of the data analysis. It enables the researcher to distinguish different concepts within the area of study (Sandelowski, 2000). Data is broken into small concepts under different headings and subheadings to enhance its interpretation (Cassell & Symon, 2004). Axial coding is the next step that involves confirming whether the concepts identified in the open coding are relevant to the area of study (Rabiee, 2004).  The axial coding determines the effects and the contexts of the identified concepts so as to draw accurate conclusions (Basit, 2003). The last phase in the data analysis method involves transferring the final categories of data into data tables as a way of organizing the data results for analysis (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005). Effective data analysis will lead to formulation of the survey questions necessary in the quantitative research.

4.2. Phase two: surveys (quantitative method)

            Due to the nature of the study, the methodology used will allow an integration of qualitative methods through interviews and quantitative methods through survey. The research will involve a comprehensive survey of the students and teaching staff from the Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University business college. Most of the online courses are related to business and humanity courses thus the sample will be the most suitable in the study. To narrow down on the sample size and characteristics the study will only be conducted to the students who are enrolled in the 2016 first semester and their teaching staff.  Through the survey, it is possible for the researcher to determine the accuracy of the survey instruments in relation to the sample group (Neuman, 2005). The survey is useful invalidating the research model, a factor that determines the accuracy and reliability of the findings of the study. The survey is also helpful in assessing the perceptions of the respondents in a study (Ott, Longnecker & Ott, 2001). This makes the exploratory mixed method research a suitable methodology in the study because it allows the combination of both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis (Williamson, 2002).

4.2.1.      Analysis of the survey’s data (quantitative method)

            Once the survey is complete, the researcher will analyze data using the SPSS so as to find solutions to the research questions. This will be done through factor analysis and correlation. The factor analysis helps the researcher uncover the possible causes of a phenomenon (Andrew & Halcomb, 2009). In this case, it would be helpful in determining the factors that shape the perceptions of the students and the teaching staff on the academic integrity of online courses. The SPSS allows the researcher to carry out a statistical test of data to determine the level of correlation (O’connor, 2000).  The strength of this correlation determines the extent to which the data is statistically significant (Lorenzo-Seva & Ferrando, 2006).

4.2.2. Research findings

            To have a comprehensive data analysis it is important to compare both the qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data collected through interviews is different from the quantitative data collected through surveys but the relationship between the two types of data may be helpful in drawing accurate conclusions on the study (Kitahara, Westfall & Mankelwicz, 2011). Qualitative data is presented in non-numerical form and its analysis is also on non-numerical methods such as coding. The data can be useful in identifying the feelings of the respondents towards online learning (Lanier, 2006). The quantitative data in this case will be helpful in answering the first research question on perceptions for the academic staff and students on the business college about the academic integrity on the online study. The quantitative research on the other hand focuses on data that can be enumerated because it uses close-ended questions (Hayton, Allen & Scarpello, 2004). The data collected from this method is likely to be in numerical figures thus easier to analyze using software such as the SPSS. The quantitative data that will be collected in this case will be helpful in answering the second research question on the factors that influence the perceptions for the academic staff and students on the business college about the academic integrity on the online study.

5.      Validity and reliability

            A test in research is said to be valid if it is able to measure the required variables effectively.  Validity is specific to a given use and interpretation. The major considerations that researchers apply in determining the validity of a test include the construct, content, consequences and the assessment criterion relationship (Finelli et al, 2005). Validity is affected by various factors such as the response, nature of the groups being interviewed, criterion used and the nature of the evaluations done (Shenton, 2004). Reliability on the other hand refers to the extent to which the test results are consistent.  Although reliability is necessary in determining the extent to which research findings can be generalized, it is not a determinant of the validity of the research (Golafshani, 2003). This implies that it is possible to have an invalid but reliable test. However, it is impossible to have a valid test that is unreliable. Due to the nature of the research questions, the test on validity and reliability of the study must be carried out on both qualitative and quantitative aspects.

5.1. Qualitative validity

            The researcher will use the triangulation validity method as it is the most appropriate due to the nature of the study. This will involve using different types of data to test the results and determine the extent of validity. The combination of different sets of data strengthens the extent to which is reliable. The use of triangulation validity has been criticized by some opponents, who argue that it is not possible to reduce the error in test results simply by combining a number of methods or data. Before arriving at the data different methods use varying assumption thus combining the data may yield inaccurate results (Morse, et al, 2008). The proponents of the triangulation validity argue that the method is appropriate as it enhances accuracy of the results by combining the data.  They argue that using a single method or data cannot enable researchers to conclude about a phenomenon accurately. By using multiple methods, it is possible for the researcher to develop a deep understanding of the variables under investigation (Östlund et al, 2008). The validity method will be used to compare the different perceptions of the students and teaching staff on online learning through triangulation of sources. The other method that can be used in triangulation is the analyst triangulation that provides different ways of interpreting data. This can be used in determining the factors that shape the perceptions of the teaching staff and the students on academic integrity of online courses.

5.2.      Qualitative reliability

            To enhance the qualitative reliability, the researcher will have to document all the processes and steps in data collection methods. In this case the researcher will document the process of interviewing, the sample size and the sampling techniques used to determine the size and the interview questions. The researcher must exercise credibility, confirmability, dependability, and transferability. These aspects are very important in positivist research and they determine the extent to which the study is trustworthy. Credibility implies that the research measured the intended variables.  Using research methods that are scientifically proven to work is a way of enhancing credibility. In this case, the use of exploratory mixed approach of methodology can be used to indicate credibility of the study. The use of triangulation is also a means of testing the reliability of the study (Thomas, 2006). The other factor that proves that the study is reliable is the extent to which the researcher is able to apply the literature review in the specific field. Transferability is concerned with the generalization of the study results such that the results can be applied in different situations. In the study, the number of students and teaching staff considered will involve only the students enrolled for the studies in a single semester in only one learning institution. This is a small percentage of the students and teaching staff population in Saudi Arabia. However, the extent to which the research carried out will be reliable to be applicable to a wider population will depend on the degree of transferability (Östlund et al, 2008).  .

            Dependability implies that should the test be carried out using the same respondents and the same methods of collecting data the results should be consistent. It is important for the researcher to fully document the details of data collection methods so that even the future researchers can relate with the study. Confirmability is the other factor that the researcher must show to indicate the reliability of qualitative research. The instruments used in data collection and analysis must be subjective as opposed to objective. However, this is not possible in some instances because the questions used in the interviews and questionnaires may be objective as they are compiled by human beings. It is important for the researcher to document the steps followed in data collection and analysis as well as the concepts that justify the use of various techniques.

5.3.      Quantitative validity

            For quantitative research to be valid, the researcher will be required to apply the concept of internal validity that focuses on the extent to which the study results are free from systematic error. The internal validity obtained through the survey will be determined by the extent to which there exists a relationship between the variables under investigation (Kisamore, Stone & Jawahar, 2007). This implies that in the study, the validity of the survey will be indicated by the relationship between the perceptions of the students and teachings staff and academic integrity of online courses. The extent to which the study results will show a difference between the dependent and the independent variables will determine the validity of the quantitative dat. Although this method is useful in testing the validity of the study results, it is affected by factors such as selection bias, maturation, and change of instruments. These factors may alter the accuracy of the validity leading to erroneous conclusions.

5.4.      Quantitative reliability

            To test the reliability of the survey, the researcher will have to use the internal consistency by applying the Cronbach’s alpha. It is used in measuring the extent to which a set of items or groups are closely related. Even if the results a high value for the Cronbach’s alpha, this is not an indication that the results are not dimensional. The technique cannot be used s a statistical tool as it is a coefficient for the reliability or the consistence of the results.

6.      Sampling strategy

            There are various methods used in the sampling and they are determined by the research design that is adopted (McCabe & Pavela, 2004). In the study, the most appropriate research methodology is a mixture of the qualitative and the quantitative aspects thus dictating the type of sampling strategy to be used. The sampling strategy involves determining the sample size, nature of the sample, access of the sample to the research and the sampling type.

a). Sample size

Phase one: interviews

The sample size is important in determining the extent to which the research findings can be generalized thus it is a crucial element in sampling strategies. The study aims at carrying out qualitative research using a small sample size of 8-10 respondents, both the students and the teaching staff.  Though the sample size may seem to be small, it is sufficient in academic research according to a research carried out by Bunce & Johnson (2006).

Phase two: surveys

Quantitative research focuses more on a larger sample size than the qualitative research. The survey will be carried out on all the students at Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University second semester and the teaching staff that are working at the same time.

b). Sample

            The sample determines the quality of research as it dictates the suitability of the responses in relation to the area of study. To determine the academic integrity in the online courses in Saudi Arabia, it is important for the sample to be individuals within the learning institutions in the country. The sample will include two groups of people, the teaching staff, and the students who are knowledgeable on the online courses. The whole institution cannot be used as a sample thus the study will only include the individuals enrolled to learn in the second semester of 2016 together with the teachers who are scheduled to teach.

c). Access

            The researcher will have to obtain a permit to administer the survey and interviews to the respondents by the Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University. To get the permission to interview the students, the researcher will need to contact the dean of student affairs. For the teaching staff, the researcher will be required to obtain a permit from the dean of faculty affairs and employees. Prior to collecting the data, the institution will provide a written permit.

d). Type of sampling

            Both the qualitative and quantitative methods of research will use convenient samples. The interview will use a convenience sample of 8-10 respondents. The sample of the survey will also be a convenient one owing to the fact that it will be based on just one university in the country.

7.      Unit of analysis and sampling

            Unit of analysis is one of the crucial elements in research that provides the researchers with focus when carrying out their activities. It represents the major entity that the researcher will be analyzing (Thomas, 2006). In the case of academic integrity related to online courses in Saudi Arabia, the unit of analysis is the opinion expressed by the students and the teaching staff. The unit of analysis is determined by the interpretation of the data collected. The perceptions of the students and the teaching staff on the academic integrity of the online courses represent the main subject under investigation. The unit of sampling on the other hand is represented by the nature of the respondents that is, the teaching staff, and the students. The unit of analysis and sampling are important in determining the accuracy of the research findings.

8.      Instrument of data collection

            The instruments that will be used in data collection are determined by the methodology that will be adopted. The exploratory mixed method exploratory research will be used in the determining the instruments of data collection. The fact that the method uses a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative research implies the use of data collection instruments suitable for both methods.

Phase one: interviews

Interviewing is a suitable method of collecting qualitative data. The research will use the instrument to obtain data from a minimum of 8 to ten students and teachers from a Saudi Arabian university. The instrument is efficient in data collection in the study as the researcher will be in a position to clarify any unclear responses from the interviewee (Kisamore, Stone & Jawahar, 2007). This would not be possible of the instrument used was questionnaires. The use of interviews in collecting qualitative data is important in enhancing its accuracy due to low probability of bias from the respondents.  The instrument is relatively easy to use and cheap when it comes to data analysis. However, the instrument has various challenges that may reduce the accuracy of the data collected.  The interviewer may influence the reaction of the respondents if they are too objective leading to inaccurate conclusions.

Phase two: surveys

Survey will be used as a data collection instrument for the quantitative research. The persons to be surveyed will include all the teachers and students enrolled in semester 2, 2016 in the college of business in Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud University. Surveys are easy to develop and administer and they can be in various forms such as through telephones, online and paper. The mobile and online surveys are very efficient in reducing the cost of research. Through the surveys, the researchers are able to collect a large amount of data thus enhancing the accuracy of the study findings. However, the surveys may temp the respondents to provide answers that are inaccurate as long as they portray the best out of them (McCabe & Pavela, 2004).

9.      Limitations and delimitations of the methodology

            It is not possible to collect data that is fully accurate because of the weaknesses of the data collection instruments and the sample size. The users of the research findings will have to consider the limitations and delimitations of the methodology to determine the extent to which they can rely on the findings.

Limitations of the research methodology

            The use of mixed research exploratory methodology is important in enhancing the validity and reliability of the data but there are limitations that may lead to questioning of the same. The research will use convenience palming in data collection for both the qualitative and quantitative research. According to Chertok & Gilleland (2013), this method of sampling is inaccurate due to the ease with which the data is accessible. The other limitation relates to the use of secondary data. There are few secondary resources that have literature on the academic integrity of online learning in Saudi Arabia and this affects the reliability of the study findings.  The data collected in the quantitative study may not be adequate to explain the complex phenomenon in the study. The researcher may find it difficult to explain the factors that shape the perceptions of the respondents on online courses. The use of a small sample size in the qualitative research may limit the generalization of the results to wider populations. The data collection in qualitative research may consume more time compared to other instruments of research.


            These are the factors that define the boundaries of the research thus limiting the generalization of the study findings.  The delimiting factors can be controlled by the researcher to enhance the quality of research done.  They include the research objectives, theoretical frameworks and research questions. The study is likely to be affected by the fact that it uses only one university. The nature of teaching practices and learning environment differs from one institution to the other. It is therefore inaccurate to use the data collected to other institution since they may have a different situation. Individual perceptions depend on various factors such as their level of satisfaction in the school administration that is very different from the scope of the study (Kisamore, Stone & Jawahar, 2007). The researcher can be able to put the condition under control by using various learning institutions from different locations. The research aims to collect data from the college of business in the university but this is also a delimiting factor. There are other colleges that still use the online learning methods whose contribution to the study might bring new insights. The researcher has the ability to control this by including the students and teachers from other colleges apart from business.

10.  Ethical considerations

The fact that the research will involve human beings makes it necessary for the researcher to address the ethical issues that may arise. The research will only take place after the university grants a written research permit to the researcher. The researcher will also explain the objectives of the research to the respondents before the data collection begins. The study will also ensure a high level of professionalism by making sure that the information provided by the respondents remains confidential.

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Film and Theatre Studies Paper on To what extent has digital technology helped to establish greater realism in the cinematic experience descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

To what extent has digital technology helped to establish greater realism in the cinematic experience?

