The Forces of Evolution
In anthropology, evolution is regarded as the change in the genetic composition of a population. The change occurs over a long period, and therefore, it is not possible to limit it to a given time. It is not possible to measure evolution in an individual. Instead, evolution should be measured in generational time. Anthropology does not emphasize on some features of evolution as biology does. Therefore, in an anthropology perspective, this essay will define various terms used in evolution and evaluate the four forces of evolution. In addition, the essay will define speciation and isolation and look at variation so that there can be a better understanding of evolution.
First, a species is a cluster of organisms that are capable of interbreeding or exchanging genes. This cluster tends to be the most basic means of classifying organisms. On the other hand, a population is a group of individuals or organisms that belong to a sexually reproducing species. Given that this group has the capacity to reproduce, some people interchange this term with species in the classification of organisms. In addition, variation in the population tends to be the difference that occurs between populations when they are separated for a long time.
With regard to evolution forces, natural selection is considered as the differences that exist in continued existence and reproduction of genotypes. Mutation is regarded as an arbitrary change of genetic codes, and it is the fundamental basis of deviation in genetics. Mostly, mutation occurs when there is a change of the genes that alters the way genes operate, and it occurs by chance. As such, it is not outright that mutation will occur in evolution or over a period. Gene flow is the blend of gene pools coming from diverse populations resulting from migration of the populations. Concisely, it is what transpires in genes after different populations come together after a long period of separation. For a population Y of lions mating with a population Z of lions after the two populations have been separated for sometimes, the two populations will mix genes that may be slightly different due to the separation of the populations. As a result, there would be gene flow if that would be the case. Genetic drift is a change of genes from the parent genes. This force is more prevalent among small populations than in large populations.
A new species is produced through the isolation that in this case means separation of species by something that hampers gene exchange among populations of a species. For example, for geographical isolation facilitated by an ocean, it would be impossible for populations of species to exchange genes if the populations do not ever meet to mate; thus, a new species would evolve from existing populations. Speciation could be regarded as the process by which a fresh species evolves from a former species. This process is facilitated by the isolation that may result in genetically diverse species over a long period.
The essay has evaluated various terms used in evolution with an aim of demonstrating the way I understand these terms. In addition, the essay has assessed the factors that give rise to evolution. Therefore, a clearer definition of the terms has been presented with a focus of gauging my understanding of the terms.
Sample Aviation Paper on Which FAR lists the specific disqualifying conditions argumentative essay help
Chapter 6: Review questions
Which FAR lists the specific disqualifying conditions?
Part 67 of the federal aviation regulations (FAR). This section lists all the medical conditions that have been disqualified by clinical diagnosis or through the history of aviation. Some of the listed conditions in this section include Bipolar disorder, substance abuse, epilepsy, angina pectoris, and coronary heart disease among others. However, FAR 61.53 sets the legality of applying the pilot privileges mentioned in part 67 of the FAA medical standards.
Name three specific disqualifying conditions.
The three specific disqualifying conditions are Bipolar disorder, persistent involvement in substance and drug abuse, and Diabetes that require oral hypoglycemic medication or insulin injection.
Are you required to obtain a medical certificate to train for a Sports Pilot Certificate?
Yes, the medical certificate is a basic requirement for pilot students wishing to train for a sports pilot certificate. The medical certificate is one of the mandatory requirements for any individual sports trainee pilot with an exception of this being only the qualified sports pilot who is in command. A valid current U.S. driving license can also be used as a substitute for the medical certificate.
Assume that you had an FAA medical certificate (any class). The certificate was then suspended. May you fly as a sports pilot without obtaining, at least, a third-class medical certificate?
No, this contradicts the requirements stated in 14 CFR 61.23 (c)(2), which state that the pilot should not have his or her issued medical certificate suspended, revoked or withdrawn. The pilot should also be having, at least, a third class medical certificate at the time of application of the recent medical certificate.
List the different classes of medical certificates. What class must an air transport pilot maintain? An air traffic controller? A Private Pilot?
There are three classes of airmen medical certificates, these are;
An air transport pilot is required to have a first class medical certificate. This certificate acts as the pilot in command. On the other hand, the air traffic controller and a private pilot are required to have a third class medical certificate.
The FAA has a two-step process to obtain a medical certificate. What are the steps?
The first step involves the online application of airman medical certificate where the pilot is required to give statements concerning their medical history. The second step is the scheduling of the medical exam with the FAA designated doctor.
What is the special issuance medical certificate? How do you obtain one?
This is a certificate that is given to an airman who is having a mild medical condition that is disqualifying. The certificate is obtained with the express clearance and permission of FAA. Clearance involves medical testing.
What is a SODA? How is this different from a special issuance?
SODA stands for the statement of demonstrated ability. SODA is issued for constant defects that are deemed not to change while special issuance is done for conditions that are dynamic and requires constant checkups.
You have been denied your medical certificate because of a specific disqualifying condition. What is the process if you wish to appeal the FAA’s denial?
The process requires an appeal letter to be written to the National Transport and Safety Board (NTSB), through which NTSB appoints administrative law judge (ALJ) to determine the case.
What are the two courses of action available to you after the FAA has denied your certificate and you have exhausted administrative appeal rights?
The first course of action requires the appellant to seek the intervention of the U.S. court of appeals. Secondly, the applicant may ask the U.S. Supreme Court to review the case.
If your health changes to the point where you cannot fly, do you have to notify the FAAimmediately?
Yes, there is a need to inform the FAA so that they will review your health status and accord you the privileges that come with it.
You have entered some incorrect information on FAA Form 8500-8, what are the potential consequences?
The consequences range from admonishment of fines of up to $250,000, or an imprisonment duration of not more than five years, or both.
You have a few drinks, decide to drive, and are stopped by a police officer after a party. They cite you for driving under the influence of alcohol. List the process you must follow in reporting this information to the FAA.
Fill and submit a National Aeronautics and Space Administration Form (NASA), stating the nature of violations involved in.
Regarding Question 13, how many days do you have to report the infractions?
The matter should be reported within ten days. Retain the proof of filament within the required ten days.
Sample Aviation Paper on CH 5 Ayob essay help writing: essay help writing
CH 5 Ayob
What are the three types of enforcement actions that the FAA may take against an airman?
The three types of enforcement actions are legal, administrative or informal as per the FAA Order 8900.1
2. What is the difference between an “administrative” and “legal” enforcement action?
Administrative activities are those enforcement mechanisms employed by the Maintenance Enforcement Program (MEP) itself. Administrative enforcement actions include traces, demands for information from the pay or from others, garnishments, actions against land registration, personal property liens, writs of execution, collection calls, credit bureau reporting, motor vehicle license interventions, and other actions. Legal are those that need a third party intervention such as appeals of unsatisfactory services.
3. What is the name of the system the FAA inspector’s use in determining the appropriate action for those suspected of violating FARs? The system used is called the brasher notification
4. In order to determine if you were involved in an accident, which federal regulation would you review? A review of NTSB part 830 is carried out to determine if one was involved in an accident or an incident.
5. The FAA relies primarily on two orders regarding enforcement and compliance procedures –what are they? Administrative and informal procedures
6. Notices of Proposed Certificate Action refer to what type of enforcement action?
Civil Penalty or Certificate Action
7. FAA inspectors substantiate their “findings” and document their actions in something called an EIR. What does the acronym “EIR” stand for?
Enforcement Investigative Report
8. The FAA uses an EDP worksheet to determine what? The FAA investigator uses the Enforcement Decision Process Worksheet to determine how to precede with the violation allegations that are before him/her. These aides in making a decision whether the matter can be handled locally as the FSDO level or be referred to the regional counsel’s office for formal legal action.
9. If you appeal the FAA’s determination regarding a legal enforcement action, what type of judge will hear your case? Who is the judge employed by? Will there be a jury? The case will be heard by the United States Circuit Court of Appeals and the District Court whose judge is employed by federal government. This is done before a jury.
10. If you do not prevail in the underlying case who do your first appeal to? What if you fail to prevail on the first appeal? The first appeal is made to the NTSA judge; if it doesn’t prevail a further appeal is made to the US circuit Courts of Appeal.
11. What is the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA)? This is an act that authorizes the payment of attorney’s fees to a prevailing party in an action against the United States absence justifying its litigation.
12. What three elements must be proven by and EAJA applicant in order to be awarded fees and costs? (i). the applicant must be deemed as the prevalent party
(ii). Applicant must be involved in an adversary adjudication
(iii) Substantiation of the FAA decision to issue the Order
13. Under the ASRS/ASRP, is inadvertence synonymous with deliberate conduct? Inadvertence is not synonymous with deliberate conduct under the ASRS since its employees formally de-identify its reports before it is entered into the system database.
14. List three changes in the enforcement process that is attributable to the PBR.
PBR has enhanced the amount and accuracy of information in the system.This has led to a better understanding of what is happening to the local population and identification of where changes might be made.Has led to changes in the provision of services and better resource allocation
Sample Political Science Essay Paper on The US and the Arab World cheap mba definition essay help
The US and the Arab World
The Middle East is in a state of disorder that is worse than it was in the 1950s during the Suez War, which fashioned the current Arab state system. The current disorder resulted from long-brewing problems that undercut the authoritarian negotiation by which the Arab states have maintained the support and control of their societies. An intervention by the US and international community brought widespread displeasure that consequently exploded in 2010. In 2014, President Obama reviewed the America’s foreign policy toward the Middle East by committing the country to fight against extremism in the Arab world. However, one of the reasons why the US mission to combat terrorism in Iraq failed was because the US lacked vision in its attempt to accomplish the goals. Uncertainty is developing as to whether the coalition military obligation is adequate to attain the goals that President Obama has outlined, which include humiliating, defeating, and demolishing the movement that incorporates Iraq and Syria.
US policy toward Iraq, Syria, and ISIS
Despite Americans’ weariness in solving the Middle East conflicts through military option and peace deals, the US is not relenting in solving the current issue in the region. The US foreign policy incorporates consolidation, protection, and extension of the liberal international order, which it established after World War II (Rose, 2015). However, the pressure has continued to accumulate, both internally and regionally, resulting from the emergence of a terrorist network, which keeps on changing its tactics to attain its goals. The US government’s policy in Iraq has been to establish and maintain a unified country, and strive to develop a political structure that is capable of resolving disputes in the country. According to a testimony by McGurk (2013), intensive diplomatic engagement has enabled the central government and the Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR) to come to agreement on matters concerning federalism, which include revenue sharing, power balancing, and security arrangements, among others.
The US government has faced numerous challenges in its quest for peace amid emerging circumstances. To avert the re-emergence of the dreadful al-Qaeda group, the US government has embarked on the policy of mobilizing security forces to fight the network. Two years after the last batch of soldiers left Iraq, the US government has reversed the America’s foreign policy by committing the country to fight the new extremism in Iraq and Syria. According to Blanchard and Humud (2015), the US government has vowed to “degrade and ultimately destroy” what is dubbed as ISIS organization through increasingly minimizing geographic and political space, human support, as well as financial resources accessible to it (p. 22). To achieve this strategy, the US government has planned to partner with numerous European countries, as well as some Arab countries, to offer military support to both Iraq and Syria. In addition, the effort to limit the flow of foreign fighters has been established, though the strategy is yet to bear fruits.
The US government has emphasized that establishing a united Iraq would require a sustained production of oil, which would in turn ensure export of oil and oil products. The US policy has focused on an achievable goal, which would see the country establish a pipeline to transport oil to as far as the Mediterranean regions (McGurk, 2013). Investing in the country’s natural resources could assist Iraq to re-establish itself and compete with other oil producers and exporter in the world. In particular, the US has been interested in hydrocarbon in Iraq, and this could ensure a steady supply of hydrocarbon in the US, which would also generate high revenues for Iraq.
