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Sample Art Essay Paper On Suggest A Title For Lysistrata That Suggests Its Theme Write My Essay Help

Lysistrata is a play about a woman who rallies her fellow women to stop the Peloponnesian war by denying men access to land and sex. The women have figured out that the greatest desires of men are land and sex, and that denying them both or having their access to both threatened can be used to influence their decisions. The women are angry at the men for relishing to go to war and leaving them behind to grow old alone in the homes (Morales 282). This is made worse by the worry that the women have over the possibility of their husbands and sons dying in war. The Peloponnesian war between the Athenians and Spartans has lasted for long and is frustrating the women and children, hence the decision (Morales 284). Due to the nature of this theme, the play can be titled “Peace Before Pleasure.”

Justification of The Title

            “Peace Before Pleasure” is a befitting title of this play because it tries to define the base desires of men. The claim held by this play is that men crave for property and affection from women. Every act done by men is in some way related to his need for wealth and sex. even the war that was happening between the Spartans and Athenians was driven by the need for more land and women for whoever would win the war. As a result, the men went out to war leaving their women, children and the old behind. The women felt that the men were taking them and their families for granted as they went to seek glory in wars (Morales 285). This had to be stopped by having the women take charge of the innermost needs of men and make the men realize that they will not get it unless they stop fighting. The men realized that women meant business, as they were not allowed to access the treasury and neither were they offered sex. It forced them to come to a truce just as Lysistrata wanted.

Relation to Contemporary Issues and Life

            This play was way ahead in its times with regards to gender relations between men and women. It was a play that revealed to the women, who were mostly subject to their husbands, the power that they held in the society. It also gave a reason why women find it hard to push for their issues in the society and politics. They are never united behind a cause, and if they are, some of them tend to give up along the way. This can be seen in the fight for equality that began the feminists’ movement in the middle of the 20th century.

While most of the minority groups have gotten significant representation in many spheres of the community, men have maintained their dominance over women regarding resources and opportunities (Morales 288). The patriarchal ideals that were practiced in the past are still etched in many cultures and are responsible for the continued chaos in various parts of the world. Women are brought up knowing that they need men for provision and survival but are never told of the power that they have over men with regards to affection.

            I believe that this play is relevant today even more than it was in the past. This is the age in which women are struggling for equality with men. Having the same stature as men in the society and culture will make them have enough influence to ensure there are fewer conflicts in the society and improve the utilization of resources for the benefit of all.

Work Cited

Morales, Helen. “Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, the Liberian ‘Sex Strike’, and the Politics of Reception.” Greece & Rome 60.2 (2013): 281-95.

Sample Criminal Justice Paper on Introduction to Corrections writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction to Corrections

Question 1

The justice system is an important and complex entity charged with the responsibility of keeping citizens safe. At the same time, it rehabilitates and punishes offenders found skirting societal laws. In all its undertakings, it is the expectation of the citizenry that the justice system will remain fair to all. The expectation of fairness is regardless of the citizenry’s ethnic background. However, different reports have ascertained the fact that there is differential treatment within the justice system. According to a report on arrests, members from Black communities in the U.S. and the U.K have higher chances (seven times) of being stopped and searched, and three times more likely to be arrested than their White counterparts are (May, Gyateng, & Hough, 2010). Additionally, Blacks are five times more likely to be in prison than their White counterparts. The statistics confirm not only the overrepresentation of the Blacks, but also differential treatment within the justice system (May, Gyateng, & Hough, 2010). 

While largely contested, the idea of differential treatment is evident through differential policing. The aforementioned report informs that part of the reason for the overrepresentation and underrepresentation of Blacks and Asians respectively stems from differential policing (May, Gyateng, & Hough, 2010). Through the differential policing, the police influence the individuals who enter the justice system with a bias against Blacks. With policing decisions to arrest, detain, prosecute, and imprison largely biased against Blacks, their overrepresentation in crimes and prison population within the justice system is inevitable.  The history of slavery and inherent misgivings within the justice system against Blacks makes it naïve to think that differential treatment is nonexistent. Markedly, differential treatment is pervasive across all aspects of the justice system. Further, others argue that differential treatment is pervasive and readily apparent in that even when charged with similar offenses Blacks are more likely to be detained pretrial and eventually imprisoned in comparison to their White counterparts (Nunn, 2002).

Question 2

The first instinct as humans is to seek out revenge/retribution when individuals wrong us. Naturally, for any criminal that has committed a capital offense, particularly murder, it is natural for the aggrieved family to seek out retribution for their loss against the perpetrator. Many argue that the feelings of retribution are natural as the criminals deserve such punishment (Oldenquist, 2003). In arguing for capital punishment, many consider it as deterrence, given that capital punishment incapacitates the criminals. Incapacitation essentially deters criminals them from ever committing such crimes again (Oldenquist, 2003). Further arguments on capital punishment as deterrence hinge on the idea that it deters other criminals from committing similar crimes in light of the punishment meted for capital offenses.

While deterrence is the foundation of the bulk of arguments for capital punishment, others see it as retribution. It is important to note that capital punishment is essentially not retribution. Vengeance only begets vengeance and retribution do not have a place in the justice system. The purpose of the justice system is to correct and rehabilitate members of the society. Further, it prepares them for reentry into the society as better and reformed members. The argument, therefore, that capital punishment is a form of retribution has no place within the justice system. Moreover, the society and the laws that govern it do not endorse the “an eye for an eye” paradigm since it is simplistic and does not reflect the intricacies of everyday life.

The use of capital punishment largely hinges on deterring criminals from ever harming the society. The philosophical use of capital punishment, therefore, is deterrence and not retribution. Using retribution as the philosophical basis for the death penalty is tantamount to justifying murder. Essentially, it will be giving the aggrieved individuals the green light to murder anyone that they feel has wronged them without considering the repercussions of such actions.

Question 3

Crimes have classifications, which determine the sentence meted to the criminal when found guilty. Under different states’ statutes, Determinate Sentencing Laws (DLS) offer guidelines on the sentences for a specific crime. The sentences largely fall into three categories of lower, middle, and upper term sentences (Johnson, 1978). However, the presence of some factors can act to aggravate the criminal event making the event appear worse. Such aggravations increase the sentence to a higher term.

Among the aggravating factors are previous criminal records, especially of a similar crime such as the use of a weapon, and the extent of the injury to the victim. Additionally, the vulnerability of the victim is also an aggravating factor. Previous criminal record, particularly of the crime an individual is accused of, aggravates the crime as it points to the predetermination of the action before committing the crime. The use of a weapon/tool and the severity of the injury to the victim also show predetermination on the part of the perpetrator towards committing the crime, essentially aggravating the criminal offense.

For vulnerability, children, mentality unstable, and the old are largely considered vulnerable (Tamimi, 2015). In the Cunningham v. California [2007], Cunningham was found guilty of sexually abusing a child less than 14 years of age, which qualified for the lower sentence of 6 years. However, although Cunningham had no previous criminal record, he got the upper term sentence of 16 years for the crime given the vulnerability of the child (Greenhouse, 2007). The fact that the child sexually abused fell within the vulnerable category aggravated the crime, causing Cunningham to get the maximum sentence stipulated by DSL.

Question 4

The American Bar Association (ABA) contends that in early America, victims of crime had to seek out their perpetrators and bring them to justice (ABA, 2006). Over time, however, Congress passed laws that aimed at protecting victims and witnesses. Passed in 1982, the Victim and Witness Protection Act recognized the value of victims and witnesses in the justice system. The Act essentially confirms that without the cooperation of the victims and witnesses, the criminal justice system would cease to function (ABA, 2006).

Arguments, however, have been fronted over the justice system mistreatment and ignoring of victims. Opponents argue that the justice system had reduced the victims’ activities to impact statements and panels, as well as tools for identification and punishment of offenders (ABA, 2006; Das, 1997). However, is that the justice system has been working hard to ensure the protection of victims and their interests. Victim Rights Movement has been pushing for the interests of victims with marked success. Many states, which hitherto had no statutes, have enacted constitutional safeguards guaranteeing the victims’ right to participate in the criminal justice system (Gegan & Rodriguez, 1992).

The enactment of Victims of Crime Act (1984) added impetus to the criminal justice system’s commitment to crime victims, as it established the Crime Victims Fund (ABA, 2006). Drawing funding from tax dollars, the fund, administered by the Office for Victims of Crime, runs and supports thousands of victim protection programs across the nation. Moreover, the witness protection program under the U.S. Marshal Service ensures the protection and safety of witnesses through providing extensive protection to witnesses and victims of crime.

Question 5

            Jails are increasingly becoming the one stop shop for social services as they continue to hold more people. Statistics indicate that jails in the U.S. hold more than 730,000 inmates on any given day, pointing to a three-fold increase in the population jails held in 1983 (Speiser, 2015). By distinction, jails refer to pretrial holding for individuals awaiting prosecution. The disturbing increase in the number of people in jails attests to the fact that jails are continually used by the society for social services, particularly holding offenders as they await trial.

            One of the concerns for the growing number of jail population is that the bulk of the incarcerated individuals behind bars remain that way without conviction (Aborn & Cannon, 2013). There are, however, risks that come with prolonged stay in jail especially after acquittal of charges. There are warnings, however, that termination of link from friends and family, loss of liberty and security have the potential of inflicting lasting psychological impact on the detainees (Aborn & Cannon, 2013). Detainees have the risk of suffering from trauma due to exposure to violence as well as sexual and physical assault. Moreover, such detentions affect the detainees’ potential for employment, as some become permanent records.

Despite the availability of other corrective avenues such as counseling and community service, jails have become the to-go solution for social services over the years. As a result, the population in jails have swelled and continue to swell as law enforcement continually use the jail services instead of other corrective services available, especially for petty offenders.

Question 6

The war on drugs campaign of the 1970s and 1980s saw an increase in the number of drug-related incarcerations (Chettair & Eisen, 2016). The war led to an increase in prison population, a phenomenon that has remained to date in the US. Through the war on drugs campaign, the population of drug offenders in prisons significantly increased, essentially making the offenders victims of the correctional system. By failing to sift through the type of drug offenders, whether beginning or hooked users, low-level dealers or high-level suppliers, the correctional system bundled all the drug offenders together, essentially hardening most of the beginning and low-level drug offenders. Noteworthy is that through the hard stance of the justice system following the war on drug campaign, 39 percent of the prison population is there unnecessarily (Chettair & Eisen, 2016). Such revelations point to the victimization of drug offenders, particularly drug users, who could be better served by incarceration alternatives including probation, community service, and treatment (Chettair & Eisen, 2016).

A vital construct is the minimization of the criminal activity of drug offenders by the media. The minimization of the criminal activity is worrying given the power that the media has in influencing public opinion and policy matters. Important to note is the fact that the media is not just a mirror reflecting events in the society, but also a strong actor in shaping the marketing consideration as well as policy (Beale, 2006). Minimizing the criminal activity of offenders, therefore, is not the only suspect but also detrimental to the general war on drugs. With commercialization of the media, however, it is possible that media see drug use, especially recreational drug use, as part of advertising revenue, and therefore the need to protect revenue streams from drug advertisements. By minimizing the criminal activity of drug offenders, the media attracts advertising revenues from recreational drug companies.


Aborn, R. M., & Cannon. D., A. (2013). Prisons: In jail, but not sentenced. Americas Quarterly, 1-5. Retrieved from

American Bar Association (2006). The Victim in the Criminal Justice System. New York: ABA.Retrieved from

Beale S, S. (2006). The news media’s influence on Criminal Justice Policy: How Market-Driven News Promotes Punitiveness. William & Mary Law Review, 387-481. Retrieved from

Chettair, L., & I, E. (2016). 39% of prisoners should not be in prison. Time. Retrieved from

Das, B., (1997). Victims in the Criminal Justice System. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation. Retrieved from

Gegan, S., E. & Rodriguez, N., E. (1992). Victim’s roles in the criminal justice system: A fallacy of victim empowerment? Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development, 225-250. Retrieved from

Greenhouse, L. (2007). Supreme Court limits judges’ sentencing power. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Johnson, P. (1978). California’s determinate sentencing statute: History and issues. Berkeley Law Scholarship Repository, 13-58. Retrieved from

May, T., Gyateng, T., & Hough, M. (2010). Differential Treatment in the Youth Justice System. London: Equality and Human Rights Commission. Retrieved from

Nunn, K. (2002). The child as other: Race and differential treatment in the juvenile justice system. UF Law Scholarship Repository, 679-714. Retrieved from

Oldenquist, A. (2003). Retribution and the death penalty. U. Dayton Law Review.

Speiser, M. (2015). Taxpayers are paying more than they realize to jail citizens for one depressingly simple reason. Business Insider. Retrieved from

Tamimi, Y. (2015). The Protection of Vulnerable Groups and Individuals by the European Court of Human Rights. Retrieved from

Health Care Essay Paper Sample on Barriers to Healthy Behaviors essay help for free

Barriers to Healthy Behaviors

Children are a very important factor that determines the purchasing choices and are also considered future consumers and thus promoting a healthy lifestyle is a strategy for safeguarding the activeness of the next generation. However, the increase in the rate of obesity among this population has grown over the years. Consequently, obesity, in the long run, may lead to the development of other chronic complications among children including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.

Although various platforms such as parents’ magazines have tried developing a mechanism to reduce this aspect, there exist different barriers that prevent achieving active sedentary lifestyles among children. Active life style exists in distinct levels including personal and family levels (Basch, Kecojevic,  Cadorett & Zagnit, 2016). While the individual methods concentrate on personal techniques such as the development of personal skills, family level strategies emphasize group relationships in promoting both emotional and psychological well-being. Understandably, it is the duty of parents or guardians to improve the sedentary lifestyle of their children to reduce the emergence of any health complication. Some of the barriers identified include the child, the home environment and parents’ perceptions of child care interactions.

 The child can be considered a barrier based on their preferences that may limit active sedentary behaviors. For instance, most children prefer using electronic media such as video games or watching television over active physical exercise mechanisms. The home environments, on the other hand, include the rules developed by the parents and the different roles they play in enhancing active sedentary lifestyle. Other home factors include the availability of enough resources to support active lifestyle and relationship between the care giver and the child (Basch, Kecojevic,  Cadorett & Zagnit, 2016). Parents’ perception of child care interactions encompasses how the caregiver supports the activities of health professionals on the child.

Specific Family Strategies

Considering the level of diversity in any family setting, the strategy implemented must be able support the child in all dimensions including physical, mental and emotional growth. Understandably, encouraging the child to engage in at least 150 minutes of physical activity every week may aid in changing behavior and overall improvement in health.  

This may prompt the child to be more physically active and to reduce chances of developing chronic diseases. Moreover, the strategy of spreading best practices may also help in improving active sedentary behaviors. For instance, the parent may limit the time a child takes watching television and increase the period of physical activities such as playing football.  This can be achieved through the development of activity timetable for the child and supporting them in adhering to the schedules. This is the best strategy to implement as it not only increases the toddler’s awareness of their sedentary life but also improves their relationship with the caregiver.

Obesity Prevention

Prevention of obesity is a process that requires the development of an elaborate framework by the care giver. In essence, there is no minimum age to start preventing obesity as it is advisable for the expectant mother to start the prevention program even before birth (Gillman & Ludwig, 2013).  An expectant mother should ensure that they develop a good feeding habit and to avoid unhealthy practices such as smoking to help in the proper growth of the child and also implement five-year proper feeding practices to the child over five years after birth. It is also ideal to introduce solid foods to the child after four months to help in developing a good digestive system for the infant


Basch, C.H., Kecojevic, A., Cadorett, V., & Zagnit, E.A. (2016). Sedentary images in a popular US based parenting magazine: 2010-2015. Health Promotion Perspectives, 6(2), 55-57. Retrieved from

Gillman, M. W., & Ludwig, D. S. (2013). How early should obesity prevention start?. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(23), 2173-2175.

Health Care Essay Paper Sample on Hybrid Record System gp essay help: gp essay help

Task A.

Discuss how you would manage the use of paper forms in a hybrid environment in order to maintain the integrity of the health record.

Compare the strengths and weaknesses of using hybrid records.

               Health records conventionally were manual in the form of papers. These were easier and more efficient than keeping no records or relying on memory. They required more personnel and extra room to store the paperwork. A file was opened for every new patient where his/her records were placed for future reference and supervision of the patient. As technology evolved, the use of digital record keeping was introduced and it was apparently more effective than the manual system. Records were now digitally stored hence could not be damaged by fire, misplacement, or misappropriation by hospital staff. However, the shift from manual to digital records proved a very cumbersome task as the work was very voluminous for hospitals that had been in existence for a long time. There was an immediate need for extra workers to do the job and massive technological investments to store and easily avail this data when needed.

            The climax of developments in record keeping is the hybrid system of storing patients’ data. This system involves the documentation of a patient’s health information in several formats and its subsequent storage in multiple locations (Martin, 2009). This record keeping type is more advantageous then the manual and digital styles. Hybrid record keeping is legal information that can be easily accessed by medical practitioners in several hospitals that the same patient visits. This ensures that the patient can be easily tracked and supervised regardless of the health institution he/she visits. Secondly, this information is legal hence it cannot be tampered with or misappropriated since this is punishable by law. However, the demerits of this style start with its installation. The process is cumbersome and very expensive since it needs more staff and time to administrate. It also causes a lot of wastages since after its adoption, a hospital has to get rid of all its former manual system and digital systems to avoid double recording.

Discuss legal issues that may arise when using hybrid records.

            Legal issues come into play at the inception and installation of hybrid record keeping. There are legal requirements that must be observed when creating this system. These issues concern with the privacy, storage, and staffing of the records since not everyone is permitted to view or handle the records. Legal issues also concern with the security and IT adaptations of a health institution. Security measures must also be incorporated to ensure this data is safe from hacking and unauthorized access. This is because this data is prone to alteration and manipulation since it can be used as a source of valid evidence in a court of law.                

Task B.

Evaluate the attached “Willow Bend Record Policy” to determine if it protects health information for record storage and destruction of paper and electronic health records based on the following:

Your state regulations.

            The Willow Bend Record Policy is in tandem with policy requirements of the state of Virginia. Per the two Record Policies, health records within the medical record comprising of both manual and digital records are considered hybrid. As such, they must be converted to an electronic format within 24 hours of discharging the patient. Secondly, both policies encourage the storage of paper records converted to electronic formats in a safe and secure place. This is because the court system may at times require historical data about a patient in its original format.    

Medicare Conditions of Participation

               The Medicare conditions of Participation involve abiding by a set of standards. The Willow Bend Hospital Record Policy abides with some of these standards. The hospital record policy complies with the second condition which requires compliance with federal, state, and personnel licensure (Kessel et al., 2015). The record services also comply with the seventh condition which elaborates on the organisation and staffing of records, content of records, and form and retention of records.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

            The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) provide legislation that determines data privacy and security provisions for safeguarding medical data (“What is HIPAA” n.d.). The Willow Bend Recovery Policy complies with the HIPAA’s administrative simplification which directs that electronic data should be processed in accordance with its established national standards. It also requires hospitals to implement secure electronic access and compliance with privacy regulations set by the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).    


Kessel, E., Pegany, V., Keolanui, B., Fulton, B. D., Scheffler, R. M. & Shortell, S. M. (2015). Review of Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial quality of care measures: considerations for assessing accountable care organizations. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 40 (4), 761-796.

