Get help from the best in academic writing.

Sample Admission Essay On Information Technology And Ethics Get Essay Help

Information Technology and Ethics

Ethics is an important element that every person in any environment needs to have in order to ensure a peaceful coexistence. Ethics in most cases is reflected in society, which typically directly affects relationships and not personal (Paul & Linda, 2006). Ethics refers to the rules and regulations that direct the conduct of a person or groups of people in a given profession. An ethical person has moral standards in dealing with issues, and confronting any given situation.

Information technology is a different innovation, which has become vital in everyday running of humankind. Technology has eased the mode man operates and manages issues. Most technology being used by man today, such as mobile devices, and personal computers have made it easier for individuals to operate, especially in unraveling problems and communication. Ethics on the information technology is the way man uses it in its implementation and use. Information technology is the procession of data using technology. It could mean the function of to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, especially in businesses or organizations’ settings (Daintith, 2009). For example, the use of computers in organizations to process data. Ethics among information technology professionals therefore can be defined as the approach of the professionals towards their objectivity in working in their field. Among the professionals, ethics is crucial since much crucial information in the IT sector passes through their hands. Any bad conduct among the IT practitioners is very dangerous, especially in analyzing, designing, implementing, controlling, and storing o the data. The ethics among them will make them be able to handle challenges that face all professionals.

It is important to analyze the importance of ethics within the information technology practitioners. Good ethics among the practitioners promotes smooth operation of computers that avoids negative impacts on other users, environment or the society. This way, they are required to be loyal and fair in their work. This will prevent them from engaging in unethical activities that are not related with organizational objectives. The end result will be enjoying their work and well preservation of data.

Data is the most crucial element in Information Technology. To have a computer complete an operation, individuals must have data or rather there would be no activity to be operated on. Additionally, for data to be processed, there are steps that need to be undertaken within a given frame. In the information technology field, many explorations are normally made every day. In IT, there is no complete knowledge as practitioners always reinvent newer things. This is very useful in the general well being of organizations since the explorations affect their growth directly. Therefore, the IT practitioners are required to be diligent enough in their thinking to exploit all available opportunities in their field. This requires good ethics in the field. Without ethics, there would be many errors, and stagnated innovations within the organizations. Data should be treated with care and all other processes operated with a sober ethical attitude.

Ethics among the IT practitioners is a driving force towards maintaining secrecy within the organization. A lot of crucial data is exposed to the IT practitioners, which could be sensitive in other hands other than an inside employee of a given organization. The ability to keep secrecy can only be kept by a person who is ethically upright. Some information could be benefiting to competitive firms that could trigger bribes s to be leaked. This requires practitioners to be very strict with all organizations data.

Good ethics in IT will also ensure that there is appropriate use of resources allocated to IT practioneres.The ethics will enable the IT practitioners to be able uphold and respect the resources, which will be for the sole reason of organizational performance. In instances of personal use, it will be minimal not to outdo the overall required task by the management.

With good ethics, there is also a well-built respect and understanding among the professionals in an organization. This is manifested where there is co-operation between the team members thereby enhancing good projects outcome. In cases where some improvements have been made on the systems, this will help in explaining the concepts in a good environment, which will have the advantage of success towards the initiative.

Ethics in information technology is a driver towards user satisfaction in an organization. This is evident whereby IT professionals come up with useful developments in the computer systems that will benefit the whole organization. This will be effectively communicated to the specific users who by incorporating the idea increase the general performance of the system.

The IT practitioners also keep a good relationship with suppliers where ethics is observed. This results in a long lasting relationship, which is a result of integrity whenever their services are needed. Practices, such as bribery are not practiced since there is an aspect of good morals and values created.

Information ethics also allows for establishment of guidelines in the usage of organization’s usage policies should be used in IT and piracy cases not be allowed completely. This should also be translated in terms of the employees being in a position to own a software so that they can perform effectively.

Information ethics also enables an organization to be a corporate firewall. This device acts as blockage between an organization and its external environments. This reduces the organization’s internet usage on tasks that are personal, and not relevant to the organization’s objectives. This is also important is dealing with employees who go ahead and perform a lot of surfing that is irrelevant to the organization’s goals. Additionally, this can also block communication from certain entities like emails from websites, or particular personalities, especially if they have ill intentions. The firewall does not only block the communication but hinders some information with certain attachments, which are crucial in blocking virus from entering the system.