Promotion of regional integration has helped in reducing regional tension and internal instability in Iraq. When Barack Obama took office in 2008, he promised to bring an end to war in Iraq and Afghanistan, in addition to strengthening the US relations with Russia (Schwenninger, 2015). However, the Obama administration has grudgingly found itself pursuing a new warfare against the ISIS. This has prompted the US government to come up with new policy to deal with the new challenge. In Iraq, the Obama administration has underlined the need to offer support to multi-sectarian forces, which are under the central government, in an attempt to preserve Iraq’s political as well as territorial unity. The US foreign policy has emphasized on safeguarding the US strategic interests within the Iraq borders. In addition, the US has already dispatched military advisers to Iraq to offer support to the demoralized Iraqi army.
The Iraq’s situation is an extension of what is happening in Syria; hence, the US is taking both situations seriously by establishing a policy that would offer a solution to both countries. In this connection, the US government is negotiating on ending the conflict by proposing the removal of President Bashar al-Assad while maintaining the current institutions and security structures that constitute the Syrian state (Blanchard & Humud, 2015). Seeking a stable partition seems to be an appropriate policy for Syria, since the Islamic states’ supporters are seeking refuge in Syria. The US effort to train and arm Syrian opposition forces seems to be taking its shape, but its effect is likely to be felt after a year or two years.
The Obama administration has taken the policy of non-intervention in Syrian for the America’s pragmatic interests. Having a clear policy is Syria is quite complicated, as the US government has been compelled to fight both fronts: the current regime and the militants. However, diplomatic talks concluded that there was a need to support the Syrian opposition, which can contribute in convincing other Syrians to reject the Assad regime. In addition, the Syrian opposition has the opportunity to find the best alternative to Assad’s dictatorial rule, which, unfortunately, has the support of Russia, Hezbollah, and Iran. Such support has created a dilemma for the US government, since Hezbollah and Iran are the strongest adversaries of Israel (Katz, 2013). Pragmatism has made the US counter both internal political constraints and international situation simultaneously.
Why the US Went To War with Iraq in 2003
When Iraq attacked Kuwait in 1990, the US-led coalition retaliated by attacking Iraq. However, Saddam regime managed to suppress the uprising groups and arranged for their exit from Iraq. The US government planned to liberate Iraq from Saddam Hussein’s tyrannical rule, which was hazardous to peace in the Arab world. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks that occurred on the American soil in 2001, the Bush administration tried to connect the attack with the allegations that Iraq could be hiding weapons of mass destruction (WMD), in addition to supporting al-Qaeda, the terrorist group that claimed the responsibility for the attacks. To clear the allegations, the UN Security Council ordered Iraq to allow inspectors to assess its weapons, and failure to honor Resolution 1441 would amount to war (Cruz, 2012). Saddam regime chose to ignore the UN resolution, which prompted the US to accelerate its strategy to oust Saddam.
The US, in collaboration with the UK, had already planned the invasion, even when other European countries made a request for an extension to enable Iraq to comply with the UN resolution. The apparent motive for the attack was to eradicate terrorist and their practices, which were a threat to the livelihoods of the Middle East people. Terror threats were also a threat to the region’s economy, as there was not equitable distribution of resources, particularly from oil.
The Second Iraq War dented the US image on the globe due to its shocking consequences. The US’s motive for attacking Iraq in 2003 was both short-term and long-term. According to Halabi (2009), the short-term motive included destroying Saddam’s regime the capacity to manufacture WMD, in addition to demolishing any link between Saddam’s government and al-Qaeda. The Bush administration managed to convince Americans that Iraq was a threat to the US interests due to harboring WMD. Apart from having WMD, Iraq was also believed to be connected to the 2001 terrorist attack (Sherden, 2011). Saddam Hussein was perceived by the US as a brutal dictator, who was a threat to peace in his country as well as the entire Middle East.
The long-term goal that triggered the US to attack Iraq was to establish democracy in the Arab country and to restore the country’s popularity as a key exporter of oil. The US government was certain that launching democracy in Iraq would enhance the restoration of Iraq as a consistent exporter of oil, which would consequently counterbalance Iran (Halabi, 2009). The Bush administration was convinced that if Iraq managed to embrace democracy, it would enhance the inception and growth of democracy throughout the Arab world. Oil became an issue because the revenue from oil implied that Saddam had steady financial resources to create instability in the region, and would become difficult to oust him through the internal opposition.
The media incited the mention of WMD in Iraq, but both houses unanimously agreed that Saddam should be removed from power. Saddam had repeatedly ignored the call by the UN to offer a proof that he neither stocks WMD nor harbor nuclear weapons program. His stubbornness could have captured the attention of the US Congress, prompting to pass a right that justified his removal. If Bush did not have the support of the Congress, perhaps the US could have restrained from attacking Iraq.
Consequences of Iraq Invasion
The US experience in Iraq can be termed as clay that fails to mold into potter’s own design. Although the attack proceeded effortlessly, the war created a hot political climate that sharpened the differences between the locals and the US government concerning democracy. It turned out that Saddam Hussein did not intend to use WMD or attack Israel as it was alleged. In the US, Americans criticized the Bush administration due to the manner they handled the attack. The US lost thousands of soldiers while the surviving soldiers suffered from depression, anxiety, and various disabilities.
The US failure to offer security to Iraqis compelled each sect to establish its own militia. Most Iraqis sought protection through mobilizing sectarian and ethnic militias for defensive purpose (Flibbert, 2013). Prior to the US invasion of Iraq, terrorist groups such as Al – Qaeda and ISIS were not there. The war led to emergence of the ISIS, which was an unintended consequence. Since March 2011, the ISIS crisis has made more than 4.1 million Syrians flee into the neighboring countries to become refugees while more than 7.5 million others have become internally displaced persons (Blanchard, Humud & Nikitin, 2015).
The US government struggled to reestablish a viable national state that could reconcile national community. Balancing the power between ethnic groups that compete for power has never been a simple undertaking. American authority only managed to bring stability in Iraq in 2007 when it established a decentralized form of government after striking a deal with armed groups in Iraq (Flibbert, 2013). However, this deal was not a long-term arrangement since the Iraqi government was not ready to restructure the fragile state.
The struggle in Iraq seems not to end due to hegemony of single ethnic group since the reign of Saddam Hussein. Today, the Sunnis believe that the US invasion reduced their influence on national issues (Hussain & Kashif, 2015). According to Sherden (2011), the Bush administration contributed to the violent extremism in Islamic states because the administration refused to negotiate with the adversary, which prompted the terrorist groups to become more lethal and to secure better arms.
After the Iraq invasion, Iran and North Korea become the remnants of evil, and have even dared the US to attack them. Iran has emerged as unpredictable and risky country in the Arab region, as it harbors nuclear ambitions, in addition to having significant influence toward Shi’ites Muslims, who are the majority in Iraq (Sherden, 2011). In addition, the attack on Iraq was perceived by its neighbor as a religious attack, where Americans were targeting Muslims. Saudi Arabia claimed that American view on religious freedom was incompatible with Islamic view and the war on terrorism was targeting the Muslims (Halabi, 2009).
How the US is Addressing ISIS
The ISIS power would not be this strong today if the US government had opted not to collaborate with the Sunni allies, who include Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Turkey (Schwenninger, 2015). These allies were used to convey weapons to Sunni rebels who are in Syria. When the US government chose to support the rebels with weapons and fighters, it assisted in establishing perpetual war that results in financial strain and moral decay.
The US strategy option revolves around limiting the conflict within the affected region in Iraq and Syria while ensuring that the vulnerable population is protected from attack. Attacking from the air has offered a better strategy as the US force is capable of controlling the region while at a distance. A report by the US Senate indicated that the US airstrikes are assisting Kurdish Peshmerga forces as well as Iraqi Security Forces to minimize ISIS impetus (“Testimony on U.S. Policy,” 2014). The Obama administration has reiterated that it does not necessarily require approval from the Congress in order to expand airstrikes in Syria, as legal authority agreements signed in 2001 and 2002 are sufficient to authorize attacks. The US is supplying arms to Arab and Kurdish combatants based in northern Syria, who have managed to capture a territory from ISIS group.
The US government has endeavored to safeguard its interests in the Arab world by using its military forces to support the ISIS rebels. Syrian officials, backed by Russia and Iran, have accepted to join the US in the fight against ISIS as long as they are allowed to take the lead against Sunni Islamist extremism (Blanchard, Humud & Nikitin, 2015). However, the US government is reluctant to partner with Asad, since Asad government has lost its legitimacy in Syria. The Obama administration is seeking to coerce Asad to agree or offer his military force to safeguard Syrian civilians.
The US Congress is calling for different tactics of military intervention to shield civilians in their villages or to abate the power of the extremist groups. The US government has taken the Syrian rebels to its training pipeline to assist them in gaining tactics to fight their enemies and safeguard their homes (Blanchard, Humud & Nikitin, 2015). The financial support has already been passed through the Consolidated Appropriations Act in 2014, which outlined the need to expand nonlethal assistance to Syria by utilizing the Economic Support Fund (ECF). The Obama administration has also played a prime role in organizing international summits to combat militants in Islamic state.
What the US Should Do
The damage that the US created for itself through its foreign policy is not only visible through political instability, but also by crowding out other essential foreign policy goals. The US intervention in Iraq and Syria has weakened the country’s long-term position in the globe, in addition to demoralizing vital national priorities. However, the US government has conceded that it is facing challenges in handling ISIS crisis. Defeating ISIS requires a strong military force on the ground to safeguard the region from any form of uprising. The US, in conjunction with NATO, is still weighing the best policy option to solve the power struggle in the Islamic states.
The US’s core strategy should be to limit ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) from expanding their territory and causing atrocities in the new regions. Despite having strong military force on the ground, the US is facing a challenge of convincing the rebels to volunteer to fight ISIS. The US is bound to lose the ISIL battle if it does not recognize the need to permit the rebel fighters to organize themselves against the ISIS group. The next step should be to organize diplomatic talks with other Islamic states, particularly Iran, to plead with the Iraqi government to embrace a more inclusive form of government.
Success against ISIS will only be attained if the US will embark on organizing a strong ground component that can match the air strikes since ISIS cannot be eliminated through air campaign alone. The US president should not overlook the option of sending more ground-combat forces to assist the Iraqi security forces and the Syrian Army. The Syrian rebels are reluctant to leave the battlefields for training because they place more risk to their villages, which are vulnerable to attack from enemies. The US Senate has underlined the need for support from both Iraq and Syria, which include Shi’ites, Kurds, as well as religious minorities (“Testimony on U.S. Policy”, 2014). This implies that the US should train the Kurdish peshmerga forces, which would safeguard Iraqi Kurdistan against attack from ISIS. A strong ground component should also include the Syrian rebels.
In essence, President Obama has emphasized that the Islamic state can be defeated if Sunni Muslim states agree to lead the fight. If the Sunni tribes that reside in Iraq and Syria persist in rallying their support to ISIS, then the war against Islamic state is far from over. Consequently, the US can help in establishing diplomatic negotiations to oust President Assad from his dictatorial rule. This can be solved when the Congress allows the Obama administration to negotiate with Russia concerning Russia’s support to Asad government. The US should also put in place strategy for nation building and avoid a repetition of what happened in Iraq after invasion in 2003. This should include allowing the Sunnis to have their freedom, in addition to promising the Kurds that they will not be harassed after the war.
The US has endeavored to enhance its interests in the Arab world through its foreign policy. Negotiating for peace and political stability in Islamic states has not been a simple undertaking, as the region has not been satisfied by how the US government has been handling social, political, and economic issues. Islamic state group has become a menace to tranquility in Iraq, Syria, as well as the neighboring countries, such as Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and the Gulf. While the US is deeply convinced that the ISIS is a threat to the US interests in Arab world to validate a military reaction, the ISIS is just a symptom of what triggered breakdown in the region. The US need to understand that the extremism in the Arab world is a product of wrong decisions that were made several decades ago, hence, solving deep-rooted problems requires sufficient negations. The US should understand that minimizing extremism from ISIS and establishing democratic regime might take years rather than months.