Martin, M. (2009, June 8). Living in a Hybrid World. Retrieved March 10, 2018 from

What is HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act)?-Definition from (n.d.). Retrieved March 10, 2018, from

Sample Communication Admission Essay Paper on Media Diary nursing essay help

5 Day Diary

DayMedia formatTitle of the programLength of viewership/useNumber of referencesPositiveNegativeNeutral1FilmGone baby Gone2 hours102802InternetTwitter1 minute30303InternetYouTube15 minutes70614InternetBlog10 minutes31205RadioBreakfast Show1 hour1010

Response 1

In the first day, the reference made to mental health had to do with one of the characters in the film who was a drug addict and a mother of a toddler at the same time. There was also a child molester whose preference was young boys (Affleck). His behavior was characteristic of a person having a mental problem. Another reference made to mental health was on Twitter where an organization that deals with the rehabilitation of drug addicts was advertising its services. 

Response 2

Examples of messages that had to do with suicide included information on Twitter regarding the increased rates of suicide among men and veterans in the United States. There was also a reference to the increased rate of incarceration and suicide among middle-aged men who had just gone through a brutal divorce that cost them all of their assets (Fjeldsted et al. 550). A skewed legal system is blamed for the spike in male suicides in the United States.                                           

Response 3

One of the messages that I coded as positive was on the first day when a character in the movie said that he had quit alcohol. This was after seeing the toll it was having on his work and family, and also when he said that he would rather break the law and have his niece live a good and promising life. Another positive message I got was on the third day on YouTube, where the presenter was encouraging the youth by telling them that there is no trouble too big to cause them to commit suicide or numb themselves with drugs. An example of a message that I coded as neutral was the one stating that time heals all wounds on the YouTube video. An example of a negative message was on a blog that claimed that gender relations are becoming very strained in the United States, leading greater numbers of broken homes and broken children.

Response 4

Most of the messages were positive, and this was a sign that people are trying to encourage others using the media.

Response 5

It was not difficult to categorize the messages, as the feeling they evoked was the one used to classify them. If a message gave a bad feeling or was alarming then it a negative one. If it was a reassuring message, then it was positive. If it elicited neither, then it was neutral.

Response 6

The internet and the film media were more liberal in the messages passed across, as they were not under strict censorship as the radio was. The internet also seemed more objective, as there are no competing interests and it is to a certain degree less censored (Fourie, Bitso and Bothma 730). The blog seemed to have the most intense of the negative news compared to all other media while the film had most of the positive messages.

Response 7

The media shapes the way we view the world and our opinions on issues such as love and politics. Marketing has used the media to influence our consumption habits. Hence, media is used to create a need in us for the products of the marketers. This can be done by cultivating on our biggest fears and concerns for the benefit of the corporations. Negative messages do this very efficiently.

Response 8

This assignment has made me more self-aware, and it has also surprised me by revealing that I consumed a lot of messages from the media, some of which can shape my attitudes negatively.

Work Cited

Affleck, Ben. Gone Baby Gone. United States: The Ladd Company, 2007. film.

Fjeldsted, Rita, et al. “Suicide in Relation to the Experience of Stressful Life Events: A Population-Based Study.” Archives of Suicide Research 21.4 (2017): 544-55. 

Fourie, Ina, Constance Bitso, and Theo J.D. Bothma. “Methods and Resources to Monitor Internet Censorship.” Library Hi Tech 32.4 (2014): 723-39.

Sample History Coursework Paper on The Crusades college essay help free

Answer the questions below by consulting the maps included in this assignment.

The men who answered the Pope’s call to take back the Holy land were called Crusaders. From which parts of Europe were the crusaders mainly from?

Those who answered the call from pose were majorly Europeans from Scandinavia countries. Notably, these men came from parts of Italy, England and Italy.

What city appears to be the focus of the Crusader’s efforts? Why do you think this was so? Which crusade(s) was unable to control it?

Jerusalem was the main focus. The Christians believed that the city was sacred since Jesus lived and taught there. On the other hand, Muslims asserted that Prophet Muhammad made his journey by night to heaven from Jerusalem. The second crusade failed to control the city since they lost control of Edessa to the Muslims.

What were the four Crusader States established by the First Crusade?

The cities established by the First Crusade included Asia Minor, Greece, Holy Land, Jerusalem, Edessa, Tripoli and Antioch.

Which of the Crusader States was the first to fall?

The first crusader state to fall was Edessa.

How many years separated the end of the First Crusade and the end of the Fourth Crusade?

The crusades lasted from 1095-1204: leaving a gap of 109 years in between them.

What were the main motivations for the first three crusades? In your view were they successful? Which was the most successful?

According to evidence, the main motivations for the first three crusaders were to capture Jerusalem first, then recapture it on two occasions to guarantee peace. Based on my view, the crusades failed apart from the first that successfully captured Jerusalem.

The area around the Jerusalem is often called the Holy Land. Who controlled the Holy Land at the time of the Third Crusade? Were those people Christian or Muslim?

These people were Muslims. Notably, this section was controlled by Saladin, a Muslim leader at the time of the Third Crusade.

Who were the three kings involved in the Kings’ Crusade?

The three kings included Richard I of England, Philip Augustus of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.

Looking at the information from the maps, does it look like the Crusades were a pilgrimage (a journey to a holy or sacred place) or a holy war (a war fought by believers of a religion to spread or defend their religion)?

According to the maps, the Crusades appear much like a holy war than a pilgrimage because of the constant establishment and disestablishment of states in the regions.

Based on Map 6, how was the fourth crusade different from the previous three?

According to Map 6, the Fourth Crusade was quite different from the other three since none of the crusade took place in the Holy Land, and it resulted in a Latin Empire surrounding Constantinople.

Who were the main opponents of the Crusaders in each Crusade?

Though there were numerous dynasties, the main adversaries in all the crusades were Muslim empires.

Sample Anthropology Research Paper on Evaluating Educational Inequality along Racial Lines english essay help: english essay help

Evaluating Educational Inequality along Racial Lines


Did you know that today, America claims to be culturally diverse in respect to race, gender, ethnicity and class. Inequality has been a major problem in America’s education sector. However, the cultural diversity that America is claiming should be fully dissected to reveal the inequalities that currently bedevil the country. Discrepancies and witnessed in America is largely attributed to the fact that most educational facilities are funded by local property taxes. In light of this, people inhabiting poverty areas have lower home values and collect less tax. Therefore, educational facilities found in these areas do not get adequate funding since they do not collect substantial revenues. In essence, skewed funding based on revenue collection violates both human rights and the constitution of respective states. Further, a study conducted in 2015 revealed that district schools with high level of poverty received 10 percent less per head as compared to those in high income zones (Lafortune et al., 2016). Consequently, inequality is also witnessed on schools with students of color who have considerably received 15 percent less as compared to those with white students (Lafortune et al., 2016). In a brief, this is just a sneak peak of what is characterizing the education sector in America. Is this fair? No, it is not.  The purpose of this paper is to evaluate educational inequality along racial lines while focusing on theories of education, role of funding and America’s cultural diversity.

Two Differing Theories on the Role of Education

According to Farley (2012), America’s education system has been viewed as a pillar for upward mobility. America stresses on technological development, innovation and creation. All these are aimed at solving local problems, creation of employment opportunities and advancing technological development. Further. Based on a traditional perspective, Farley highlights that education allows people to progress in all aspects of their lives and this grants social mobility and respect. According to Farley (2012), educational functionally offers individuals the opportunity to transverse society ladders necessitating achievement of life goals in line with individual ability. So, education is vital for the success of a society and economy because it offers tools to function within the society. However, these tools must be effectively harnessed to promote success in workplace and society. The essence of functionalist theory is the fact that education produces functional members of a society. Education produces skilled and qualified individuals critical in stirring a society forward as they work in companies that provide financial rewards in return (Farley, 2012). Fundamentally, highly skilled people achieve better positions in work environment and society.  

From a functionalist perspective, education is first meant to convey basic skills and knowledge from one generation to another. Knowledge disseminated from one generation to another serves the current and future needs of society. Durkheim, the founder of this theory identified the latent role of education in promoting societal socialization. Education helps to bring people together in more cohesive units irrespective of diverse cultural backgrounds that they come from. Functionalists stress the role of education in aiding the transmission of societal core values and control. Studies reveal that the core values in American education reflect those characteristics that support the political and economic systems that originally fueled education (United States Census, 2015). For that matter, students only get rewarded upon following basic requirement of the education system such as following schedules, directions, strict observance of deadlines and obeying the authority. In America, the functionalists affirm that education effectively separates students based on merit because the society needs different people for different positions, most importantly in occupations (Suzanne and Penelope, 2006). Significantly, sociologists confirm that education should be an ingredient in preserving and changing culture (Suzanne and Penelope, 2006). However, all these American ideals have been eroded by inequalities witnessed in the education sector. In respect to this, students are treated differently in respect to color, race, gender and social class.

Traditionalist theory views education as a tool that people use to climb societal ladder. Experts have criticized the theory as only perpetuating and institutionalize inequalities in the American society (Suzanne and Penelope, 2006). In other words, it differs from the functionalists who believe that education should bring people together. Thus, traditionalists assert that the purpose of education is to maintain social inequality and preserve power for those dominant (Suzanne and Penelope, 2006). Minority groups are then discriminated and suppressed. In American society, some states have perfected the practice by ensuring skewed funding based on regions, gender, tribe, ethnicity and class. Further, traditional theory advocates for an education system that effectively perpetuates status quo by suppressing lower class individuals to be submissive.

Functional and traditional theorists agree on one aspect of the educations system, that it should effectively sort society students. However, the theories differ on the enactment of the sorting. In light of this, functionalists affirm that sorting should be on the basis of merit while traditionalists believe that students should be separated along distinct social class and ethnic lines (Suzanne and Penelope, 2006). According to traditionalists, schools should offer hidden curriculum that teaches those in high and lower classes to accept their positions in society (Suzanne and Penelope, 2006). Traditionalists have supported their positions in respect to property taxes that fund most schools where those in affluent districts are funded more than those in poor regions. Affluent districts are predominantly inhabited by whites, those with high incomes, afford higher salaries, attract better tutors and purchases more educational materials. Students from these regions gain substantial advantage and in the process join better colleges and universities. The opposite is true for those learning in regions perceived as poor. Traditionalist contend that both the economy and schools support their views, tests offered in schools often test cultural knowledge and thus exhibit cultural bias among the American society.

Analysis of the role of funding and cultural and behavioral influences

Funding propagates educational inequalities in America. As discussed under the theories, traditionalist theorists believe that students should be treated differently in regards to their social classes. For that matter, funding plays a critical role in instigating educational inequalities. Most of school funding is provided by local states governments. Most of these institutions provide funding to school in regards to social status of regions involved. Local governments believe that more funds should be channeled to schools in districts that pay more taxes. It means that schools in regions associated with low income will receive less funding. In United States, educational inequality has been witnessed within the schools that students attend and at home. White students have the privilege of attending the best educational institutions offering splendid opportunities compared to their peers of color. Schools with higher funding provide students with modern learning resources and more advanced courses. Further evidence reveal that white graduates disproportionately have an advantage over students from less well funded schools in the competition for admission to the most prestigious universities (Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, 2011). Discussed, is one form of inequality created by public policies propagated by states and local leaders. It is the view of many, that schools should be funded uniformly to ensure equality. However, with even funding across all schools, the affluent members would still use their high incomes to provide advanced educational facilities to their children. On the other hand, students from perceived poor families with still contend with food insecurity and high crime neighborhoods among other social ills. Reduced funding in some schools makes it difficult for such institutions to compete for better and qualified teachers. When these schools fail to secure services of qualified teachers, they resort to less qualified to take care of student educational needs. Research studies suggest that inequitable distributions of qualified teachers are a major cause of the inequality gap (Jay, 2007).

Cultural and behavioral factors have influenced the education of the minorities. The cultural deprivation theory asserts that some groups, such as the lower social classes, have inferior norms, values, skills and knowledge which prevent them from achieving in education (Brownstein, 2016).Therefore, the minority groups possess inferior language skills and the fact that some parents do not value education is one of the reasons why minorities depict underachievement. These people are materially deprived. Cultural deprivation has influenced the education of minorities because parents are less able to help their children with homework. Further, they believe that their children should just acquire sufficient knowledge to their level. Such a belief inhibits students’ growth because they fail to achieve.

Significantly, studies have revealed that lower class children are more likely to speak in a restricted speech code, rather than the elaborated language (Brownstein, 2016). On the other hand, cultural bias tends to judge other phenomena in regards to our own cultural orientations, or by the norms of a meticulous culture. The variation is attributed to how students interact in the society. The systems that define people are anchored on linguistic capability, social, cultural and economic endowment, and are inherent to fastidious groups. Cultural bias influences educational activities of minorities in respect to methods of instructions and curriculum. Hidden curriculum advocated by many aims to instill cultural knowledge on students where they are encouraged to maintain their social classes in America. Education in controlled environments has totally ignored learning experiences of minorities that they might acquire outside the closed setup.

Reflection on America’s cultural diversity

America thrives on cultural diversity. The nation is home to myriad races, religions and cultures. Each ethnic group provides its own rich cultural histories, identities and heritages that contribute to greater understanding witnessed today. Despite the inequalities currently bedeviling America, the country was founded on the ideals of equality and freedom for all. Experts assert that America has set the stage for diverse cultures that coexist to symbolically create one united nation (Keating and Laris, 2016). However, policies and structures have necessitated a culture of inequality where people are treated differently because of their race, gender, ethnicity and social class. Evidence reveal that discrepancies have been witnessed on wage, education, occupations sex segmentation, racial discrimination, residential segmentation, health insurance, wealth inequality, job losses, immigration and incarceration (Reardon et al., 2016). These inequalities can be addressed through affirmative action and policies that bridges the gap between American cultural societies. Significantly, the policies should strive to increase minimum wages, expand income earned taxes, and build assets for the minorities. Next, equally fund education and end residential segmentation.

It is the responsibility of teachers to inspire students affected by generational poverty and currently going through unequal treatment. For instance, many teachers have encountered poor students whose shoes are held together by electrical tape. In essence, these students should be shown love and encourage to approach life with confidence. Poor students need to be exposed to experiences of other successful people despite enduring poverty. Apprehensively, these students need to be praised whenever they do well in class. Also, as a teacher there is no need of asking for extra money for services offered to poor children. Lastly, expectations of the students should be kept high by not watering down the curriculum. These students are entitled to good teaching.

Anti-racist tool to be implemented in future classroom

Effective tool that reduces inequality is the implementation of anti-racist classroom.  Evidence has revealed that, after decades of progress in closing the outcome gaps between white students and students of color, the disparities are just as profound today as they were in the past (Peters, 2015). Therefore, teachers are tasked with responsibilities of fighting negativities and inequalities in classrooms. Studies opine that fighting inequalities will require change of attitudes and thinking that have stigmatized many minority students (McClain, 2015). Hence, anti-racist classroom will be critical in achieving the mission of reducing inequalities. Put into perspective, it will ensure that minority races are not ignored in class, seeks establishments of strong cultural knowledge, inform students that communities of color are not monolithic and creates self awareness to the students.


Inequalities have been a major problem in America and are the reasons why the educational sector is not achieving its set goals. Traditionalist theory has promoted the inequality debate because it views education as a social benefit and an opportunity to maintain power and suppress the minority. Unequal funding has created a gap between the whites and the minority groups. In essence, reforming funding policies can help reduce the inequalities currently witnessed. Moreover, culture and behaviors of the American society need to be refocused to eliminate barriers existing. Diverse American community need to be inspired to reaffirm the ideals of the nation in advocating for a one nation. Teachers are also tasked with the responsibility of inspiring low class students achieve their goals. We should always think of how people like Barack and Michelle Obama made it in life despite coming from humble backgrounds.


Brownstein Ronald. (2016). “The challenges of educational inequality.” The Atlantic. Retrieved

from: Retrieved March 11, 2018.

Farley E. John. (2012). Majority-minority relations census update, 6th Edition. Southern Illinois

 University Edwardsville. United States: Pearson.

Jay Nock Albert. (2007). “The Theory of Education in the United States.” Mises Institute.

Retrieved from: Retrieved March 11, 2018.

Keating Dan and Laris Karklis. (2016). “The increasingly diverse United States of America”.

The Washington Post. Retrieved from: Retrieved March 11, 2018.

Lafortune, J., Rothstein, J., and Diane W.S. (2016). School finance reform and the distribution of

student achievement. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from: Retrieved March 11, 2018.

McClain, M. (2015). “5 ways to help students affected by generational poverty.” Edutopia.

Retrieved from: Retrieved March 11, 2018.

Peters Michael. (2015). Why is my curriculum white? Taylor and Francis online. Retrieved from:

   Retrieved March 11, 2018.

Reardon, S.F., Kalogrides, D., and Shores, K. (2016). The geography of racial/ethnic test score

gaps.  Retrieved from: Retrieved March 11, 2018.

Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality. (2011). “20 facts about U.S. inequality that everyone

should know.” Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality. Retrieved from: Retrieved March 11, 2018.

Suzanne M. and Penelope L. (2006). Theories of learning and teaching: what do they mean for

educators? National education Association. Retrieved from: Retrieved March 11, 2018.

United States Census. (2015). “Income and poverty in the United States: 2014.” Retrieved from:–252.html. Retrieved March 11, 2018.

Sample English Discussion Essay on Demographic Issue write essay help

Question #1

One demographic concern that the world is currently facing, and will face over the next half century is population growth. The rate of population growth continues to rise yearly with some regions having an even higher percentage growth as compared to others. Most of the developing countries face challenges of high population rates, limited resources, and degradation of the environment that is gradual on a daily basis. Last year’s economic growth was characterized by demographic transition, but it may not be possible for many nations in the near future. Resources are becoming scarce, given that the rate of replenishment is not parallel to consumption rate. Most natural resources are over mined or used and there are no policies in place to help replenish the amount consumed leading to shortages and other consequences such as drought conditions. There are steps that have been put in place in an effort to curb demographic surge. Some countries have adopted family policies that have worked effectively in Western Europe and Asia. However, dealing with population growth is a collaborative effort from all countries. One way of addressing it is spreading awareness and providing easy and cheap medical cover. Knowledge is power, power that can be used to fight the scourge that the whole world will face if nothing is done to control population growth.

Question #2

As the world is facing high population birth rates, countries like Japan are facing low fertility rates. The policies aimed at raising birth rates in such countries are likely to fail. This is because families are experiencing the high costs of living and difficulties of bringing up a large family. It is a system already synchronized into the mind of the people, thus making it less likely to succeed.

Sample English Research Paper on Racism essay help cheap: essay help cheap

The concept of racism is not new in the face of the world and different countries have rich history of the vice. Although numerous campaigns have been conducted to change the perception of human beings regarding this type of discrimination, different countries such as the United States have recently experienced events that depict the increase of racism in the country. According to the New York Times, the death of individuals like Walter Scott, Trayvin Martin, and Renisha Mcbride have all been linked to racism. Therefore, this study will discuss the concept of racism in the modern economy and how it has affected the interaction between the African American population and the Whites. Particularly, the research will concentrate on specific events in the United States that demonstrate the increase of the vice in that country.

Understanding the Concept of Racism

Considering the continued emphasis on the effect of racism in both local and global spectrums, most Americans understand the negatives of the vice. The struggle to reduce this practice in the  U.S  can be traced back to the 19th  Century when different leaders from the Northern states started advocating for the end of slave trade and provision of equal rights to the African  American population. Understanding racism requires an elaboration of the concept of prejudice as they both have the same historical background (Psychology Today n.p).