The uptake of digital technology in the entertainment industry has been nothing short of phenomenal. In particular, digital technology has completely changed the experiences of filmmakers and viewers alike in the film industry (Thompson &Bordwell, 2010). What this appears to suggest is that the entertainment industry has not been left behind in embracing the latest technological developments. Digital technology is the use of electronic software and hardware (Fitzgerald, Kruschwitz, Bonnet & Welck, 2013; Purse, 2013). This technology has irreversibly altered how we view film studies as well as our approach to film culture. Computers have found widespread application in the various phases of film production. They are also widely used in the post-production stage of the film industry. In addition, computers are also widely used in the distribution and exhibition cinema (Branigan & Buckland, 2013). The essay endeavours to explore the extent to which digital technology has helped to establish greater realism in the contemporary cinema, especially its role in eliciting simulation and manipulation during film production and its effect on the experiences of filmmakers and viewers.

Digital technology has enjoyed increased use in enhancing our cinematic experience in the contemporary cinema industry (Fair, 2013). For instance, digital special effects and CGI (computer generated imagery) are widely used in contemporary cinema, especially with respect to action blockbusters (Whissel, 2014). Indeed, such digital special effects as monsters, scenery, and explosion have been abundantly used in leading blockbuster film (for example, the 2001-2003 trilogy Lord of the Rings (Pyke & Jackson, 2003).  In addition, Digital Intermediary (DI) has also found widespread usage in blockbuster films as they aid in the removal of unwanted details such as graffiti from images (Buckland, 2009). For example in Amelie, a 2001 French blockbuster entailed the removal of graffiti on the streets of Montmartre (Jeunet, 2001). In addition, DI could also entail changing of details (for instance, fixing a bright blue sky or dark blue sky), or adding other details (for example, the creation of huge crowds even though previously only a few people had been featured). The use of digital special effect in mainstream cinema is not only confined to Hollywood films, but it also documented across the globe, such as in Joon-ho Bony’s 2006 Cinema The Host (South Korea), Timur Bekmambetov’s 2004 movie Night Watch (Russia), and John Woo’s 2008 film Red Cliff (China), among others. Such global visibility of digital special effects is a clear indication of “the globalized nature of computer culture and the dispersed spread of software skills” (Branigan & Buckland, 2013, p. 138). Digital technology dominates virtually all areas of cinema production and consumption (Buckland, 2009). For instance, the emergence of digital cameras has made it possible to produce low-budget cinemas. In addition, digital technology has also changed how film is distributed and exhibited. For example, the internet is now widely seen as an ideal platform for releasing films of a certain genre.

De Luca (2013) reports of a significant increase in the use of digital projections in cinema, a development that the author has attributed to the increased production of 3D films (De Luca, 2013). In addition, the website YouTube has gained popularity as a platform where amateur filmmakers can showcase their talent and in this way, compete with the mainstream cinema industry. It has also aided in the dissemination of low-cost films. This, along with the increased availability of affordable cameras that are also compatible with mobile phones has significantly changed the culture of contemporary cinema (Buckland, 2009). Digital technology has also played a huge role in rapidly changing virtually all the stages of contemporary film production. It has for example enabled the modern filmmakers to “storyboard, shoot, and edit their films in conjunction with the computer manipulation of images” (Prince, 1996, p. 27).

The increased popularity of realism in film theory in recent years is largely attributed to the ability of digital technology to elicit simulation and manipulation (De Luca, 2013). Even as digital overrides the photochemical support provided by contemporary cinema, it has raised questions as regards its former uncomplicated association with the real. This has not hindered the evolution of digital technology as evidenced by the uninterrupted adoption in the contemporary film industry. The ease with which we have witnessed the invention, perfection, and testing of new technologies is a testament to this claim.

The increased use of digital cinema techniques and equipment in the film industry in recent years has started to invade an area that was once the preserve of photographic film (Thompson & Bordwell, 2010). However, experience with past evolutionary iterations show that the development of such technology does not qualify as a precondition of sorts for modern quality in contemporary cinema but rather, it acts as another alternative available to film-makers (Henderson, Martin & Amazonas, 1999). To further underscore this claim, there is need to explore the apprehension about digital technology from a number of film directors, even as such renowned film directors as Robert Rodriguez and George Lucas have been seen to register enthusiasm at the unprecedented possibilities that digital technology would afford them in film production. Thompson and Bordwell note that, “many cinematographers, directors, designers, and other professionals were upset at the prospect of the death of photographic film, as were many movie fans, but the rise of digital cinema seemed inevitable” (2010, p.713).

Nonetheless, cinema fans should banish the thought that the adoption of digital technology by the film industry on a large scale would affect cinematic quality negatively (Dargis & Scott, 2012) as only the filmmaker possesses such powers. Digital technology in the film industry brought life imaginations and illusions to the overall experience of cinema (Purse, 2013). Morphing software in conjunction with other novel technologies have helped to mask the flaws usually liked to contemporary film effects technology, including composites and blue screen. Sobchack (2000) reports that the effects of computer-generated morphing have further helped to obscure conceal the line between illusion and reality. As technology in the film industry becomes more sophisticated, the illusions experienced in film production are more evident, further pushing the film industry into an era of enhanced digital realm (Sobchack, 2000). For instance, Sobchack (2000) reports that the development of laser-based Pixar scanners during the mid-1980s facilitated smooth progress of morphing when Photoshop technology emerged in the late 1980s (Young, 1999). It had a huge effect on the ease with which images in film production could be manipulated, as well as their level of quality (Bolter & Grusin, 1999).

In trying to emphasize the strong link between realism and continuity as practised in contemporary film production, Buckland (2009) notes that digital cameras enable filmmakers to capture images during film production with a similar resolution to that permitted by the analogue camera. This greater continuity therefore imparts greater realism into the process of filmmaking. Inferences regarding realism as practised in cinema production are often associated with abstractions of indexicality, according to Henderson et al. (1999). The authors further note that these abstractions of indexicality integrate photographic image with the corresponding point of reference (Henderson et al., 1999). This link further functions as the point of divergence between formalism and realism in film theory (Andrews, Hockenhull & Pheasant-Kelly, 2015). Such an approach to the notion of realism in film production hinges on the idea that unlike line drawings or paintings, photographic images are indexical signs. In other words, their connection to referents is rather existential or casual (Purse, 2013).

The instructive nature of photographs means that they resemble the objects they are supposed to represent. It is virtually impossible therefore, to divorce photographs from their referents (Stam, 2000)given the causal connection between the two. On account of it being a photographic medium, cinema has enabled theorists to come up with theories of realism related to the indexical nature of photography. For example, in developing his realist aesthetic to photography, Andre Bazin relied on what he referred to as the “objective” nature of photography. On this, Bazin was alluding to the fact that a photograph image is mechanically related to its referent, devoid of space and time conditions (Buckland, 2009). All key technological innovations are intended to enhance the film fan’s sense of having experience ‘real life’ at a time when he or she is watching a film.

Even as the above argument can be readily implemented in the production of ‘analogue’ film, one is likely to encounter various challenges when used in the digital era (Bolter, 2001). This is due to the ability of digital technology to alter our idea of the image. Simply put, the rise in the popularity and usage of digital technology in contemporary cinema has radically changed the relationship of film viewers with the image. While analogue image tended to have ‘constructed’ meaning, this is not the case with digital images. This is further proof of the replicating nature of photographs, even as digital imagery has been likened to an interpreting portrait.

Digital technology has however rendered film recording in photographic style antiqued (Wheeler, 2003). Besides taking over the principle of the medium, digital technology also fundamentally changed how we view and integrate film production and review (O’Hehir, 2014). Whereas analogue images are, by and large, rigid, on the other hand, digital images can be manipulated by both filmmakers and the viewers. There is need therefore to view digital images as essentially replicate construction, which radically changes their connection to the audience. Prior to the digital era in film production, film-makers introduced sophisticated lighting in the hope of developing an artificial atmosphere that would enable them to record film amid a colour and sound complicated result paradigm (Thompson & Bordwell, 2010). The medium was further developed by the use of montage, along with the increase application of editing in film (Ricciardelli, 2014). While this helped to further progress the narrative features of cinema, it came at a price; the simplicity and clarity of the film image was affected. This thus paved way for the emergence of unconventional or alternate cinematography like the contemporary ‘hand-held’ or deep-focus camera style (Gromala & Bolter, 2003), an adaptation that has in turn changed the audience’s view as well as the aesthetic appeal to cinema.

Other key areas of contemporary cinema that digital technology seems to have had a big influence on is with regard to the elements of sound and framing of image. Even as analogue cinema entails the capture of human characters by an analogue camera, in contrast, digital cinema usually entails changing the appearance of human characters (Wardrip-Freun & Harrigan, 2004), notably with regards to “air brushing”, in the digital morph, (Fitzgerald et al., 2013) and in changing facial expressions. Through digital technology, filmmakers have managed to change cinema into a fragment of animation, as opposed to the vice versa that was the norm with conventional movies. Digital cinema thus entails a departure from what Buckland (2009) calls “avant-garde cinema” where the main focus appears to be on the magnification of the image to realism.

This form of realism has only been made possible thanks to digital cinema. However, it puts to question our conventional ideas of space and time (Buckland, 2009). In this sense, digital cinema as made possible by the advent of digital technology could be regarded as post-human. While cinema through the centuries has endeavoured to depict the impossible in such a manner as to suggest that it is possible, on the other hand, digital technology affords cinema the luxury to assume full post-humanist significance (Henderson, Martin & Amazonas, 1999). There is also a deeper connection between realism as used in contemporary cinema and realism as applied in digital cinema. The key unifying aspect in both contemporary cinema and digital cinema is continuity. This technique has been widely used in realism.

 In contemporary cinema, continuity of space and time is often established via aural and visual cues like lines of sight, use of off-screen space and sound bridges. Digital cinema also entails the use of continuity, albeit at a greater level. In this case, continuity is achieved via the use of cuts that connect images, though no cutting is actually achieved in the real sense. Buckland (2009) has examined the unbroken continuity in his analysis of the film, “War of the Worlds” directed by Steven Spielberg. The 150-second shot that Spielberg presents to the viewer features the three main characters: Ray (Tom Cruise), his daughter Rachel (Dakota Fanning), and his son Robbic (Justin Chatwin), who is trying to clam down his frightened sister. The most important thing to note about this scene is that its occurrence does not seem to involve even a single cut. It thus offers us “real time” or temporal continuity, thereby affording us a sense of enhanced realism to the scene. This has been achieved by ensuring there is no stopping of the camera movement. It thus circles the three characters as they move out of and into the vehicle. This is in accordance with the theory of cinema that Andre Bazin sought to advance and which states that spatial and temporal continuity aids in predicting realism.

The depiction of cinema as a photographic medium has led to the development of theories of realism by cinema theorists in relation to the indexical position of the photographic signal. Andre Bazin has made use of the “objective” nature of photography as a basis for his realist aesthetic that is intimately connected with its referents. Other significant cinema realists have underscored the important aspect of a recording medium that photography shares with cinema. Kracauer (as reported by Henderson et al., 1999) opines that film is an add-on to photography. He further notes that cinema and photography share “a marked affinity for the visible world around us” (Henderson et al., 1999, p. 395). For subtle and obvious reasons, digital imaging questions photographic realism ideas that ride on indexicality.

This notwithstanding, realism can still be used as a tool to anchor objects in digital imaging. Examples include the use of surface texture detail and realistic lighting (for example, highlights, shadows, and reflections). In addition, digital imaging aids in twisting, contorting, and bending physical objects in such a manner as to sneer at indexicalized referentiality (Andrews et al., 2015). It is also possible to infinitely manipulate a digitally created or designed image. In this case, the complex algorithms contained within the computer memory determines its reality, as opposed to its mechanical conformity with a referent. What this means is that while digital imaging can work in accordance with a different ontology as opposed to indexical photographs, it can as well operate differently from photographically coded realism.

The evolution and increased adoption of digital technology in contemporary film has meant that filmmakers no longer have to rely on the physical capacity of the camera to represent and transport for their viewers. Consequently, the old adage, “seeing is believing” appears to be no longer the case in contemporary film. Through digital technology filmmakers are finding it increasingly easier to achieve increased realism in contemporary cinema. If at all we are to fully appreciate the huge role of digital technology it transforming cinematic, it is important that we also evaluate the point of divergence of digital imaging from photographic realism and the abstraction of ideas of realism in film production. In this way, we shall be in a better position to acknowledge just exactly how digital technology has totally changed our experience with contemporary cinema as filmmakers, critics, or viewers.


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the Myth of Trans-parency. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

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Sample Literature Essays Paper on Importance of Human Relationships in Early Childhood-Harriet the Spy free essay help online

Importance of Human Relationships in Early Childhood-Harriet the Spy

Harriet the Spy is a children’s novel published in 1964. The novel was written by Louise Fitzhugh and looks at the life of a small child by the name of Harriet. She has the dream of becoming a spy some day and she is supported by her nanny Ms Ole Golly. Ole Golly’s encouragements see Harriet venture into the routine life of observing her classmates, people within the neighborhood and her friends and then writing down the things she has observed about them (Fitzhugh). She has a good relationship with her two friends; sport and Janie. However, things change for worse when her nanny leaves their home to go and stay with her boyfriend, Mr. Waldenstein. Harriet is left with her parents who are always occupied with work and her life just becomes so unbearable. The novel proves that human relationship is very important in early childhood.

An intelligent kid with set  routines, which she follows diligently can be destabilized when a person closest to her leaves her .she may even start regressing on her development milestones she has passed through already.  A child need to be encouraged by her close relations and people within her social cycle such as the care-giver and the parents to pursue their dreams as lack of this would even lower their grades and affect their relationships with their friends. A child may get frustrated and especially when he or she does not understand why the person close to them had to leave. Such a child would be so affected and may start forgetting things that she never used to forget and even drop her good habits such as completing assignments in time.