Blanchard, C.M., & Humud, C. E. (2015, Dec. 8). The Islamic State and U.S. Policy. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved on 12 Feb. 2016 from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R43612.pdf
Blanchard, C.M., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D. (2015, Oct. 9). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved on 12 Feb. 2016 from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf
Cruz, L. D. (2012). ”Unmitigated Disaster”: Vol. # 1. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris.
Flibbert, A. (2013). The Consequences of Forced State Failure in Iraq. Political Science Quarterly (Wiley-Blackwell), 128(1), 67-95. doi:10.1002/polq.12001
Halabi, Y. (2009). US foreign policy in the Middle East: From crises to change. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
Hussain, M., & Kashif, M. (2015). Arab Uprising 2011: Emergence of Extremism in Middle East and Its Regional Consequences. Alternatives: Turkish Journal Of International Relations, 14(2), 29-38.
Katz, M.N. (2013). U.S. Policy toward Syria: Making the Best of a Bad Situation? Wilson Center, Middle East Program. Retrieved on 12 Feb. 2016 from https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/us_policy_toward_syria_making_best_of_bad_situation.pdf
McGurk, B. (2013, Nov. 13). U.S. Foreign Policy Toward Iraq. US Department of State, Testimony.Retrieved on 12 Feb. 2016 from http://www.state.gov/p/nea/rls/rm/217546.htm
Rose, G. (2015). What Obama Gets Right. Foreign Affairs, 94(5), 2-12.
Schwenninger, S. R. (2015). Obama’s Quiet War Doctrine. Nation, 300(25), 30-33.
Sherden, W. A. (2011). Best laid plans: The tyranny of unintended consequences and how to avoid them. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Testimony on U.S. Policy towards Iraq and Syria and the Threat Posed by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) (2014, Sep. 16). U.S. Senate, Committee on Armed Services. Retrieved on 12 Feb. 2016 from http://www.armed-services.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/14-66-9-16-14.pdf
Sample English Argumentative Essay Paper on The Veldt writing essay help: writing essay help
Life is fashioned in our thoughts and spirituality. Guided thoughts can produce affirmative results. In the Veldt’s, does the unguided character of the children and over-dependency on the veldt drown the envisioned perception by the Hadley of a wonderful carefree life?
The Veldt story presents Hadley family living in an automated home where anything could be created it only required one’s imagination. The basic daily chores were performed by the automation systems, for instance cooking, and clothing. The children, Peter and Wendy played near a nursery within their home. It provided fun and recreation activities, literally replacing their parents’ role because all they could think of were fulfilled by the nursery. The Hadley grew weary of the lifestyle as George Hadley, the father, deserted home for a better site in Iowa. The children resented the idea, because it would deprive them of joy. They even asked for a last opportunity to enter the nursery. The nursery appeared to be an experiment by David McClean and George Hadley (the two were psychologists and had set to study the children’s thinking pattern). The little one’s prank often caught their parents’ off-guard whenever they entered the nursery to study the wall patterns. The author, Bradbury, brings out the virtual realism expressed in the children’s minds of what they envisioned the world to be. He brings out themes like the savored freedom enjoyed by the children at their homes and the use of technology to ease home life.
The Hadleys had envisioned their home as a self-sustaining abode where their sheer presence authenticated the performance of other human tasks by automation. The Veldt creates a picture of a free environment, disposing the need for human effort for survival. The nursery was created for the children’s numerous entertainment activities. The nursery had been created to be run by imagination (a science fiction feat). They could create any environment they so wished, but the parents offered no guidance in terms of what and when they could create (Bradbury,41). The children recreated the African savannah with the lions in the vicinity and vultures prowling around the dead carcasses. The scene became more common in the nursery that it began to shape the thoughts of the kids. The careful scrutiny of the wall patterns by Mr. McClean and George Hadley revealed the fiery character of the kids as they depicted to be more violent in their thinking. The violent mindset of the children can be credited to the unlimited and unguided freedom they were accorded. It only remained for the children to chant their path of thought and see it through. The more they entertained the thought, the more creation of violent scenes leading to pranks on their parents. At one time, the children had locked the parents in the nursery from outside with the thought of hungry lions ready to devour the prey for supper being recreated. The scene nerved their mother almost scampering for safety, followed by George Hadley. Lydia pulled into regret of creating such a house (comparable to a nightmare). So entrenched in the mindset were they to even decide to murder their parents before the departure from the home. Actually, George Hadley and his wife’s resolution to abandon the home brought forth a sizzling recreation by the children-they generated a scene of their parents being eaten by the lions. They did it because they wanted to stay longer at home.
Over-reliance on technological dehumanizes, as depicted by ‘The Veldt’. The Hadleys had bought a self-sustaining home-the veldt. The machines carried much of the housework out, but the elder Hadleys had been through the proactive life before vacating to the veldt. The eased life increased their dependency on technology for the performance of the daily chores such that Lydia banished the thought of frying eggs for her husband, mainly because cooking with machines was unrivalled (Bradbury,32). She was actually recommending that they continue to cook the meal using machines. Likewise, the children never comprehended on the significance of a proactive life. The veldt was their only source entertainment and realizations of dreams-no parent’s supervision was needed as they carved out whatever they deemed fit. The children’s over-dependence on the nursery as their sole entertainment source overshadowed the role of their parents as the veldt provided whatever they needed or dreamt. To the elder Hadleys, the veldt is perceived as a helper for more relaxation periods, but was an unnecessary avoidance of their duties as parents.
Critical consequences arise with laxity to both the individual and family’s wellbeing. The nursery’s ability reshaped the thinking of Hadleys. Consequently, their life was built around the nursery perpetrating dormancy, in thinking and social life. The nursery attempted to eliminate the inconveniences and the hustle of constant contact with the outside world, but created beasts out of the children and two overruled robots (the parents). In most scenarios, the parents gave in to the children’s demand, not even thinking about the consequences of such freedoms. Hadley even said,
“We’ve given the children everything they ever wanted. Is this our reward—secrecy, disobedience (Bradbury,54)?”
Their decision to vacate the nursery was reactionary, to create a much simpler proactive life. However, the decision was reversed once they allowed the children to play in the veldt before their departure. This slip of thought instigated their eventual ‘death’ in the nursery and failure to vacate their home. The slip of thought and easy-going mentality confirmed denial of parental responsibilities portrayed when they were reduced to prey for the lions. The environment shaped the mentality, spirituality, and additional aspects of humanity depicted in the text. The nursery molded the children’s perspective (towards the parents). Their attitude towards the parents had changed. George Hadley pronounced them as unwelcome. He said that the children never cared for their existence and wondered if the unlimited supply for the children’s desires perpetrated this. McClean, a psychologist, explained to the Hadleys how the nursery had replaced their roles as a mother and father for Peter and Wendy (Bradbury,53). However, the solution to this state was a change of environment. McClean proposed that they relocate to the countryside, where they would be self-sufficient, and the children more proactive. The resolve by the Hadleys created a new environment-that of susceptibility. The children felt defenseless, as their entertainment source would be starved forever; this ignited the thought of killing their parents to continue access on the nursery.
The Veldt is a captivating fictional text. Science imagination created the self-sustaining home owned by the Hadleys and driven by imagination. It described clearly the consequences that arise from their over-reliance on the nursery. The laxity created thereof reshaped the Hadleys’ mindset but became their downfall. The Hadleys’ life on the nursery unearthed the extremities (the good and the bad) of such innovation. Unfortunately, their overdependence on the nursery was their undoing as it led to their death.
Bradbury, Ray. The Veldt. Illinois: Dramatic Publishing, 1972. print.
Sample English Essay on Reflection on Paper free college essay help: free college essay help
Sample English Essay on Reflection on Paper
What the writer does well is refuting the argument that the richest 1% of Americans is overpaid. In the second paragraph, the writer postulates that the 1% worked hard for their money, and this means that they deserve what they get.
Despite the inclusion of a thesis statement at the end of the first paragraph, it is long and cannot be understood easily by a reader. Seemingly, the paper’s thesis statement is highlighted in the line “is there something to do to reduce the gap between the 99% and the 1%.” The writer needs to shorten and make the thesis statement clearer than it is for it to be understood by a reader.
The writer’s ideas in the second paragraph regarding the underpayment of the 99% should be developed more, and this should see a detailed explanation given to underscore the argument that the 99% are not paid enough.
Towards the end of the paper, the writer argues that in Europe, education is free, a fact which can be doubted. In this case, the writer should paraphrase and quote more to enhance the validity of the fact.
The paper can be better organized by including an accurate thesis statement. Moreover, it is imperative for the writer to paragraph the work because as it is, it is hard for a reader to distinguish one point from another.
The writer can delete the statement that people should pay 25% or the same amount of taxes regardless of what they earn. From an economic perspective, this is not right as the poor will be treated equally to the rich, and if need be, the taxes imposed on the poor should be less as compared to those imposed on the wealthy.
Evidently the writer rallies critical thinking at the beginning of the second paragraph where he disagrees with the argument that the super rich are overpaid. The writer argues that the rich individuals such as Steve Jobs worked hard for their money, and thus, are not overpaid.
To improve the paper, the writer should use paragraphs to make it understandable to the reader and should include more quotes to support the facts or arguments contained in the paper, particularly towards the end of the paper.
Economics Research Paper Sample on Sales Tax Exemption extended essay help biology
Sales Tax Exemption
Sales tax exemption entails ‘being freed’, or not being subjected to any form of sales taxation or regulation by the relevant authorities. Most governments around the world will use this as a viable policy through which they can encourage possible investments. Notably, when the demand for electric vehicles is said to be elastic, it means that other factors change, for instance, prices and the quantity demanded. Inelastic supply implies that the distribution of motor vehicles does not change when other factors such as price changes (Henke, Gernot and Norbert 657). Introducing taxes or failing to extend sales tax indemnity for electric cars will affect the sales of these viable commodities.
The effect on sales is because of imposed taxes, the cost of producing a car will increase considerably (Henke, Gernot and Norbert 658). The corporation will then be obliged to raise the prices of the product to curb the extra cost of procedure (taxes). Given that the demand is elastic, the consumers will react to this increase in prices and will reduce the consumption of the commodities (Henke, Gernot and Norbert 659). The company is likely to maintain its production capability since supply is inelastic, but the sales will decline considerably.
Imposing a sales tax on electric vehicles will affect the prices of the product. Since demand is elastic, sales tax will reduce the demand while supply will not change (inelastic) (Henke, Gernot and Norbert 664). The consumers have the alternative to buying the conventional vehicles instead of the proposed ones (Henke, Gernot and Norbert 664). Most of the buyers will incline towards cheaper products and are more responsive to any rise in prices. Sales tax will consequently lead to an increase in production costs. The producers are prompted to curb this increase in expenditure in whatever manner possible so as not to record losses.
The best possible way will be to increase prices of the product leading to a consequent decrease in sales. Notably, the sellers will be more likely to bear the tax burden compared to the buyers (Henke, Gernot and Norbert 667). This can be attributed to the fact that the buyers have an alternative that is relatively cheap (conventional vehicles) and are not obliged to purchase the products. The sellers, however, are under pressure to produce products (supply elastic) that are unique in both price and quality (Henke, Gernot and Norbert 669).
In essence, the alternative clean fuel tax exemption should be extended based on some reasons subsequently discussed in this document (Hackney 33). The primary reason given by most people spins around keeping our setting ‘free’ and ‘healthy’. Electric vehicles are considered environment-friendly, as they do not discharge the toxic carbon wastes common among ‘normal’ motor vehicles (Hackney 35). When manufacturers specialized in the production of electric vehicles are exempted from paying taxes, the result will be a reduction in their expenditures (Hackney 37).