 Both racism and prejudice involve negative views of a particular group that makes them look inferior to the other populations. Furthermore, racism can be termed as a complicated interplay of people’s attitudes, community practices, and social values and may take different forms depending on the context of the occurrence.

The increased intolerance of the African American population in the U.S has resulted in increased discussions on the future of the country based on the emergence of these doctrines. Although the problem has not been declared as an official challenge to the country, many individuals are using the internet and other social media platforms to conduct their campaigns against racial discrimination. Many institutions are equally using these networks to help those who have suffered from police brutality as a consequence of racism (Wortham n.p). Moreover, Monica Williams records that this practice has also corrupted the corporate world as she recalls treading a patient that experienced the same at work.     

Racial Dialogue

According to Psychology Today, the tendency of an individual favouring their own group is not a new concept in the society and it is a behaviour that defines human survival. Considering some of the psychological studies done over the years, human beings contribute more positively to the group that they feel more secure being around. William also notes that although there has been an increased discussion on the political, social and economic effect of racism in the American society, little research has concentrated on the psychological effects of the vice (Psychology Today n.p).

 The election of President Barrack Obama was seen as process that could promote equality in the country but the different events including the increase of police brutality to the population in late 2014 proved otherwise.  The fatal police interactions reported in the country particularly on Michael Brown and Eric Garner spurred national discussion particularly when the federal government did not take any disciplinary actions against the concerned law enforcement officers. Considerably, the research by the post-ABC news post shows that an average of 10% of the African American population believed that the justice system of the country promoted fairness and equality especially the minority groups (Psychology Today n.p).

According to the survey by Erica Hall, using the term black to refer to the dark-toned citizens of the United States depicts a lower socio-economic status than the use of the word African American (Washington Post n.p). Considering the different decisions presented by various authors, the various bodies including local and federal authorities have not enacted enough policies that would promote equality among the different races in the country. 

Responses to Racism in the Community

The increase in the number of discussions about the increase in the number of racial discrimination cases in the US society is a step in enhancing the healing process (Washington Post n.p). These conversations are considered the key to building trust in the society and increasing the awareness on the evils of racism in the United States.  Additionally, the society has developed unique mechanisms that can help in the sensitization process including using movies such as the Black Panther on the evils of racial discrimination (Wallace n.p). Other movies with the same theme produced over the last three decades include Blade, The Meteor Man, and Blackman that demonstrated the superiority of the African American population.  


Racism in the United States can only be reduced through positive emotional experiences between the different groups.  Equally, it is the duty of both the community and the authorities to ensure that individuals advocating for racism are punished accordingly so as to enhance increased practices of morality in the  American society. while  most people in the US society not have experienced  the  effects of racism, the  vice  is  slowly growing into a national  disaster that could limit the development of the  American  society.  

Works Cited

Psychology Today. “The Psychology of Prejudice and Racism.” Psychology Today. N.p., 2018. Web. 7 Mar. 2018.

Wallace, Carvell. “Why ‘Black Panther’ Is a Defining Moment for Black America.” N.p., 2018. Web. 7 Mar. 2018.®ion=EndOfArticle&pgtype=article 

Washington Post. “The Fallacy of a ‘Post-Racial’ Society.” Washington Post. N.p., 2018. Web. 7 Mar. 2018. 

Wortham, Jenna. “Racism’S Psychological Toll.” N.p., 2018. Web. 7 Mar. 2018. 

Sample Anthropology Essay Paper on How Chiefdom And Early State Social Structures Resolve Collective Action Problems buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help


The holistic approach refers to a concept used in the understanding humanity through comparative and cross-cultural study of the contemporary culture and the society. It is an approach considered in determining the development of an individual with time.Mixed media offers a mixed perspective in getting to understand people and cultures from the different setting. Through the integration of media from various sources in the collection of information and data allows for completeness in the content and the analysis of culture from different settings. For instance, using social media and mainstream media to collect information from the targeted sources increases the richness of the data/ information.Cultural relativism only focuses on an individual’s culture rather than the additional elements or factors that also have an influence on the beliefs, practices, and values. As a result, anthropologists are forced to focus on predefined elements rather than explore the different factors of consideration for defining a culture.The first factor that helps change culture is contact between societies. Contact helps teach, adopt new aspects, and teach new trends to the new generation. Another factor is technology. Technology has become a major element in the everyday lives of people. The impact it has on communication and elements such as transportation helps change the way people do things, the perspectives they have on issues, and the approaches to take in addressing concerns in their lives. Lastly, the geographical factor also is an element to be considered. The climate of an area has an influence on the lifestyle of the people in an area. A change in the climatic conditions of an area leads to changes in the culture of the people in the region.Historical linguistics offers a platform of understanding the change of language over time and the factors that might have triggered these changes. It establishes a connection through related languages by pointing out the elements within different languages that were adopted into the new languages spoken in other settings.The social class of an individual determines the way they pronounce words or even the way they speak. People use standard and non-standard dialects when talking. These are varied depending on the social class of an individual within the society. For instance, the lower class easily uses the non-standard dialects when talking. The upper class use standard dialects in their conversation while the middle class often speak using standard dialects due to their desire to be in the higher class one day.The modern foragers are limited to the marginal environments as opposed to the lives foragers in the past lived. This is to show reduced boundaries of freedom for the foragers in the different settings. However, the biggest limitation is that the contemporary foraging communities are modern and are influenced by the modernity of other societies.Chiefdoms are a form of government that has a less permanent leader who assumes the role of making the decisions for the community. The title of the leader in chiefdom is chief and in some cases considers having an advisory council, but not any form of bureaucracy (Willer, Emanuelson and Chacon 419). On the other hand, states are an evolvement of the chiefdoms where a centralized system of governance was adopted. States are socially stratified and organized into classes based on the prestige of the people, power, and wealth. The hierarchy included three groups; where at the head of the hierarchy was the king and the elite group. They are then followed by the artisans and other professionals and lastly the farmers also called commoners.The Mesopotamia used the state political type of organization. There are three major classes among the society, the elite, the professionals, and the commoners. The children born to a particular class within the society were to maintain the image of the family, which meant that there was high chance of still being in the same society class as their parents.Race is a concepts applied in the distinguishing people according to their skin color, background, or even ancestral origin. As a result, the concept of superiority and inferiority becomes a common practice that also distinguishes people from one another when the aspect of race is applied. As a result, people of a particular descent are considered as inferior, are, therefore, treated as third-class citizens, and not equals.

Work Cited

Willer, D., et al. “How chiefdom and early state social structures resolve collective action problems.” Feast, Famine or Fighting? Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017. 417-452.

Sample Psychology Essay Paper on Personality Theories and Behavior college admission essay help

Personality defines particular behaviors of people. Psychologists indicate that personality is a consistent pattern of responses that the environment imposes upon an individual internally and externally (Engler 24). In other words, it describes all physical and emotional characteristics associated with individuals. These features can also be presented in others. Undoubtedly, the information that I have gained from studying the concept explains certain behaviors exhibited by people in the social environment. Experts in the field of psychology have coined theoretical frameworks that can be used to explain personal behaviors, such as that of a smoker who breaks from work to smoke.  Such experts include B.F Skinner and Sigmund Freud, whose works have been applied widely to explain behavior.

Examination of a Personal Behavior

Sigmund Freud coined a theory that uses psychodynamics and oral fixation approaches to analyze behavior (Engler 45). It utilizes psychic structure, an instinct-based personality that demands immediate pleasure. Furthermore, the theory integrates concepts of id, ego, and superego that define individual perceptions that antagonize the identity to delay gratification until an appropriate time. Undoubtedly the theory can explain my friend’s smoking behavior at given times. In this case, the theory recognizes that there are real and powerful insensible drives that prompt my friend to smoke. The concept of psychodynamics triggers memory motivates a person to perform an activity of a behavior. Therefore, it can be urged that my friends break for a smoke because his mind triggers the memory of the behavior and its gratification and stimulates him to repeat it. The individual memory and cataleptic factors provide an energy aspect that motivates my friend to break from work and smoke.  

The other theory that I think can be employed in examining and describing my friend’s hair is Fredrick Skinner’s conditioning theory. The approach talks stimulants and responses that are controlled by reinforcement conditions. Skinner’s theory is based on the assertion that learning occurs through responses to stimuli. Based on Skinner’s theoretical model, behaviors tend to be repeated if it is rewarded and suppressed when punished. My friend repeatedly smokes even with the knowledge of its detriments. In my view, which is based on the theory of conditioning, my friends choose to ignore the health dangers that smoking poses because every time he smokes, he is gratified. He has never experienced the negative effects associated with the behavior or witnessed a person who has suffered the same, and therefore he does not have an incentive (stimulus) to quit the behavior.


Indeed, psychology has contributed significantly to understanding people’s behaviors. Although different theory suggests different rationales for behavior, each can be applied because people have more than one motivating factor for acting the way that they do. Undoubtedly, the module has been instrumental in helping me understand the triggers of behaviors,  which has helped me to come up with a theory of explaining the possible factors that push my friend to smoke habitually. Skinner’s theory provides a simpler, credible, and adequate explanation of why my friend steps out to smoke at regular intervals while at work. The knowledge is useful personally, and communally because it creates an understanding of why people behave in specific ways. With such knowledge, I can create awareness in the society to the members for them to understand behaviors that seem odd and unexplainable. Thus they can learn to accommodate everyone, rather than exclude them because they seem to be odd.

Work Cited

Engler, Barbara. Personality Theories: An Introduction. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2008.


Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Quarantine college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx


Quarantine is a measure put in place to help protect the public from people who have or may have contagious diseases. A suspected group is separated and movement is limited until after tests are done to prove otherwise. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) is one of the bodies that deal with protecting the public against communicable diseases. However, despite having been given the power to quarantine people, there are legal and ethical boundaries that need to be observed. That it, people’s rights have to be upheld no matter the circumstances, which include a written order explaining reasons the CDC considers quarantine to be necessary and rights of individuals being held in isolation.

In quarantining individuals, it is vital to maintain calm and assure the public of their safety. There are instances where the public sees it fit to separate individuals in terms of their differences in the society which might not help the situation. In the scenario where a probable case of smallpox was identified in East Texas, I agree with the decision to quarantine individuals suspected of having the disease. However, officials must justify this action ethically stating its interest for the good of the community (Gostin, 2016). Smallpox is one of the highly communicable diseases that if not controlled can be catastrophic. Individuals who are suspected of having this disease should be placed in isolation for thorough screening. It is much easier deal with small group who have or are suspected to have a particular communicable disease before it spreads. However, a rationalized approach should be used to limit segregation when isolating individuals.

It has taken a long period for quarantine to be modeled and reshaped to be used as a public health tool to effectively contain outbreaks (Gostin, 2016). The use of isolation has however frequently violated the freedom of individuals and has caused certain groups to be discriminated. The public need to cooperate with the CDC and not use quarantine as a form of differentiation.


Gostin, L. O. (2016). A very long journey: a decade’s quest for quarantine regulations. The Milbank Quarterly, 94(4), 724-728.

Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Healthcare Finance popular mba argumentative essay help

            Finance is described as the application of a number of financial and economic principles to increase the overall value of a business. A vast majority of operating businesses usually invests on different assets with the general intent of generating remarkable financial value in form of profits. The growth of a business is entirely dependent on the on the amount of generated revenue. For an organization to continue with its daily business operations, it has to generate a stream of operating cash flows. Financial management in a healthcare organization is a crucial aspect that determines the quality of services given out to the patients. The concept of financial management assists the healthcare organization in balancing the inflows and outflows with the key intent of attaining the most beneficial outcome for the institution.  Financial management is categorized into four major divisions namely; planning, controlling, decision making, organizing and directing (Gropelli & Nikbakht, 2000). According to Baker (2014), healthcare services can be categorized into either; for-profit healthcare organizations, Not-for-profit healthcare organizations, government healthcare facilities, and other healthcare organizations. Each of these institutions has different financial management system that helps it to run it normal operations.

A brief summary of the articles

Predicting Costs Associated with Open Heart Surgery Based on Clinical, Administrative and Cost data

Cardiovascular disease remains to be one of the most prevalent causes of mortality and morbidity in the United States. A vast majority of patients have succumbed from cardiovascular diseases as they lack the financial ability to pay for their medical treatment.  Coronary artery bypass graft surgery serves as a leading revascularization procedure in the treatment of coronary heart disease. However, this surgery is a high cost procedure that has a large economic impact. The treatment of coronary artery disease is estimated to range from $17, 731 to $ 124,221 (Smith et al., 2012). Coronary artery bypass graft procedure places a large economic burden not only to the society but to the government and the hospital. In order to assess and analyze the financial costs of performing cardiac surgeries, Smith et al (2012)developed cost prediction models for patient. This study aimed at addressing cost prediction by analyzing both fixed, variable costs, and indirect costs incurred by hospital departments providing direct patient care. Analyzing both direct and indirect costs enables hospitals to strategically plan on resource allocation. Healthcare institutions can also predict the costs incurred by using pre-operative variables and post- operative variables available prior to patient discharge (Smith et al., 2012).

Making the Case for Using Financial Indicators in Local Public Health Agencies

            The economic crisis has brought an unprecedented attention to the issue of health system sustainability in the developed world (Suarez et al., 2011). The healthcare institutions are today facing daunting challenges with regards to the limited available finances and increasing cost of care. Even though the government had played an eminent role in providing affordable healthcare services to all through public hospitals, the state of economic recession led to a dramatic rise in the cost of healthcare services. According to WHO, a good health financing system is one that raises adequate funds for health so that people can acquire the necessary medical services protected from financial catastrophe associated with having to pay for them (Suarez et al., 2011). The healthcare organizations are today facing hard financial times that might ultimately lead to the closure of the organizations due to bankruptcy.  This article has thereby been written to analyze how hospitals use financial indicators to monitor financial risk, promote organizational sustainability, and improve organizational capacity (Suarez et al., 2011). This study focused on public health system that continues to face the threat of dwindling budgets and intense public scrutiny. According to Suarez et al., (2011), financial data recorded in balance sheets, income statements, and statements of cash flow are normally used to carry out financial trend analysis (Suarez et al., 2011). Financial indicators as frequently expressed as financial ratio analysis assists the healthcare institutions to make financial predictions with regards to the amount of capital required to manage all healthcare operations. In conclusion, financial trend analysis allows the management to monitor the financial performance and predict financial problems which help the hospitals and local government to reduce healthcare costs, increase profits, and continue with its normal operations (Suarez et al., 2011).

An explanation of the financial terms

Balance sheet – This is an accounting financial statement that displays the assets, liabilities and stakeholder’s equity (Chowdhury & Chowdhury, 2010)

Shareholder’s equity – This is the difference between total assets and total liabilities

EBITDA – This is described as earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization. EBITDA is used in healthcare organizations to measure and analyze the organization’s operating performance (Baker & Baker, 2014).

EBITDAM – This is a tool that measures financial performance. EBITDAM stands for earnings before interest, income taxes, depreciation, amortization, and management fees (Gropelli & Nikbakht, 2000).

Financial ethics – This is an interrelationship between finance and ethics. This term describes the ethical framework and its economic consequences.

Financial benchmarking – This is the continuous process of measuring products, services, and activities against the best levels of performance. Financial benchmarking compares financial measures among benchmarking groups. This allows healthcare institutions to examine its own financial progress and loss.

Financial trend analysis – This is the analysis of financial statements over a period of time. This allows the readers of financial statements to not the financial changes over time by comparing different financial statements.

Ratio analysis – Refers to the numerical or quantitative relationship between variables. This term considers four aspects of the organization namely; liquidity, profitability, leverage, and operations (Chowdhury & Chowdhury, 2010). Financial ratio analysis help healthcare decision makers to identify the financial strengths and weaknesses and thereafter take appropriate action to enable the organization reach its mission.


Baker, J. J., & Baker, R. W. (2014). Health care finance: Basic tools for nonfinancial managers.

Groppelli, A. A., & Nikbakht, E. (2000). Finance. Hauppauge, N.Y: Barron’s.

Chowdhury, A., & Chowdhury, S. P. (2010). Impact of capital structure on firm’s value: Evidence from Bangladesh. Business & Economic Horizons, 3(3).

Suarez, V., Lesneski, C., & Denison, D. (2011). Making the case for using financial indicators in local public health agencies. American journal of public health, 101(3), 419-425.

Smith DH, Johnson ES, Blough DK, et al. (2012). Predicting costs of care in heart failure patients. BMC Health Serv Res; 12:434.

Sample Health Care Coursework Paper on Medicare: Long Term Care Administration college essay help free

Medicare: Long Term Care Administration

The prospect of having a long term care plan for all citizens is noble. With more than 26% of the population being the elderly, the income generation capacity for the state is significantly reduced hence the state would need an affordable plan that can be sustained on the income of the productive population. At the same time, research in the past has shown that most of the middle class members of the populations would be less willing to pay for LTC due to high costs of living which leave them with no disposable income. This implies that the state has a high dependency level with regards to LTC and limited sources of financing for the sustenance of the policy.In large states such as the District of Columbia, the governor’s intended policy may work due to availability of a large pool of resources. In the contemporary times, the federal system, through the affordable Care Act, has increased the financial support to community based care programs by 6% under Medicaid provisions. Home based care programs also result in lower expenditures compared to nursing home based programs by about 23% while serving more people. With the federal support on the home based care programs through both Medicaid and Medicare, the capacity of a big state to manage an LTC program within the stated constraints is much higher. The governor’s idea may therefore work better in a bigger, more populated state than in his small state.While the condition of the patient warrants admission into a nursing home facility, the administrator should inform the inquirer about the conditions of admission. Josephine’s daughter should be aware that admission under Medicare is only subject to a physician’s recommendation and on condition that the facility provides the services needed. Secondly, the patient can only benefit from Medicare support for up to 100 days. The first 21 days are fully payable by Medicare while the other 79 are based on a copayment plan. After 100 days, the patient’s family should be ready to take up her care costs. Given that the patient may require long term care, the family should be ready to cater for costs post 100 days and also seek a physician’s advice on getting her under SNF care.Medicare pays for services that are administered under a skilled nursing personnel, occupational therapist, speech pathologist or physical therapist. As such, Mabel may get these services from her assisted living facility in case they have provisions for these services 7 days a week. However, her assistance from Medicare depends on the nature of her conditions. Since she was not initially hospitalized as a result of stroke, it would be important to determine whether the stroke was a result of the conditions for which she was initially hospitalized. It is only then that she can benefit from Medicare. She must also have been at the facility for 100 days or less.The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a comprehensive reform of the healthcare law which was enacted in 2010. It was enacted with three objectives namely: to expand Medicaid cover to all adults living below the 138% federal poverty level, increase the affordability of healthcare insurance to many people by providing subsidies for lowering the healthcare insurance premiums for people with incomes ranging from 100% to 400% of the national poverty level, and to support innovation in medical care aimed at reducing the costs of healthcare across the nation (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013). The ACA can be described as the driver of change within the healthcare sector, through collaborations between healthcare facilities and post-acute care providers.The False Claims Act is an act of government that is aimed at preventing fraud against government programs. The act stipulates that any person or company who knowingly presents a false claim for payment approval by government programs. Individuals and companies who falsely certify such claims are also considered liable for criminal execution. The government can file cases for fraud under the False Claims Act and can also allow individuals not affiliated to the government to file such cases as relators. Relators file actions referred to as whistleblowing and are entitled to a percentage of the amount recovered from the fraud, typically between 15 and 25% of the total recovery (Medicare Learning Network, 2017).The federal fraud and abuse laws define a set of laws which direct and control the actions of physicians as per the physician ethical code of conduct. The laws stipulate criminal as well as administrative remedies that the government may take against physicians found to be breaking the ethical code of conduct. The five most common federal fraud and abuse laws include the False Claims act, the Anti- kickback Statute (AKS), Social Security Act, United States criminal code and Physician Self- Referral Law (Stark law). Each of these laws addresses specific elements of physician conduct and have different action plans against perpetrators (Medicare Learning Network, 2017).The Program of All –inclusive Care to the Elderly (PACE) is a program under Medicare whose objective is to provide individuals above 55 years of age with the care they need without having to go to a nursing facility. The program focuses on having a team of skilled healthcare professionals working in collaboration with the family of the elderly within the community to ensure they achieve their needs. PACE organizations are in contact with community based specialists and healthcare providers with whom they connect to ensure that elderly patients get their needs. For one to benefit from PACE, they have to reside within the jurisdictional area of a PACE organization (PACE, 2018).