Every child needs a good and healthy relationship with an adult. The relationship can create impacts on other relationships that the child has and would affect how they live their lives (Underwood and Lisa143). The novel has demonstrated that human relationships are characterized by specific features. This paper discusses these features and they include:

Relationship with an adult matters

The novel Harriet the spy has demonstrated that the relationship between a child and a caretaker has a significant effect on the well-being and general development of the child. Relationship between children and the people who are important in their lives play a very critical role in their development. These relationships are considered to be one of the active ingredients that influence healthy child development. This relationship is evident in all societies, not considering the differences in child-care practices.

It is crucial to bring out the importance of the relationship between professionals and parents. When the parents of a troubled child visit a professional, she should apply her competence in determining the effectiveness and the role played by close friends and relatives in the life of young child. Such collaborations are very central in any family- centered practice. In early childhood intervention measures, what is delivered is as important as how it has been delivered (Seligman and Lourie). The intervention by a professional helps in identifying what could help save the child from getting worse

Relationship with an Adult Affects Other Relationships

There is an aspect of parallel process whereby a child’s relationship with adults close to her parallels her relationship with other people. By experiencing how these close relations with her, the child would learn how to be with his or her friends and other people in her life. She would form and modify feelings and views of relationships through her closeness with the people. A care-giver who is warm, responsive, and available to the child would make the child be the same way with her friends and other people she meets.

When the a close care-giver or relations leaves, a child would change and even after doing  bad things to other people including her friends, she would still remain deviant and unapologetic. Parents and caregivers should know how to relate to their children and show them what to do not only through words but also by being good examples to the children. When the caregiver who left contacts the child again and advises her on what to do, then child most probably do as she or he is told. The advice plays a key role in mending her relationship with the people she is left with and those that she has created enmity with.

There Is A Flow of Parallel Processes Human Relationship

Every relationship has a flow on impacts regardless of the level of that relationship. The relationship that a child’s parents initiate with the a professional  creates  effects that would flow down to the relationships that the parents have with their child  and to the one they have with the teachers in school. The single relationship between parents and the professional can lead to better relationships between them and their small child leading to much better life for her (Lemay 27).

A good relationship with a child professional would encourage the parents to spend more time minding about their baby’s welfare. They would contact the teachers and talks to them regarding the state in which their child is in and the teachers would possible reciprocate the parent’s effort by doing their part in making child’s life better. The youngster should be given opportunity to continue with the dreams she had as she writes articles and edit the work done by others. Professionals must therefore ensure that the relationships they create with the parents would lead to relationships that are more productive with other people who influence the child’s life.

Effective Relationships Have Same Characteristics at All Levels

In early childhood, relationships with their caregivers are affected by the same factors that affect relationships in all other levels (Zastrow and Karen 357). The ability to understand a child’s feelings, to strengthen and empower the relationships, to moderate stress among others are all very important in creating effective relationships with young children. Sound relationships are important and must be nurtured in all ways possible to enable the optimum development of the child.

Engagement is very important in starting an effective relationship with a child. A caregiver should tune into the child’s world, understand her experience and perspective, and then create a personal connection with them. Teachers are also categorized as caregivers and they must ensure that they treat their pupils as their own in order to understand them better and be able to tell whenever they are troubled. Parents should not let their work deny them the joy of being with their children because failure to do so would mean that their children would suffer in silence.

A relationship between a child and an adult must involve responsiveness on the part of the adult for it to be effective. Adults must be able to respond appropriately and promptly to the communications, signals, and the changing moods of their children (Maria 242). These signals and communications could be verbal or non-verbal such as body language and facial expression. Thecaregivers must be able to recognize the signals that the children send to them make a sense of that signal in their mind and talk to the child in an appropriate manner that would help the child get over the difficult situation he or she is facing.

Parents should be able to read the feelings and emotions of their children. It should not have to be realized from her diary or a notebook but should be seen from the child’s face, her action and even her body language. Caretakers, including parents and teachers have the duty of ensuring that the children who are under their care are well taken care of and their needs met appropriately.

Professionals who deal with parents with troubled children must use clear communication. When a case needs a family-centered intervention, the service delivery must involve good communication skills by the professional to enable them build warm relationships, monitor communications, listen effectively, and support parents. The professional must be able to identify communication breakdown in the relationship, restore it, and encourage parents to initiate communications with all the people who have influence on the child.

It is unfortunate that some parents are so quick to be rough with their children. They fail to acknowledge the emotional feelings of their children and this always works negatively for both the parents and their child. The professional should acknowledge these feelings from the child and use them to initiate a helping process for the child. Emotional intelligence is important in such relationships and any parent who is not able to understand and be aware of his or her child’s emotional state would have trouble in bringing up the child in the right manner. Children’s emotional intelligence develops early and the caregivers and parents have the duty of promoting this development in their children through responsive and nurturing care.

They should be aware of their child’s emotions, recognize their emotional expressions, and use the opportunity to teach and be close and listen to their children. The caregivers could empower children as a way of improving the relationship between them and helping the child develop in the most appropriate ways (Carey 8). Parents, teachers, and all other caregivers should emphasize on a child’s strength and help them develop and grow towards achieving their full potential as this would greatly promote the healing process. The strength-based approach would help children to believe in themselves and their abilities. It would also make them see life differently and gain power on how to get over negative situations.

Relationships Can Change a Child’s Brain

Human beings are changed neurochemically and neurologically by relationships. In children, these changes could be either good or bad depending on what has caused the changes. Children develop in line with interpersonal relationships they have with others and the quality of attachment from such relationships determine the neurological development of the child. Positive relationships can program the brain of small children and enable them to heal from their troubles. The professional services have a great role to play in reprogramming any child’s brain


Many children are suffering silently because of the poor relationships their parents have created between them. Parents need to learn how to cultivate effective relationships with their children and get training if necessary to enable their children have a good and productive early childhood. Other caregivers such as teachers and nannies must be close to the children under their care so that they can help them grow and develop better to achieve their childhood dreams.

Works Cited

Carey, Seamus. The Whole Child: Restoring Wonder to the Art of Parenting. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. Print.

Fitzhugh, Louise. Harriet theSpy. Collins Modern Classics. Hammersmith: London. Harper Collins Publishers.2003.Internet Resource. Retrieved from

Lemay, Raymond A, and Hayat Ghazal. Looking After Children: A Practitioner’s Guide. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2007. Print.

Maria, Bernard L. Current Management in Child Neurology. Hamilton: B. C. Decker, 2005. Print.

Seligman, Linda, and Lourie W. Reichenberg. Selecting Effective Treatments: A Comprehensive, Systematic Guide to Treating Mental Disorders. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2013. Internet resource.

Underwood, Marion K, and Lisa H. Rosen. Social Development: Relationships in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence. New York: Guilford Press, 2011. Print.

Zastrow, Charles, and Karen K. Kirst-Ashman. Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.

Sample Literature Essay on Nikita Mikhalkov: Between Nostalgia and Nationalism nursing essay help: nursing essay help


 In Act II, Scene VII of as You like It, Jaques says to Duke Senior: “All the worlds a stage, and all the men and women merely players; they have their exits and their entrances, and one man in his time plays many parts…” (Shakespeare).  According to me the director intended so present to us the symbolic nature of how people’s lives, especially aristocrats in Russia during the 19th century where they are closely watched and scrutinized. The stage also acts as a divide for Russia’s upper society from its servants and workers. The stage is where the members of the upper society (aristocrats) belong while the servants and workers in the story belong in the wings and behind the stage.


Due to her determination and choice of living life by herself, Anna is likeable. Through her desires for a good life and her courageous nature, she is able to make her own life decisions. Her struggle finally ends up in suicide since the man she fought for turned against her. He was all she was fighting for, and now that the whole society was on her neck, she could not bear the pressure without the backing of Vronsky, her love (Roberts 158).


It is evident that Anna is punished for being a female and no other reason. Her counterpart Vronsky leaves unpunished despite the proof that they were both guilty of the same crime. Unlike Vronsky who coexists freely with other members of the society, Anna undergoes condemnation as a result of the crime. Comparably, her cynicism is so devastating but later justifies her end. The end of Anna comes about as a result of her undying love for Vronsky, which goes to the extend of rendering her as an outcast in the society. Anna’s last hope of ideal happiness is wrecked by the oppression of those around her (Beumers 101).

Work cited

Beumers, Birgit. Nikita Mikhalkov: Between Nostalgia and Nationalism. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004. Print.

Roberts, Graham H. Other Voices: Three Centuries of Cultural Dialogue between Russia and Western Europe. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Pub, 2011. Internet resource.

Sample Communication Research Paper on Case Study of Cable News Network (CNN) custom essay help

Summary of an Article

The study aimed at analyzing the perception of college students towards the use of social media. Various patterns of how news is received by colleges students as well as the role of news media in enhancing social life through a case study of Cable News Network (CNN). The research majorly dwelled on the importance of national and international news media in regard to continuing college students. It also investigated the improvement of reliance to CNN as a source of both national and international news as progression in college students went about.

The study used a telephone survey with a sample of 630 Kentucky university students between the ages of 18 and 22 with from both genders but females (52.2%) were slightly more than male (47.8%).

From the study, there was an increased importance on the use of both international and national news media among college students in a span of one year. This improvement was exceptional in relation to traditional media. Also, CNN was the most preferred news source for college students as there was increased reliance on it in a span of one year.

According to the study, college undergraduate years are a great opportunity for students to acquire specific characters such as the orientation towards news and also enhanced socialization. CNN has been integrated in the college students’ learning system enabling them to identify themselves with the outside world. The study found out that all news media avenues were preferred for both national and international news leading to the erosion of viewership in regard to traditional media networks CNN viewers were found to differ significantly from non-CNN viewers in their heavier use of daily newspapers, weekly news magazines, and late night local news viewing.

Sample Engineering Essay Paper on Engineering Roles my assignment essay help

Engineering Roles

The roles of engineers are to design projects, solve engineering problems, develop new ways and technological solutions, apply engineering analysis when ascertaining failures in machines, and conduct research for specialized engineering work and management. Others are to contribute to the development of engineering theories, apply the code of ethics when serving customers, public or organization and machine design (Management 44)[1]. Each role here is guided by principles adopted by the engineering board to ensure that members conduct themselves in a professional manner.

One of the roles I am interested in is designing projects in computer engineering systems.  This role involves the process of coming up with new designs and structure for computer especially the systems (Slivker 34)[2]. The most amazing thing in the engineering world is the manner in which engineers develops small computers that have high performance speed. Computers have enabled people solve problems in the business world as well as individual world. In addition, the role incorporates the work of designing cables and peripheral devices that connect and operate together with the computer (Sommerville 23)[3]. Computer networking is also featured in this field. Accuracy in doing the work is not an option for practitioners because these devices must perform to the level of customer expectation. In the event a fault is detected, the whole process is deemed to start again.  I would like to design complex computers that will perform a variety of task for companies (Coyne and Davis 36)[4]. This is because the current devices in place present challenges in term of processing speed and breakdown.  In conclusion, engineering is a professional field that is not only influential to humanity but also makes work easier, thus offering solutions to technical challenges (Adams, Turns, and Atman 130)[5].

Works Cited

Adams, Robin S., Jennifer Turns, and Cynthia J. Atman. “Educating Effective Engineering Designers: the Role of Reflective Practice.” Design Studies23.1 (2013): 123-150. Print.

Coyne, Edward J, and John M. Davis. Role Engineering for Enterprise Security Management. Boston: Artech House, 2010. Print.

Management, Association U. S. A. I. R. Computer Engineering. london: IGI Global, 2011. Print.

Slivker, V I. Handbook of Mechanical Stability in Engineering. Place of publication not identified: World Scientific, 2013. Print.

Sommerville, Ian. Software Engineering. Harlow: Addison-Wesley, 2010. Print.

[1] Management, Computer Engineering

[2] Slivker, Mechanical Stability in Engineering

[3] Sommerville, Software Engineering

[4] Coyne and Davis, Role Engineering for Enterprise Security Management

[5] Adams, Turns, and Atman, Engineering Designers

Sample History Essay Paper on Qin Dynasty grad school essay help: grad school essay help

Qin Dynasty


Qin was a kingdom in the China of today and it was found in the central of city of Xian. The rulers of the dynasty could use many ways to make the kingdom bigger. Bringing power together and enlarging the kingdom led to many good results in making the dynasty more balanced. The Qin people created the government and conducted state issues based on being loyal people to their king and to supporting a strong army. The emperor had total power over everyone but he was usually checked by other important people in the government. This was useful so that he did not use his powers badly.  The Qin dynasty defeated many states around it and put place oppressive laws, which ended up making the China of many states into an empire with a central government that was authoritative (Li, X. (2012). The emperor was successful in his mission and China was one nation governed from a central point with all the powers being given to the emperor.

Over 200 years, B.C.E., the dynasty of Qin, was the single very powerful state within what today we call China. It had a strong army that helped it in winning other nations and communities that lived around thus making it so powerful during that day. War was always seen among the many small kingdoms that surrounding it during that time until it was called the Warring States era. The kindgom slow by slow defeated most of its neighbors and counted its powers making it to be the most powerful kingdom in that region in that day.  

The first emperor of the dynasty did not only unify China, but also went about standardizing writing, weights, and measures throughout his kingdom, this was used to promote internal trade among the newly acquired states. The Qin dynasty became large for the reason that the first emperor pushed the dynasty’s borders south to current day Vitnam, and current day Korea.

            The kingdom had big rulers who helped in consolidating and making its powers more. They achieved this by using special methods thus making the kingdom to grow and become who of the powerful dynasties to have ever existed. The most influential person in the history of the kingdom was known as Shang Yang, he who was a firm believer in the ideology known as Legalism. Legalism says that very mean punishing laws were necessary to keep the people in order and to make them follow the laws of the kingdom. Working under the king, Shang Yang became prime minister of the Qin kingdom and gradually began making changes in the government thus making it a strong state with many laws. Shang wanted total loyalty to the king and this was achieved when loyal followers were rewarded basing on their loyalty and abilities rather than just being of high and noble birth. The young Qin Shi Huangdi became a strong believing person in Legalism and when he became king, he used it to make his rule stronger and the Qin government.