As such, the company will reduce the prices of these essential commodities to ‘manageable’ levels. When most consumers can afford electric vehicles, the conventional ones will be phased out most likely. From an economic viewpoint, however, extending tax exemption may result in a market monopoly by the electric vehicles and therefore, a bad idea. Introducing taxes will allow some levels of competition with the conventional vehicles eliminating potential monopoly (Hackney 39).
Hackney, Philip T. “What We Talk About When We Talk About Tax Exemption.” Virginia Tax Review 33 (2013).
Henke, Jan M., Gernot Klepper, and Norbert Schmitz. “Tax exemption for biofuels in Germany: Colombo, John D. “Marketing of Philanthropy and the Charitable Contributions Deduction; Integrating Theories for the Deduction and Tax Exemption, The.” Wake Forest L. Rev. 36 (2001): 657.
Is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?.” Energy 30.14 (2005): 2617-2635.
Sample Sociology Essay Paper on Domestic violence common app essay help: common app essay help
Domestic violence against women is a violation against female population and attracts mixed reactions. I buy out your idea that women are treated different from men. In cases of an abuse in the family, the wife is always placed on the receiving end. Football or volleyball clubs will suspend a female player for being involved in love a affair that turned sour. A scandal that involves women is more likely to attract huge attention hence embarrasses them. This lowers their morale.
Women and crime
I totally agree with your views on female genital mutilation (FGM). American still experiences cases of FGM. This practice has been rendered retrogressive. The reason behind this is that a woman’s health is in danger when she undergoes the cut. The painful thing about it is that it happens under the watch of family members and relatives. Traditional leaders who carry out the cut do not follow laws and regulations set by the government.
Women and sport
I concur with your idea that role models are important in steering women sports. However, the number of women engaged in sport is low compared to male counterparts. In addition, female sportspeople are treated differently by various stakeholders. It is true that the media tend to focus on men games more than they do for women. There are some cases of women becoming proud of their success an action that alienate them from the community. I feel that they should be given the same chances as men do even in media coverage.
Answer Classmate Question
Paid maternity leave is an issue that has elicited heated debate among the population. Majority of states in America provides this kind of services. Thus, I made a general observation about different states and chose to go by the majority. Due to these differences, United States is shown to register zeros on the pictures.
Sociology Essay Paper Sample on Women and Work nursing essay help
Women and Work
Jonathan Talbert, I really appreciate your contribution and observation about maternity leave. In United States, the federal government delegates the duties of paid maternity leave to the local authorities. Therefore, many local states provide diverse maternity leaves to clients. Comparing these rates to other countries in the world, the United States needs to up their game. The women population is growing in the employment sector. Having these benefits in place will enhance their paternity endeavors.
If we consider the services different states are offering to their patients, some services are similar to those offered in most developed countries. However, some issues raise questions. An example is why a country’s with a stable and growing economy offers short paternity period than countries with unstable economies. This is the reason as to why parents in Sweden benefit from a paid maternity leave guaranteed for a period of up to 480 days. The rate is so high as compared to the United States which is densely populated than Sweden.
Therefore, the country needs to come up with a national plan in regards to maternity leave. States should be forced to adhere and comply with the national plan to be enrolled out in the entire country. Although health service remains a devolved function of the government, the national authority needs to have some interest for the good of the public. In times of crisis, the government is able to control and restore normalcy.
Local governments may sometimes overlook workers plea to advance development agendas. Thus, federal government interventions will facilitates and protect consumers of health services. For women maternity leaves, the United States has to make some changes to avert the situation.
Sample Economics Essay Paper on AT&T to Buy DirecTV college essay help near me
AT&T to Buy DirecTV
The current event in America domestic market is the acquisition of DirecTV. The company decided to purchase pay-TV to move to the next platform in digital transmission. During this period, video consumption among the American population is inclined towards online streaming. Therefore, making the pay-TV accessible online will increase the profit margin for the business. The media landscape is dynamic and taking a new direction that will see many companies lose their market share. Thus, the essay discusses the current events in American society. Specifically, the focus is laid on the event that saw the acquisition of one of the major television channels pay-TV.
The American population is demanding more online videos. This demand has attracted a number of players; who come into this industry with an aim of offering services and making profits. Verizon is one of the competitors; who joined the industry for wireless TV services. The theory of demand and supply plays a key role in determining the quality of services rendered to consumers. It means that the higher the goods supplied, the lower the demand and hence the lower the price and vice versa. Money collected from DirecTV services will be used in the advancement of company’s projects. Part of the money will be spent in paying dividend to shareholders who finances the company. Disruptions are expected to happen with the introduction of the merger business.
In addition, the television channels gained popularity among the Latin American. Some regions felt sidelined hence condemned the channel for biasness. Thus, there was need to change the business model in use. A national outlook would work best for the organization, but with the recent initiative, things are deemed to change (Thomas Gryta and Shalini Ramachandran A1).
In analyzing this event, we find that media has contributed a lot to the development and growth of economy. It unlocks the hidden potentials prevalent in government and within the society. Members are able to communicate and condemn illegal or corrupt dealings within the surrounding. In the field of entertainment, DirecTV managed to capture and control a wide range of viewers who express their opinion by reacting to content aired. This has enabled the company to grow despite facing intense competition and challenges from the local politicians who feel threatened. These threats culminate from consistence condemnation and opposition to corrupt undertakings.
On the other hand, the sailing has not been easy and making a decision to create mergers came with some difficulties. This is because some customers felt that they could lose a lot if the company was acquired. The content was also deemed to change as new players tend to market their products. In spite of all these challenges, the two firms had to merge for the benefit of the community. Moreover, they would concentrate on product development an action that would place them at the apex position in this industry.
The advancement in technology and systems used in airing out content to the public is also changing. Therefore, obsolete method need to be replaced with new and advanced technologies. They are not only efficient but also cost effective. Moving to this platform required combined efforts from various parties an action that prompted acquisition endeavor. However, the acquiring business has to maintain the standards set by the formers service provider.
Beer in Africa
The consumption of alcohol in Africa has risen by a big margin in the last ten years. Many youth are accessing drinks that go for as little as $2. In addition, low income earners are able to access the product from local dealers. Diageo PLC and SabMiller are the major manufacturers of cheap beer. The prices of these bear have been lowered due to the reduction of tax. Some of the countries in Africa where cheap beer is sold include Zimbabwe, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. In some cases, senator keg brands are served in mugs that go for 25 shillings. Brewers in these countries lobby government support because they offer job opportunities to farmers who provides raw materials needed in preparing beer.
Tax incentives accorded to these firms enhanced production activities. Prices on the other hand were lowered by a great deal. This has seen the rise of alcohol consumption amongst the poor. The consumption level affects the economy in two ways. First, it creates new jobs to the country’s population (DREW HINSHAW, PAUL SONNE, and DEVON MAYLIE A1). Farmers and dealers earn income from increased demand for their products. The numbers of employees working in these firms are able to support their families. Socially, the crime rate goes down. This is because the industry employs a lot of people directly and indirectly. Schools and social facilities near the companies’ premises are deemed to increase in population due to social corporate responsibility initiatives undertaken by the firms.
Second, there are negative effects of increased consumption especially amongst the youths. People between the ages of fifteen years to thirty five years are indulging in alcoholism. The population bracket comprises of school going children at high school levels as well as university and colleges. Alcoholism is the main contributor of increased rates of school dropouts. Students are unable to manage their school work and leisure. School dropouts engage in crime as a way of financing their drinking habits. Thus, the country ends up using a lot of money in fighting crimes. In the social set up, these dropouts steal household’s items from family members in order to purchase beer. They eventually become a burden to the society.
For those who are family members, they neglect their duties as parents. Children born and raised by alcoholics are more likely to go into the streets to beg for food. School fees become a burden to parents engaged in excessive drinking spree. Another social effect is the spread of diseases such as HIV and AIDs among the young generation. They suffer from health complications from a very tender age hence unable to raise a family. Abuse of alcohol by public drivers and motorists fuels the rate of causing accidents. Many people have lost their lives in such circumstances hence a loss for the family and nation as well.
Lastly, the environment and mugs used in serving some of the low-priced drinks raises health questions. In most cases, a single mug will be used by different people in the same sitting an action that may raise the chances of contamination and spread of communicable diseases. The distribution units for beers are being used by drug dealers to advance their businesses. Drug peddlers meet at the same joints where alcohol consumers go to enjoy their drinks. They sell these products to alcohol users who suffer the effect of drug abuse.
Growing and selling of marijuana is treated as illegal trade by many countries in the world. Thus, farmers are few in this section of the industry. Some of the reasons as to why marijuana farming seems to be an expensive affair to engage in are outlined below. First, licensing and getting permission to grow the plant is a hectic affair. This means that a farmer has to visit government departments concerned with the licensing of this plant to acquire the permission so as to go ahead. Secondly, the plant requires and demands for intensive labor. Therefore, farmers must employ extra employees to help them weed out the plant as well as in harvesting.
The cost of labor adds up to the cost of acquiring chemicals used in growing this plant. However, the plant is grown in closed door or in pots. Those approved farmers incur huge costs in putting up a structure or acquiring pots. Large companies that exploit green house farming to grow marijuana invest a lot of money. Some of the challenges that farmers go through when farming and selling includes: opposition from local leaders and community members and People believe that weed is harmful for human consumption. Weed farmers are segregated and scorned by members of the public due to prejudices in place. In some cases, they are regarded to as bad boys or hardcore hence not accorded the respect that they deserve (ANA CAMPOY A1).
Moreover, police and law enforces accuses them of breaking the laws for selling the product. Therefore, farmers end up spending a lot of money in courts defending their rights. Laws adopted by various states hinder effective trade in regards to the sale of weed. Contrary, illegal traders take advantage of the limitations prevalent in the industry to exploit consumers by smuggling goods into and outside the state. It leads to the generalizing of weed farming as illegal business. For those farmers located near institutions of learning, security agent’s carries constant raid into their premises demanding a bribe. This is contrary to the laws passed against torture and exploitation of traders.
The positive side of the plant is that it is applied by medical practitioners to treat patients. It has medicinal value and doctors use it when conducting operations. Contrary, weeds handling and transportation can land a person in police hands. Doctors and other health experts may also fall into this category hence leave the responsibility of acquiring the product to the patients. The microeconomic effect attributed to this business is characterized by government restrictions. The background economy oversees the utilization and trade of weed. This denies the economy revenues that could have been earned by licensing traders. In the background economy, smugglers make a lot of money. They may use this money to advance terrorist attacks. Smuggling involves a lot of activities that includes trading of weaponry and other illegal fire arms prohibited by the government.
States should come up with a formidable plan to control weed trade. Supporting the farmers to ensure that they produce the right quantity and quality for hospitals, reduces the sale of smuggled products that do not meet the set standard. At the same time, farmers need to go through a training process to ensure that they get the necessary knowledge to apply in business. In doing so, the country will be more secure.
Chinese College Graduates
China’s population has grown tremendously in the last twenty years. This is the reason as to why the government discourages parents from getting more than one child. It reduces competition in the family. Having more than one child creates competition that invaluably forces a child to work hard. The population-control policy that is imposed on families tends to affects entrepreneurship in the country. Many college students are desisting from acts of entrepreneurship. They depend on their parents for survival. The teaching of entrepreneurship in school seems to be diminishing and many Chinese students tend to focus on formal employment after school rather than venture into business. Subsidized education has led to increase in graduates in the country. Therefore, the supply of job applicants is higher than what the market needs/demand. Start-up businesses that support the development and growth of the economy are on a declining trend.