Kaiser Family Foundation (2013, April 25). Summary of the Affordable Care Act. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from

Medicare (2018). PACE. U.S Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved from

Medicare Learning Network (2017). Medicare fraud & abuse: Prevention, detection and reporting. Medicare Learning Network. Retrieved from

Sample Criminal Law Essay Paper on An Essay about Bruce Wright’s Black Robes, White Justice gp essay help: gp essay help

Bruce Wright believed that the American Justice System does not serve all people alike. In his book, Black Robes, White Justice, Wright (2) sets out to delineate the two justice systems he believes to exist: one system that works for the white and general privileged people, and another for the minorities (and generally people of color) and poor. He argued against the justice system dealing with the two groups of people the same. Often, he argues, the mainstream justice system is not in touch with the plight of ordinary people, thereby failing to enable fairness for them. In his book, therefore, he makes a case for the justice system adjusting to enable fairness for the minorities and the poor. In fact, Wright in practice tried to do just that, and he became popular for, among other things, liberal bail policies. However, the more shocking revelation of Wright’s book is that it is not just minority and/or poor defendants who face discrimination, but that black judges also face challenges.

Wright (2) begins by arguing that the justice system is largely meant to work for the white and privileged people. He writes: “black defendants often [receive] much harsher sentences than whites convicted of identical crimes” (Wright 9). However, Wright’s claim of a discriminate justice system does not come as a surprise. A big body of literature makes the same case. One of the most cited evidences of the unfairness of the US justice system is the disproportionate imprisonment of African-American and Hispanic young men. It is noteworthy that, despite African-Americans being only a small proportion of the US population, young men of African-American and Hispanic heritage far outnumber Caucasian young men. The same patterns have been found in the juvenile justice system. Moreover, there is ample evidence demonstrating that many young men of African-American heritage needlessly end up on the death row.

There are many reasons for this disproportion that disfavors blacks/latinos and the poor. Part of it is that they are often subject to more scrutiny (such as with racial profiling) and will often be detained for minor offences. The zero-tolerance policy in schools, for instance, has seen more African-American young people end up in juvenile detention centers than their Caucasian colleagues. But perhaps a more accurate reason is that the justice system is not made to suit their situations. Indeed, this is one of the issues that Wright tackles in the book. He refers to the fact that most judges fail to recognize the plights of the people they judge. He accuses his fellow judges of being “ignorant of and indifferent to the debased reality of those who are judged” (57). His goal was to balance the equation.

The surprising aspect of Wright’s revelations is that he is himself a judge. Most of the criticisms directed at the justice system do not come from judges, but often from people on the outside of the system or at least the courtroom. This is only understandable because the judges are the ones that make the final decisions. The assumption, therefore, would be that judges have the power to make the right decisions and ensure fairness in the justice system. However, Wright implies that he does not have that much power. He argues that the system places pressure on individual judges to decisions a certain way. By the ‘system’, Wright refers to what he sees as predominantly white and privileged justice system, which in his view explains why those who suffer most in the system are either minorities or poor.  The white power of the justice system, therefore, works against any powers of individual judges, and those who attempt to go against the grain are often persecuted.

Wright (28) himself made the effort to balance the sides, conspicuously making decisions that he believed would ensure fairer justice for those he deemed as disadvantaged. He believed that as a black judge, he was in a better position to understand the more disadvantaged individuals and could therefore make the right decisions that facilitated fairness. In the book, he criticizes other black judges, whom he accused of being “black judges in skin color only… [who] fail to understand that if there is no difference between white and black judges, there is no need to emphasize the paucity of black judges” (65).

Considering himself a minority, therefore, he appointed himself the judge for the vulnerable. To mention in passing, it is not surprising that Wright should see himself as belonging with the vulnerable considering that he himself faced several discriminatory incidences throughout his life and career, even as a judge. Nonetheless, as a result of his efforts to even the field, he was persecuted many times. One area in which this plays out – and one for which Wright was famous – is the setting of bail. Often, bail depends on the offense for which one is taken to court. Therefore, people charged with murder will often pay more – if they are not denied – bail than the person accused of burglary. Perhaps the premise here is that the person accused of murder is more a danger to society than the burglar, and setting the bail high reduces their chance of being released back to society so soon. Wright, however, has a different view. To him, releasing the accused back to the world is more important as it gives them the time to prepare for trial. His objective in this regard, therefore, was to give the accused an easy time with bail to enable their preparation with defense as the trial approaches. For this reason, his objective was to give bails that the accused could afford. The most popular of his cases was when he set bail of $5000 for a man accused of shooting a police officer. Because of it he was dubbed – and remained popular as – ‘Turn ‘em loose Bruce’. Some went further to say that he was the criminals’ best friend. Moreover, throughout his career as a judge, he faced many investigations by the New York City Appellate Division’s Judiciary Relations Committee. Many of these investigations he deems needless and only driven by the need to suppress his outspokenness for the vulnerable.

The main message that one takes from Wright’s book is the hopelessness of the justice system. To hear a lawyer or the pubic criticize the justice system is not shocking. However, coming from a judge, such criticism is not easy to dismiss. One feels that, if the judges cannot make it right, then perhaps no one can. In Wright’s case, there are many efforts to thwart his pursuits of right.

Wright (177) himself tries to build hope at the end. He argues that the best solution is to better educate potential judges on racial aspects of US history. However, even such efforts seem hopeless. For one, building upon his tone, one wonders if the ‘system’ is willing to take that step. Besides, the main objective of the ‘system’, as he portrays it, is to maintain the status quo that is in favor of the white and privileged people. Notably, such recommendations have been made before to no avail.

Ultimately, though, Wright himself becomes the best lesson. Despite the persecution and other challenges he faces, he shows defiance and the ability to survive these trials. Other than being black, he is more of a minority in his efforts to set himself apart from other judges. He risks his career in the process. Regardless, he demonstrates the power of individual will. He does not change the system in the end, but in the process he does have valuable influence on the lives of individual people who came to be judged in his court.

Wright’s book has been criticized on many grounds. The main one is that Wright does not provide actual evidence of his claims. He largely speaks from his own personal experiences rather than evidence resulting from real research. This may be true, but the arguments he makes have been vindicated by other more academic research studies and surveys. Most importantly, basing his story on his personal experiences makes it easy for the reader to understand and connect with Wright and what drives him to make decisions as he does. In a sense, therefore, the personal stance becomes a major selling point for Wright’s story, the lack of actual evidence notwithstanding.

Works Cited

Wright. Bruce. Black Robes, White Justice: Why Our Legal System Doesn’t Work for Blacks, 2th Edition. New York: Kensington Publishing Corporation, 2002. Print.

Sample Nursing Coursework Paper on Case Assessment get essay help

Case Assessment

Case 1

 The case presented you provides a detailed understanding of the concept of ethics and privacy in health care. First, you elaborate on the moral concept of the situation and the roles played by different stakeholders in the medical sector including patients and caregivers. Notably, you note that health professionals require the consent of patients to get access to their health information. Through this, both confidentiality and moral rights can be maintained. However you should describe on how the health records define the condition of the patient, and how any beach by the professionals warrants disciplinary actions against the caregiver. Moreover, by providing both the negative and positive effects of unpermitted access to personal health records, you enable enhanced understanding of the situation presented.  On the contrary, you should state how it helps in providing clients with control of how their information can be shared.  In summation, the paper enables a full understanding of the importance of controlling access to patient data. However, you should elaborate on some of the policies developed by HIPPA to ensure confidentiality of these data is maintained. 

Case 2

You have provided your belief that privacy is amoral right that can be used to protect the personal right and to ensure an individual has the freedom to dictate their interest. You are also successful in discussing the role of Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act (HIPAA) in aiding the protection of patient information when being used by health professionals. The article provides an in-depth understanding of the concept of privacy and its exceptions.  It also provides an example thus increasing the understanding of the user and diversifying the scope of privacy. Although your analysis does not identify negative and positive aspects of not adhering to the rules, it reminds the public that they have the right to control the access to their medical data. I believe that you should provide specific instances on how HIPAA has helped in enhancing safety of information in health institutions. 


Wartenberg, D. (2010, March). Privacy versus Public Health: The Impact of Current Confidentiality Rules. Retrieved from

Your Rights Under HIPAA. (2017, February 01). Retrieved January 23, 2018, from

Sample English Argumentative Essay on 21st century relevance of traditional text books in Thai Primary school environment assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

21st century relevance of traditional text books in Thai Primary school environment


In Thailand and on the global platform, English is an essential second language because it is used in numerous areas of interaction, which include different platforms such as technology and the economy. This implies that by embracing English as second language students in Thailand will acquire an additional natural means of communication. According to a report by the UNICEF, successful and effective education is only possible when there is an environment that allows students to engage in an effective learning process (Ferlazzo & Hull-Sypnieski, 2012). One of the aspects includes the availability of materials such as textbook, which is critical and relevant in the 21st century ESL classrooms in Thailand.

Textbooks in the 21st century ESL classrooms in Thailand

The objective of the 21st century education system in Thailand according to McGrath (2013) is to equip students with skills that will ensure that they develop better communication skills; they become critical, creative, and collaborative thinkers. In the context of ESL classrooms in Thailand, the objective of the teacher s to ensure that the students are equipped with the skills that can enhance their ability to interact in the English language with limited difficulties. Despite the availability of the internet, that enhances the availability of information that is accessible to students promptly, ESL textbooks are still relevant because of the realization that the ability of the student to learn the English language effectively improves with an effective use of textbooks.

This assertion is according to Ferlazzo & Hull-Sypnieski (2012) is based on the realization that textbooks are critical learning instruments, which impact student learning. their effectiveness and their possibility of improving student learning of English as the second language is because they are based on a curriculum that is developed with a background of the students who are expected to learn. An understanding of the student’s background means that the textbooks will incorporate a language that is easily understood since it will be at the appropriate level for the teachers and students. Furthermore, effective learning through textbooks is also realizable when teachers adapt their pedagogy with the objective of achieving effective use. This is an indication that for effective integration of textbooks in ESL classroom in Thailand, the education planners are required to engage in the assessment of the process of developing and distributing English textbooks to students to ensure that there is uniformity.

Existing studies on effective education in the view of Ferlazzo & Hull-Sypnieski (2012) have demonstrated that the availability and to use of textbooks especially in learning a new language is critical in the production of gains in student learning. This is because through ESL textbooks the students will be exposed to a text-rich environment, which will increase knowledge sharing among the students. Furthermore, it is through textbooks that weak students will be motivated to improve their performance and ability to learn because textbooks are responsible for assigning homework’s while providing students with increased learning time.

According to McGrath (2013), there are studies that have indicated that the use of textbooks should be limited in ESL classroom because they are inadequate in supplying the needs of every learner. According to these studies, the topics that characterize ESL textbooks are irrelevant to actual application and incorporation in actual classes because they lack paucity and motivation for the students. For these researchers, textbooks are a hindrance to the creativity and initiative based on their structure and sequence. Despite this negative assertion, there is a wide acceptance that textbooks are essential in the language classroom. This is based on the realization that any teaching and learning will sometime be incomplete unless there are relevant textbooks. This is because it is through the textbooks that it is possible to develop an explicit framework for teachers and learners of clues, in the form of a syllabus. Through the textbooks, there is a systematized approach to learning that helps the students to gradually develop knowledge and skills that will help them in effective communication.

Content appropriateness in the view of McGrath (2013), is also critical in assessing the role that textbooks play in ESL classrooms. Content appropriateness arises from the perception of the teachers on the role of textbooks in boosting the possibility that learners will effectively learn a language. The perception of the language teacher is critical in influencing what they do in ESL classrooms. This is an indication that to assert the relevance of textbooks it will be important to assess the thoughts and perceptions of teachers because it is critical in the formation of judgments and making decisions. From this requirement, it is possible to conclude that textbooks can only be relevant in ESL classrooms if they provide teachers with the flexibility of incorporating other materials and ideas that can be used in addressing any shortcomings that may arise from existing textbooks.

Providing teachers with flexibility in their practice further assert the relevance of textbooks because they act as guides for supporting ESL teachers whenever they want to change their practices with the objective of aligning with curricular reforms. It is from the textbooks that the teachers will understand and communicate to the students the explicit goals that are directly linked to proposed activities. This will be a way through which the teachers will be provided with knowledge and support that will be critical in understanding and implementing teaching plans. When teachers used textbooks as guides it will be relatively easier to reinforce pedagogical content knowledge (McGrath, 2013). This will be a way of facilitating the presentation of alternatives and freedom of choice by engaging ESL teachers in Thailand in an ongoing reflection process.

The idea of ESL is based on the understanding that it is important to learn English as a widely accepted tool for communication on the international platform. ESL textbooks are structured learning instruments that have been developed by professional based on their understanding of the difficulties involved in learning English as a second language. In the 21st century, globalization is one of the most trending topics and this implies that countries should not limit themselves but confining their actions within their borders. For a country such as Thailand, the acquisition of ESL textbooks from other countries will be effective in improving the learning process because it will provide an opportunity for understanding the approaches that are used by other countries (Ferlazzo & Hull-Sypnieski, 2012). This does not mean suddenly switching to learning materials that from overseas, instead, with a flexible curriculum the teachers will be allowed to assess the most appropriate books that they can incorporate in their classroom to improve the learning process. This approach to the incorporation of English books from other countries means that these textbooks should be used as facilitators of the learning process instead of barriers. This process will require encouraging the students to embrace the use of English textbooks in the same way they use the internet while searching information from other countries.

An effective way of learning ESL is by exposing students to materials that are relatively difficult to understand or material that they are not accustomed to seeing. This will be an effective way of boosting their curiosity towards learning because they will be interested in finding out more about the subject under study. Exposure to non-local content is, therefore, a relevant way through which students can widen their knowledge. The approaches and methodologies used by the teacher in explaining the underlying concepts in ESL classrooms are vital in imparting knowledge. For ESL students n Thailand, the relevance of the textbooks will be revealed when proficient and competent teachers in the English language teach them. For the teachers, textbooks only act as guides making them exemplary in the 21st century learning process (Ferlazzo & Hull-Sypnieski, 2012). It is through an understanding of globalization that ESL teachers recognize that textbooks will provide students with a systematic understanding of other approaches that are used in the world.


Effective teaching of ESL requires the incorporation of textbooks in the classroom to be used as guides towards understanding the curriculum. When teachers use these textbooks as guides, it is easier to incorporate supplementary teaching materials that will be critical in serving the needs of learners. The structured approach to learning that textbooks provide implies that teachers will not engage in haphazard learning practices considering that the process of learning English as a new language will require the gradual introduction of course concepts according to the understanding of the learners.


Ferlazzo, L., & Hull-Sypnieski, K. (2012). The ESL / ELL Teacher’s Survival Guide: Ready-to-

Use Strategies, Tools, and Activities for Teaching English Language Learners of All Levels. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

McGrath, I. (2013). Teaching Materials and the Roles of EFL/ESL Teachers: Practice and

Theory. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Sample Economics Research Paper on Impact of Technology Trends on Enterprises college application essay help: college application essay help

            Technology is a tool that is used in the application of knowledge to human life scientifically. It is essential to the manipulation and change related to human environment. Technology upgrades and advances are occurring at overwhelming speed. Consequently, it is easy for an enterprise to fail to take advantage of the innovation, and thus pave the way for competition from other entities. Technology advancement affects business from different angles including production, advertising, sales, and supplies. Essentially, the only constant attribute of the corporate sector is change, which is inevitable. Some of the technology trends that could prove useful in business enterprises include big data, cloud computing, and mobility.

            The helpfulness of operating systems and applications of smart phones makes every company think of various ways that it could exploit markets through the exploitation of the technology. Indeed, the growth in IT consumerization has enabled the integration of consumer apps and mobile devices into enterprises (Chuan, 13). This plays a big role in increasing the productivity of workers because it enables them make quick responses to market changes and arising opportunities (Vanmechelen 40). In short, enterprises can keep up with the evolving market by exploiting devices such as mobile phones. The mobile phones also give employees a freedom due to the increased access of information and they are also able to perform different tasks such as sending and receiving data outside the office. Mobility therefore, promotes better productivity.

            Big data is helpful to enterprises today because it keeps growing and thus allows companies access to big data volumes. The frequency of data changes creates an overflow of data that is unstructured. Then, the data creates a platform from which an enterprise can acquire significant insight about operational costs, customers, and other leading concepts in businesses (McCrorey 34). The data can be accessed through sources such as social media and mobile devices,, which promotes knowledge within businesses.

            When analyzed quickly and compressively, businesses stand an excellent chance at making informed decisions fast thus building competitive advantages. In memory computing would be helpful in managing, processing and analyzing the complex flow of data within the enterprise (Makela). It allows business enterprises different advantages, and they include increased operational efficiency and improved information. Additionally, the business remains competitive because information is power..

            Cloud computing is one of the technology trends that enables businesses and industries of different sizes to compete at higher levels because, it allows them to store, share, and consume resources in much easier and better ways as compared to before. It is also cost effective and guarantees enhanced flexibility. Currently, in-memory computing has enabled business transactions that initially took 45 minutes to be completed in six seconds (Cerra 26). Therefore, the technology saves a lot of time for businesses and offers efficiency in terms of business processes. Other benefits of cloud computing include elasticity, increased access to information, and cost efficiency of production and time.

            Such technology trends act as building blocks for enterprises considering the fact that they enable the enterprises run better than before. For example they allow corporations to achieve increased productivity, efficiency, and agility. At the same time; they are them to cut costs and save time. Undoubtedly, it is essential for companies leverage these technologies to drive innovation.. The business world is competitive and hence every enterprise has to keep up with such technology trends to achieve success.

Works Cited

Chuan, Pang, Vasil Khachidze, Ivan K. W. Lai, Yide Liu, Sohail Siddiqui, and Tim            Wang. Innovation in the High-Tech Economy [recurso Electrónico]. , n.d.. Internet r            resource.

Cerra, Allison, Kevin Easterwood, and Jerry Power. Transforming Business: Big Data, Mobility,         and Globalization. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley, 2013. Internet resource.

Makela, Lindsey. Digitalist Magazine. Top Three Technology Trends with the biggest impacts o        on Companies. 2012.