Several changes were made in the army and this helped the dynasty to even consolidate its powers and make it to conquer other states thus expanding its territories.  Just to add on the changes that were made in the army, Shi Huangdi made many changes that were aimed to further unify the dynasty and make governing to be much easier.  First, the Qin imposed their own Legalist form of government in territories that it had conquered and dominated.  The form of government involved rewards for those who were loyal and harsh punishments to those who were disobedient so as to keep order.   Also, the state had absolute control over the people who were the subjects and were supposed to surrender all their rights to the states so as to enjoy certain rights from the state. The people who saw themselves to be noble losed most of their traditional powers and were also forced to move from their country homes to the capital at Xian.  This way the Emperor could better keep an eye on them and more easily stop any plans for fight back that they might plan. This helped to ensure that the state was in control of everything and no one posed a threat. The powers of the nobles were cut to only those of doing things that were official and for this reason the government was in control. “Specific policies were enacted during the reign of the dynasty including the same ruts for carriages and the same script for writing” (Zhang, 2015).

The growth of the dynasty had big results on the stableness of the kingdom because many things came up with the growing of the kingdom. Many different languages came up that led to confusion in communications thus making the dialects to be made standard. The currency used was also made common so as to make trade to be much easier within the kingdom. This made the people of the kingdom to easily trade with other kingdoms. This made the challenges that came with trading without using currency less.

Many public works projects were also done because of the unity that was seen in the dynasty. The dynasty became even more stable. A protective wall was built in the north to stop other bad tribes from getting in. For instance, the Mongols were enemy to the good of the kingdom. The building of the Great Wall of China came with many bad things. It came with large financial load as well as human life, and this made the people hate on the Qin emperor by his people. Most of the wall that was built has not been there over the centuries but some parts of it have been put into today’s Great Wall.

            The interaction with different cultures within the kingdom brought good changes in the way the dynasty was ruled. Many languages came up because of the different communities that were part of the kingdom. There language of the kingdom was made common due to the varieties that had come up because of the coming together of the many groups. This brought a consistent way of communication throughout the kingdom and brought unity into the dynasty thus making it to be more strong and powerful. The standardization of dialect made the king to rule easily for the reason that communication was made easy and subjects understood what was expected of them for the strength of the kingdom.


Even though the Qin dynasty did not live long, it had major impacts that brought about several changes and established what we know today as the country of China. Qin making common the written language allows all Chinese people to communicate easily and to share a common culture. Money was first used in the qui dynasty and this shows the positive impacts the kingdom had both to the ancient and current society.


Li, X. (2012). China at war: An encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.

Zhang, Q. (2015). An introduction to Chinese history and culture

Sample Nursing Case Studies Essay Paper on Contraception for Adolescents college essay help online

Contraception for Adolescents


The APN’s role to this case is to provide guidance through counseling to Jocelyn taking into consideration that nurses in practice have a limitation when it comes to role play in particular treatments. By providing thoughtful consideration of respect to autonomy, professional gaining and social welfare nurses are able to provide dependable care (McCrink, 2010).


The adolescent stage makes individuals feel completely different from other individuals by developing a strong feeling of invulnerability which makes them have a feeling of immunity from whatever ailment that they may be suffering from (ANA, 2010). Providing emotional responses and ethical dilemmas to patients also puts them into proper perspective. It is with this regard that informing the parents will enable Jocelyn heal observe her intake of contraceptives.

The belief that parents should be responsible for contraception may indicate the adolescent’s self-identity as a child, requiring her parents to take responsibility for aspects of health care. This creates tension between her biology, as a sexually mature, fertile woman, and her stage of development, as socially dependent upon her parents. The need for parents to take control of this aspect of their children’s health care may run counter to the societal expectation that parents will discourage adolescent sexuality, and that fertility control is the responsibility of the individual.


The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Ethics Workgroup has developed a framework for addressing clinical (and administrative) ethical issues (Ulrich, Taylor, Soeken, O’Donnell, Farrar, Danis & Grady, 2010). It is a high opportunity for her to understand that her health is more important than anything thus neither her consent nor anything else will make her better other than heading to the direction of the nurse practitioners. 


The best contraceptive for Jocelyn is the pregnancy control contraceptive since she has no plans to start a family. Going as per increased indulgence in sexual activities, preventing pregnancy is a priority. Pills and condom use will be reliable and these additional methods may have prevented earlier unwanted pregnancies (Foster, Jackson, Cosby, Weitz, Darney & Drey, 2008).


American Nurses Association. (2010). Nursing’s social policy statement: The essence of the profession (3rd ed.). Silver Springs,MD: Nursebooks..

McCrink, A. (2010). Ethical nursing practice, why it should concern us all. Nursing for Women’s Health, 14, 443–446.

Ulrich, C. M., Taylor, C., Soeken, K.,O’Donnell, P., Farrar, A., Danis,M.,Grady, C. (2010). Everyday ethics: Ethical issues and stress in nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66, 2510–2519.

Foster, D. G., Jackson, R. A., Cosby, K., Weitz, T. A., Darney, P. D., &Drey, E. A. (2008). Predictors of delay in each step leading to an abortion. Perspectives in Sexual and Reproductive Health, 40,6–16.

Sample Coursework Essay Paper Sociology college admission essay help: college admission essay help


There are two main reasons as to why Amish children only attend school through eighth grade. First, the Amish engage in trades that involve manual work and craft. Second, they deem that if their children are educated past eighth grade, they might presume ideas that oppose their religious values. They reject the social security tax because they think of it as a part of obligatory insurance premiums. They believe that enrolling in any insurance plan expresses unbelief in God. The growing purpose of technology has created much tension between the contemporary society and the Amish relating to their limited application of technology.Adolescence is a phase in life that is limited by time. Hence, we cannot conclude that it is expanding. However, due to economic uncertainties, children are forced to live with their parents even past their adolescent stage. In this sense, when adolescents live longer with their parents at a given age they become adults.When my friends pressured me to attend a night party, I was against the idea but I later gave in since all my friends were attending. I was unhappy with the outcome because the next day, I was too sleepy to go to school.The four reasons for punishment are reintegration, reckoning, incapacitation and dissuasion. To some extent, these four rationalizations are contradictory. While deterrence uses punishment as a warning to deter people from offending, retribution supports actual punishment. Apart from retribution and incapacitation through execution, other justifications lack assured results. Rehabilitation violates the idea of retribution in that; it focuses on reforming the offenders than punishing them for their offences. In retribution, punishment is meant to demonstrate open condemnation for the offender’s misconduct.Every entity desires to have an affluent life .One’s possessions and reputation are often used as a reflection of a successful life. This notwithstanding, building a personal creative potential is equally significant for a high life. Creative individuals are of good reputation and highly honoured in the society.The expansion exhibited by McDonald’s and KFC restaurants constitutes desirable development. First, this expansion has created multiple job opportunities thus reducing poverty and raising the living standards.  Secondly, the government in countries where these restaurants operate collects taxes thatare used for further developments. Thirdly, the multiple franchises earn the restaurants profit. Given building a good reputation, the companies can create projects that benefit the society. Erotic alludes to an alluring kind of beauty that engages not only the senses but also aesthetics and the judgment on how given figures illustrate beauty. Conversely, pornography consists of books, videos and other materials that demonstrate sexual acts to arouse sexual feelings.The available natural resources are adequate to support human life. Some changes that can be made in pursuit of an ecologically sustainable way of life include preservation of the environment and adopting measures that curb environmental pollution. I would not support government regulations that are aimed at reducing fertility as a way of cutting down high population growth. Ideally, slow growth in population begets slow economic growth because the low population will not have strong purchasing power. This creates slow growth in economy. Additionally, these measures decrease the number of working age as compared to the number of retired people. I would not willingly accept lower living standards because it is degrading to humanity.

Sample Sociology Paper on Immigration Law and Marriage summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Immigration Law and Marriage

Question: Does immigration really interview and test the couple about personal information, which is applying for citizenship?

Answer: Yes, the Immigration department carries out a thorough authentication process to validate a particular marriage. If a person lacks proper documentation it is regarded that he/she is not legally married or rather the marriage is not legally recognized. As if that is not enough, after presenting the documents to prove the legality of the marriage, a person is also required to prove that if at all he/she was in a previous marriage, the marriage was terminated.  

According to the United States immigration law, it is believed that a legal marriage in a person’s native country is still legal even in the USA. It becomes hard at times to verify the validity of an immigrant’s marriage status if there are variations in the laws governing marriages between two different countries. For instance some countries do not provide their citizens with certificates as proof of marriage especially cases where traditional ceremonies are used as a representation of marriages.

When applying for American citizenship, immigrants have a provision under law allowing them to prolong their stay awaiting approval as citizens if they are married to Native Americans. Strict laws apply for marriages done outside the United States; these types of marriages are regarded as a breakthroughs for individuals inhabitation of United States. In such a scenario, special visas are granted to the immigrant prior to the confirmation of his/her marriage.

Other legalities include the existence of a relationship two years before the marriage where green cards are issued for a maximum of two years while awaiting confirmation of the marriage’s legality.

HR Management Sample Essay Paper on Organizational Change custom essay help

Organization Change

Question 1

Team conflicts could emerge in the form of personal-role conflict. In organizations where there are unclear guides on the role of each member, conflicts are bound to occur. For instance, if old sales team members afford the items to customers through the old organization culture, the new team may feel that the behavior is consuming too much time. As a result, their objectives to serve customers may clash with that of the old members. Moreover, the new team might make major difference in the presentation of the manufactured products to the customers with little effort, hence conflicting with the old members.

Poor team management means confusion in the role taking. Building team-based organizations result to organizing team members around processes rather than departments and functions. Indeed, when everyone knows what to do and how to do it, it brings cohesion and mutual understanding between members. Accordingly, both the old executives and the new executives can monitor their efforts to see if the expected output occurs and takes remedial actions when needed without conflicts. The concerted efforts by the CEO to provide assurance of role clarity will bring both the old members and the new members into alignment with the new paradigm of the company. 

Also, teams are likely to experience relationship conflicts when newcomers join the organization due to the presence of overt social categorical differences in teams. According to social identity theory, people find it difficult to cope with the categorical differences within their team as they derive part of who they are, their self-concept, from important group memberships such as their work team. For example, the sales manager might not mingle well with the vendor relations managers particularly when one of the members is new in that capacity. Subsequently, people perceive that working with others who behave in similar ways, are trustworthy, and conform to their worldview. They tend to view fellow team members in a more positive light compared to outsiders. The new executives in the cloth manufacturing industry become the victims of an “out-group denigration bias.” In case they possess innovative ideas, conflict will emerge since some of their ideas may be unclear to the old team. Still, the old executives might question whether the new members work with the team’s best interest in mind.

Failing to train the new members in an organization could contribute to myriad problems ranging from confusion to their new roles in the team to not knowing where to offer supports in case their colleagues are experiencing challenges. Member of a new team, for instance, might wreck the sewing machine due to incompetence in its operation. The solution in such cases is to provide extensive training to the members, hence an effective and efficient mix of a given task. Training could involve educating individual members in different functional areas, thus allowing shared responsibilities. Through training, it is easier to communicate the objectives of the organization to all members, thus making it possible to achieve the end results. Interactive management, where both the old and new players participate, limits the potentials of conflicts by the proper understanding between one another.

Organizational socialization is the concept whereby new members are transformed and integrated to become part of the organization. Due to the elastic personnel needs, it could be significantly important for the CEO and the industry in implementing the socialization concept. Indeed, it enhances role adjustments, thus ensuring proper integration and consistency between the old and new executives. The reduction theory posits that socialization reduces misunderstanding between members of a time, thus contributing to their satisfaction in different roles.

Question 2

Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is a term used to describe the highest ranking executive in a company, whose role ranges from managing company’s resources to decisions making.

CEOs play a management role within the organization. They can appoint or dismiss the employees whenever there are ultimate and logical reasons for doing it. Oversight of the progress of critical matters and functions of the company is another critical role of the CEO. This goes hand in hand with complying with government policies across all the activities performed within the organization. For example, the CEO ensures that safety measures are observed in top-down system to prevent incurring unnecessary cost through accidents. Still, complying with the government policy on licensing of the workers is mandated by the CEO.  This aspect simplifies the full and correct accounting practices.

Decision making on the critical matters is another area where the CEO exercises their power. However, this occurs with exception to the decisions that require the definite involvement of the board members, supervisory council, and the shareholders of the organization. The board of directors has the capacity of monitoring the management behaviors of the CEO and corrects him where there are errors. The supervisory board conducts the review procedure, hence supplementing the CEO with the powers to delegate and command the best practices within the company without the occurrence of faults. For example, the board members review the salaries of the employees and propose the best decisions to solve workers aggression. Such cases persuade the CEO to follow the articles of association to act within the codes of the ethical decision-making and remain on board with the rest players.

CEO plays the representation role for the company in relation to third parties. Moreover, the representation powers are prevalent in the court proceedings, and transfer of assets subject to the requirements of relevant decisions of the members. The CEO is in charge of contract, monetary transactions, and signing of the projects that are intended to improve the performance of the company. The exception of this policy is in the case of registered collective representation of the industry. Perhaps such a case emerge, the collective representation of the organizations is through CEO and board members who bear the rights for transacting on behalf of the company. Alternatively, the CEO can appoint one of the managing directors the capacity to represent the company in its operation with relation to the third parties. Subject to the legal powers bestowed upon the CEO, it enables him to remain in the pole position to implement the decisions that determine the core values of the company; hence its culture.