Graduates coming from well up families get engaged in their parents business. This kills the dream of ever starting their businesses. Poor families on the other hand struggle in raising their kids. The job market is saturated with applicants seeking formal opportunities in the public and private sector. As a consequence, salaries for workers in both sectors of the economy reduced by a great margin due to the availability of cheap labor. Moreover, private employers lowered the bar for employee’s qualifications entering the labor market. This forced college and university student to accept the prevailing wages hence led to underemployment (BOB DAVIS A1).
Chinese government has introduced some strategies to oversee the reduction of graduate unemployment levels. Some of the initiatives implemented by the state include college-building boom and subsidized apartments. These strategies offered solution in the short run period. It may also include efforts by the state to invite investors to channel their capital to the industrial sector. The manufacturing and industrial sectors employ quite a good number of the community members. Ten years ago, graduates would find a place to work without much struggle. However, globalization has reduced demand for goods and services by trading partners. Some industries are being closed to reduce pollution.
Moreover, technology has introduced new ways of doing things. Companies are utilizing the modern technology to better their services. Human labor was replaced by the machines and technological systems that firms installed. Labor movement opposed this move because many employees lost their job on accounts of technological advancements. This increased stress on different families in china. Some retrenched employees committed suicide. On the other hand, crime rate also rose due to technological displacement of human work force.
Pollution has contributed a lot to unemployment. Environmental change and industrial pollution causes global warming. This has raised health concerns about the community and future generations. The social and environmental impact is devastating. In the recent past, china has experienced extreme weather conditions. Fog and hurricanes that have hit the place are associated with the depletion of ozone layer. The global community has set standard for countries in terms of greenhouse gases emission. China and United States have been on the forefront in the fight against global pollution. However, they reserve their industries despite being the biggest polluters of environment. Release of green house gases into the air affects the entire globe. So, companies located in the developed countries accelerate the production of green house gases.
The microeconomic theories applied in South America, Russia, Poland and India includes: Labor economics, Theory of production System and Theory of Demand & Supply. These theories were used by these countries in the past to control colonies. Gaining power over colonies and controlling their local economy was essential during the world war one and two. Supply of military weapons to warring nations was dependent on their submission to the super powers (Soviet Union and the United States). However, each country applied diverse strategies and theories in dealing with the economic situation in their designated location. Microeconomic factors incorporate factors such as the consumer taste and preferences, ability to purchase, economic status of the individuals within social setup and availability of choices. Competition is a central issue when discussing this system.
South America is one of the regions in the world that have experienced war for a long time during and after the First World War The political class influenced policies and laws structured in the economic front. Thus, the theory of demand and supply played an important role in driving the economy forward. Agricultural outputs produced locally enabled the country to feed its population. Thus, the state did not rely on export business like their neighbors who imported agricultural products. The Americans were able to rule over other countries as well as control the flow of capital in the region. Contrary, some countries resisted the American move to rule the world. Food supply could be cut in such cases hence causing the death of many people. This model acted as a tool of war against the opposing side.
India on the other hand was affiliated to the Soviet Union. Indian slaves were transported to United States to work in the wheat plantations before the country became part of the Soviet Union. The close ties that the country enjoyed under the umbrella of Soviet Union influence its choice for the economic models. Labor economic theory was widely utilized by Soviet Union and affiliated nations. The United States championed for free economy while India rallied behind dictatorship and trade slave as a means of driving the economy. Slave’s trade during the early 1940 and late 1970 resulted to great business amongst the traders and slave owners. These slaves would farm the Indian rich farms. Weapons were supplied by the Soviet Union to enhance dictatorship (Calvin K. Kazanjian Economics Foundation, Inc.).
Poland on the other hand is located in the central part of Europe. The country was invaded by Soviet Union and Nazy Germany. A good number of people died in the devastating event. Culminating from the invasion, Poland became part of the Soviet Union. However, the country fought for its independence in the year 1989. This gave rise to the market-based economy. This model of economy was introduced to aid economic growth. Government could not interfere with the market forces. Thus, prices were set and determined by the forces of market demand. A market economy is where producers and buyers meet and determine the type of contract to engage in. Government absence leads to freedom in making decisions in regards to purchasing and selling activities. It is categorized as one of the high- income, healthiest and the fastest growing European country globally and within the European Union. The government has also privatized its small companies as a way of reducing the cost of operation. In addition, the move aided the process of curbing corruption in state-owned corporation. At present, Poland is the economic power house in the region. Thus, the economy attracts foreign direct investments and franchising hence grows at a high rate.
Russia being the largest country hosts a total of 144 million citizens. It was part of the founding members of the Soviet Union. From the First World War, Russian became an enemy to the United States and since then their rivalry escalated. Initially, the state was the superpower and regulated the world economic welfare. Theory of production System took over the economy where the cost incurred dictated prices of items manufactured. Some of the factors that influenced price included: cost of raw materials, transportation cost, labor cost, overhead cost and processing costs. All the costs associated with production are added up to the profit margin to achieve the retail price of a product.
Independence is a key factor when it comes to a countries economic status. Those countries that attained their independence early developed their industries; and are better placed economic wise today than the ones whose independence came later. Colonies followed the steps of their masters. Colonizers are the major trading partners of the colonies and influence their economic decisions. This is because colonies benefit through grants and other financial assistance from their formers head. In most cases, theories applied in both countries are similar due to common factors of production in existence. Oil has also been regarded as a key driver of the financial status. These are the factors to consider when studying the economy at the individual level.
This course has influenced my economic thinking. The theory of demand and supply offered insight into the forces that affect prices. The market economy and mixed economy also played a big role in my understanding of economic theories. Specifically, the course enhanced my knowledge about the setting of prices for goods. Prices changes as supply and demand increases or reduces. In addition, Internalization theory concentrates on business behavior on global levels. Consumers and businesses demonstrate diverse behaviors when it comes to the purchase and sale of products. I gained a lot of knowledge for enrolling in this course.
I will employ this knowledge in life as outlined below. I intend to open up a business in the future. Thus, the theory of demand will be of much help in understanding customer behavior and in determining prices of goods and services to be offered. Learning behavior is critical to business growth. This is because consumers affect the financial status of an organization through purchase of products and services offered. The second theory is about Economic System and consumer’s behavior. Startup businesses are deemed to grow for sometimes and expand thus serving a wide range of consumers. The international community and policies adopted by different countries affects small and medium businesses in developing and developed countries.
In conclusion, the main outcome of this course is knowledge acquisition. The course covers different theories developed by renowned researchers. Sharing this knowledge is essential in making business decisions. Thus, I was introduced to different business models. In reality, models define the types of business and activities carried out. Business undertakings and partnership contracts highly depends on entity structure and ownership composition. I am now in better position to undertake business activities.
ANA CAMPOY. “The Wall Street Journal.” The Pot Business Suffers Growing Pains [London] 20 Apr. 2013: A1. Print.
BOB DAVIS. “The Wall Street Journal.” Chinese College Graduates Play It Safe and Lose Out[BEIJING] 25 Mar. 2013: A1. Print.
Calvin K. Kazanjian Economics Foundation, Inc. “Commanding Heights: Home | on PBS.”PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Heights Productions, Inc., 7 Mar. 2002. Web. 27 Feb. 2016. <www.pbs.org/commandingheights>.
DREW HINSHAW, PAUL SONNE, and DEVON MAYLIE. “The Wall Street Journal.” With West Flat, Big Brewers Peddle Cheap Beer in Africa [ London] 19 Mar. 2013: A1. Print.
Thomas Gryta, and Shalini Ramachandran. “The Wall Street Journal.” AT&T to Buy DirecTV in $49 Billion Deal, Creating Pay-TV Giant [London] 18 May 2014: A1. Print.
Sample Accounting Research Paper on Capital Investments in Emerging Markets essay help free: essay help free
Capital Investments in Emerging Markets
Recent statistics indicate that emerging markets represent a huge share of capital investments in the global equity market. The rapid growth of capital investments in the emerging markets, such as China, India, Latin America, and Africa has resulted in many countries across the globe redefining their strategies, by adopting new methods that are likely to improve their investment return. The Coca Cola Company is one such company that has introduced significant changes in its capital investment plans in the emerging market. This paper investigates and reviews current plans that the Coca Cola Company has identified for capital investment in the emerging market.
The Coca Cola Company is a leading American multinational company that specializes in the production and sales of soft drink products, as well as mineral water. The company has global presence in major developed market, such as in Europe and North America. However, its presence is limited in emerging market. Nonetheless, over the past few years, the Coca Cola Company has come up with some strategic plans of increasing its capital investments in the market markets – it primarily targets China, India, and Africa. These markets have attracted many multinational companies because of the favorable conditions, such as ready demands, and reduced risks among others. By the end of 2015, the Coca Cola Company significantly increased its capital portfolio in emerging market from 10% to 15%, and this percentage is expected to be increased in the coming years.
In the year 2015, the Coca Cola Company identified major plans for increasing its capital investments in the emerging market, its plans targeting specifically India, China and African countries. The Coca Cola Company has been using traditional methods for evaluating their capital investments in the developed markets. However, due to the uniqueness of emerging markets, these traditional methodologies need to be supplemented if the company has to achieve optimal growth and benefit. There are three major traditional methods for evaluating capital investment namely the Net Present Value, the Internal Rate of Return, and lastly the Payback Period. Under the Net Present Value (NPV) method, capital investment is evaluated based on the net future cash flows after deduction of total taxes. In this case, the capital investment is considered worthy if the net present value exceeds zero. On the other hand, the internal Rate of Return method considers the discount rate at the present value that equals the capital investment outlay. The capital investment evaluation method is widely used by analysts. The latter method, Payback Period, is calculated as the number of years that is needed to fully recover the initial capital investment in the business. Even though it is very simple, the Payback Period method has numerous flows makes it unsuitable for evaluation of capital investments (Götze, Northcott & Schuster, 2015).
These traditional methods of evaluating capital investment have various drawbacks – these drawbacks can be controlled in order to reduce the overall risk by supplementing the traditional methods with other techniques. The best methodology that the Coca Cola Company can use supplement these traditional methods in order to reduce risks in the market is to include the elements of profitability in the evaluation method. This can be done effectively by calculating the probability index for each capital investment. Capital investments depend on several variables, which must be considered, primarily, the business’ need to yield potential capital. The use of probability index is essential in reducing the risk appetite because it leads to the development of new products that yield capital in the market.
The primary rationale of probability index methodology is that it considers all the present cash flows that are expected to be yielded from the project. Another rationale of using probability index methodology is that it considers the initial investments that would be required within the project’s lifetime thus making it more accurate and reliable in evaluating the capital investment. This methodology is beneficial because it gives the ratio of present values of all future outflows and inflows of cash to the project, which makes it a reliable measure of capital investment decision for any time of project.
There are several advantages of using the probability index in evaluation of the capital investment in any type of project. For instance, it is very simple to calculate as compared to the traditional methods of capital evaluation. Another advantage of using this methodology is that it recognizes and appreciates the time value of money, which is very essential in expressing the true expectation of initial outlay. The last rationale for using probability index calculation is that it gives better criteria for selection of project when different capital investments are involved. For these reasons, the probability index methodology is appropriate for supplementing the traditional methods of evaluating capital investment thus should be adopted by the Coca Cola Company.
Inflation is a very significant factor that affects capital investments in both emerging and developed market. It is an important factor of consideration in the emerging market because of the market instability and presence of several influencing factors. Inflation could potentially affect the Coca Cola’s planned capital investments in emerging market in several different ways. In most cases, problems associated with insufficient monetary restraint and a mix of strong economic growth often crop up in emerging markets such as India, china and some African countries. Due to these factors, most emerging market are often affected by runaway inflation which eventually leads to devaluation of currencies, reduction of corporate profit margin as well as overall slow economic growth, which directly affect the planned capital investment. For instance, inflation rate in India and most African countries have been fluctuating every year and hitting the highest point in the subsequent years (Bierman & Smidt, 2012).