McCrorey, Dee. Innovation in a Reinvented World: 10 Essential Elements to Succeed in the New     World of Business. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2012. Internet resource.

Vanmechelen, Kurt, Jörn Altmann, and Omer Rana. Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and      Services: 9th International Conference, Gecon 2012, Berlin, Germany, November 27-28,  2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. Internet             resource.

Sample Aviation Research Paper on Role of Human Factors in Aircraft Accidents free college essay help

Role of Human Factors in Aircraft Accidents


Human errors have been responsible for several aircraft accidents. Human factors in aviation relate to errors committed by people in the aviation industry. Experts define human error as a planned action, procedure and guideline associated with humans that potentially fail to achieve expected and desired consequences without the involvement of some chance or unanticipated agency (Greg, 2010).  Humans often fail to follow strict strategies, procedures, and plans as set by professional aviation bodies. For example, accidents have occurred as a result of miscommunication between crew members or pilots failing to adhere to acceptable standards and guidelines to guarantee the safety of those on board. Therefore the aviation industry has developed remarkable improvements in safety that are focused dealing with human weaknesses. Aviation safety principles have continuously been adapted and adopted broadly to ensure safety benefits (Greg, 2010). However, guaranteeing safety has been a major problem due to the nature of modern aircraft, applications, and systems. Despite the challenges that it faces, the aviation industry has made significant steps towards ensuring the safety measures to make flying one of the safest modes of transport. 

Human Factors and Aircraft Safety

There have been numerous accidents caused due to human errors. For example, Eastern Airlines Lockheed L1011 crash of 1972. In this accident, the crew members were busy trying to fix a minor problem, a bulb in the landing gear, and thus left aircraft unmanned. The crew members failed to coordinate activities among themselves. They did not communicate effectively to have at least one of them to take control of the plane. Moreover, they were unaware that the autopilot application had disengaged and thus prompting the aircraft to enter a gentle descend. Investigators concluded the cause of accidents was the failure of the crew members to effectively monitor flight instruments and procedures during the last minutes of landing (Greg, 2010). Environmental awareness would have prevented the accident, as it would have enabled the crew to detect the unexpected descending of the plane soon enough to prevent impact with the ground. Furthermore, preoccupation with the malfunctioning component distracted their attention and allowed the plane to go off course. Evidence reveals that some accidents in the aviation industry have been caused by instances of the captains of planes doing most of the work while other crew remains unoccupied (Greg, 2010). Studies also highlight that members of the crew often suppress teamwork and error checking or simply fail to cooperate (Greg, 2010).

Aviation industry has vehemently improved on physical and structural dependability and veracity to reduce accidents. These initiatives have been geared towards prevention of accidents as a result of structural malfunctions. “Human errors are still a principal threat to flight safety because estimates show that up to 75 percent of all aircraft accidents have major human factors components” (Greg, 2010). There is not a single solution for human mistakes in the aviation industry because every accident is associated with a specific human error that may not be fixed by a solution used to fix another. Experts have opined that errors are multifaceted as they are the product of specific design, procedures, training, and the environment (Greg, 2010).

Human fatigue has prompted pilots to make mistakes in the management and navigation of aircraft controls. Research proves that stressed and fatigued pilots occasionally retracted the undercarriage instead of the flaps. Investigators revealed that accidents occurred when structural controls were identical and prearranged close to each other (Greg, 2010). Nonetheless, the chances of such errors happening can be reduced by physically making controls distinct from each other to make them align with the functions they are meant to control. Pilots have also been experiencing problems reading the altimeter. Experiments conducted regarding this aspect revealed that it took more than 7 seconds for pilots to interpret readings. The issue was reported to be the cause of 11 percent of errors of more than 1000 feet (Greg, 2010).

Furthermore, studies have been conducted to identify and address issues regarding the direction and motion relationship between controls and information that is displayed. Investigations have also been undertaken to ascertain the effects of prolonged periods of vigilance concerning performance, mostly on radar operations. Findings have revealed that human errors are manifested in radar management and pilot fatigue (Greg, 2010). Early studies demonstrated that pilot errors might not have been a comprehensive reason for most accidents. Cockpit design and interfaces presented problems to pilots who then made costly mistakes.

Human omissions and errors have been observed in situations whereby pilots fail to operate in alignment with standard operating procedures. Aircraft crew members are expected to use daily operating checklists. As one pilot reads, the other effectively completes a task. Problems occur when one makes mistakes, such as misreading or skipping an element in the checklist or the pilot tasked with completing a task failing to perform a task as stipulated in the checklist. Additionally, pilots and crew members hand over aircrafts to their colleagues using structured checklists. Aviation professionals opine that structured documentation process effectively transfer decisive information in between shifts to ascertain that nothing is omitted during handover process (Greg, 2010). Strict adherence to checklists is meant to ensure and reinforce safety within and outside airports. Humans that control airport runways are also prone to errors: sometimes they fail to operate as per the expectations of their jobs. A lot of activities are conducted on the runways, including weather briefing and other non-standard procedures that rely on accurate information. Errors could result in accidents. Therefore, operators should not omit any crucial operation or failure to complete the required procedures.  Indeed, proper adherence to checklists has been a critical factor in reducing human errors and ensure the safety of aircraft and operations.

Crew Resource Management as a Solution

The solution to human errors lies in crew resource management. CRM is a term that was coined by NASA to help improve safety in the aviation industry. It is an assortment of elements and concepts touching on communication skills, the creation of awareness, decision making, problem-solving, and teamwork management. CRM polishes cognitive and interpersonal skills of those involved in aviation industry operations: maintenance, runway, radar, and cockpit management. Today, aviation regulatory bodies have comfortably declared that CRM training is mandatory for pilots and industry players to gain more insights on ensuring safety and smooth-lining operations. Studies reveal that CRM knowledge helps in distilling old truisms into more coherent and convincing methods of management (Sky Brary, 2018). Safe and effective flight maneuvers depend on the acquisition of a comprehensive understanding of aircraft operation skills and a clear mastery of personal skills among the crew members. Cognitive skills can be integrated to other elements, such as proper communication within the cockpit to necessitate sound decision making. CRM necessitates crew members to acquire interpersonal skills that inspire improvement in coordinated relationships among the crew members.

Long before the introduction of CRM, accidents involved airworthy aircraft that were under control crashing into terrains. The phenomenon was blamed partly on human errors, and it prompted the coining of CRM to bring sanity and stop mistakes that led to accidents. The extensive uptake of CRM concepts has greatly changed the aviation culture. Initial approaches were aimed at predicting how human errors could be focused and analyzed to promote safety on the flight deck. However, the concept seems to have disappeared because its contents have been absorbed in the training and development procedures for all aircraft operations. CRM has now been integrated into the aviation industry. For that matter, it has successfully instigated and changed the culture and resulted in significant safety gains. Studies indicate that CRM considers humans as fundamentally fallible, especially under stress, and considers error as part of the human condition (Sky Brary, 2018). The initiative is not only meant to eliminate errors but to analyze already committed errors to mitigate consequences and prevent future mistakes.


Human errors have been a major cause of aviation accidents. Pilots have made mistakes during flights that have jeopardized the safety of the people on board. Human errors include communication problems in the cockpit, non-adherence to safety standards, and inappropriate handling of checklists. The aviation industry has modernized physical components of aircraft to be responsive and flexible. Humans operate these systems, and so it is critical to ensure that they are trained to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to improve performance. Crew resource management is the solution to human errors as it brings on board comprehensive knowledge on communication, decision making, and crisis awareness to allow aviation professionals successfully navigate through controls and systems.


Greg Griffin. (2010). Human error is the biggest obstacle to 100 percent flight safety. Denver

Post. Retrieved from

Sky Brary. (2018). Crew Resource Management. Sky Brary. Retrieved from

Sample Sociology Essay Paper on Interdisciplinary in the Study of Culture and Society admission essay help: admission essay help

            Interdisciplinary allows a broad and analytical approach to culture and society studies in different ways. It allows these disciplines to sit along and between the edges of other disciples as well as allowing transgression and invasion of their protocols and procedures. This means that interdisciplinary allows a certain discipline to involve or draw on other branches of knowledge. The exchange would involve either two disciplines or more that are combined to come up with one collective activity. The aims and intentions remitted by cultural studies are guided towards a specific public reception. Such receptions allow cultural studies to garner a strategic mission which would be pedagogically and politically effective. Interdisciplinary also provides clarifications towards the roles and orientations that cultural studies could provide for positive impact in different instances such as politically, ethically and academically. The role of interdisciplinarity in cultural and society studies is therefore a tool used to teach about societal impact through cultural studies.

            Individual activities would not be able to lead to societal organization. When people act in some kind of collectivity, it is not correct to assume that interaction is present. To coordinate social practice activities, there is need for humans to communicate, hence the development of a common language that is necessary in the development of tool-making for particular human activities (Capone, 15). Human activities on the other hand aim at the task of overcoming societal tendencies that come off as habitual contrasts. A different view or rather new knowledge is acquired or borrowed from one discipline and used to support another like cultural studies is used to support society studies making it one discipline (Capone 19). This breeds inequality versus equality, common good versus personal preferences, and facts versus views among others.

            The social issue of immigration in America and Europe today would be a good example of application of the concepts behind culture and society. Looking at this issue, one comes to a conclusion that reproduction of society is bent on the roles that activity and interaction play (Crockett 12). The integration of immigrants and their children into American society seems to be a diverse issue. This is owed to the fact that despite being immigrants, they affect the society both positively and negatively in terms of labor, markets, demographically and crime. However, in one way or the other, they bring about cultural diversity through intermarriages which brings about mixed feelings of both acceptance and rejection. As seen earlier in the discussion, this brings about equality versus inequality as it raises different societal issues such as employment, crime, education, and cultural ethnicity among others. While some people believe that the arrival of predominantly nonwhite immigrants would displace native workers, others believe that it brings diversity that bears different approaches which would be important in societal building (Crockett 27). This shows that others believe that immigrants play a big social role in in strengthening some of the best American traditions and revitalize neighborhoods that are otherwise decaying.

            It might not be possible to solve all controversies involving immigrants even after enactment of restrictions against immigrants but many immigrants have been absorbed into the American mainstream. As much as some have participated in criminal activities, they have also made enormous contributions towards most American institutions as they brought a taste of something different. This shows that interdisciplinary in the study of culture and society could be deemed important and unavoidable. To create a positive societal impact, cultural studies need to borrow from other disciplines.

Works Cited

Capone, Alessandro, and Jacob L. Mey. Interdisciplinary Studies in Pragmatics, Culture and Society. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016. Internet resource.

Crockett, David, et al. Immigration, culture, and ethnicity in transformative consumer research. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 30.1 (2011): 47-54.

Sample English Paper on Web Page Analysis computer science essay help

            The web page analyzed is “The Rational Male.” The URL for the site is


The author of the page is Rollo Tomassi. He has a degree where he majored in fined arts and psychology. This web page discusses the intersexual dynamics in the modern society and gives men the tools they need to navigate their relationships with women and other men. The psychology part of his studies is put to great use in this website. Rollo Tomassi is a writer also, and he has used this website well to sell his books that advocate for positive masculinity to be practiced by men.

Purpose and Coverage

The purpose of this webpage is to make the modern men and young males aware that they are living in a feminine defined society. It wakes them from the slumber of thinking they are the superior gender to the realization that they ascribe to a reality that is defined by the feminine imperative. He reveals that the sexual strategies of men and women are contradictory and that one of them must be compromised for the other to be achieved. He busts the myth of the soul mate and reveals that it is the reason why so many men have committed suicide after making the women they love their mission only to be rejected later on. The primary purpose of this website is to make men wise and encourage them to go on a journey of self-improvement. This website is a comprehensive resource of information that can benefit men and women to know how to best handle their relationships.


The content discussed on this page is very controversial, as it goes against the conditioning that men have been given all their lives and is treated with ire by women. The author refers to peer-reviewed literature and reports while the articles written by the author are not peer-reviewed. The factual information in the website is derived from works of scientist and other writers. The writer has used links to the works that he has referred to in the articles. The information seems credible, as the arguments are well researched. Further, it is very easy to refer to real-life situations from information on the site. There is no sloppiness in writing, and this makes the articles enjoyable to read.


The author has indicated the date of publication for each article. He has also organized the site such that one can seek the archives and find specific articles. The last update on the site was done on March 15, 2018.

Integrity of Information

The author has attributed all the statistics and other important data used on the site to their origin using links. Often, when discussing a current even in the intersexual dynamics, the author provides links to various sources so that the reader can read further. Each article is preceded by either an image or online video that is related to the subject of the article.

Objectivity and Point of View

This page is meant to help men improve themselves and their lives in a society where their value is seen at most as superfluous. The advances in gender equality and technology have left men with no purpose. This website seeks to install a sense of purpose in men. Therefore, it is biased in favor of positive masculinity. The page uses a composed and convincing language. There are no advertisements on this webpage.

Sample Urban Studies Essay Paper on Public Spaces in Urban Centers computer science essay help

Public Spaces in Urban Centers

            The issue I will be examining is public spaces in urban centers. Over the years, the urban population has grown tremendously. The need for new office spaces and residential houses is insatiable. New companies and organizations are coming up and urban populations are increasing while its spaces are not. This has put significant pressure on the available spaces including public spaces such as parks. In a country where economic value is tied to every decision, public spaces are increasingly becoming under a threat. The use of economic value model in evaluating the importance of resources including public spaces has radically changed how they are viewed within economic, social and political circles. This has been further exacerbated by the growing technological advancements that are increasingly derailing the importance of public spaces especially in urban centers (Gandy, 2005; Low, 2006).

            Through this research, I hope to go beyond the definition of public spaces. It will identify the various public spaces. In addition, this research will examine the role played by public spaces in urban centers in the light of growing pressure from urban population and economic development and technological advancements. It will also discuss other threats to public spaces. Through the research, I also hope to learn some of the ways that can be used to protect public spaces.

            This topic touches on Sociology, Political Science and Social Science. The research will primarily target local leaders in areas which have or had public spaces. This population can offer a deep insight on the role public spaces play in the modern and threats they face. They can also offer firsthand information on some of the ways these spaces can be protected. The research will address the question: what is the place of public spaces in a modern world.  


Gandy, M. (2005). Cyborg urbanization: complexity and monstrosity in the contemporary city. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(1), pp. 26-49.          

Low, S. (2006). The erosion of public space and the public realm: paranoia, surveillance and privatization in New York City. City and Society, 18(1), pp. 43-49.

Sample Business Studies Business Plan Paper on The Giants of Sportswear: Fashion Trends Throughout the Centuries college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Business Plan Project: Part 1

Business Name

XYZ Footwear

Mission Statement

Our mission at XYZ Footwear is to be one of the leading companies in the manufacture and distribution of footwear for the American athletic industry. Our aim is to provide high-quality sports footwear to a wide customer base. As a company, we pledge to make our footwear products easily available in the American market through physical retail outlets and online sites such as Amazon. XYZ’s management firmly believes that long-term success depends on the commitment and contribution of all stakeholders including customers, shareholders, as well as community members. The company will consider every stakeholder’s opinion and contribution in the execution of every decision made.

Industry Profile

Research in America’s footwear industry reveals that at the turn of the new millennium (2000), America’s population spent around $38 billion to purchase footwear products. At the time, the overall wholesale value of America’s sports footwear stood at $8.7 billion. Further research reveals that sports footwear account for approximately one-third of all footwear products purchased in the American market. However, from a global perspective, consumers’ preference for athletic footwear is on a decline with many people purchasing casual and comfortable shoes(Campaign 12). This has been attributed to the rise in the number of people embracing casual dress codes, especially in the workplace. 

Regarding profitability, the American footwear industry is not only challenging but also saturated meaning that companies are recording less profitability than expected. Additionally, there are significant changes in the fashion trends, intense competition among companies in the industry such as Nike and Puma, as well as the rise in price-conscious consumers, all of which have caused a slowed growth in America’s footwear industry (Demeester 5). In an attempt to increase sales and profitability, in the long run, companies are shifting from physical retail outlets to online platforms such as Amazon that are easily accessed by consumers and offer door-to-door delivery. Also, to overcome stiff domestic competition, companies are shifting to international markets and are exporting more footwear such as running shoes to foreign markets.

In the past five years, the economy has been relatively favorable for companies dealing with the manufacture and distribution of sports footwear. Economic factors such as the low rate of inflation, fast economic growth, as well as increased employment rates have resulted in healthy consumer spending that has been beneficial to the sports footwear industry. Sports events such as the Olympics and the World Cup also boost sales of sports footwear in the U.S. market (Campaign 13). Heading to the 2018 World Cup, XYZ could benefit significantly in terms of sales. Concerning seasonality, the sports footwear industry experiences stability throughout the year with increased sales of sports footwear being recorded during spring, the back-to-school season, as well as the Christmas season. Of course, given the sports footwear industry’s mature and competitive nature, entry and exit barriers exist. The industry’s leaders such as Nike, Puma, and Reebok are well established and have done everything to make the industry what it is today. New entrants such as XYZ Footwear could find it difficult to penetrate the already competitive market. Companies in the footwear industry also face barriers that prevent them from exiting the industry. Some of the exit barriers faced by companies in this industry include indebtedness and lawsuits that often filed by stakeholders in an effort to claim residual assets (Campaign 15).


Works Cited

Campaign, Clean Clothes. “Sportswear Industry Data and Company Profiles: Background Information for the Play Fair at the Olympics Campaign.” (2004).

Demeester, Leen. The Giants of Sportswear: Fashion Trends Throughout the Centuries., 2016.

Sample Art Paper on Religion through Art easy essay help

            Historically, the social environment of man had been coddled and involved in magic and notions that correspond to the disclosure of religion. The ancient man was fascinated by the natural experience that he created symbols of the events to secure the real occurrence. The art created by the primitive man was supernatural with logical constructions expressing emotions. This magical response was the source of different faith, which established a particular way of creating an explicit religion that exalted cultural and ethical values of a society. In the development of human civilization, art has been a way of understanding cultural values. The more the culture expanded, the superior the responsiveness of artistic experience developed. The life of a human being in every society was administered by definite religious thoughts and were represented by art in the form of images signifying a solid tradition. Consequently, there cannot be a great art or great period of art with no close connection to religion. For instance, the famous art of Greece is a result of religious passion in the society. Moreover, music stems from the singing of Godly hymns that unintentionally create a movement because of its magical response and the movement of a prosaic sign produces the outset of dance.

            In India, for instance, the Indian temple architecture in the tastiness of its development creates an intellectual and real approach to ultimate standard of which the divinity through the solid work of art and the building is its body and house. Images are given form by statue and work of art whose links articulates in line, amount, and color the love of the unconditional to which Gods and mythology own their subsistence.

            Through historic analysis, it is apparent that mythologies form a larger factor in creating an explicit school of art. For example, the Byzantine school of painting in Europe has the same approach as the Buddhist school in India. During that period, the art was almost religious across the globe because of the motivation that people received from the caves of Ajanta that was similar to the Byzantine Art. During that period, life was incorporated and regulated by religion. Their religious realization was eventually embodied into the sphere of arts. However, there were secluded inclinations besides religious faiths that were commonly noticed within the western art after the Renaissance. The artists are free and autonomous with distinctiveness in origin and personality that dominates art. This character is also apparent in their way of lives.