Information technology ethics develops a code of conduct, which acts as a pathway to a company’s ethical issues. These are very vital in realizing values that are essential for an organizations’ performance.

Ethical issues in information technology must be tailored along with the advancement of technology. In as much as there is a big step in the achievement of technology, related challenges cannot be ignored. However, the challenges come along due to failure to incorporate vital ethics that come along with technology. Enforcing laws on the information technology field is not a simple task. Most of the users should embrace the ethics and use it as a guiding avenue in their operations. Forms of technological offences take many forms with the most renown one being cyber criminals where at times the real culprit may not be identified.


Daintith, J. ed. (2009), “IT”, A Dictionary of Physics, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 August 2012.

Paul, R., Elder, L. (2006). The Miniature Guide to Understanding the Foundations of Ethical Reasoning. United States: Foundation for Critical Thinking Free Press. p. np.




Sample Essay on Pedagogical Strategy Report #1 essay help writer

Invention and Research

Teaching invention and research requires the application of efficient teaching strategies. In order to achieve efficiency in learning this topic, a combination of various strategies will be applied. The strategies used will be learner centric to enable the topic to be perfectly understood by the students.

The application of problem based learning to the concept of invention and research is an effective mode of knowledge dissemination. To use this strategy with efficiency, the learners will be introduced to societal problems requiring innovative solutions such as the reduction of water pollution by industrial wastes. The learner will be required to come up with new ideas, which can assist in the solution of the presented problem. While doing this, the learners are bound to expand their knowledge on the area of pollution control and thus provide innovative solutions. New technologies that come about as a result of carrying out this exercise will be used to describe what invention is. Moreover, the students will be capable of understanding research from the basis of their study needs.

Second, while carrying out the studies, the students will be divided into groups to encourage collaboration and effective communication between the group members (Alber par. 5). For the learning process to be successful, it is advisable for students to be engaged and for a participatory process to be adopted. This will be achieved through encouraging discussions both within and without the formed groups. The discussion forums will also involve the educator whose role will be to give directions on the group activities and to shed more light on the study topic. The students will be encouraged to ask questions where they feel there is need for greater knowledge and to discuss any challenges they find in the course of their study with the educator. Participation in group activities and discussion will encourage the students to learn more through asking for guidance where necessary.

Provision of examples, is also an appropriate strategy for teaching the topic ’invention and research’. In order to carry out this efficiently, the relationship between research and invention will be clearly stated. This relationship is such that the need for the solution to a problem prompts inventors to carry out research, which leads to the development of new ideas and inventions. This will be followed by issuing examples of past problems and the inventions, which rose due to the necessity of solving the problems. A suitable example is the need for long distance short time communication, which led to the invention of the phone. From the description of this and the provision of examples, the students will then be asked to give examples of their own. This will help the students to effectively get the background information about the concepts of invention and research.

Apart from the three strategies, I will also engage in collaboration with other teachers to find out the challenges they face in teaching such a topic as well as the strategies they apply to deal with the challenges they face in the classroom set up. Understanding the challenges faced by other educators will enable me to be prepared to handle the challenges I meet in my own class (Alber par. 7).

In conclusion, the engagement of students in practice based learning, encouraging discussions and group work, exemplification, and collaboration with other teachers are all best practice strategies that can be effective in the dissemination of any knowledge.

Works Cited

Alber, Rebecca. 5 Highly effective teaching practices. 2015, February 27th . Retrieved from

Sample Critical thinking on California Minimum Wage Should be Increased to 13 Dollars english essay help: english essay help

California Minimum Wage Should be increased to 13 Dollars

Raising the minimum wage has become a heated topic in many states that think that the current federal minimum wage level is inadequate to match with the current rate of inflation in the country. California is not the only state that is pushing for minimum wage increase. Some states have already endorsed the minimum wage standards, which are slightly higher than the federal requirement. Many business executives have supported the raising of minimum wage, as it would contribute to high standards of living and low turnover in organizations. Critics to minimum wage often cite job losses and economic downfall, but raising minimum wage has been proved to create more jobs, and improved economy. The solution for minimum wage is a pivotal topic discussed by many Californians, and raising it to $13 per hour will be a major boost to citizens as well as the state’s economy.