One possible way through which inflation will affect planned capital investment in emerging market is the increment in transactional and informational costs, which eventually might prevent the Coca Cola Company from increased capital investment in emerging markets. For instance, when inflation is high, it makes the nominal values for capital uncertain; thus, the company would find it difficult to plan its capital investments in the market. As a result, the company may become reluctant to capital investment in the market because it cannot corrected predict the market prices. Due to this reluctance, inflation would certainly inhibit or reduce the rate of capital investment in emerging markets and ultimate financial recession as companies resort to being more cautious.
The Coca Cola Company can use several methods of evaluating capital investments. The most commonly used methods are Internal Rate of Return, Payback Period as well as Net Present Value. These methods have their advantages and disadvantages and might not provide most accurate result. Despite its few weaknesses, the most accurate method that the Coca Cola Company can use to evaluate its capital investments in emerging market is Modified Internal Rate of Return. The development of this method gives it ability to resolve most problems experienced by the Internal Rate of Return technique. First, it does not assume that positive cash inflows are reinvested in the business at the same rate. Under the modified internal rate of return, all cash flows are subjected to terminal value calculated using specified discount rate applicable to it. There are three major advantages of this method; it includes time value of money, it includes all cash flows in the entire project lifetime, and lastly it uses a single rate thus avoiding confusion. The knowledge of this method would impact the management decisions positively. This is because the management team at Coca Cola Company will resort to this method, which is more accurate and effective in evaluation of capital investment.
The management would make few modifications when evaluating projects in North America as compared to the global market. The modifications would be influenced by the nature of the two markets. In North America, it is essential to stick specific issues related to the market while in the global perspective the management would use generalized information. One key consideration in North America would be the level of market saturation. As we all known, North America is certainly saturated with soft drink products and market expansion criteria would not be highly recommended when considering capital investment. On the global market, it is essential to consider market expansion criteria when deciding on capital investment because some areas have not been reached. This information will impact the decision made by the coca cola company by coming up with new criteria for expanding into the global market through new market entry.
There are several benefits of using sensitivity analysis in the evaluation of projects for capital investment the first benefit being the ability of determining how different values will independent impact particular dependent variables under consideration. The second benefit is that sensitivity analysis is the ability to direct the management’s efforts. By identifying crucial areas, it provides a level of centration that enables the management to direct discharge their duties. This approach will provide a competitive advantage for the Coca Cola Company by enabling ease of automation and also acting as a source of information for planning (Bos, Sanders & Secchi, 2013).
Bierman Jr, H., & Smidt, S. (2012). The capital budgeting decision: economic analysis of investment projects. Routledge.
Bos, H. C., Sanders, M., & Secchi, C. (2013). Private foreign investment in developing countries: a quantitative study on the evaluation of the macro-economic effects (Vol. 7). Springer Science & Business Media.
Götze, U., Northcott, D., & Schuster, P. (2015). Capital Budgeting and Investment Decisions. In Investment Appraisal (pp. 3-26). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Sample Logistics Essay Paper on E-Commerce easy essay help
E-commerce defines a form trading that entails the use of computer networks to move products and services from retailers as well as electronic-based market places to consumers. The practice employs technologies such as mobile trade, electronic money transfer, internet marketing, web-based transaction as well as automated data interchange and collection systems to facilitate business to consumer or even consumer to consumer product or service transfer (Vijay 2011, 34). Traditional cross-border trade has proven to be an ineffective practice especially because it imposes heavy important duties on consumers, long delivery times as well as complicated return processes. As such, governments from all over the world have recognized e-commerce as the most reliable trade engine that can contribute to significant economic growth (Singh 2010, 112). This recognition has in return seen business-to-consumer (B2C) sales from around the world increasing drastically in recent years. Such growth in e-commerce sales has partly been driven by rapid growth in online population and partly by significant change in consumer behavior. As explained by Zheng (2013, 1298), consumers have increasingly gained great expertise in comparing products and services online and they as well know how to venture in the global market places to secure the best deal on a product or service that is not available in their home country. As such, online merchants are increasingly indulging in the rapidly growing online technology in order to sell as well as deliver their merchandise to different parts of the world (Yan 2015, 62). Despite this new development, e-commerce has proven to interfere with the physical execution of orders placed by consumers thereby impacting the supply chain networks necessary for efficient logistics provisions (Rabinovich 2015, 823). This paper explores how B2C e-commerce impacts supply chains as well as recommends the best practices that online merchants can put in place to ensure seamless order fulfillment processes.
B2C cross-border e-commerce in China
B2C cross-border e-commerce is a rapidly booming business in different parts of the world as the number of countries where this venture contributes to rapid growth in GDP continues to grow. According to Lafond (2015, 70), China is one of the leading countries where the B2C e-commerce has rapidly grown. For instance, the pace at which the industry has grown in China as well as how it has impacted businesses as well as consumers has surprised many. While most countries perceive B2C e-commerce as a way of shopping, China perceives it to be a form of lifestyle. As argued by Jing (2014, 256), the Chinese path to E-commerce, in about a decade ago, was difficult to foresee despite the fact that technological boom in United States among other countries enhanced rapid development in E-commerce and the subsequent B2C channel. For instance, China had not created any e-commerce application in 2000 and it only had about 2.1 million internet users, although e-commerce transactions were already flourish in other countries. Rapid technological development however saw Chinese technological users rapidly grow to about 600 million by 2013 and e-commerce revenue expansion reaching 70% compounded yearly (Gibson 2014, 11). Essentially, China’s high and middle class consumers have increasingly become accustomed to making web-based purchases. Similarly, many e-commerce markets are continually developing technology-based strategies for creating brand awareness, increasing commitment to purchase high quality products as well as promote brand loyalty. This has in return created a new potential for China to overtake United States in becoming virtually the biggest e-commerce market (Fang (2013, 455). Although China’s B2C market places dominate only 20% of all online market places compared to C2C e-commerce that dominates 80%, explosive expansion of the B2C market is underway, which is rapidly fueling rapid growth in overall China’s e-commerce industry (Epstein M. 2011, 71).
Despite this rapid expansion in China’s e-market market places, sufficient evidence indicates that cross-borderB2C e-commerce is capable of impacting the retail supply chains thereby interfering with order delivery processes. According to Chan (2010, 132), as consumers increasingly employ every available internet-based trade channel, purchasing process is hardly predictable. This is due to the fact that the process is dynamic, which is attributed by rapid internet usage and growing customers’ ability to compare different offers and chose the best available deal. As explained by EuroGroup Consulting (2012, 17), B2C cross-border e-commerce interferes with the traditional supply chain arrangement in processing consumers’ orders. This is because movement of goods from the manufacturing company to the end customer under the traditional supply chain has to involve multi-channel levels constructed in the form of factory warehouses, transnational warehouses, distribution locations as well as stores situated in different parts of the world Ford (2012, 21). Such arrangements only allow transnational warehouses to handle full pallets that can only be dispensed to distribution centers, which in return unpack and ship them to various destinations. As such, end consumers can only access small pieces of their desired products from the stores. B2C e-commerce however allows consumers to directly view and order for the available products directly from the company and can as well receive single-product deliveries directly from the company (Ford 2012, 87).
As argued by Elvira (2014, 130), implementation of the B2C cross-border e-commerce further enhances the platform for greater consumer engagement. Implementation of the B2C channel significantly impacts the number of orders being met, which primarily depends on the order placed, and hence need to be shipped to the end consumers. For most retailers in the traditional supply chain, distribution centers are meant to dispense as many products as there are stores with most deliveries comprising of full truckloads (Harsono 2014, 13). The implementation of the B2C e-commerce however requires deliveries to be made by filling a truck with several boxes that hold a few products or thousands of products a day depending on the number of orders being processed. On this note, the major impact that the B2C e-commerce channel instills on the supply chain is increasing the number of deliveries made to the end consumers while significantly reducing the number of line items standing in the supply chain systems (GEA. 2014, 5). Similarly, B2C e-commerce attributes to the unpredictability of online ordering, which in return demands that companies would increase the number as well as the portfolio of products that they stock to enhance consumer demand. This is because having the exact products needed to process customer orders is important in retaining a huge number of customers as they expect delivery of their ordered products to be as quick as possible (UNCTAD 2015, 16). On this note, B2C e-commerce impacts the retail supply chain by ensuring that retailers are able to expand their product portfolio while reducing the amount of delivery lines dispensed per delivery (Kourimsky 2014, 17).
Implementation of the B2C e-commerce impacts the product distribution process by eliminating possible contradictions that may arise when making deliveries either from stores or distribution outlets. According to (Hoffmann 2012, 22), product delivery in the traditional supply chain requires creation of a standard strategy that allows the company to stop the distribution process and deliver products directly to customers. The distribution outlet is the most probable place where such products would be directly shipped from because they are close to the end consumer (Zheng 2013, 1305). Delivery from the stores could be even easier depending on factors such as transportation cost, human resource factors and picking efficiency. As such, supply chains often have to choose between these two options. On the other hand, the warehouses cannot be a viable option for direct delivery of products to the customers because they are already packed with delivery boxes (Lafond 2015, 89). Implementing the B2C e-commerce however eliminates such contradictions within the supply chain by ensuring collective logistical operations that can simultaneously be accomplished from the warehouse. For instance, consumers using the B2C channel can select products directly from the warehouse, place orders online and receive them without necessarily waiting for deliveries to be made either from the distribution outlets or stores (Kourimsky 2014, 29). While this trend greatly affects participating distributors, it demands that they too would develop e-commerce activities so as to increase their value within the supply chain and subsequently enhance their overall productivity (Jing 2014, 300).
The significant impacts that B2C e-commerce instills on supply chains confirms that consumers are interested in seamless order fulfillment processes, which makes them intensify their reliance on online purchases rather than the traditional trade. This shows that traditional merchants might be phased out by the rapidly growing e-commerce if they do not adopt practices that could enhance efficiency in their order fulfillment activities (Ford, H. 2012, 31). On the other hand, high delivery performance is critical for web merchants because it enhances success in their business model. As such, it is critical for merchants to pursue seamless order fulfillment processes to ensure that they increase their relevance in the market. China has put in place best practices intended to ensure that merchants are able to pursue this goal. According to Rabinovich (2015, 960), China has implemented a B2C logistics program that target e-commerce players in the country. The program arranges order deliveries to end consumers in more than 1600 cities in the country, thereby promising fast and flexible solutions to e-commerce customers. The program covers the whole trading process from inbound goods, customer order receipt and the ultimate delivery. First, the program manages the process of receiving domestic as well as imported goods into a particular location in the country (Hoffmann 2012, 34). This can entail quality control, custom clearance and temporary storage. While customers, in the highly competitive e-commerce market place, always pursue for the highest fulfillment standards, the newly implemented program enables companies to guarantee them the expected level of service (Gibson 2014, 67).
China has also put in place “duty-prepaid shipments” that allow merchants to pay duties before hand and incorporate the cost in the total selling price of a product. The need to implement this practice is justified by the fact that processing shipments as “duties unpaid” will require the consignee to cater for duty cost at the destination, which takes more time. The practice is integrated with pre-clearance process, which allows merchants to clear their products with the customs authorities in advance so as to accelerate the shipment process (GEA 2014, 43). Through this process, the logistics service operators can submit a manifest relating to varying shipments before they reach their destination instead of clearing each shipment individually. Upon the provision of relevant information on shipments in advance, merchants influence authorities’ decision to clear the entire bunch before arrival, which in return speeds up the order fulfillment process (Ford, H. 2012, 57).