Moreover, in India, the Indo-Persian Art provides an expression of personal approach but the passion for the beauty of nature is an evident tribute of absolute. Therefore, among all the fine arts, two main things are significant, man and activities of nature. When man and nature are interconnected, the notion of Absolute and release are introduced and submission of different resources to realize nature is art.

            In general, religion is defined as the realization of nature while art is among the means of its identification. Religion inspires and has a dependent feature of developing humanity all through this materialistic world. Nonetheless, art may be acknowledged as a language of delivering its implication in life. The ideal example is in India where according to the Indian mythology, life is governed by three ideas. The first one is Dharma, which is the regulation of human virtue and cosmic order. Artha entails the amassed wealth, and Kama the origin of love and passion. These rudiments of human social arrangement lead to the way of acknowledging supreme and release. The unanimity of these edicts directs the eventual desire to find truth. Therefore, religion involves the construction of authority for the living, which involves breathing and upholding the cosmic values. On this basis, art erect several paths that lead to the lone climax where recognition of the supreme is imminent.

            Generally, conceptual or verbal conversation is able to convey information about how human beings feel. Because everyone is a whole person, the element of “I,” and not just a mental power, is significant in the way people feel. Art affects persons specifically as individuals and arouses their feelings rather than sending out some theoretical information. Art has rational elements, which are always steered by emotions. This forms the main purpose of art, which is to directly impact our intellect discernment and emotions. This concept is the main reason why art is more prevailing as compared to other models and words. Owing to its nature, art can also train and control human emotions.

            Art is significant in human life besides being pleasing and desirable to many people. Given that art has to do with personal sentiments, people can apply art to be inspired by these emotions for other purposes. Consequently, the arts are applied in all key aspects of human activity to improve them, for instance, arts sell as a product or marketing tool or are applied in association with politics to advance agendas. They are mainly used in religion to develop religious experience.     

            The concept of the connection between art and truth is of extreme significance for the subject of art and religion because religion and theology are founded on the claim of truth. The main concern with art in connection with the truth was discovered by Plato, which was related to poetic fiction in association with truth (Cameron n.p). Nonetheless, until recently, there have been several queries regarding this concern. One of the explanations provided in answering the concern is that there are numerous types of truth. Plato largely implied the truth of correspondence. From that line of thought of correspondence to reality, the majority of literature, poetry, and some other forms of arts are false and misleading. That is the main reason why Plato stated that they should be excluded from the society.  Nevertheless, another significant category of truth is revelation that unveils and discloses details about something else. From this standpoint, many artworks are true. This perception was also supported by Plato when he noticed aspects of music. Music and other elegant arts enhance the indulgent of some truth about the humankind, for instance, harmony and unity. This notion can be attested by listening to some pieces, for instance, by Bach, Mozart, or liturgical musicians. Truth as confession is one of the significant points of communication between art and religion. Another category of truth that relates to religion is the truth of coherence. This kind of truth is confined within a consistent and united plot of something that is true and appropriate even though it may not match to anything out of this scheme. 

            Art can also be viewed from the aesthetic or beauty sense. Art and aesthetic discernment, or our sense of beauty, is also directly related to the cognitive purpose and familiarity (Maiste 140). For instance, proportion and fraction is significant to many arts similar to other subjects like mathematics, physics or geometry. In addition, the sagacity of what is proper, that is, taste, style, or the wisdom of balance is vital to the arts in the same manner people endeavor to have a balanced conduct and what is correct through ethics. Another central area is the impartial nature of our approval of art, which is referred to as aesthetic approach. By learning to view arts in an impartial manner, that is, aside from any personal interest or attainment, people gain knowledge of surpassing personal interest in morals. It is important to note that art and beauty are significant in developing an individual’s sense of transcendence. Art and beauty are enjoyable, however, the basis of this fact is uncertain. Therefore, the rules and ideologies of art rise above us, probably signifying the existence of a higher theory, for instance, the divine in the universe that brings in the concept of religion.

            Arts and religion are inseparable. Historically, most religious civilizations from aboriginal cultures to contemporary religions used the arts. In the same manner, most of what is referred to as “arts” was religious objects or representation of religious themes. In the past, both communities and individual persons focused on religious art as one of the most significant ventures. Numerous religious conflicts around art emerged until now that led to mass obliteration of art objects and deaths. The human discernment of the world is synaesthetic, which means that it does not only emphasize on language sense but also use vision, hearing, and other senses. Powers, for instance, vision, hearing, and language are greatly mutually dependent, and so no one can prioritize any of them. Moreover, it is also apparent that areas save for language, that is, vision and hearing, or customary artistic media can articulate a given part of our understanding, for example, religious.

            Therefore, art has a played a major role in religion. Arts have always been applied in expressing the divine, for example, in Christian liturgical services. The reality is that many arts have a divine origin and most of their parts are relevant or at least corresponding to the divine.  Commonly, the arts, owing to their strong poignant impact and aptitude to act instantly and directly upon people’s perception before conceptual thinking, improves any area of experience, mainly religious experience. In addition, both natural and artistic beauty in art induces what is commonly referred to as a sense of transcendence, or the existence of some deeper or divine ideologies in the world. Art and beauty are instantly gratifying but the motives for this are uncertain. This implies that the regulations and values of art are beyond our imagination or transcend us, perhaps signifying the existence of a higher code, which is the divine in the world. Most of the arts are used for such rationales by most religious traditions, but exclusively among the Christian tradition by the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic traditions.

            However, there are several anxieties between art and religion. The strong emotional impact of art raises concerns. The audience is usually abstracted by the beauty they see and concentrates on the arts themselves. Therefore, this aspect distracts individuals from the words of the scriptures, religious ideas, or sentiments expressed in art. For instance, music, on top of building and uplifting emotion, as well as the sentiment of the divine, can also be merely pleasant and divert from the word of the Scripture and liturgical texts. This notion applies to images that are too alluring and attractive. The anxiety creates strong anti-arty inclinations, particularly among the Protestant practice where some branches are forced to rebuff the visual arts altogether.

            Another apprehension about religion that is represented through art is about how well arts can symbolize the divine and what precisely they stand for. Along with some civilizations, only the words or scriptures and speech can express proper doctrines and thoughts about the character of God. However, some believe that arts do it inaccurately and unclearly, which simply lead followers astray instead of passing on proper teachings. For instance, some artistic music and images are theoretically clear and particular just as words. Nonetheless, the kind of message they put across is not clear.

            In conclusion, it is clear that most religious practices and ceremonies use art. Much art, which is associated to a kind of religion, uses representative images and other artistic elements that are relevant to the belief. Such forms of art are used as decoration and beauty that affects the emotional perception of people. In addition, art is also utilized in praising what is being honored. Therefore, despite several concerns with regards to art and religion, art has played a significant role in enhancing religion and its practices. Generally, religious art assists people in their search for security and optimism. Currently, society is searching for peace and an affix to clutch onto. Therefore, art through religion boosts the spirit and generates peace within in a passionate manner.

Works Cited

Cameron, Janet. Plato’s Argument: Art is an Imitation of an Imitation. 2013. Accessed 22 March  2006. 

Carter, Curtis. “Art and Religion: A Transreligious Approach.”Religious Communities and the Arts: Arts in Society (1976).

Maiste, Juhan. “ART AND TRUTH.” Baltic Journal of Art History 7 (2014): 135.

Sample Nursing Essay Paper on Qualitative Research in Nursing essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Question 1

When conducting qualitative research, the method I would use to collect data would be oral interviews. Oral interviews are better at the collection of data because the responses are not limited to close-ended questions.  This would be the case with closed questionnaires. It is also an excellent way to get clarification on the information given using follow up questions. As a researcher, I have more than the answers given by the respondents to rely on (Schrems 338).  The face to face interaction provides the researcher with the opportunity to gauge the authenticity of the information given by the respondent judging from the nonverbal cues. However, face to face interviews can be limited if the inquiry of the researcher is intrusive. This can be caused by the fear of the respondent to get judged (Schrems 340). An example of research in which oral interviews are not recommended is one that seeks to find out the sexual behaviors of the respondents.

Question 2

This research will help me improve my interpersonal relations. Those skills will come handy when dealing with clients. Research promotes the development of deductive and inductive skills that can help a nurse solve various challenges facing the patients. It also gives the nurse the patience to seek out information, process it and come up with an actionable plan (Schrems 341). Qualitative research is all-encompassing and helps the nurse to consider different variables when planning the treatment approach for the patients (Schrems 341). Research adorns the nurse with a curious mind and makes him or her continue reading and researching on the new techniques of care that are developed in the profession.

Work Cited

Schrems, Berta M. “Mind the Gaps in Ethical Regulations of Nursing Research.” Nursing Ethics 20.3 (2013): 336-47. ProQuest. Web. 21 Mar. 2018.

Sample English Essay Paper on Cognitive Biases essay help writing: essay help writing

Cognitive Biases


Cognitive biases affect the quality of decision making and outcomes. Reports have linked many disasters and accidents to cognitive biases, where people have made errors and mistake in judgment. For instance, in 1996, eight mountain climbers lost their lives on Mount Everest when they were caught by a snowstorm at the top. Survivors recounted how the accident occurred. It emerged that three cognitive biases were responsible for the tragedy. First, the urged to climb to the top prompted them to continue with expedition despite straining on resources that would have facilitated descend during storms. Second, two climbers may have been overconfident with their climbing skills jeopardizing the safety of others. Third, they were encouraged by their previous expedition not knowing that during such times the weather conditions were good. Unfortunately, overconfidence portrayed by the team leaders led to the death of other team members. There are many cognitive biases that consistently affect decision making. The paper analyses confirmation bias highlighting on its influence in thinking and how it can be prevented.

Confirmation bias

It is the tendency to interpret information in a way that it confirms preconceptions of a person and resulting to statistical errors. Experts delineate that it represents an error made during inductive inference to confirm a hypothesis of a situation or study (Ariely, 2008). Confirmation bias prompts decision makers to assign more weight to evidence that supports hypothesis rather that analyzing the underlying evidence that could disconfirm their hypothesis. Confirmation bias affects thinking as evident in the accident that involved Iran Air Flight 655. The aircraft was shot down by air missiles from USS Vincennes believing it was an F-14 fighter from Iranian Air Force. The entire passengers onboard died. Investigators exposed that the commanding officer was faced a situation characterized with complicated, confusing, and contradictory information which was to be interpreted and reconciled within minutes (Ariely, 2008). Confirmation bias led to the tragedy when the officer did not bother to confirm the aircraft was a fighter jet or a commercial aircraft. This type of bias negatively influences decision making of individuals when they try to construe information, including contradictory evidence to confirm formerly held beliefs. Confirmation bias occurs when available evidence is unclear or incomplete and important decisions must be made under condition of uncertainty. The damaging effects of confirmation bias have prompted intelligence community to design tools and formulate techniques to assist in avoiding them.

There are several ways of preventing occurrence of confirmation bias during decision making and thinking. First, it is important for a person to take all information in and not jump into conclusions. Decision makers should engage in fact finding expeditions and resist the immediate temptations to generate possible hypotheses. Second, there is need to engage in brainstorming sessions to identify potential causes and unclear data that may jeopardize decision making. Third, individuals should highlight potential causes that generate hypotheses about a given situation, then present and compare with those of another person, to see if they match. After that, circle back and investigate the data further to identify fluctuations and consider additional information to confirm or disconfirm explanations.


Cognitive biases are numerous. They have led to tragedies as they influence decision making. Notably, confirmation bias prompts decision makers to rush into concluding based on unconfirmed information. However, it can be avoided through engaging in fact finding, brainstorming and comparing individual assertion with others to either confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis surrounding a particular situation.


Ariely, D. (2008). Predictably irrational: The hidden forces that shape our decisions. New York:

            Harper Collins.

Sample Sociology Essay Paper on Clinical Competency and Ethics in Psychology college essay help online

Quiz 5

Explain what psychology is and what psychologists do. In addition, explain the kinds of topics psychologists are interested in and how they use the scientific method to study them.

Psychology is scientific body of knowledge concerned with the study of mind and behavior. It is a multifaceted discipline whose branches focus on other areas such as human development, sports, healthcare, social sciences and cognitive processes. Psychology is concerned with mental activities where it describes how brain works, organization of memory, interaction of people and learning. Psychology as a discipline has led into development of other disciplines because it adds new information to those bodies of knowledge.

Psychologists are involved in a range of activities where they perform varied roles and responsibilities. Typically, psychologists conduct scientific examinations on the brain to show how it works. With the knowledge, they strive to explain why people behave differently in numerous situations. They are also involved in data collection through observations, interview and survey to explain certain phenomenon affecting people. Further, they are involved in finding patterns that help decipher and predict behaviors to create an understanding why some people behave given manner. Moreover, they design school and work programs that help in the improvement of learning and work activities often affected by myriad psychological issues. Psychologists also work with individuals, couples and families during counseling sessions to promote appropriate behavior changes. Experts outline that in hospitals, they assist other medical practitioners to diagnose mental and emotional disorders of patients and explain why certain individuals exhibit certain traits (Dean, 2010). After which, they carry out treatment plans for these patients in collaboration with physicians and social workers.

Psychologists are interested in studying psychopathology and abnormal behaviors, behaviorism, theory of learning, study of brain and nervous system, clinical psychology and cognitive psychology that focuses internal mental stress. Furthermore, psychologists are involved in the study of animal behavior, counseling psychology, cross-cultural traits, personality development, sport psychology and human development. Psychologists use scientific methods to study these disciplines and topics. Scientific method is based on hypothetical-deductive models that take into account theories about the world which are then used to generate expectations through experiments and observation. The method is fundamentally used to conduct research because it is a consistent way of collecting data and observation to illustrate and assess behavior.

Explain the importance of ethics in psychological research.

Ethics is an important aspect in the field of psychology. Ethical issues often arise in the different settings such as hospitals and private practice. However, there are specific laws that govern psychology practice and partly cover on some ethical problems. Experts reveal that ethics plays a crucial role as it forces psychologists to follow certain guidelines that prevent them from deceiving their clients (Dean, 2010). Ethical principles and standards prompts professionals to follow certain rules aimed to protect the public. For example, when a professional is handling a client who is threatening another with bodily harm, ethics require that the psychologist report such cases to relevant authorities so that appropriate action can be initiated. However, this should be done without breaking the laws of ethics such as protection of privacy and confidentiality of data. Ethics also protect the psychologist from abuse and body harm. Further, code of ethics addresses conflict of interest between a psychologist and client that can fundamentally jeopardize relationship and work. It prohibits establishment of personal relationship between a psychologist and a client. Finally, ethical principles regulate behaviors and ensure that pertinent issues are addressed at each level of interaction. Ethical principles ensure that clients and psychologists are protected against any breaches that may result to physical harm.


Dean Danielle. (2010). Clinical competency and ethics in psychology. Inquiries Journal, Vol. 2.

Retrieved from: Retrieved March 22, 2018.

Sample Economics Paper on Risk Tolerance for Life Situation argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Several factors are considered when it comes to making investments including risk tolerance, time horizon, assets, and age. For a 24-year-old single woman, college graduate, engineer, with $20,0000 savings, the factors that would come into play when investing are age and risk tolerance. The best move or decision for the woman would be to allocate her funds to risky avenues or investments. In this case, her age and savings would make it easier for her to choose between long-term and short-term investments. Being 24 years old and single, she seems to have minimal responsibilities meaning she can easily engage in long-term investments. She can decide to take a risk and invest in stocks or fixed income securities. Often, risk tolerance is higher when earnings are higher. The fact that she is young, energetic, and single means that she can take higher risks to get higher returns.

She can decide to invest about 60 percent of her $20,000 savings into stocks, which though risky, has higher returns. The remaining 40 percent of the savings could be invested in other avenues such as fixed incomes securities, bonds, stocks, and real estate. At her age, she is capable of engaging in aggressive investment that would result in higher returns. Other than stocks, real estate also provides an opportunity for significantly high returns. Only committed and aggressive people who invest in real estate become successful, and the fact that the woman is aggressive cannot be doubted. Since she is not considering entry into partnerships, she should opt for an individual account for her investments. Moreover, being single, there are other potential risks such as health complications meaning that she should also consider investing some of her savings in insurance such as life insurance.

Sample Management Research Paper on Stress and Coping in Students: Research Project Proposal essay help 123

Stress and Coping in Students: Research Project Proposal

Research Problem

Stress is one of the biggest causes of poor academic performance in schools. There are many causes of stress, and so are the impacts of stress. Several personal and environmental factors result in stress among students, and managing them can help in reducing the prevalence of stress in the school context. Understanding the causes of stress from qualitative reports from the students can be one of the most effective strategies for developing an understanding of stress at the school level. To help reduce the prevalence of stress-related poor performance, there is need to understand the different causes of stress and the proposed study will help to accomplish this.

Research Questions

            The research questions for the proposed study include:

What are the major causes of stress among college students?Are their variations in coping strategies used by students in different countries?

Research Aims and Hypothesis

The research aims to determine the causes of stress among students, and the coping strategies that students use against stress. The hypothesis which requires proving is that students from different national backgrounds use different strategies for coping with stress.  

Research Participants

            The choice of research participants for the study will be influenced by the need for enhanced research quality and rigor. Participant selection was discussed by Sargeant (2012) participant selection with the objective of achieving research authenticity. The sampling used was a combination of convenience, and random strategies in that students were approached based on ethnicity as one of the drivers of need (Suen, Huang & Li, 2014). The selection of research participants will be done under consideration of factors such as the research question and the objective of the study. According to Sargeant (2012), the sample population must be representative of the target population for the research. This explains why students will be selected as the research participants to avoid the potential for biasness, and to ensure that the research questions are answered satisfactorily. The sample selection will be done through a random sampling process, where students in the school will be approached and requested to participate in the study at will.

To ensure that the subjects chosen can inform all the facets of the study objectives, students from different ethnic backgrounds will be selected. Diversity consideration is considered effective where the objective of the study is comparative among inter-ethnic facets of populations (Martinez- Mesa et al., 2016). In the proposed study, the hypothesis that students from different national backgrounds respond differently to stress contributes to the inter-ethnic perception that results in a comparative approach to the research. Moreover, the sample size for the research will be determined by the level of diversity that the research requires (Rao, 2012). Noordzij, Dekker, Zoccali & Jager (2011), posited that too large samples amount to resource wastage while too small samples would limit data saturation. A total of 15 students would be sufficient for consideration as the sample population and the results would be generalizable. The 15 students selected will be from different ethnic backgrounds and will only be the first 15 to accept the call to participate willfully and without any manipulation on the part of the researcher.

Research Design

Qualitative research design has been established to be the best approach towards conducting an explorative study to understand more about a given phenomenon or to describe a cause-effect relationship in phenomena (Crescentini & Mainardi, 2009). For the study on stress and coping among students, the qualitative approach would be most suitable since it relies on obtaining information directly from the participants (Sutton & Austin, 2015). The information gathered first hand is a direct reflection of the perceptions of the participants and may be generalizable to the entire population targeted by the researcher. It is also a strategy for avoiding biasness in the study by ensuring that information collected is objective rather than subjective (Devers & Frankel, 2000). Different approaches could be used for data collection in the qualitative research design. However, the present study uses semi-structured interviews as the data collection method of choice. Jamshed (2014), describes semi-structured interviews as data collection methods where the researcher uses a pre-planned questionnaire to ask open-ended questions of the participants. The range of answers that can be given by participants is infinite, and the researcher can ask for more clarification where necessary (Tollefson, Usher, Francis, & Owens, 2001).