CEO solves critical company contingencies through power base that helps to survive criticism for poor performance or unexpected outcomes, as well as to sustain competence performance to overcome the market competition. For instance, the supreme position guarantees his power to speak on behalf of the company as well as to sign for any funds received. The power base prepares the CEO to take the company’s reign to the next management without fall of its productivity.

Coercive power is gained by coercing others through the fear element. This aspect is exercised through punishing the non-performers, sanctioning ineffective employees, and harassing those with opposing ideas contrary to what is said by the CEO. This power ensures that nuisance executives and directors are prevented from mobilizing the employees, hence pulling together all resources necessary to develop the company.

Connection power entails CEO connection with the influential members from within or outside the company. Employees respect people with authority since they have the capacity of promoting them to better positions in the organization. Similarly, CEOs with high connection voltage are avoided, allowing them to execute various duties without pressure or negative criticism.

Reward power is based on the CEO’s ability to reward the best achievers within the organization. This ability enables the CEO to control the pay received by each employee, commanding increment of the best performing employees. The rewards may also be in non-monetary, prestige and esteem.

Question 3

A flatter organization and a wide span of control ensure that the managers or CEO can communicate effectively to all the stakeholders and employees of the organization. For example, the plant manager will have time to match different responsibilities with the resources available, hence maximizing time on the production practices rather than rectifying problems and bringing confusion in the company. Besides, a wide span of control facilitates sharing of responsibilities without over-utilizing some workers while underutilizing another unit. This is crucial since it improves the interaction of employees with different layers of practices within the organization.

In a flatter organization, the level of bureaucracy is minimized and decision-making is attained with ease. This means that employees can attend to customers’ requests such as loans and insurance claims without the interference from the top management. Less bureaucracy means the reduction of cost in the form of time and finances. In a manufacturing company, for example, the supervisor of the manufacturing system must ensure that the maintenance engineers and the development engineers directly report to him on the job progress.

However, a flatter organization and a wide span control have disadvantages that affect the organization directly and indirectly. While it would be feasible for a single manager to be in charge of many subordinates, a wide span control may slower the operation behaviors of the organization. It is because; different managers are likely to possess dissimilar interests in the company. As a result, they may tend to attend to a given problem with different perspectives, meaning that even commands may not be the same. Different managers delegating duties and responsibilities to workers could bring confusion, hence poor participation, and productivity.

Still, a flat and wide structure of the organization could hamper the forward growth of the company and well as career development of the employees. While the managers might show commitment in overseeing the performance of all the stakeholders, it could be hard to evaluate the behaviors of some employees. Some workers might be greedy to win financial favors after according support to the clients. This vice could simultaneously dwindle the profits and the general performance of the organization. The flexibility in decision-making will be complicated by the wide control span since it will consume much time in examining the contribution of every stakeholders. A narrow span of management would be ideal in such situations. The time spent in structuring and implementing decisions is converted into production, thus raising the performance of the organization.

In an organization where employees directly meet the clients’ requirements, democratic leadership could look fitting in such organization. However, that is not the case. Organizations where employees can do whatever they feel like might have a negative impact in the long-run. While the employees have the freedom to transact business on the behalf of the organization, it may slower the performance of the business through sluggishness in the sustaining the core values. Still, some employees’ behaviors might turn into questions of ethics. Dishonest and corruption from the hungry employees may lead customers to turn down the services offered, hence reducing the income that the company would generate. To prevent such outcomes, autocrat leadership is most appropriate, where the CEO or one director make decisions and delegate power to other subordinates. Through this approach, the employees would be coerced to submit to commands of the supervisors. Moreover, loyalty, working morale, honesty, and integrity are cultivated in the organization.

Question 4

Organizational change refers to change of the management structure and the production techniques from a known form to unknown form. For example, the company may plan to multiply the level of production but the means of doing it remains at stake due to numerous factors. The driver to organization change may include the customers’ demand, information technologies, competitive environment, prestige, and government policies. A given change is strategic when it affects the entire organization. Conversely, when a change is limited to a specific component of the organization, the change is treated as incremental.

A change agent is a person or a component that helps the company to become more effective and productive. It may be internal or external. An internal change agent, for instance, may involve appointing managers or employees to oversee the implementation of a change in the organization. Similarly, consultation from outside the organization may indicate an external change.

An external change agent presents options that are more radical to the organization, thus multiplying its productivity and level of service to the customers. Still, such a change creates the possibility of examining a wide range of alternatives within the organization.

People change type focus on the individuals participating in the business operations of the company. This change agent intends to improve the morale through motivation of the employees. Moreover, it reduces the levels of absenteeism and turnover of employees, thus improving the production and quality of the services rendered. Managers prefer this approach for job enrichment, goals setting and behavior modification.

Analysis also acts as the changing agent. It focuses on the evaluating the organization structure so as to boost the output and efficiency. Using the organization’s analytical systems and research activities help to change from the old production methods to the modern operation behaviors. This change is enhanced by the availability of the technology and the communication facilities. For instance, introducing advanced computer systems could improve the communication and data processing practices.

Several challenges necessitate the need of bringing change within the business arena. For instance, the internet availability supports customers with information about health related matters. Health organizations require internet availability to remain promising to the clients while improving the service delivery and operational models. Adopting the internet technology helps in fighting infectious and deadly diseases. Still, it helps in reducing the risks posed by the new medical products that are intended to curb the prevalence of deadly diseases.

Strategic change presents a challenge to the organization on the means of penetrating into the new market. Through diversification and opening of the outlets, integration of management and operational structures is necessary. It means that, a company that wishes to implements a feasible decision making strategy will require a change in its hierarchical organization.  Therefore, the strategy acts as the changing agent.

Finally, central to modern organization change is the competition. When a company producing similar products brings in a new team in their organization, more competitive team will be needed to sustain the competition presented by the opponent. It will involve absorbing more creative and innovative teams, who possess ideas of pushing the organization to the next top level. For example, bringing in young blood will add vigor and creativity in organization. In fact, sticking to one production technique could bring the business into financial setbacks.

Sample Business Studies on Propagating Welfare Exit by Enhancing the Individual and Contextual Factors gp essay help: gp essay help

Propagating Welfare Exit by Enhancing the Individual and Contextual Factors

Literature Review

            Welfare dependency is a major problem in the United States of America attracting the attention of all government agencies. Welfare programs were coined to act as a safety net for people living under the poverty line but have since become a lifestyle for the poor. The desire to shift the focus from welfare dependency to personal responsibility and independence is an issue that has faced many challenges over the years. The demarcation between the deserving and the undeserving welfare recipients is not clear. In fact, the issue has raised many concerns among different people with the opponents of the movement arguing that people should receive drug tests to determine their eligibility. Other people argue that only people who are led to poverty via uncontrollable factors should be eligible for the welfare donations (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). For instance, widows are considered eligible for the program because their source of inability to support the family is not self-inflicted. Single mothers, who have never married, on the other hand, are considered undeserving of the welfare help because their situation is as a result of their choices in life.

            The debate on the eligibility of the welfare program support has attracted a lot of attention from scholars and theorists. The classical economic theorists argue that people depend on welfare programs because they do not want to work. Classical economic theorists attribute poverty to personal incapability and the choices that one makes in life. In other words, the theories blame the victims for allowing themselves to depend on the welfare programs while there are other options in life. Most of the welfare depend persons are considered morally deficient in classical economic theories.

            On the other hand, the sociologist theories criticize the neoclassical economist theories for ignoring the structural factors that cause people to live in poverty. The desire to determine the causal effects of the increased dependence on welfare programs has led to increased research on the area of risk factors that lead to dependency. Temporary assistance for the needy families (TANF) is one of the organizations that try to propagate the exit plans for welfare dependent people to reduce the cost of the welfare programs and in turn alleviate poverty in the community (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). To achieve success in alleviating poverty and reducing dependency on the programs, one must understand the risk factors and the ways to mitigate these problems.

            Long-term dependency is highly associated with unwillingness to work but research indicates otherwise. Most single mothers dependent on these programs still have some form of paying jobs. However, their low skill and lack of quality education limits their access to well paying jobs thus making it hard to leave the welfare programs. The single mothers depend on both the welfare aid and the small income from their low paying jobs because none of their income sources can sustain families efficiently (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). Additionally, research indicates that the level of dependency among the black people is higher than that of the whites. The level of unemployment in America makes most black men unmarriageable thus leading to higher numbers of single mothers among the blacks. Lack of quality education and the support of the male partners in families have led the single mothers to view the welfare aid as a lifestyle rather than a safety net.

            Unskilled labor does not help to exit the welfare programs because the work associated costs do not match the income earned from the jobs. Additionally, the increasing number of teenage mothers poses a challenge to the exit plans. Teenage mothers tend to make the welfare programs a lifestyle because the disruption between their education and motherhood leaves them no chance to pursue higher education. The cycle then follows with low skills and unskilled employments that cannot fully support a family. Lack of affordable childcare, limited access t suitable jobs in affluent suburbs as well as high housing and transportation costs limits the success of the welfare exit programs (Telleen & Sayad, 2012).

            The rational choice theory argues that people often take the most appropriate choice to their problems. In this case, people dependent on welfare programs prefer to stay in the programs than to engage in unskilled labor that can barely sustain a family. Additionally, getting people out of the welfare program without an ideal source of income do not tackle the issue of poverty because such parents are bound to have welfare dependent children hence the continuation of the cycle. Welfare programs that focus on work programs should focus not only on the reduction of dependency people but also on the stabilization of those who exit the programs to prevent further dependencies (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). Access to suitable jobs, improved education levels through training, and reduced number of teenage mothers can go along way in propagating the welfare exit programs for welfare dependent people. Further, welfare programs can promote the formation and maintenance of two parent families especially among the blacks and the prevention out of wedlock children to enhance the exit programs. A focus towards cutting poverty rather than reducing dependency can propagate the exit programs and provide a success independent life for the welfare dependent persons.  

Research Questions

How can the TANF program shape the society to prevent further welfare dependencies among single mothers?How can TANF use the individual and contextual factors to ensure successful exit programs for welfare dependent people?

Research Model and Graphical Representation

            The study on transition mechanisms from welfare dependencies to the job market is based on two theories emanating from sociologist theories and neoclassical economic theories. The human capital theory emphasizes on the responsibility of an individual in choosing whether to depend on welfare programs or choose alternative options. In other words, the human capital model places the dependency blame on the victim. On the other hand, the neighborhood theory from the sociologist group of theories argues that the environment in which people live determine their socio-economic status (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). In this case, single mothers who dependent on the welfare programs are a product of the societies in which they live. Therefore, for TANF to facilitate effective exit program, it should focus on strengthening societies to produce better citizens while advancing the individual factors pointed out in the human capita theory.

Teenage parenthood Lack of skills Lack of quality education  

High cost of living Lack of quality jobs Discrimination Unemployment  

Individual FactorsContextual Factors

Formation of two parent families Educate the dependent persons Offer training Enhance cohesion in the society Provide avenues for suitable jobs    

                                                Welfare Dependency

Successful Exit Plan  

                                                                                    Poverty alleviation

Reduced dependency                                     reduced dependency  


Improving Individual and Contextual Factors Enhances a Successful Transition from Welfare Dependency to Personal Independence

            Previous researches indicate that contextual and individual factors promote the high levels of dependency on welfare aid among single mothers. Therefore, a reverse program can reduce the dependency habits and promote self-development among these people. Individual issues such as lack of quality education and poor skills can be improved by training people and offering short education programs for people dependent on welfares to foster their exit plan. The success of the dependent persons after the exit program depends on their ability to compete in the job market (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). Further, with the availability of ideal jobs and support programs in the community, single mothers can raise independent children thus reducing the burden of welfare dependency in the future.

Social Cohesion in the Neighborhood Leads to Low Welfare Dependency and Low Levels of Poverty

            Social cohesion in the society can prevent excessive dependency on welfare programs by equipping people to self-manage their economic situations in a better way. Additionally, social cohesion reduces the stigma and the discrimination against the poor, which often enlarges the gap between the rich and the poor. People dependent on welfare programs lack quality education and the right skills because life in towns and cities is fragmented into social classes. Only the wealthy have access to quality education and ideal training programs. Therefore, the poor end up in a vicious cycle of poverty and continuous dependency on government help. Enhancing social cohesion can eliminate these challenges and create an avenue for the financially challenged person to acquire similar education and training programs (Telleen & Sayad, 2012). Further, social cohesion helps in reducing the number of children born out of wedlock hence reduced number of single mothers and welfare dependency.


Telleen, S. & Sayad, J. (2012). The transition from welfare to work: processes, challenges, and outcomes. New York: Haworth Press.

Women and Gender Studies Essay on Labor and the Environment in Canada essay help us

Labor and the Environment in Canada

Dave Bennett’s article ‘Just Labor’ published by the Canadian Journal of Work and Society in 2007 has explained the labor situation in Canada by starting with a comparison of the state of affairs between Canada and the UK where he came from. Bennett remarks about significant changes that have taken place since the 1980s, especially the increased number of staff members. The labor unions have diversified to incorporate outsiders who are not part of the labor fraternity, but engage in specialized functions. Then again, his article is based on the Fire Brigades Union (FBU) in Canada where he was a member (Bennett 1).

However, one of the major differences he identifies between UK and Canada is industrial relations. The industrial relations system in Britain was very informal and it was characterized by less arbitration, fewer limitations on taking industrial actions such as strike, and unenforceable collective agreements. Canada, on the other hand, had contrasting characteristics; enforceable collective agreements, highly restrictive regarding organizing strikes, and other draconian rules and regulations. Here, Canada seems to have oppressed it workers more due to the extreme rules imposed on union actions compared to the British. Another major difference concerns trade unionism that appears to be so different from Canada and UK. Bennett points out the high ratio of staff to members in Canada and non-payment of union staff whereby only a few elected officers and secretaries were paid for their work (Bennett 1-2).