E-commerce is a rapidly growing trading channel that has continued to outface the traditional trading practice thereby curbing various trade-related complexities that include hefty import duties, long delivery times and complex return processes. B2C e-commerce trading practice has particularly been employed in different countries, which include China. The practice has proven to instill potential impacts on the supply chains, which include interfering with the traditional supply chain arrangement, enhancing the portfolio for consumer engagement and eliminating contradictions on order delivery. Certain best practices have however been put in place to ensure that merchants can increase efficient in order fulfillment processes, and they include implementation of a B2C logistics program that arranges orders to the end customer, a pre-paid duties process and a pre-clearance process that allows merchants to deliver small bunches of orders to suit consumer demands.
Alhorr, S. 2010. “Global E-Commerce: A Portal Bridging the World Markets”, Electronic Commerce Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 56-112.
Chan, H. 2010. E-Commerce Fundamentals and Applications, London: Wiley.
Elvira, N. 2014. “Environmentally Sustainable Transport and E-Commerce Logistics”, Economics, Management and Finance Markets, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 91-139.
Epstein, M. 2011. Implementing E-Commerce Strategies: A Guide to Corporate Success After the Dot.Com Bust, Westport, CT: Praeger.
EuroGroup Consulting. 2012. How Product Brands Integrate Online Sales in Their Supply Chain: The Effects of Ecommerce on the Supply Chain, retrieved on 2nd March, 2016 from http://www.magnus.nl/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Eurogroup-Consulting-The-effects-of-Ecommerce-on-the-Electronics-supply-chain.pdf
Fang, X. 2013. “The Problem of SNS E-Commerce Development in China and Countermeasures”, Canadian Social Sciences, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 415-690.
Ford, H. 2012. Insight On E-Commerce & Collaboration, retrieved on 2nd March, 2016 from http://www.dpdhl.com/content/dam/dpdhl/logistik_populaer/ecommerce_and_collaboration/insighton_ecommerce_and_collaboration.pdf
GEA. 2014. Cross Border E-Commerce Trade Engine for Growth: Proposals for Reducing Supply Chain Barriers, retrieved on 2nd March, 2016 from http://www.global-express.org/assets/files/Whatsnewsection/GEA-Position-Paper-on-e-commerce_final-November-2014.pdf
Gibson, J. 2014. Cross-Border E-Commerce: A Maturity Roadmap and Partner Selection Guide, retrieved on 2nd March, 2016 from http://www.pitneybowes.com/content/dam/pitneybowes/us/en/global-ecommerce/articles-case-studies-blog-posts/paving-the-road/digital-clarity-group-white-paper-cross-border-ecommerce.pdf
Harsono, A. 2014. “The Impact of E-Commerce In Supply Chain Management At Dell Inc.”, Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 1, pp. 11-18.
Hoffmann, S. 2012. China e-commerce: Heading toward RMB 1.5 trillion, retrieved on 2nd March, 2016 from http://www.bain.com/Images/BAIN_BRIEF_China_e-commerce.pdf
Jing, W. 2014. “Opportunities and Challenges of International E-Commerce in the Pilot Areas of China”, International Journal of Marketing Studies, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 212-346.
Kourimsky, H. 2014. The Impact of Omni-Channel Commerce on Supply Chains: How to Make Sure You Effectively Deliver Products That Meet the Customer‘s Expectations, retrieved on 2nd March, 2016 from http://itelligencegroup.com/wp-content/usermedia/WP_hybris_EN_2014_10_V01_CPM.pdf
Lafond, R. 2015. E-Commerce in the Asian Context: Selected Case Studies, New York: International Development Research Center.
Rabinovich, H. 2015. “Customer Complaints in Online Shopping: The role of Signal Credibility”, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, vol. 16, no. 2, pp-809-1009.
Singh, A. 2010. “E-Commerce on the Global Platform: Strategic Insights on the Localization-Standardization Perspective”, Electronic Commerce Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 109-191.
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Management Essay Paper Sample on Apple Organization summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help
Apple organization’s vision is to make great products, constantly focusing on innovation. The organization believes in simplicity rather than complexity in its vision. The vision also states the organization’s belief in controlling the primary technology in the products they produce and participate in markets, which they can make a significant change. Apple mission is to come up with the best individual computing involvement to learners, instructors, creative specialists, and buyers across the globe through inventive hardware and internet offerings. Apple company strategy entails two main constituents: corporate and industry level policy. In the general corporate level strategy, basic decisions are made concerning what the organization should be, where significant focus is put on the culture and leadership of the organization. Presently, Apple’s main corporate strategy is to develop major innovations in consumer electronics. The organization’s main competitive priority has focused on tying its hardware and applications together through an integrated operating system, whereby one works similarly like the other. The applications also entailed run on one product. Apple’s operations strategy entails the application of decisions related to product design, quality management, capacity design, location strategy, and inventory management, which are well implemented through coordinated efforts by organizational managers. Apple’s success is also reflected in its sustainability practices through its policy on sustainable material sourcing.
Hills plan framework can be realistic in a method similar to McDonalds through cost-effective growth, a strategy supported by the expansion of the firm. McDonald’s key strategy to grow engrosses adding organization owned, franchised McDonald’s and partner brand restaurants. There is a difference in the two organizations’ strategies. Pal’s strategy operations evaluate the implications of competitive priorities in terms of choices and infrastructure while McDonalds focuses on operational excellence. The strategy of McDonalds entails numerous operational decisions in the organization in order to maintain low cost and fast service
Sample Aviation Paper on the Eight Components of Safety Management essay help for free: essay help for free
Eight Components of Safety Management
Work performance can be affected by lack of knowledge or experience. To mitigate these negative effects on individual performance, it is essential that I evaluate my training on the failed sector. I can apply this by indentifying what I have learnt and failed to learn. I can identify areas I have managed to apply the acquired knowledge and those I cannot apply the knowledge. I should besides understand my strong and weak areas by personalizing my job. I should seek further training and knowledge on the weak areas and practice what I have learnt.
The eight components of safety management are safety policy, safety risk management, safety assurance, safety promotion, safety planning and implementation, safety evaluation, and safety organizing. Safety policy deals with the establishment of the statements as part of the requirements, organizational tools are effective in the decision making process where roles and accountability are defined. Planning and implementation enables the management refers to laws and standards related to the organization at large. Evaluation tools are essential in the measurement and grading of the tools. They enable create approaches of reporting events and accidents as they occur. Risk management determines the necessity for risk controls based on the evaluation conducted. Risk assurance evaluates constant effectiveness of risk strategies and support, while safety promotion relates with the training, communication and positive related actions within the organization.
Human factors refer to elements within a work place that result to errors. Human factors can assume time pressure, competence, workload while human error refer to mistakes done by workers in their places of work.
To overcome challenges related to physical or psychological factors, it is necessary for a worker to rest and eat adequately as well as work in a team. Exercising of the acquired knowledge enables the worker find personal corrections before accidents. Working in well lit and ventilated areas is also beneficial.
Reactive organizational safety transition deals with actions after the occurrence of an accident while proactive safety transition deals with measures taken within the time limit set in preparation against occurrences. Predictive measures are those assumed to prevent occurrences of accidents and events within an organization.
Among the dangerous attitudes, I am greatly affected by the impulsivity attitude. I always feel that whatever I do I finish quickly. To overcome this attitude, I need to think first instead of acting fast.
The main elements in situational awareness include stress, which can be caused by the need to cope, mental and physical stressors and demands. There is the risk management and pilot’s checklist, and hazardous attitudes. Risk management refers to the idea of the pilot being ready to fly after checking out that all the requirements are available. This is to reduce chances of occurrences of risks.
To reduce psychological factors for peak job performance, it is necessary that an individual ignore any bad news, concentrate on the work and avoid stress causers. Being calm and proactive are other means of reducing such problems within the work.
Asking for help is essential at all times. Pilots are expected to acquire assistance from the ground in case of emergency
It is essential to always plan ahead of time on the activities to carry out and the work place and the route to apply. This reduces confusion and human errors
Workers are always advised to be always on time. Being proactive at all times reduces much stress to keep up with time and meet deadlines
To overcome these challenges, it is essential to work as a team with the co-pilot or colleague, conduct self evaluation and communicate with the safety committee.
To overcome fatigue, it is essential to find adequate rest, work within the set time and concentrate on the job instead of other issues as they cross the mind. It is advisable to remain calm all through and coordinate with the co-pilot and the safety team.
CRQ # 5
a) Human errors brought by the safety team and the pilots results to great loss of individuals and control within the landing areab) Pilots and the safety team are expected to coordinate with each other to ensure safe landing of an aircraft.Among the organizational influence factors that contributed to the accident includes disorganization within the team and lack of risk management skills in the management. Disorganization resulted to confusion of the landing of both aircrafts and control of the airspace. Absence of risk management skills resulted to maintenance and pilot errors, and technical failures. Bad weather could also be a cause of the accident which could result to poor visualization of the pilots and the landing coordinators.Improved infrastructure and lighting system could have prevented the issue of visualization of the workers in the landing site. Improved risk management skills among the workers in the aircraft and the pilot could have resolved pilot errors. Coordination and teamwork could have reduced chanced of disorganization. Poor planning and supervision are also preventable causes of the accidentsUnsafe supervision factors that could have led to the accident are inadequate supervision, supervision violation and failure of correct priori problems. To counter these problems, it is necessary to enforce rules and regulations, pair the crew and focus on risk management measures. Supervisors are expected to conduct effective guidance and training, and ensure effective and safe performance of tasks.Unsafe factors contributing to the accident include routine violations and exceptional violations could have been possible causes of the accident and decision and skill-based errors from the operator executing a routine action. Environmental factors such as poor weather and altitude are causes of the accident. The design and control of the aircrafts automation and task factors are also possible precondition causes. The crew was poorly coordinated and failed to work as a team, which can be avoided by teamwork and prior planning.
1. Poor training and equipping of the pilot led to the accident and poor planning operation. The pilot as ill trained and the safety crew failed to assist and respond to the pilot to prevent the accident.
2. I partly agree with the person as the findings affirmed that the real cause was pilot error. The findings highlighted that the pilot left to rest during a critical time and left the co-pilot to control the flight. Instead of the co-pilot raising the alarm of a risk, he went on the assume that all was well. The safety crew is also to be blamed as they failed to respond to the alarm raised in the craft.
3. The main unsafe act factors that led to the accident are skill based errors where the co-pilot was incompetent to deal with risky issues as they arose. The co-pilot failed to check the pilots list and prioritize on any danger signs in the craft. The alarm raised was ignored raising perceptual error of the crew. They degraded the alarm and further violated management rules in cases of emergency
4. Improved technology goes together with improved skills and training, without which one results to failure. The aircraft was advanced in technology yet the co-pilot and the pilot lacked sufficient knowledge managing the device. Advanced technology enables the aviation crew manage and overcome risks. It is also essential in the planning and training sessions. However, proper training is necessary.
5. One precondition resulting to the accident is technological environment. The pilot was fatigued and rested while the co-pilot was physically and mentally limited to operate the aircraft, in addition to limited skills to operate the device.
6. Organizational influence that contributed to the accident is the limited resource management. The machine was well maintained while the human resource was poorly trained.
7. a) Pilots and co-pilots needs advanced training to control advance aircrafts.
b) The pilot and the safety crew need to coordinate to ensure safe landing.
CRQ # 7
Among the preconditions, include physical environment which refers to the weather and altitude. Technological environment which comprises of layout and automation.Condition of operators may be advanced mental and psychological which requires medical assistance or rest. Personnel factors can be in form of crew resource and personnel readiness.When an operation has been applied which is contrary the operations in emergencies, more damage can be done. The daily operational activities within the organization can affect the outcome of managing an emergency.Decision making and perpetual errors because of operators degradation of the information given. Exception violations where a subject may violate management instructionsFailure to correct an oversight and deficiencies from the supervisors’ control was a major unsafe act factor that led to the accident. In this case disregard of enforcement rules and inadequate documentation are major cause of this accident.Among the flight skills included reading the checklist and coordinating with the ground crew to confirm the rules. Additionally, they managed to prioritize their actions, which enabled them to rule out errors. Aircrew 32 had various causes, among them technical and maintenance errors. The crew was misinformed, had various problems and lacked necessary skills to manage the emergency. In the other aircraft, the pilot realized the problem, raised an alarm and took control of the craft.