Measures Used

            To collect information more holistically, the study was classified into themes under which the students could provide their information. The study focused on two particular aspects of stress which are the causes and coping strategies. For each of these aspects, the objective was to compare the findings from students from different ethnic backgrounds. The dependent variable, therefore, was stress in its different aspects while the independent variable was the ethnic background of the students. For effective study progress, the researcher focused on measures of validity and reliability by avoiding bias and ensuring that all information is well clarified before approaching the participants as recommended by Voltelen, Konradsen, & Ostergaard (2017).


            The interviews will be conducted over three days within the school compound. After preparation of the interview guideline, the researcher will approach different students at random, explain to them the objective of the study and request for their willful participation without forcing them to answer any questions. Those who accept will be interviewed immediately and the responses recorded. The interview guideline will contain 20 questions. However, the questions may be expanded depending on the amount of clarification required by the researcher. The guide will serve as the template for getting information from all participants more systematically.

Ethical Considerations

The qualitative research comes with various ethical considerations for effectiveness, reliability, and acceptability. The interaction between the researcher and the participants is often characterized by many ethical challenges, which the researcher has to work around to ensure that the information collected is holistic and reliable. The researcher faces ethical challenges from information collection through to the reporting stage. To address the ethical challenges surrounding research, some of the considerations that one has to put in mind include anonymity, confidentiality, and informed participant consent (Sanjari, Bahramnezhad, Fomani, Shoghi, & Cheraghi, 2014). Adhering to the ethical requirements for qualitative research will begin by attaining the informed consent of the participant. Informed consent will be accomplished by disclosing to potential participants the nature of research, the identity of the researcher, the role that the participant would play in the research, the kind of information to be collected from the participants, and the publication of the research findings (Kirk, 2007). The potential participants would then be allowed to make decisions on whether to go on participating or not. The researcher has to promise to hold nothing against participants who do not accept to participate for one reason or the other.

Another ethical concern would be maintaining the participant anonymity and protecting their confidential information (Allmark et al., 2009). One of the practices that the researcher in the proposed study would use to protect the identity of the participants is by using identity codes instead of the participant names to record and analyze the collected information as described for cross-cultural research by De Jong, Hibbens, & Pennell (2016). For confidentiality purposes, the researcher will ensure that no sensitive information from the participants is revealed to the public (Kvale, 2007). The researcher will neither obtain nor record any information about the participant that does not help in accomplishing the research objectives. This information includes residential location, phone numbers, and names of family members among others.

Results Analyses

Analysis of qualitative research findings is done descriptively, with the objective of identifying themes that facilitate the understanding of phenomenon being studied. For the proposed study, an interpretative analysis will be conducted, whereby the analysis goes through three different stages. The preparation for data analysis involves transcription of the interview records and placing the information into their respective research themes. The interpretative analysis begins with the deconstruction of information obtained (Williams, 2007). Deconstruction in this regard involves breaking down the data into different themes namely, the causes and coping strategies for stress. The data will be categorized based on different ethnic groupings to identify common subjects within and across ethnic boundaries. Following the deconstruction phase, interpretation will be conducted. The techniques to be used for data interpretation will include discussion of findings, comparing the findings obtained from the qualitative approach with the findings previously obtained from literature reviews, exploring negative outcomes, and comparing the results across different independent variables. The last activity in the interpretative analysis would be the reconstruction of data, which is aligning the findings of data in different thematic areas with the research objectives and the hypothesis. Recognizing the relevance of different findings to particular thematic areas and representing the findings as interpreted would be the last stage in the interpretative analysis of the study results.

Results and Analysis

Descriptive Analysis

Based on the findings from the qualitative research, the main causes of stress among students were identified to be school pressure, financial challenges, and social pressures. Whatever the cause of stress was, the students reported that stress affected their academic performance, interaction among peers, and ability to deal with other life issues effectively. This aligns with the findings of other researchers including Seaward (2017), and Al- Dubai et al. (2011). Seaward (2017) in particular, noted that poverty is a major cause of stress among students as exemplified by the reports that financial challenges result in stress. Impoverished students were also determined to be more capable of displaying the symptoms of stress compared to other students. Considering the results across different ethnic boundaries, it was observed that while the causes of stress were somewhat similar across ethnic groups, the strategies for coping with stress varied from one ethnic group to the other.

The student from Malaysia indicated that he engaged actively in meditation practices such as yoga and also talked to friends or family members whenever he was stressed. On the other hand, most of the students from the U.K mentioned stress eating as a strategy for coping with stress. Others mentioned exercising, communications, and even withdrawal as their strategies for coping with stress. Pakistani students were more likely to drink and engage in sporting activities as strategies for coping with stress. Despite the differences in the coping strategies used by different students, the stress coping methods can be categorized into planning, acceptance, positive reframing, and active coping. Accepting stress is the first step towards obtaining a sustainable solution for the stressing factors, while active coping goes directly to the cause of the stress itself. An example of acceptance is in the practice of yoga while active coping can be said to include communication. The findings correspond to the reports of other authors such as Ansari, Oskrochi, & Haghgoo (2014).


Al-Dubai, S. A. R., Al-Naggar, R. A., Al-Shagga, M. A., &Rampal, K. G. (2011). Stress and coping strategies of students in a medical faculty in Malaysia. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences: MJMS, 18(3), 57. doi: 10.1111/inm.12054.

Allmark, P., Boote, J., Chambers, E. Clarke, A., McDonnell, A., Thompson, A.R. & Tod, A. (2009). Ethical issues in the use of in-depth interviews: literature review and discussion. Research Ethics Review, 5 (2). Pp. 48-54

Ansari, W. E., Oskrochi, R., & Haghgoo, G. (2014). Are students’ symptoms and health complaints associated with perceived stress at university? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt. International journal of environmental research and public health, 11(10), 9981-10002. doi: 10.3390/ijerph111009981.

Crescentini, A. & Mainardi, G. (2009). Qualitative research articles: Guidelines, suggestions, and needs. Journal of Work Place Learning, 21(5), 431 – 439. Retrieved from

De Jong, J., Hibbens, K.C. Pennell, S. (2016). Ethical considerations. In A. Arbor, Guidelines for Best Practice in Cross-Cultural Surveys., MI: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Retrieved from

Devers, K.J. & Frankel, R.M. (2000). Study design in qualitative research – 2: Sampling and data collection strategies. Education for Health, 13(2), 263 – 271. Retrieved from

Jamshed, S. (2014). Qualitative research method – interviewing and observation. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy, 5(4), 87 – 88. Retrieved from

Kirk, S. (2007). Methodological and ethical issues in conducting qualitative research with children and young people: a literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44(7), 1250- 60. Retrieved from

Kvale, S. (2007). Ethical issues of interviewing. In S. Kvale, Qualitative research kit: Doing interviews, pp. 24 – 32. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Retrieved from

Martinez- Mesa, J., Gonzalez – Chica, D.A., Duquia, R.P., Bonamigo, R.R. & Bastos, J.L. (2016). Sampling: How to select participants in my research study. Anais Brasileiros De Dermatologia, 91(3), 326 – 330. Retrieved from

Noordzij, Dekker, Zoccali & Jager (2011). Sample size calculations. Nephron, Clinical Practice, 118(4), c319- 329. Retrieved from

Rao, U. (2012). Concepts in sample size determination. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 23(5), 660-4. Retrieved from

Sanjari, M., Bahramnezhad, F., Fomani, F.K., Shoghi, M., & Cheraghi, M.A. (2014). Ethical challenges of researchers in qualitative studies: The necessity to develop a specific guideline. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 7(14). Retrieved from

Sargeant, J. (2012). Qualitative research part II: Participants, analysis, and quality assurance. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 4(1), 1-3. Retrieved from

Seaward, B. L. (2017). Managing stress. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Suen, L.J., Huang, H.M. & Lee, H.H. (2014). A comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. Hu Li Za Zhi The Journal of Nursing, 61(3), 105 – 111. Retrieved from

Sutton, J. & Austin, Z. (2015). Qualitative research: Data collection, analysis, and management. The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 68(3), 226- 231. Retrieved from

Tollefson, J., Usher, K., Francis, D. & Owens, J. (2001). What you ask is what you get: Learning from interviewing in qualitative research. Contemporary Nurse, 10(3- 4), 258 -264. Retrieved from

Voltelen, B., Konradsen, H. & Ostergaard, B. (2017). Ethical considerations when conducting joint interviews with close relatives or family: An integrative review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. Retrieved from

Williams, C. (2007). Research methods. Journal of Business and Economic Research, 5(3), 65- 72. Retrieved from

Appendix: Interview Questionnaire

Please answer all questions as accurately as possible.

Participant Information

What is your current year of study?Where are you originally from?How can you rate your course in terms of the stress it results in? 5 implies unmanageable stress while 1 is very limited stress.Can you recognize when others are under stress?Do any of your friends report to you when they are stressed?

Causes of Stress

What is the major cause of stress in academic life?Do you think stress from home experiences result in negative academic outcomes?Which of the following do you feel contributes most to stress among students?School workPlanning challengesAdministration issuesHome related factorsEconomic problemsHave you ever felt stressed because the pressure from your school work was too much?Do you ever feel stressed because of economic problems at home or in school?Have you ever felt stressed because you did not have any support completing your household tasks?Which behavioral issues cause you more stress in school?Between student and non- student activities, which ones do you feel result in more stress?

Coping with stress

What is your common reaction to stress?Have you ever felt physically ill because of stress?Have you ever found it difficult to sleep due to stress?Does stress affect your academic performance?Do you use any substances such as alcohol and cigarettes to cope with stress?Do you ever share your issues with friends to help you deal with stress?Which of the following practices help you manage stress effectively?Consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and other drugs.Talking with friends and close onesListening to musicCryingAddressing the cause of stress.How often do you have trouble coping with stress in your school and personal life?How can you describe your stress level on a rating of 1 to 5?

Sample Business Studies Essay Paper on Taxation gp essay help

            Taxation is the government’s major tool for collecting revenues from the population. This revenue is then used to run the government and provide the citizens with infrastructure and other social services. Taxes target the individuals and businesses as well. The business relies on the public amenities that are provided by the government making them have to pay taxes as well. Before starting a business, it is important for the business owner to know the taxation rules of the country in which the business will be operating. Normally, businesses try as much as they can to avoid paying too much tax. This is because tax cost can eat into the profits of a business and discourage further investments.

            The leadership of an organization should understand that profit tax is only a part of total business tax cost. There are other costs that the business incurs that can be lumped together with it as tax cost but are not considered as a tax. These costs come in the form of exemptions and deductions which make the total tax rate on the business much higher or lower than the nominal income tax rate. If the tax rates are high, a company can opt out of the formal business structure and have it become informal, where taxation does not apply. This is what drives most of the business to consider the tax rates in a particular country before investing there. Thus, the leadership of a firm should have a good understanding of the taxation regime in a state to know how the business will be structured. Failure to be pragmatic with regards to the business and the taxation due can shrink the resources of the enterprise and possibly bankrupt it.  

Sample Public Administration Coursework Paper on Nonverbal communication in human interaction college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Discussion Forum 4 – Nonverbal 

Interpersonal communication entails more than just uttering of words, use of tonal change, and facial expression to illustrate the point. Such factors are the components of non-verbal communication and are huge contributors to illustrating a point in comparison to verbal communication. Knapp, Hall, and Horgan argue that majority of interpersonal communication is non-verbal, whether it is intend or not (2013). Similarly, Knapp, Hall, and Horgan argue that nonverbal communication brings out what is not verbally said in a conversation (2013).

Among the classifications of non-verbal communication, body movement is one example. Body movement comprises of facial expressions, eye contact, and gestures. Another classification is tonal alteration that comprises changes in pitch, rate, and volume of the voice. Other classifications include personal appearance; touch, personal space, and time. Currently, the society has embraced the use of non-verbal communication to a point that some actions have been deemed disrespectful in regards to sexual, race, or ethnic context. 

In the recent months there has been rise in the number of women alleging to be sexually harassed at the work place or in the streets. However, the facts are that there are some instances where the non-verbal cues are used without an aim of necessarily causing dissatisfaction or harm to anyone or gender. For instance, in a work place, ladies feel insecure with all the prying eyes on them, which some might consider inappropriate. Although, some people use the nonverbal cues to portray their intentions. The functionality and wants of the body at times cannot be controlled, the eyes, body movement and even facial expression displays the desire of a person. Such expressions are termed as sexual harassment, especially when it is not consensual. The government and employers have put in place anti-harassment policies that helps create a free environment for women to operate without the feeling of being preyed upon by men.  


(2013). In M. L. Knapp, J. A. Hall, & T. G. Horgan, Nonverbal communication in human interaction (pp. 126-148). Cengage Learning.

Sample History Essay Paper on Sitting Bull academic essay help

Sitting Bull was born in 1831 in the Grand River Valley that is currently known as South Dakota to Jumping Bull (father) and Her-Holy-Door (mother). At birth, he was named Jumping Badger and later nicknamed Hunkesi that can be loosely translated to “Slow.” He was later renamed Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake, which in the Lakota language refers to a bull who sits down. This followed his bravery in a raiding party where he rode forward and counted a coup on one of the surprised Crows during the raid. He had two children, Many Horses (daughter) and Crow Foot (son) and two other adopted children, One Bull and Walks Looking. Sitting Bull’s father was his role model and he worked hard to follow his footsteps. He was brave and confident like his father as highlighted by the fact that he killed a buffalo at the age of 10.

With his skills and respect earned as both a warrior and leader, he became chief of the Lakota nation in 1868. He achieved several things during his life as a leader of the Lakota nation. He successfully defended the Sioux lands in the confrontation with American soldiers in the mid-1870s that followed the discovery of gold in the lands. In 1876, Sitting Bull led the Sioux in the Battle at the Battle of the Rosebud and in the Battled at Little Bighorn a few years later. In the latter, he won against the renowned General George Armstrong Custer. His importance in history is attributed to the fact that he united the Sioux tribes in their struggle for survival on the North American Great Plains. Due to his powerful influence and the authorities’ fear that he would help the Sioux in the fight to restore the Native American way of life through the Ghost Dance Movement in 1889, Sitting Bull was arrested and shot dead on December 15, 1890.

Sample English Paper on Immigration in Canada popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Immigration in Canada

Canada is a sovereign state in North America, and it is located in northern U.S. It is the second largest country in the world, only behind Russia. The state is known worldwide for its vast untouched landscape, multifaceted history, as well as a magnificent blend of cultures. Additionally, it is one of the wealthiest nations in the globe and is a significant tourist attraction. Although significant differences exist between Canada and her neighbor to the south, the United States of America, technologically and economically, the two countries share a lot of similarities. One major resemblance regards the contentious issue of immigration (Beine & Coulombe, 2018). Currently, Canada is the world’s top immigration destination with over 270,000 making their way into the country every year to take advantage of its progressive immigration system as well as its strong economy since it is a developed country (Hiebert, 2016). This paper discusses the economic, social, and humanitarian factors to be considered when making changes to its immigration policy to allow more immigrants into the country.


Canada is a developed country with a $1.640 trillion GDP. It borders the U.S to the south and shares a maritime border with the autonomous country of Greenland. In this case, a developed country refers to a sovereign state which has a highly developed economic and technical infrastructure and with high living standards. It is noted that the country encompasses a sparse population since most of its land is forested. Moreover, Canada is highly urbanized and boasts to more than 82% of its population of 35.15 million people living in its cities (Beine & Coulombe, 2018). The country boasts of a low unemployment rate of 5.8% as of January 2018 hence showing that it has ample employment opportunities (Beine & Coulombe, 2018).

The social stratification of Canada shows that its population is comprised of several races and thirty-three ethnic groups, with the Whites being the majority. However, this social stratification is further divided into three social classes: the lower class, the middle, and the upper classes. Currently, the country experiences significant immigration with most contemporary immigrants coming from Asian countries. Over the last five decades, Canada drafted policies which were welcoming of immigrants; however, in modern times, these policies have been revised to curb illegal immigration into the country and also to ensure that the people who migrate to the country are beneficial to its economy (Beine & Coulombe, 2018). Hence, it can be ascertained that the country has not yet experienced the negative impacts of immigration. However, effective control of immigration as well as implementation of efficient policies can enable the country to reap from contemporary immigration.

The Economic, Social and Humanitarian Factors to Be Considered

Economic Factors to Be Considered

Immigrants add to the labor pool. Virtually most economists ascertain that immigration increases the wealth of Canada because it adds to the country’s labor force. However, despite the mentioned benefit, it is imperative to ascertain the type of immigrants who enter the nation. In a given country it is possible that some labor is in more demand than another and that its availability can help steer the economy of the country. In that case, if this type of labor is lacking, the next plausible action to take is to import it from the countries in which it is highly available. Having progressive immigration policies helps Canada to access the labor it needs and ensures efficient matching of skills with jobs as well as greater occupational specialization  as well as (Hiebert, 2016).

It has been ascertained that there is a positive correlation between entrepreneurship and immigration. Contemporary studies show that immigrants contribute greatly to the pool of entrepreneurs in developed countries. In this case, the Canadian government should consider the entrepreneurial aspect of immigration and hence come up with a policy that encourages established entrepreneurs to move to Canada. It should also and come up with ventures that contribute to the economy and reduce the issue of unemployment, which is a growing problem in the country (Chiu et al., 2016). Lastly, studies show that immigrants are at the forefront of ingenuity and innovation as is seen in the high number of patent filings as well as the senior positions held by immigrants in high tech companies. Hence, by having relevant and efficient immigration policies, the Canadian government can reap the innovation, which is correlated with immigration (Cao & Poy, 2015).

Lastly, it is ascertained that immigration improves the country’s fiscal position. This scenario is caused by the fact that immigrants pay more taxes than what they consume with respect to the value of government services (Wang & Kwak, 2015). However, natives in regions with high concentrations of unskilled and uneducated immigrants bear more tax burden since they pay less tax and are bound to take their children to public schools (Chiu et al., 2016). Hence, having immigrants who contribute positively to the fiscal position of the government should be a factor to consider.

Social Factors

Social factors of immigration to be considered entail having a multicultural society thus diversity. Multi-culturalism encompasses having different cultures living productively with each other (Beine & Coulombe, 2018). This approach has the benefit of improving the conditions of living of people and the happiness index in the country. Moreover, it has been known to improve the beauty of a country, especially during cultural functions and festivals and hence is a factor that can boost tourism (Hiebert, 2016). Diversity, on the contrary, is brought about by the fact that different societies have different ways of thinking and approaching life. Therefore, immigration helps to bring different people together and hence improve the nation (Cao & Poy, 2015).

Graph 1: Immigration in Canada

Source: (Canada immigration dept.)

Humanitarian Factors to Be Considered

The humanitarian factors to be considered entail offering refuge to individuals who flee conflict regions and the aspect of reuniting families. It should be noted that some regions, such as Syria, are faced with armed conflicts from time to time, thus making them inhabitable. Consequently, it is imperative for countries that enjoy peace to extend their hospitality to the affected citizens by allowing them to immigrate into them. In contrast, family reunification encompasses scenarios whereby a family member has attained Canadian citizenship while the rest the rest have not. It is prudent to have policies that allow the persons’ immediate family to reunite with him/her to preserve the family unit (D’Aoust, 2017).

Chart 1: Growth of Visible Minorities in Canada

Source: (Canada immigration dept.)