The health and safety issue is, however, what Bennett has discussed more comprehensively. He notes there is no big difference between Canada and Britain since both of these countries have established laws on health and safety, and codes of practice. Bennett was able to take over at the Canadian Labor Office (CLC) as a representative of health and safety whereby he brought various significant changes in the department. By the time he takes office, however, there are several important laws on health and safety including the right to participate or join health and safety groups under union management, the right to information about hazards in the workplace, and the right to refusal of working under unsafe and unhealthy conditions (International Labor Office).

Bennett sees loopholes in the stipulated safety and health laws since they are more focused on workplace standards rather than on the rights of the workers. He argues that with those laws it was easy to work in a place where rights are assured, but still be vulnerable to serious health and safety hazards. However, new things come up whereby workers fight to have the issue of physical injuries and deaths is looked into. Another issue that workers need be included in health and safety agenda is environmental protection. The CLC then commenced smaller committees to drive the agenda whereby a ten-point program was produced to ensure a worker’s perspective on the environment and connection to health and safety are observed (Bennett 3-7).

The CLC has an environmental liaison group that is represented by environmentalists from the national and regional group. The different approach it has applied makes it unique compared to other labor unions. However, Bennett explains how CLC experienced various hurdles in their efforts to ensure a green environment. Another major area that CLC wanted to be solved is the pollution that affected the environment on which the worker lives and works. However, other groups would put pressure on them to stay away regarding the issue of environmental conservation especially their move to conserve forests (Bennett 3-7).

Works Cited

Bennett, D. “Labour and the environment at the Canadian Labour Congress – The story of the convergence.” A Canadian Journal of Work and Society (2007): 1-7. Print.

International Labor Office. Ergonomic Checkpoints: Practical and Easy-to-Implement Solutions for Improving Safety, Health and Working Conditions. Geneva: International Labour Office, 2010. Print.

Sample Healthcare Research Paper on Protein Supplements get essay help

Protein Supplements

Protein supplements refer to protein and nourishment sources, and sustenance items, that are used to assist weight competitors and lifters to achieve their wanted daily admission necessities. There are various protein supplements and they include the following; protein bars, protein powders, feast substitutions, and weight gainers. Nearly all protein supplements have over 20 to 30 grams of protein. They also come in different flavors for instance; we have those from organic product enhanced protein powders that are mostly used in treating and cream seasoning weight gainers. Protein supplements are one of the popular nutritional supplements consumed by athletes due to the belief that they reduce fatigue, increase muscle mass and enhance recovery.

Weight Gainer, it comprises of whey protein. It is used by body builders or athletes who have problems of taking enough calories to compensate the large amount they burn through doing intense exercise (NHS.UK 1).

Whey Protein, it is a protein supplement used as a byproduct when processing milk into cheese (Etcheverry 1).  It is important because it helps in fat loss and enhances the growth of lean muscle. Whey is less costly and it comes in diverse flavors for instance, true and tried vanilla.

Soy Protein,it is categorized among the few plant protein sources that provide all the required amino acids. It is prepared from soy bean that have been hulled and dried to make soy flour. Soy protein is very important because it plays a vital role in improving the immune function of the body and promoting bone health.

Benefits of Using Protein Supplements

Protein supplements come with many benefits to the consumers. The benefits include:

Grab and Go,It is very easy to purchase protein supplements because one is only required to visit a shop or a supermarket grab it and go away with it.

No Refrigeration and Exceptionally Versatile, One is not required to keep protein supplements under refrigeration because they are exceptionally versatile. This enables one to use the supplements at his preferred time. Additionally, protein supplements can save your cash because most of them are less costly making it affordable to most people.

Furthermore, proper protein timing is important to expanding muscle pick up because they reduce damage of muscles and delayed onset muscle soreness (NHS.UK 1). Consumption of whey helps in preserving muscles.

Should we be taking protein supplements? The question remains unanswered for the fact that we have a range of protein supplements and an individual circumstances will govern whether they will benefit or not.

Side Effects of Protein Supplements

Water Retention, Intake of proteins in high quantities especially when one is not eating enough carbohydrates can make the body become ketosis. One’s kidneys then overdrive when trying to get rid of these substances making it difficult for the body to retain water. This increases the dangers of dehydration especially if a sports woman or man loses fluid through sweat when doing exercise. Dehydration not only has a negative impact on the kidneys, but it can also have an effect on the functioning of the heart.

Fat Gain, Consuming excess protein in form of protein supplements adds extra calories. Based on the fact that the body cannot store proteins in its original form, if one does not burn these calories by doing a lot of exercise, or taking part in weight bearing activities to build his muscles, there is a likelihood of extra fats being converted into fat. An increase in the amount of proteins consumed together with calories without doing physical activities is most likely to lead to a similar gain in both muscle and fat, which may not be one’s target when one supplement protein powder.

Acne, Acne is majorly a hormonal disease and causes pimples or spots on an individuals face. Daily and milk products like whey protein comprise hormones that are most likely to increase sebum. Consumption of protein supplements like whey causes acne. This is because whey has a hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1. IGF-1 is usually regulated by a human’s body (Mooers 1). Overconsumption of acne makes an individual’s body to produce more oil. Excess use of IGF-1makes skin cell to increase very fast resulting in the clogging of pores. Whey protein powder is usually pasteurized twice forming complex protein and sugar that cannot be easily digested.

Damage to Kidneys, Increased use of protein usually put a lot of strain on the kidneys because of the ketones that are produced from such a diet and the need to release them. The condition for individuals with reduced kidney functions can worsen and may even result in reduced function in people with healthy kidneys.

Aggression, the majority of bodybuilders consume protein supplements. Studies indicate that extreme use of protein supplements causes mood swings and aggression. This is because protein supplements have metals like mercury and lead that are accountable for mood changes and aggression respectively. Creatine has some similarities with whey protein and when consumed in large quantities it causes aggression, anxiety, and panic attacks.

Gynecomastia, Gynecomastia refers to breast tissues enlargement in men. Soy proteins have increased levels of phytoestrogen. The chemical structure of phytoestrogen is identical to the structure of estrogen. This implies that it has a similar hormonal effect on human body just like estrogen.

Hypertension, Studies indicate that protein supplements for example whey help in reducing hypertension. Beverages with whey protein play a significant role in reducing hypertension in individuals whose blood pressure has been formerly high. Whey protein has an outcome on the production of nitric acid which plays a significant role in regulating blood pressure.

In conclusion, protein supplements have both good and bad effects depending on how someone uses the supplements.

Works Cited

Etcheverry, Paz. ‘Kaplan University: Protein Supplements: The Good, the Bad, and & the Ugly…’ N.P., 2015. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.

Mooers, Devin. ‘Whey And Acne: Does Whey Protein Cause Acne?’ Clear Skin Forever. N.P., 2013. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.

NHS.UK. ‘Bodybuilding and Sports Supplements: Facts and Dangers – Live Well – NHS Choices’. n.p., 2015. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.

Sample Critical Thinking Paper on Essentials of Strategic Management gp essay help: gp essay help

Discussion Board

Boeing used organizational design strategy to turn around its business in the manufacture of airplanes. This resulted in the company attaining superior business financial performance. The process involved the following issues. They include reshaping the organization structures, leadership, behaviors, functions and customer relationships. Boeing engaged in an intensive process of changing the business structure that hindered innovation and efficiency amongst workers. Therefore, the leadership structure changed from bureaucratic leadership to transformation leadership where members contributed to the development and growth of the company as a whole. Aligning the company’s vision to the goals and structure enables higher productivity and efficiency while reducing cost of operation. Moreover, it involved carrying out SWOT analysis to determine the strength and weaknesses of the organization (Hill and Jones 32). This helped come up with attainable goals both in the short run period and in the long run period.

Managerial functions were devolved in the sense that they embraced the delegation style of leadership where workers would make crucial decisions that enhances efficient operation. Strategy managers have ample time to concentrate on the structuring and learning of strategic goals and vision of the company hence able to advice the workers accordingly (Kesler and Kates 34). Lastly, organization design covered employee-customer relationship, which was deteriorating. The reason behind this is that competition in the market was intensifying and customer satisfaction was going down due to the delays in the supply of airplanes. Working closely with the customers aided Boeing capture and maintain its clients especially through the personalized services rendered, increasing customer satisfaction. The end result was increased profit for the organization. This is how the company managed to avert the operating inefficiency experienced before, due to structural limitations (Hill and Jones 23). Thus, the firm identified its competitive performance in the market.

Works Cited

Hill, Charles W. L, and Gareth R. Jones. Essentials of Strategic Management. 2nd ed. Boston: South Western, 2008. Print.

Kesler, Gregory, and Amy Kates. Leading Organization Design: How to Make Organization Design Decisions to Drive the Results You Want. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011. Print.

Sample Cultural and Ethics Studies on the Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Climate writing essay help

The Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Climate

Annotated Bibliography

Carle, David. Introduction to Air in California. Berkeley: U of California P, 2009. Print.

            The source is a book which talks about the climatic change in California. One of the most influential chapters in this article is about industrial pollution. It therefore offer credible information about the gases released into the air by companies that help steer the economy ahead. However, the situation needs to be addressed by different environmental agencies.

EPA. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions | Climate Change | US EPA.” US Environmental Protection Agency. Unites States Environmental Protection Agencies, 12 Sept. 2015. Web. 28 Oct. 2015. <>.

            This source is a website article on the environmental pollution through carbon emission. The article provides alternative causes of action to reduce the amount of gases in the air that deplete the ozone layer. It gives proposal on the way forward concerning the rate at which carbon is produced.  The research was conducted by a formidable institution hence authoritative.

Isley, Steven C., Robert J. Lempert, Steven W. Popper, and Raffaele Vardavas. “The effect of near-term policy choices on long-term greenhouse gas transformation pathways.” Global Environmental Change 34.1 (2015): 147–158. Print. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.06.008

            This journal is based on a research finding about greenhouse gases. The world has been faced with the problems, administration and control of carbon gases in the air. Countries have been coming together from time to time to try and get a lasting solution for this menace. However, very few countries are ready to walk the talk due to the accrued economic repercussions. This information is well covered in the article.

Kavita Suranaa, and Laura Diaz Anadona. “Public policy and financial resource mobilization for wind energy in developing countries: A comparison of approaches and outcomes in China and India.” Global Environmental Change35.1 (2015): 340-359. Print.

            The authors articulately show the measures adopted by developing nations in solving environmental issues. This has not been a walk in the park due to financial constraints experienced by individual countries. In addition, developed countries turn a blind eye towards conservation initiatives and they are the biggest polluter of the ozone layer. This is according to a comprehensive study carried out between china and India. Consequently, wind energy is being adopted as a measure of conservation by some of the developed countries to replace traditional energy generation methods that pollute the environment.

Pasgaarda, Maya, Bo Dalsgaardb, Pietro K. Maruyamab, Brody C. Sandeld, and Niels E. Strangeb. “Geographical imbalances and divides in the scientific production of climate change knowledge.” Global Environmental Change 35.1 (2015): 279–288. Print.

            Knowledge about climatic change in the environment is crucial for the development of a nation. Most countries have experienced climatic change that causes harsh conditions such as floods and strong winds that culminate from increased heating by the sun. This knowledge contributes a lot to my research by giving insightful ideas and critical information on environmental issues.

Rafelski, Lauren E., S. C. Piper, and R. F. Keeling. “Climate Effects on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over the Last Century.” Iop Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 61.5 (2009): 100-150. Print. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1307/6/4/042026

            This journal is rich in factors that causes or produces carbon dioxide. Some of the conferences held to discuss the issue have denoted that reduction of carbon gases in the air is dependent on a country’s policies that guide companies about the emission matters. An example of the effects widely discussed in this document includes: loss of aquatic animals, ozone layer depletion and seasonal cycle changes.

Stern, P. C., O. R. Young, and D. Druckman. “Identifying and explaining framing strategies of low carbon lifestyle movement organizations.” Global Environmental Change 35.2 (2015): 307–315. Print. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.009

            The article is structured along the united nation initiatives to reduce the rate of carbon emission. The strategies adopted at a national or international level may not effectively cater for the environmental needs of nations in the world. Many strategies instituted by government end up failing because of lack of local support from the industrial sector that is the main source of income for the state.  The diverse approaches provided by the authors make this article to be one of the most influential journals in this field of environmental studies.

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. “How Much Carbon Dioxide (and Other Kinds of Greenhouse Gas) is Already in the Atmosphere? | UCAR – University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.” UCAR – University Corporation for Atmospheric Research | Understanding Atmosphere, Earth, and Sun. National Center for Atmospheric Research, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2015. <>.

            Green house gases have been attributed to the environmental degradation and negative effects not only to the human beings but also to plants. Death has occurred in places where concentration of these gases is on the high level hence causing conflict between nations. Dumping of computers  and carbon products in poor countries has also been on the rise hence need to tackle the elephant in the room as quickly as possible to prevent further damage. Thus, this website offers very useful information and new perspective on the same issue.

Works Cited

Carle, David. Introduction to Air in California. Berkeley: U of California P, 2009. Print.

EPA. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions | Climate Change | US EPA.” US Environmental Protection Agency. Unites States Environmental Protection Agencies, 12 Sept. 2015. Web. 28 Oct. 2015. <>.

Isley, Steven C., Robert J. Lempert, Steven W. Popper, and Raffaele Vardavas. “The effect of near-term policy choices on long-term greenhouse gas transformation pathways.” Global Environmental Change 34.1 (2015): 147–158. Print.

Kavita Suranaa, and Laura Diaz Anadona. “Public policy and financial resource mobilization for wind energy in developing countries: A comparison of approaches and outcomes in China and India.” Global Environmental Change35.1 (2015): 340-359. Print.

Pasgaarda, Maya, Bo Dalsgaardb, Pietro K. Maruyamab, Brody C. Sandeld, and Niels E. Strangeb. “Geographical imbalances and divides in the scientific production of climate change knowledge.” Global Environmental Change 35.1 (2015): 279–288. Print.