Sample Geology Research Paper on Dinosaurs university essay help
True/false: The earliest dinosaurs were very large and in general dinosaur species got smaller through time?
True, they depended on other dinosaurs and animals such as buffalos for food. As the animals developed, they turn out to be smaller in dimension and depended on fruits and plants for food.
Did all dinosaurs live at the same time?
All animals did not exist in same epoch. Some lived in Triassic epoch while other existed in cretaceous interlude. In addition, there exist numerous types of animals that occupied and moved all over the globe. They ranged from flying mammals to huge animals.
What were the two main groups of dinosaurs?
The two main groups involve Herrerasauria, and Tyrannosaurus rex. Herrerauria survived approximately 231.4 million years in the past. Mostly, they were located in Argentina and Brazil and depended on meat for survival. It weighed an average of 350 kilograms hence could eat a lot of food at one sitting. Moreover, they could move at high speed whenever they were chasing their target prey or running away from danger. Tyrannosaurus rex on the other hand consumed meat and survived during cretaceous interlude. The creature was also huge and devours 250kg a day. This made it the most hazardous animals in the rain forest.
What evidence suggests that some dinosaurs exhibited “herding” behavior?
Dinosaurs lived closely with each other and preyed amongst their peers. The proof provided is their hunting activities. They hunted as a group hence was able to feed the young ones who were part of the larger family. Thus, the animals were inseparable from each other especially for one variety of dinosaurs (Norman 30).
What are the leading explanations for the extinction of the non-bird dinosaurs?
The leading explanation for the extermination of dinosaurs includes the climate change and Food shortage theories. The food theory denotes that due to shortages animals depended on each other hence leading to reduction in population. The ending was disappearance of the animals in the visage of the earth. Environmental change stipulates that the globe experienced great eruption that wiped on the creatures and vegetation. The only animals that survived lived in water such as crocodile (Long 20).
Long, John A. Dinosaurs. New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 2012. Print.
Norman, David. Dinosaurs. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2011. Print.
Sample Aviation Paper on Which FAR lists the Specific Disqualifying Conditions essay help us: essay help us
Which FAR lists the specific disqualifying conditions?
FAR refers to the rules that are meant to govern all activities conducted by aviation and are prescribed by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The disqualifying conditions are mentioned in FAR Part 67 that prohibits one from flying as a pilot command when taking any medication.
Name three specific disqualifying conditions.
An example of three disqualifying conditions that are listed in FAR Part 67 are; substance dependence that includes drugs or alcohol, Unexplained disturbance of consciousness, and Cardiac valve replacement.
Are you required to obtain a medical certificate to train for a Sports Pilot Certificate?
A medical certificate is a requirement for all persons in the exemption of a sport pilot who is acting as a pilot in command and it is obtained using current and valid US driver’s license.
Assume that you had an FAA medical certificate (any class). The certificate was then suspended. May you fly as a sport pilot without obtaining, at least, a third-class medical certificate?
Persons are qualified to exercise sport pilot privileges as a long as they hold current and valid United States driver’s license. It is not, therefore, an obligation to obtain third class medical certificate since, after certification, one does not appear in records held by FAA as having the medical certificates suspended.
List the different classes of medical certificates. What class must an air transport pilot maintain? An air traffic controller? A Private Pilot?
There are three kinds of medical certificates; first, second and third class and have different privileges, duration, and requirement. An applicant exercising the privileges of an airline transport pilot is required to hold First class air traffic controller second class and a private pilot must hold at least a third-class medical certificate.
The FAA has a two-step process to obtain a medical certificate. What are the steps?
The first step in obtaining medical certificates entails using MedXPress to complete the first section of the application and scheduling an appointment with the Aviation medical examiner (AME). The second step involves reviewing process by FAA.
What is the special issuance medical certificate? How do you obtain one?
The special issuance medical certificate is a special issuance with specified validity period whose authorization is granted by a Federal Air Surgeon to an applicant who fails to meet established medical standards. The issuance is obtained when applicants can demonstrate and get an approval of the Federal Air Surgeon that they would perform duties authorized by the medical class without jeopardizing the public safety.
What is a SODA? How is this different from a special issuance?
SODA is a Statement of Demonstrated Ability that could be granted to an applicant who has static disqualifying conditions as an alternative of an Authorization. The applicant must be in a position to perform aviator duties without jeopardizing public safety. SODA differs with special issuance in that it does not expire.
You have been denied your medical certificate because of a specific disqualifying condition. What is the process if you wish to appeal the FAA’s denial?
The FAA denial for the medical certificate is based on the specific disqualifying conditions as outlined in part 67 of FAR; the denial is final. However, the applicant may appeal the denial to the NTBS.
What are the two courses of action available to you after the FAA has denied your certificate and you have exhausted administrative appeal rights?
The applicant after exhausting the administrative appeal rights through the NTBS review of FAA denial can appeal for a review to the Court of Appeal and finally appeal to the Supreme Court.
If your health changes to the point where you cannot fly, do you have to notify the FAA immediately?
Aviator has an ultimate responsibility of determining the fitness of a flight and hence should report any major health changes with FAA during the next medical examination.
You have entered some incorrect information on FAA Form 8500-8, what are the potential consequences?
The possible consequences of falsification of information in FAA form 8500-8 include the revocation or suspension of all aviator, ground instructor and medical certificates. The ratings held by the individual involved are also revoked and be prosecuted for making a false statement.
You have a few drinks, decide to drive, and are stopped by a police officer after a party. They cite you for driving under the influence of alcohol. List the process you must follow in reporting this information to the FAA.
The procedure involves providing written notification to the FAA stating the personal name, address, date of birth, the states holding the record of conviction and a statement of a motor vehicle involved in the incidence. Finally, provide the same report to the FAA Civil Aviation Security Division.
Regarding Question 13, how many days do you have to report the infractions?
The report must be submitted within 60 days of the motor vehicle action.
Cultural and Ethnic Studies Essay Paper on American Revolution and the Civil War “essay help” site:edu
American Revolution and the Civil War
During the American Revolution and the Civil War, tens of thousands of Southerners petitioned their legislatures for redress of grievances. Southerners petitioned to eliminate poll taxes, expand the suffrage, and protect their rights as citizens. The petitions were written on a wide range of topics including manumission, colonization, religion, laws governing slaves, racial mixing, and black military service by a wide range of individuals. They included Southerners slaveholders, non-slaveholders, blacks, whites, men, and women, slaves and freemen. The legislative petitions reveal the grim and brutal nature of human bondage, the fears of whites who lived in areas of large concentrations of blacks, and the workings of the complicated legal system designed to control blacks. They analyze the social, religious, and economic strivings of free people of color in different settings during different time periods.
The blacks who were not enslaved involved themselves in a wide range of occupations that included blacksmiths, masons, carpenters, shoemakers, barbers, draymen, tailors, seamstresses, laundresses, and cooks, among others; and some became farm owners, planters, and slaveholders. They present how slave owners sought to control their human chattel; how they feared slave gatherings, conspiracies, and possible slave revolts; and how they worried about the consequences of a literate slave population, looked upon blacks as a “species of property,” and castigated free Negroes as idle, thieving, and unmanageable.
They reveal how some slaveholders expressed serious misgivings about the “peculiar institution,” argued that God was no respecter of persons, and asserted that freedom was the natural and inalienable right of man. The petitions not only tell us about the attitudes of whites, both slaveholders and non slaveholders, and how these attitudes changed during various periods in different parts of the South; they also articulate the values of different groups of blacks: talented slaves, quasi-free bondsmen, free blacks, and affluent free persons of color.
Another area where the petitions offer an in-depth view of southern life concerns the workings of what contemporaries called the internal slave economy.
These bondsmen were at least ostensibly under the control of their masters, but the petitions also reveal how small groups of bonds people moved into the twilight zone between slavery and freedom. Most of these slaves were skilled artisans who undertook “work on their own account at sometimes less than one half the rates that a regular bred white Mechanic could offer to do it.”
In South Carolina, a group of white artisans complained about slave owners who permitted their house servants to let out repair and building contracts during the summer months. These slaves, they said, refused to hire white artisans, employing instead slave and free black carpenters, joiners, and brick- and stonemasons, who in turn maintained work gangs of self-hired slaves.
The burglary case against Jupiter Wise is a clear depiction of how black communities were indicted in criminal activities revealing some form of slavery since they were colonized. During judgment, he was sentenced two 7 years confinement at His Majesty’s Island in West Indies. His attempt to escape prison was in the first case successful but was later recaptured in Nova Scotia making their case more serious.
During the hearing of his case, James Steven, one of the witnesses against Jupiter stated that Jupiter has fled into Michael McDonald house in Charlotte town and left with a Jugg full of Rum approximately two Gallons hid it behind Mr Spence’s house and later in the Little Fowl House in Mr Spence’s yard until Sunday evening. On the said Sunday, Jupiter and three other people met at Raineys Hutt and drank some little Rum he had when Jupiter offered to bring more from Mr. Spence’s Yard, after they were done, The informant offered to invite more people at his place to enjoy the rum the coming evening. The friends who were majorly black were set cards prepared by Master Stukely Burns and delivered to the friends.
While Jupiter and most other slaves remained legally in bondage, the state petitions also capture, perhaps better than any other primary source, the black quest for freedom. Slave mothers bought themselves or their children; slave fathers purchased wives or family members; and slave children, upon reaching adulthood, purchased parents, relatives, and friends most notably black women who played a significant role in purchasing relatives and presenting emancipation petitions.
The ability of some slaves to acquire property can also be traced in various petitions most notably in the South, growing numbers of slaves acquired property of one type or another. There are petitions from free persons of color who owned slaves, controlled large tracts of land, and attempted to conceal their African heritage; there are petitions from slaves who, in economic terms, were better off than their white neighbors; there are even petitions from free blacks who wished to return to slavery, the documents available portray, in vivid and personal terms, the contrasts, ambivalences, contradictions, ironies, and ambiguities that comprise southern history.
The first item of a petition is typically a salutation to the legislative body to which it is addressed. In most cases petitions were handwritten, but sometimes a printed petition form that left sufficient room for signatures was used. In the case of handwritten petitions, the formality of language and script can serve as an indicator of the petitioner’s level of literacy. The body of the petition generally contains an explanation of the reasons for its submission. Very often, petitioners had a grievance of some type that they wanted to bring to the attention of their state legislators. On other occasions, an individual sought an exemption from a particular state law. Sometimes, a group of citizens submitted an accompanying petition to support another petitioner’s request. In each of these instances petitioners sought to convince the legislature of the justness of their cause and the necessity for legislative action.
In addition to a statement of grievances, a petition often includes a proposal for corrective action or remedy. Unlike today, it was common for an individual petitioner to ask the legislature to enact a law that would solve a personal dilemma; such a law is formally known as a “private” act or statute. Some petitions were broader in scope, requesting that the legislature pass a “public” statute affecting a state’s entire population, such as petitions for the abolition of slavery. In many instances petitioners asked for direct intervention by state legislatures into matters that today are considered judicial responsibilities, such as the settlement of probate estates, marital relations, business arrangements, or rights of citizenship. In a few instances one or two people signed on behalf of a large groups of petitioners. If a petitioner was illiterate, someone else wrote the petition and signed for them. Some petitions conclude with a “docket page,” indicating its official receipt by the state legislature. The docket page identifies the date of submission, the addressee, and the number of petitioners as recorded by a legislative clerk.