A Recommendation of the Most Important Factor to Be Considered

From the above postulation, the most important factor to consider is the economic factor behind immigration. Essentially, Canada is a sovereign state whose main goal is to preserve the dignity of and provide a conducive environment for its citizens. As such, the nation should consider the immigration that encompasses the highest benefits for its government and citizens above the others. Therefore, the nation should prioritize the economic benefit of immigration when devising its immigration policy.


Beine, M., & Coulombe, S. (2018). Immigration and Internal Mobility in Canada. Journal of Population Economics, 31(1), 69-106.

Cao, H., & Poy, V. (2015). The China challenge: Sino-Canadian relations in the 21st century (p. 344). University of Ottawa Press/Les Presses de l’Universitéd’ Ottawa.

Chiu, M., Lebenbaum, M., Lam, K., Chong, N., Azimaee, M., Iron, K., … & Guttmann, A. (2016). Describing The Linkages Of The Immigration, Refugees And Citizenship Canada Permanent Resident Data And Vital Statistics Death Registry To Ontario’s Administrative Health Database. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 16(1), 135.

D’Aoust, A. M. (2017). Spouse and Partner Immigration to Canada: History and Current Issues in Canadian Immigration Policy. Centre de Rechercheen immigration, ethnicité etcitoyenneté (CRIEC).

Hiebert, D. (2016). The Resilience of Immigration what’s so Special about Canada? Understanding and Multiculturalism. Migration Policy Institute.

Wang, L., & Kwak, M. J. (2015). Immigration, Barriers To Healthcare And Transnational Ties: A Case Study Of South Korean Immigrants in Toronto, Canada. Social Science &Medicine, 133, 340-348.

Sample Health Care Essay Paper on Non-ionizing Radiation summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Non-ionizing Radiation

            Non-ionizing radiation is a type of radiation that has energy intense enough to cause movements of the atoms within a molecule or cause the atoms to vibrate. However, it does not have enough energy to remove electrons from the atoms. According to Friis (2012), nonionizing radiation includes UV light, infrared, microwave, radio waves, low frequency radiation and visible light.  The source of the extremely low-frequency radiation is the wiring in the walls of the buildings, electrical appliances, and electric power poles. Radiofrequency waves are emitted by cell phones and the cell phone towers (Friis, 2012). These devices are often low powered, but they are numerous, given the number of persons who own them. The main source of ultraviolet rays is the sun. other sources are tanning beds, halogen lamps, electric spark, among others.

            The radio frequency waves are useful in the communication industry and have made wireless communications over long distances possible. Extremely low-frequency radiation enables the transmission of power over long distances and can be used to track electric devices. Microwave radiation is useful in convenient warming of food and infrared is used in aiding night vision. The health effects of the non-ionizing radiations are limited compared to the ionizing radiations(Friis, 2012). When intense, infrared radiation can cause burns on the skin. Ultraviolet radiation is the most harmful to the human body of the non-ionizing radiations. UV radiation causes retinal damage, photoaging of the skin, lens opacities, malignant melanoma, and non-melanoma skin cancer (Friis, 2012). The effects of the UV on the exposed person are dependent on the type of the UV radiation and the intensity as well.


M. L.

The sources of non-ionizing radiation and their effects on the human body resonate well with me, as I am of the same opinion. I have found it a bit surprising that the extremely low-frequency radiation from the power lines can cause cancer. Initially, I thought that UV is the one that has most profound effects on the human body.


From your submission, I have learned that ionizing radiation not only harms humans, but its actions can be used to treat diseases in hospitals. I find it ironic that one has a higher likelihood of getting exposed to these harmful rays at hospital facility compared to other places. Learning that x-rays are an example of ionizing rays, it will make me very apprehensive next time my physician will recommend an x-ray. 


Friis, R. (2012). Essentials of environmental health. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Sample Geology Essay Paper on Water Quality college essay help

Lab Activity 9

Part 1: Water Quality

Question 1. As more and more wells tap into groundwater, surface water including that of streams is depleted during the process and eventually surface water bodies run out of water.

Question 2. Willows, cotton woods, bushes, grasses, plants, animals and birds are some of species found in the riparian systems.

Questions 3. Transpiration is the process through which water is lost to the atmosphere plants. Groundwater is absorbed by plants through roots, goes through the plants stems by diffusion and osmosis and eventually leaves the plants through the leaves in the normal process of transpiration.

Question 4. About 90 gallons of water is absorbed by a healthy cottonwood tree per day under ideal condition.

Question 5. Maddox’s research findings will be used establish sustainability of an area, so that they can conserve functioning rivers and plant life. Consequently, he endeavor to use his models to educate people on the impacts of falling water tables and discourage over population of riparian system in the future.

Question 6. In contrast to the southwest, water quality is the biggest problem in Florida’s water resources.

Question 7. Increased demand and increased pollution are the two major obstacles faced by Suwannee River basin.

Question 8. The nitrates levels in Florida’s groundwater have dramatically increased over the past few decades.

Question 9. Excess chemical fertilizers used in agriculture seep into water bodies, thus increasing the level of nitrates in the water.

Question 10. Florida geology is characterized by sandy soils and limestone bedrocks which cause the rivers to run above the ground and later flow underground through sink holes.  The nitrate levels accumulate faster and easily hence killing plants. Once the plants die, the oxygen levels decrease, and this have negative implications to animals. The dissolving limestone rocks underneath the surface allow water to seep faster with no biological remediation occurring.

Question 11. Some solutions include change in land use around the water basin, alternative irrigation, reduced use of inorganic fertilizers and cultural practices.

Part 2: Water Treatment

Question 1. Approximately 2 billion gallons of water per day are used in the state of Illinois.

Question 2. Approximately 1 percent of fresh water is available in rivers, lakes, streams, ponds and springs.

Question 3. Sedimentation is aimed at eliminating clarify water by removal of particles.

Question 4. Filtration removes smaller particles which escaped sedimentation process, while microfiltration removes minute particles missed out during the initial filtration to cleanse the water as much as possible.

Question 5. Chlorine is the main chemical used to disinfect water.

Question 6. Use Ozone and ultraviolet rays may also disinfect the water.

Question 7. Licensed federal and state laws establish the standards for drinking water quality. The Illinois Environmental protection Agency licenses the operators in the state.

Question 8. An Annual Consumer Confidence Report is distributed to the public. It makes the public aware of the overall quality of their drinking water.

Question 9. Microorganisms causing diseases, Pesticides and other harmful chemicals are looked for during the lab tests.

Question 10. Water towers and storage tanks keep plenty of water ready for use and also provide water pressure for ease of distribution.

Question 11. Rise in infrastructure and security concerns are the two reasons why the price of water must periodically increase.

Question 12. Water is not renewed, but reused through the water cycle. Hence, it is important to be cautious on substances allow to enter the ground or surface water.

Question 13. Scientists, Engineers, Plant Operators, Technicians and designers are some of professional that can find work in a water treatment plant.

Part 3: Sewage treatment

Question 1. At the pumping station, water is filtered. Waste water collects in huge underground wells and then moves to pumps that force it to the surface. Once it is at the surface, it flows through the pumping station and down to the treatment building.

Question 2. Chemical coagulants gradually transform phosphorus in the water from liquid to solid. They also enhance sedimentation of particulate matter in the water.

Question 3. Solids that are removed during the primary filtration process are hauled off to a landfill and buried.

Question 4. It takes about two hours for the sludge to settle to the bottom of the grit chambers.

Question 5. Sludge that is removed is transferred to the sludge treatment building.

Question 6. 80% suspended solids and 75% phosphorus were removed by the process.

Sample Psychology Essay Paper on Stress Management nursing essay help: nursing essay help

Stress Management


Stress has evolved from a group to personal concern. Experts warn that people who fail to deal with stressors may have to pay for it in future. Any person currently stressed may become unproductive in future throwing personal activities into jeopardy. Fortunately, stress can be managed within specified synergies and approaches. For instance, an individual can attend healthcare sessions geared towards stress management. A well-formulated stress management schedule should encompass wellness programs to assist in improving personal productivity while reducing health costs. The purpose of this report is to design an individualized stress management program to promote healthy lifestyle changes. This program will help cope with everyday stress and to decrease vulnerability to stressful situations.

Unpleasant Attitude

Having the right personal attitude is fundamental to my personal success. Psychologists state that if I take up something that I love doing I will enjoy performing it and personal activities will never be monotonous (Shethna, 2017). I have an unpleasant attitude which makes it hard to socialize with other people.  There is need for motivation when am experiencing negative stressor since it is a way of accomplishing my life goals. Developing unpleasant attitude at home and work is a recipe for stress. Stress can be harmful to my growth and development. Negative attitudes at a personal level can promote unhealthy results in my life since it will jeopardize accomplishment of daily objectives. Bad attitudes should be resolved as early as possible and should be the priority of at personal level. Reduction of my unpleasant attitude as a stressor is an effective platform to promote teamwork, communication, and make me happy.

Problems Associated with Having to Cope with Unpleasant Attitude

Unpleasant attitude as a stressor leads to laziness, rudeness, rumor mongering among others, this lowers morale and may have serious negative effects. I experience several problems as I try to cope with bad attitudes. First, I have to deal and cope with reduced performance because bad attitude affects personal activities such as sanitation and eating habits among others. For example, at home, a bad attitude may trickle down to my family members creating tensions that degenerate into domestic violence. Stress in the form of developed negative attitude may make me be apathetic and despondent thereby allowing them to make costly mistakes, detrimental to my life goals. Reduced productivity may also affect my performance of daily life activities. Second, unpleasant attitude makes it difficult for me to identify and deal with different problems succinctly. It makes it difficult for me to resolve issues amicably and unable to think beyond work and home activities. I also have to contend with reduced productivity, creativity, and innovation.

Plan of Action

Effects of negative attitude can be reduced by having a sound plan of actions. The effect of this stressor can be reduced by talking to people and allowing them to assist in problem solving and formulation of resolutions. This can take two weeks. Secondly, I may seek the assistance of counselors on how to deal with negative attitudes at a personal level, and how to interact with friends and family when under stress. This entails getting fundamental information on how unpleasant attitudes affect my performance and work activities. This should take one week. The third plan is the propagation of a culture of engaging in physical exercise activities for one week. Studies reveal that extra-curricular activities such as yoga, exercises, and other related activities make an individual to relax and approach better opportunities in life (Shethna, 2017). 

Obstacles and how to Overcome Them

There are some obstacles likely to be experienced during the implementation of my stress management plan. These obstacles are self-instigated. First, I may find no time for the implementation of the plan because of busy schedules; this is lack of commitment. However, lack of commitment due to busy schedules can be overcome through re-evaluations of priorities, using the plan before retiring to bed, canceling all unnecessary activities and asking assistance to free up time. Second, I may complain about being too tired to go through the plan of co-curricular activities. This can be overcome through refreshing daily physical doses, figuring out reasons for being tired and reassessing stress recovery goals. Third, may feel bored with the whole process of reducing vulnerability to unpleasant attitude stressors. This can be solved through varying stress management activities, use of audio-visual classes, focusing on deepening the practice, and recognizing boredom as simulated thinking.


Unpleasant attitude towards self and others is a type of stress that can reduce my performance and productivity. Stress causes fatigue to people like me who are then prone to mistakes and injuries at home. Stressed individuals also incur heavy health care costs because they often seek medical attention. Many factors cause stress; longer working hours coupled with heavy workloads compounded with life balance issues and security of income can increase stress level to individuals. However, the problem can be resolved through preparation and implementation of a sound stress management plan of action. I believe that the formulated plan of action will help assist me in dealing with negative attitude.


Shethna, J. (2017). How to deal with bad attitude at workplace (10 unique steps). EDUCBA.

Retrieved from: Retrieved March 6, 2018.

Sample Health Care Paper on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Case Study my essay help uk

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Case Study

Part 1: Diagnosis

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterized by stressor related outcomes associated with individual trauma experiences. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM – 5) stipulates that the first diagnostic criterion for post-traumatic stress disorder is that the victim must have experienced a traumatic or stressful situation (Nuckols, 2013). The first criterion for consideration is that the victim must have been exposed to probable death, threatened or actual sexual violence and/ or the threat of severe injury. In some cases, the stressful event may not have happened directly to the victim of PSTD but rather to a close relative or friend. In such instances, the victim experiences trauma as a secondary event in that the feelings of loss are what contribute to the PSTD. In some cases, the condition heals faster, in less than 6 months while in other, it may extend beyond the six months (Nuckols, 2013). The condition may also be chronic in some victims. As with the healing process, the onset of PSTD may be immediate, about 3 months after the traumatic experience or even years afterward.

            The second criterion for PTSD is that the victim re-experiences the traumatic event. This can be through flashbacks, nightmares, upsetting memories, physical reactivity, and emotional distress after traumatic reminders (U.S Department of Veterans Affairs, 2018). In this category, a victim may display at least one of the symptoms to be diagnosed with PTSD in case the other criteria are also fulfilled. The third criterion entails avoidance of trauma-related stimuli such as reminders and thoughts. The last two categories for PTSD diagnostic criteria include worsening negative thoughts after the trauma and trauma-related reactivity or arousal which continue to deteriorate after some time. In the third and fourth diagnostic criteria, a person with PTSD would show at least two symptoms in each category. In case the combination of symptoms from the five categories is experienced for more than one month consistently, an individual may be considered to be suffering from PTSD (Nuckols, 2013). However, the physician or practitioner addressing the needs of the patient must also establish that the symptoms displayed are not as a result of other medications or medical conditions. Only then can one be deduced to be suffering from PTSD.

Various symptoms are attributed to the condition under discussion. The symptoms are categorized into different aspects beginning with re-experiencing symptoms. Such symptoms include bad dreams and frightening thoughts which impact negatively on the victim’s daily routine. Words, objects, and situations which can be considered as reminders of the traumatic events act as triggers towards the re-experiencing symptoms (NIMH, 2016). Avoidance symptoms result in a change of daily routines as they make the victim relieve the negative experiences they had in the past. Reactive and arousal symptoms, on the other hand, include feelings of tension, difficulty sleeping, angry outbursts, and a shift in moods. These symptoms are attributed to reminders of the traumatic events and the impacts they have had on an individual’s life (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2018). As such, the victim feels angry about the turn of events and may in event find it difficult to sleep, eat, or even concentrate on other daily tasks. Similarly, mood symptoms may make a person feel alienated and low. Feelings of worthlessness, blames, and regrets characterize most of the daily lives of people living with PTSD. 

The treatment for PTSD depends on the relationship between the victim and people around them. In cases where the victim does not get sufficient social support, they are prone to an escalation of the condition and eventual despair. However, where the victim receives adequate support from the social system, they can heal much faster as they recognize their strengths and discard their negative thoughts. Planning for an effective treatment approach, therefore, requires an understanding of the feelings of the victims and organization of the treatment goals and objectives in a manner that is acceptable to the victim and the social worker.

Part II

Patient History

James, an 18-year-old boy, lives with his parents and his younger sister in their family home. On his 18th birthday, James’ parents got him a new car as a birthday present, and since he already had his driving license, he enjoyed driving his car. Five months ago, James was involved in a traumatic road accident while driving his car, during which he incurred a serious cranial injury. The accident had occurred on his way from a party where he had been drinking and thus was not in a condition suitable for driving. As it is now, his wound is already healed. However, James now portrays symptoms that show he has a post-traumatic stress disorder and thus should be assisted to make sense of his routine and his environment. Initially, James enjoyed playing soccer, but this has since changed as he feels dysfunctional and incapable of managing team dynamics. Most of his friends who used to visit him at home in the early days after his accident stopped visiting when they realized he was quite irritable and his moods would change unexpectedly.

Medically, James had been without any health challenges before the accident and was very active. As a soccer player, he had the determination to stay fit and always engaged in healthy eating and maintained his exercise routine. This has since changed as he views himself incapable of ever playing soccer and thus sees no need to keep fit.


The patient was assessed based on the DSM – V criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder that is based on five major criteria. The objective was to determine whether James satisfied the descriptions of the different criteria and whether his symptoms were in tandem with the DSM –V descriptions of PTSD. The first criterion was that of having been involved in a traumatic event. This criterion was satisfied since James himself had been his car’s driver during the accident. The second criterion is that he had to display at least one re-experiencing symptom. For James, he reported that he had often experienced nightmares in which he saw himself being killed during a car accident, with a disfigured face and body or even made invalid as a result of the accident. The experiences occurred at least twice a week and begun about 3 months after his accident. He also fulfilled the third criterion as he displayed avoidance symptoms for PTSD. In this regard, James had decided and would not have himself driven in a car. He destroyed his driving license claiming that he could not be in a death trap. He also avoids busy roads, especially where he had been involved in a car accident. For criterion D, the symptoms displayed included loss of interest in formerly interesting activities such as soccer and physical exercise, isolated feelings, and feelings of shame and guilt. He also displayed other symptoms such as hyper-vigilance, difficulty in sleeping and irritability, which are characteristic symptoms of PTSD.

Functional Status

Physically, James is not dysfunctional in any way. All his body organs have remained intact and fully functional. In terms of his social functionality, James has changed significantly. Once James’ friends lowered their frequency of visiting, he began showing withdrawal symptoms. Furthermore, changes in his emotional responses such as frequent display of irritability and solitude resulted in lower social interactions unlike what he had been prior to the accident. James’ engagement in leisure activities has also reduced as he feels unable to cope with the demands of his athletic activities such as soccer. Cognitively, James’ concentration was most affected by the accident. He also experiences frequent headaches which hinder performance in cognitive-related tasks. In terms of spirituality, James’ attitude to faith has changed slightly. In as much as he still believes there is God, his attitude towards religious activities has changed.

Goals and Objectives

Based on James’ condition, the treatment goals and objectives would be as shown in the table below.

Problem areaStrengthsGoalsObjectivesSelf-perception.James is capable of remembering some aspects of the accident.To help James improve his perception of self by restructuring his thoughts concerning his role in the accident by the end of the next two months.  To eliminate feelings of blame and guilt.Fear controlThe patient is not physically afraid.To assist the patient in working on controlling anxiety and reducing the recurrence of the re-experiencing events.To reduce the recurrence of re-experiencing thoughts.Cognitive functioningHe is mentally sound.To enable the patient to make sense of his bad memories and hence address them better.To make the patient understand that what he went through is a possible outcome in human life.

Treatment Plan

The treatment plan for James is intended to move him from the recreation phase to the leisure phase. With his current functional capabilities, the patient does not need absolute care, and any therapeutic activities would have to be mutually participative. The overall objective is to have James experiencing optimal health in a favorable environment, where he would be self-directed in all his activities.

To accomplish this, James will be subjected to a combination of cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy as recommended by NIMH (2016). The treatment will begin with the exposure therapy, whose objective will be to help James make sense of the traumatic experiences through the use of imagination, writing, and visits to the accident scene. This will be conducted over a two month period. The cognitive restructuring will be conducted over a three month period and will entail stress management and relaxation activities. The therapeutic procedures will be facilitated by a social worker and will be conducted in a group setting comprising of other individuals experiencing PTSD and anxiety related disorders. Pharmacological procedures will be used to address the presenting pains such as the recurrent headaches.


NIMH (2016). Post-traumatic stress disorder. The National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved from

Nuckols, C.C. (2013). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5th Ed. (DSM-5). Delaware Department of Health. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (2018). PTSD: National center for PTSD. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from

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