Rafelski, Lauren E., S. C. Piper, and R. F. Keeling. “Climate Effects on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over the Last Century.” Iop Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 61.5 (2009): 100-150. Print. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1307/6/4/042026

Stern, P. C., O. R. Young, and D. Druckman. “Identifying and explaining framing strategies of low carbon lifestyle movement organisations.” Global Environmental Change 35.2 (2015): 307–315. Print. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.009

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. “How Much Carbon Dioxide (and Other Kinds of Greenhouse Gas) is Already in the Atmosphere? | UCAR – University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.” UCAR – University Corporation for Atmospheric Research | Understanding Atmosphere, Earth, and Sun. National Center for Atmospheric Research, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2015. <>.

HR Management Research Paper on Journal of Computer Information Systems cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Human Resource Management 


Human resource has evolved from several forms and functions. These changes are also present in the manner in which organizational human resource managers are carrying out their roles in managing the working force. Evolution of human resource has occurred from the old ages when human force was under intensive abuses like slavery to modern times where human effort is being valued and appreciated as an integral force in the success of organizations. Human resource is the combination of managerial and employees’ functions with performance. Human resource management on the other hand refers to the management of a company’s manpower through human resource. In other terms, HRM also implies the human resources role of managing employees, including recruiting, selection, training, compensating and evaluating (Desser, 2005).

Initially under HRM, the managers did not concentrate so much on the information of organization employees. This is because of too much paper work involved which would consume a lot much time, energy and costs. This gave in to the introduction of the HRIS system. HRIS is an acronym for Human Resource Information Systems which refers to a process of developing information technology for effectual administration and management of human resource functions and applications. HRIS is a processor system in computers entailing a database which trail all employees and their detailed information in an organization (Gill & Johnson, 2010). HRIS is basically a system for gathering, storing and exploring data of a company’s employees (Hendrickson, 2003).Through HRIS, the HR manager gets the best opportunity to improve their input through planned direction of an organization.

In developing HRIS technology in Fortune 500 Company, I would recommend several issues to be considered. In the first place, I will deeply look at what exactly the organization needs to match all the requirements. Getting the correct HRIS is not an easy task but through careful planning and by coming up with a clear portrait of the organizational needs can simplify the process of acquisition of the accurate software.

The HRIS is a relevant input in this organization because of its energy, time and cost effectiveness. There are five important systems in HRIS to be applied in Fortune 500 organization.


Recruiting in broader terms entails all activities undertaken in an organization with an aim of identifying and attracting potential employees (Breaugh & Starke, 2000).This is an integral function of human resource managers in drawing human capital in the organization. E-recruitment has become an online development for HR in companies across the world in getting their new work force (Bussler & Davids, 2006).Using online recruiting process in Fortune 500 Company will be useful in easing the selection of workers.

E-recruitment will use the internet to draw possible workers in the organization. It basically involves advertising open positions in the organization on an online platform in the HRIS software application. Using this type of recruiting model is useful for this organization because it addresses the issues of successful recruiting strategy which like demographic factors and cost implications.

Using information in the HRIS system in the organization about the existing employees will also play a critical role in enhancing the likelihood getting the best match for a given opening in the company. There is also a reduced application cost and procedure which will attract a large pool of applicants for the opening. This will make the organizations get the best match from a variety of applicants due to a tight screening process.

It is evident that recruitment is one of the centre HR activities in an organization. This needs to be well planned and conducted in an efficient and successful way. Using databases of information in the HRIS software in the e-recruiting process provides the best platform in ensuring that the process is effective and successful for the company.


Selection of employees in an organization involves the process of taking a step beyond recruitment. It implies making of a decision about a particular individual who fulfills the organizations requirements to fill in the open position thereby hiring him. The process of e-selecting entails sorting applications, contacting the potential employees, closing the deal and incorporating the employee into the organizations culture.

Applying e-selection system will assist in settling for the best potential employee. These are candidates who have the right knowledge, skills and ability to step in the organization and fill the vacant position. One of the challenges we as HR managers are faced with in out duties is to develop the precision of selection process in order to meet organizational requirements. Using e-selection provides a concrete evidence for the process altogether.

This technology will cut down on the time and resources used to handle the selection process. The use of e-learning in the selection procedure in this organization is effective as it will increase the flexibility in the selection analysis and administration. Using the traditional methods require candidates to physically appear before the organization’s selection panel from the HR department. However, applicants will now use e-learning platforms on the organizations websites to take the web based tests in different localities.

Through e-selection, the organization will also be able to improve on the value of selection evaluations to the candidates in order to get the best fit. In as much as the organization has developed the capacity to analyze the competence of a selection evaluation, HRIS important in presenting longitudinal performance information for appraisal the efficacy of selection test. This is important in projecting the long-standing performance.

Self-Service & HR Portals

Employee self-service incorporates a combination of technological system which enables users who are employees and their line managers interact directly using their HR information. They are able to query, assess and act on matters in the organization. This system is also called employee self service, manager self service, employee direct access system or HR portals. Through this system, paper work is done away with in the office since all employees and the directors will transact their business on an online interactive platform.

Self-service and HR portals systems will allow organizational leaders of this organization to access a variety of data or information regarding their employees. It will also enable me as HR directors develop my function paper work concerning the employees with a lot of ease. This will enhance the system because information on employees’ resume, merit assessments, and other employee track information is readily available. The application system will provide an extensive podium for my effective execution of duties pertaining my office and position.

By allowing the employees and line managers have a single secure portal provided by the system will offer the employees an easy way of updating and recording their information. This will also allow the work force to edit and make change request as they come along and HR managers confirming the requests instantly. The flexibility and platform of this system also allows both the employees and managers to carry on with the stated tasks not necessarily in the organization premises but anywhere they are provided there is internet connection.

Self-service & HR Portals are vital in allowing the HR Director with an opportunity to carry out responsibilities in an undisturbed manner. Over the years, the work of the human resource manager has been hindered severally because of too much handling and compliance clerical work. The system however does away with all these clerical stages providing the HR manager a platform to play a crucial role in the company operations.

E-Learning & Training

E-learning encompasses courses or programs of learning, and education training in which electronic appliances and applications are used for knowledge creation, management and transfer. It stands for applications and processes including web-based knowledge, computer based learning and digital collaboration among many others.Content in e-learning is relayed via the internet while e-training on the other hand refers to the delivery of learning, training or teaching through an electronic means. The system also uses computer or other electronic devices in providing important knowledge or expertise enhancement information.

Most organizations across the globe including Fortune 500 Company require a flexible personnel in order to achieve its goals and objectives. In the situation that this organization is implementing dynamic e-learning and training systems for employees, they stand a chance of being flexible in dealing with different circumstances they find themselves in within the organization. This therefore implies that e-learning and e-training are efficient ways the organization can increase the competence level of the workers.

The human resource in today’s economic sector is the fundamental factor for the success of any organization. When the human resource is effective, capital is also raised. Effective human resources in this organization will therefore enable it exploit different resources and increase production levels. Different other leaders or departmental heads are responsible for upholding this organization’s position. The most effective way of achieving all these is through increasing our employee’s knowledge levels thorough learning and training. It is to this effect that courses like e-learning and e-training which are on job practices widen proper knowledge, skill and capability of the employees to foster the growth of organization. These methods are cost and time effective as the employees do not have to leave get the knowledge while working at the same time.

Performance Management

Performance management involves a well developed program within an organization that addresses personal and the company’s performance issues in order to come up with an effective and healthy organization’s culture. Performance management goes beyond annual assessments. Their main objective is to translate goals into results thereby not only focusing on employees but on the organization as a whole (Fitz-enz & Davison, 2002).

For an effective optimization of employee performance, it is indispensable to have a reliable system which records employee objectives and evaluate them with his performance with relation to achieving the objectives. The goals too must be well defined thereby requiring an effective system established for achieving a commendable performance. This means that HRIS is important an system which will aid in establishing performance footpath, and managing performance reviews. Incorporating the system provides effective performance management services like optimal goal setting, quick feedback and tying actions to consequences in an optimized manner.


In conclusion, it is evident that there are several types of human resource information systems. These systems have adequately increased the performances of organizations across the globe. HRIS play a critical role in saving organizations from time, energy and costs in their operations. Incorporating the systems in Fortune 500 company will not only make my work easy but will also move this organization to the next level due to the benefits involved. Given the population of employees in this organization, the system will help in maintaining an effective database inventory that will be helpful in implementing plans and strategies aimed at moving this organization to greater heights.


Bussler, L. & Davis, E. (2006). Information systems: the quiet revolution in human resource. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 42(2): 17 – 20.

Desser, Garry. (2005). Human Resource Management (10th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall, USA.

Fitz-enz, J. & Davison. (2002). How to Measure Human Resource Management (3rd ed). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Gill, J. & Johnson, P., (2010). Research methods of managers. Journal of Labor Research, 24(3), 381-394.

Hendrickson, A., R. (2003). HRIS: Backbone Technology of Contemporary HR. Journal of     Computer Information Systems.

Sample Geography Essay Paper on Human Geography “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

Human Geography

Geography, defined as the study of the surface of the earth as the space occupied by the human population, plays a fundamental role in the interpretation of contemporary issues in policing. It is divided into two; physical and human geography and the latter’s role in the interpretation of contemporary issues in policing cannot be ignored. According to human geography, an individual’s context or location in the world influences or shapes his or her view of the world and the people in it. Simply put, it shapes the theories, beliefs, or perceptions that a person has about another. In the interpretation of contemporary issues in policing, the location of a person clearly underlines the activities that he or she may get involved. It is easier for policing agencies to make interpretations of contemporary issues in policing while leveraging on a person’s context or location, which are concepts that can only be learnt by having a thorough understanding of geography.

Moreover, the interpretation of contemporary issues of policing is dependent on the geographical concept of philosophy, which aims at or focuses on the clarification of thoughts in a logical manner. Without the integration of philosophy, thoughts remain cloudy and indistinct, and thus, the solution to a problem or situation remains compromised. A geographical concept, philosophy too plays a key role in policing agencies. It enables policing agents and agencies to make clear and sharp boundaries regarding activities or operations in the sector. Thus, in the interpretation of contemporary issues in policing, having knowledge about the concept of philosophy is important, and this can only be achieved by having a more thorough understanding of the discipline of geography.

Sample Marketing Critical Thinking Essay paper on Customer Service Problem essay help for free

Answer Questions

Question one

Certainly, there is a customer service problem that has a negative impact on them resulting in a poor customer experience. There is a discrepancy in the way some customers are treated such that there is a non-fair categorization of the customers based on from whom they purchase the compactors. From the investigations, it is clear that those customers who purchase the compactors from the distributors receive better services that those who purchase from the authorized retailers. The poor customer services go to an extent that the compactors take long to be delivered, sometimes installation is not done, and customer do not receive the proper guidelines on how to use the compactor and are left to figure it out themselves from the users’ manual.

            The distributors are also seen to mislead the customers on where they can purchase the product. They compel them to deal with them directly thereby ignoring the role the retailers play in supply chain management. To compound the problem, the installers portray a gross act of unprofessionalism by being rude to the customers with whom they Aare meant to establish a strong business relationship.

Question two

Though the distributors are exploiting the retailers, they are not likely to complain because this will trigger personal differences with them. Since the system was that the retailers acquired the goods from the distributors for reselling, there it appears that if any wrangles of any kind exist between the retailers and the suppliers, then the incensed retailers would be on the losing end. They could also force all transactions between Handy Andy and the customers to be direct and completely keeping the retailers out of the picture.

Question three

The marketing vice-president should redesign and redefine the distribution channels as a way of gaining a competitive advantage. This can be realized by having strategic and efficient distribution channels. This will enhance the success of retailing. Further, the intervention of the marketing vice-president will be required in cleaning the name of the company and creating a better image following the bad customer experience that has been experiencing. This will enhance productivity through production and retailing operations of the organizations.

Question four

This is a problem for Handy Andy because the distributor purports not to be separate entities from the organization. They appear to make deals that are outside the operations of the company. This would result in a conflict of interest leading to counterproductive. This is done the aim of frustrating the efforts of the retailers, which is not only a bad approach in the supply chain but also brings out an ethical issue. The net effect is that there will be no customers’ satisfaction and hence ruined loyalty.

Question five

The best approach is to email a brief survey about the installation experience within three to five days of receiving a warranty activation form. This gives the customers enough time to gauge the quality of the service. Further, in the absence of the installer or any persons within the supply chain, the customers will not be under duress to fill the forms, and there is a high chance that the responses on the experience will be more honest since there is no fear of intimidation.

Question six

Retailing without the intervention of the distributors has several advantages. Such include;

Retailers tend to be closer to the customers and them, therefore, understand their needs better and work to fulfill them.Unlike distributors, retailers carry out marketing activities more effectively.Information from the company is easily communicated to the customers while feedback from the customers is easily relayed to the company.

The disadvantage of not involving the distributors is the likelihood of poor inventory management. This is because the distributors play a key role in inducing both push and pull demands.

Question seven

It is not too late for Handy Andy to attempt service recovery. The company can still explore a variety of alternatives that can help fix post purchase dissatisfaction. This can be done through apologizing to the customers, and then take responsibility and offer the customers something of value that will win then back to the organization. For example, they can offer subsidized overhaul offers or commit themselves to cheap servicing of the equipment.

Sample Nursing Coursework Paper on Nursing theory writing an essay help: writing an essay help

Nursing Theory.

Nursing metaparadigm is a global concept that describes the main interest of nursing and it is made up of four integral parts that are nursing, person, environment and health. The concept is important in nursing theory since the four parts represents main areas of focus during the patient care.

Metaparadigm Grid

Metaparadigm conceptTheorist 1Callista RoyTheorist 2 Martha RodgersMy metaparadigm definitionsPerson          According to Roy, a person is a biopsychosocial being who continuously interacts with changing external and internal environment.Martha defined a person as an irreducible pandimensional energy field that has pattern characters and expresses unique quality as a whole and cannot be anticipated in parts.In this metapardigm, a person does not necessarily mean a patient; it can be more than one person, patient’s friends or even family members. Nurses attempt to empower patients to manage their health while making them feel like their health and wellbeing is cared (Alligood, 2014).  Health          Roy defines health as the ability of a person to adapt to the environment and hence develop effective coping responses. The description further defines health as both the condition and a process of being and becoming integrated as a whole.Martha describes health as the ability of a whole person’s energy field to interact successfully with the whole of the environmental energy field. Health as a component of metaparadigm refers to the wellbeing of a patient that includes generic factors, and their emotional, intellectual and spiritual wellness. Nurses should ensure all these factors are well considered when attending to patients (Kaakinen, Coehlo, Steele, Tabacco, & Hanson, 2014).Environment          Roy’s definition of environment referred it as world around and within the person who is in her point of view an adaptive system. The environment according to Roy includes every circumstance, condition and any influence that surrounds and has an impact on the growth and behavior of a person.Martha describes the environment as an irreducible energy field that is identified by pattern and exists as an essential constituent within a given human field.Environment refers to everything that surrounds patients affecting their illness and gradual healing. The environment includes both external and internal factors such as culture, mental states, locations hence necessitating nurses to ensure a suitable environment for patient’s recovery (Alligood, 2014).Nurse          The theorist describes nurse as an individual who attempts to manipulate stimuli that allow patients to deal successfully with the changing environment.Martha defined a nurse refers to an individual who maintains and promotes health, preventing diseases through conducting diagnosis, interventions and rehabilitations of the affected person.Refers to an individual who has acquired skills in nursing to carry out a diagnosis, assessments interventions, planning and evaluation of a patient’s health (De Chesnay, 2014).


Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theory: Utilization & application (5th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

De Chesnay, M. (Ed.). (2014). Nursing Research Using Grounded Theory: Qualitative Designs and Methods in Nursing. NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Kaakinen, J. R., Coehlo, D. P., Steele, R., Tabacco, A., & Hanson, S. M. H. (2014). Family health care nursing: Theory, practice, and research. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: FA Davis.

Sample Research Paper on Illegal Migration in the United States (Against) common app essay help

Illegal Migration in the United States (Against)


IntroductionDefinition of illegal immigrationThesis Statement: Illegal immigration emerges as the basis of controversy resulting to diverse challengesMajor challenges resulted from illegal immigration:Overpopulationhigh number of people rely on the available resources thereby resulting to overconsumptionThe quality of education is wanting as there are diverse focus to meet the needs of the peopleIncrease of environmental issues such as environmental degradation are effects of overpopulationIncreased rates in crimesIllegal criminals pass through and cause havoc to the citizensYouth gangs are arising due to poor quality education and lack of education in totality. These have also resulted in violent crimesDanger to the society as anxiety and psychological issues ariseUnemploymentPovertyPoverty leads to increased crime, a negative sociological and economical effectsRecommendationsConclusionSummary of the issuesSummary of the recommendationsReferencesBibliography

Illegal Migration in the United States (Against)


Several challenges experienced in the US are a repercussion of illegal immigration. Overpopulation, environmental challenges, and increase of crime rate are some of the prevailing confrontations in the nation. Illegal immigration emerges as the basis of controversy resulting in diverse challenges. There is a need for the government to manage immigrants as an approach to curb social problems. This study addresses the controversy of illegal immigration in America. The study focuses at the challenges, and recommendations to curb the problems.


            Illegal immigrants have had modifications since early 1990s due to changes in the policies (Chiswick, 1988). These modifications have led to diverse definitions. Presently, illegal immigration is a term referring to movement of people from a poorer country to a developed nation against the laws. Illegal immigrants search for security, peace, and better sources of living from these countries. Previous research shows that the aliens come from middle class economically (U.S. House of Representatives, 1986). Illegal immigration has been a major challenge in America as long as the immigration laws were present. The first illegal immigrants were the Chinese. They illegally gained entry to America due to political relations between the two countries. Lately, these immigrants gain access from different places, and for diverse purposes (Djajic´& Michael, 2014).


            Illegal immigrants are related to diverse challenges. First, they strain the political relations between America and their countries (Haddad & Balz, 2006).  America as a developed nation may enforce some legalities, which can vastly affect developing nations and thus their relations. Illegal aliens cross to US due to economic challenges in their nation or for criminal activities. Socially, the immigrants come with limited education, resulting in increased cases of crime. Limited education and their status prevent them from acquiring prestigious lifestyles and job opportunities. Most resort to crime for survival, increasing insecurity in America. These immigrants, due to idleness form youth groups and gangs, which terrorize the citizens. They also face psychological challenges, and emotional turmoil due to separation from friends and relatives and anxiety (Seigel, Jeffrey & Gregory, 1981)

            . Economically, they add up to the already overpopulated number. This leads to overconsumption of the limited resources (Günter & Úrsula, 2009). The level of education has been reducing due to the high number of students enrolled at limited institutions. Additionally, these immigrants often have limited understanding of the English language. Environmental degradation has been rising due to overexploitation of the resources (Mumford, 1985). The American citizens have been competing for similar positions with the immigrants. This has forced more than a million citizens to search for greener pastures in other countries. The economy growth reduces, as some of the citizens are unemployed, others have low-income jobs while others continue to search for greener pastures.


            Among the recommendations of managing illegal immigrants incorporate implementation of the IRC 1986 Act (Chiswick 1988). According to this policy, the government through the immigration agency can penalize the employers who knowingly offer opportunities to the immigrants. This approach will force employers to acquire the details of all employed refugees, and send to the government for verification. Illegal immigrants other than the relations of the legal immigrants offer amnesty. These immigrants can be deported back to their nations of originality. These approaches also have limitations (Djajic´& Michael, 2014). First, the Americans cannot willingly perform some jobs, and this may kill the industry if employers do not seek for employees from other nations. Deportation and amnesty heavily relies on the relationship between America and the nation of origin. There are some nations, which are not willing to conquer with amnesty policies. Another approach is for America, through the trade organizations and EU, to form an agreement with developing and neighboring nations (Spence, 1979). In these agreements, the nations can conquer to protect their borders against intrusion and illegal movement of the citizens. This will reduce the cost of maintenance of borders in America (Connelly, 2012). The last approach is to continually secure the borders against intrusion. This is tasking economically to American government.


Illegal immigration has led to diverse challenges in the US. Among them is overpopulation, environmental challenges, and increased crime. This study has addressed related challenges and offered recommendations to curb the problems.

Annotated Bibliography

Djajic´, S., & Michael, S. M. “Controlling Illegal Immigration: On the Scope for

Cooperation with a Transit Country.” Review of International Economics. 2014. 22(4): 808-824 DOI:10.1111/roie.12137.

The source highlights the increasing cost of EU nations in managing borders as an approach of controlling illegal immigrants. In U. S., patrolling officers were going round the borders eight times more in 2002 than they did in 1986. This is in implementing the IRC 1986 Act. During this period, the budget grew of the agency increased by ten. The authors analyze the implications of the relations between destination country and poorer neighbor in connection to immigration management.

Buchanan, J. P. (2009). “Hire Americans, Not Illegals.” Human Events. 2009, 19th October. 865-866

According to the writer, there are increasing cases of unemployment among the Americans. For more than 21 months, Americans have been struggling to apply for employment without much achievement, increasing the rate to 9.8 %. For every one opening, there are at least six unemployed Americans. This source is significant as it highlights the rate at which Americans are jobless and the basis for the increased economy hardship. Almost one million Americans have further quit their jobs due to low wages. The employers are in the catbird’s seat as they can cut the wages despite the desperation of the citizens. This is arising due to increased number of illegal immigrants in the country who are willing to do all kinds of jobs. Buchanan goes on to highlight the effect of immigrants in the labor force, thereby highlighting the economical challenge caused by illegal immigrants. Most of the illegal immigrants settled in the country or overstayed their visas creating a surplus of redundant labor.

Chiswick, R. B. (1988).  “Illegal Immigration and Immigration Control.” Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2(3):101-115

Chiswick defines an immigrant from the political, economical and policy approach. He further highlights the objective of IRCA as removal of illegal immigrants from the labor market. From the source, there are two approaches of dealing with the immigrants through the policy. The first one is to grant amnesty and the second one is to penalize the employers who knowingly employ the aliens. This source offers an approach in curbing this issue and limitations in this source. Through this study, the reader comes to understand the economic analysis of the aliens and its consequences.

Connelly, C. C. (2012). “Illegal Immigration through the eyes of a child: Patricia Riggen’s La misma luna.” Studies in Latin American Popular Culture. 30: 94-109

Riggen draws the attention of the audience to the positive experiences of the immigrants in America. This film is however contradicting the masculine status quo of the immigrants as exploitative and tragic. This Mexican film highlights the love between a mother and a son that overcomes every obstacle including international borders. Positive results are a blissful ending defines the movie. The application of a child as the protagonist emphasizes the perception of the immigrants. This source is significant in this study as it highlights the benefits immigrants have when working in America. The source as well underlines real life elements such as financial and emotional challenges on the family, exploitative employers and fear for deportation.

Mumford, D. S. (1985). “The Overpopulation problem as it affects the United States: A Step towards a Societal Response.” The Humanist. Pages 14-21

This source is highly essential in this study as it reviews problems related with overpopulation because of illegal immigrants accessing the nation. The author cites nuclear war, environmental degradation and depletion of resources as consequences of overpopulation. According to the author, all these challenges affect national security over food, resources and diseases. He compares Africa with America in terms of the problems. American industrialization heavily relies on agriculture. When unemployment is rising, the sector is greatly affected. The author asserts that as the Latinos are increasing so are their desires to permanently settle in America. There are needs to therefore protect national security to protect poverty rate in neighboring places encroaching America

Spence, A. “European Nations Move on Two Fronts to Secure Supplies of Strategic Materials,” Wall Street Journal. 1979,September 9. Page 1.

This source highlights the problem of overpopulation in relation to the Catholic Church viewpoint. Overpopulation is among the worries of the American leaders due to threatening of the resources. Among the approaches is for the church to review its policies as regards family planning and population control. One of the approaches according to the author in overpopulation is controlling population as China.

Seigel, J. S., Jeffrey S. P. & Gregory, J. R. “Preliminary Report on Existing Studies of the Number of Illegal Residents of the United States.” In Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy, U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest, Appendix E, Papers on Illegal Migration to the United States. Washington,

            D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 1981, pp. 13-40.

Immigrants in USA enjoy diverse benefits. This is due to more privileges acquired than in their original countries. Aliens from Mexico enjoy economic stability, food security and protection, which is rare in their nation due to increased population and overexploitation of the resources. These immigrants are said to acquire technological benefits in relation to other privileges. These have changed their perception towards America despite harsh employers and segregation. Thus, majority of them are likely to make America their permanent residence. This information calls on the relevant agencies to ensure that every immigrant adheres to the stipulated rules for citizenry. The move is to protect the nation from challenges related to illegal immigrants.

U.S. House of Representatives, Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: Conference Report, Report 99-1000. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 1986, 14th October

From the source, it is still uncertain as to the quantity of assistance neighbors are to acquire in for the immigrants and the quantity the destination country is to offer as a means of intensifying immigration management. Success of this predicament lies on the internal policies between the two nations. In America, to control the aliens, North African neighbors must be willing to implement measures necessary for preventing undocumented aliens from moving out of their territories to EU. American states must besides be willing to protect their borders from inflows of these immigrants.

Haddad, Y. Y. & Balz, J. M. 2006. “The October Riots in France: A Failed Immigration Policy or the Empire Strikes Back?” International Migration.44 (2):23-34

According to the authors, the immigration agency has roles to perform to ensure that the immigrants adhere to the policies stipulated by the IRC. This is to minimize the number of immigrants to one immigrant out of every 400 American citizens. This resource is useful in the study as it highlights some of the security challenges related to illegal immigrants.

Günter, H. B. & Úrsula, J. G. (2009). “Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts.” Springer. Page 304.

The authors are keen on the environmental challenges related to overpopulation in America. According to their studies, more natural resources are depleted in managing the population. From the study, it is clear that the Latinos are increasing in their population and its government is assuming this threat. The population increasing in that nation and other nations in Africa has seen more of the illegal immigrants crossing over for greener pastures. America’s economy is thus on the verge of collapsing due to increasing demands.


Buchanan, J. P. (2009). “Hire Americans, Not Illegals.” Human Events. 2009, 19th October. 865-866

Chiswick, R. B. (1988).  “Illegal Immigration and Immigration Control.” Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2(3):101-115

Connelly, C. C. (2012). “Illegal Immigration through the eyes of a child: Patricia Riggen’s La misma luna.” Studies in Latin American Popular Culture. 30: 94-109

Djajic´, S., & Michael, S. M.(2014) “Controlling Illegal Immigration: On the Scope for

Cooperation with a Transit Country.” Review of International Economics, 22(4): 808-824 DOI:10.1111/roie.12137.

Günter, H. B., & Úrsula, J. G. (2009). “Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts.” Springer. Page 304.

Haddad, Y. Y. & Balz, J. M. (2006). “The October Riots in France: A Failed Immigration Policy or the Empire Strikes Back?” International Migration.44(2):23-34

Mumford, D. S. (1985). “The Overpopulation problem as it affects the United States: A Step towards a Societal Response.” The Humanist. Pages 14-21

Spence, A.(1979). “European Nations Move on Two Fronts to Secure Supplies of Strategic Materials,” Wall Street Journal. 1979,September 9. Page 1.

Seigel, J. S., Jeffrey S. P. & Gregory, J. R. “Preliminary Report on Existing Studies of the Number of Illegal Residents of the United States.” In Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy, U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest, Appendix E, Papers on Illegal Migration to the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 1981, pp. 13-40.

U.S. House of Representatives, Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: Conference Report, Report 99-1000. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 1986, 14th October

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