Background of Raising Minimum Wage

The talk about raising the minimum wage in several states has been ongoing. The struggle to contain numerous occurrences of recess in the US has made the policy makers to think of ways to assist the less fortunate to cope with the rising inflation. In 1938, Congress introduced the federal minimum wage by implementing the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), whereby states as well as local government entities were given the power to devise their own minimum wages, which was above the federal level (“Raising the Minimum Wage,” 2014). This act made minimum wage rates to differ among states, as some states opted to set their wage rates above the federal level. By 2012, less than 5% of employees who were paid hourly in the US received the federal minimum wage.

California has the largest economy compared to the other states that constitute the US, with agriculture as its largest industry. However, employers are reluctant to increase the minimum wage, as they target huge profits from real estates and trade. A comparison of the distribution of wage in California after an approval by the State Assembly’s Labor and Employment Commission to raise minimum wage in 1988 illustrated that only 5% of employees benefited from the rise (Card, 2015). In 2013, Jerry Brown, California Governor, signed into law Assembly Bill 10 (AB10) to raise California’s minimum wage from $8 to $9 by July 2014, and later to $10 by January 2016 (Allegretto, Reich & West, 2014). However, some policy makers criticized the bill by claiming that the increase was insufficient, particularly to the lowest-paid workers in California. They supported an increase of between $10 and $15, which would represent above the state’s median wage

In 2014, the federal government maintained that non-tipped employees should receive a minimum wage of $7.25 per hour while tipped employees to receive $2.13 per hour (Shilling, 2014). This increase has seen majority of states experiencing a decline in unemployment in the subsequent year. Increase in minimum wage has made employers to make harsh decision in order to maintain production costs. Some have opted to stop hiring new employees while others have reduced working hours. This practice has favored the already employed people while the unemployed continue to remain outside the job market. The less educated have suffered immensely from the consequences of raising minimum wage, as the chances of being employed become rare.

Contrary to the critic that raising minimum wage in states could lead to job losses, may states have experienced boost in demand, increased productivity among employees, as well as reduction in employees turnover. Most critics of raising minimum wage are large companies that want to maintain their profit earnings to a certain level at the expense of their workers. Several states have gone beyond the federal government’s minimum wage requirement while activists in some states have collected signatures to enable them vote for an increase in the minimum wage in the coming elections. The rise in government-mandated wage has not been an abrupt practice, but an ongoing process that incorporates grassroots organizing, as well as changing public perceptions about the poor (Dreier, 2014). Raising the minimum wage has assisted workers who have been hit by the effects of recession to have something to spend.

Problem Definition

Although the FSLA has been in operation since 1938, California did not adhere to it until 1988. However, the federal minimum wage does not rely on the rate of inflation, which made the purchasing power remain flat for many years. Minimum wage workers have a significant effect on the total family income, thus, maintaining the existing wage level is likely to affect the breadwinners and their families (Allegretto, Reich & West, 2014). The low minimum wage has made a large number of Californians remain in poverty, as they cannot afford most basic commodities. Housing has shifted to the roof as real estate business became lucrative to individual business owners, as well as corporate firms making the low-level residents encounter difficulties in acquiring rental houses, or land for development.

The minimum wage was meant to assist the young individuals to enjoy life by earning better pay, but nowadays, even the old employees are facing the same problem, as employers are reluctant to raise wages. When the state economy is performing dismally, employers do not have the incentive to increase wages while employees who earn minimum wage have no capacity to demand an increase in wages because they fear losing their jobs to a large number of unemployed who would be eager to take their jobs with the same pay. The quality of health is influenced by individuals’ income, as attractive income ensure proper nutrition, better health, and safe homes (Krisberg, 2015). If the state government does not approve the bill to raise the minimum wage, public health will be affected by low wages.

The federal government’s minimum wage requirement has never come close to placing workers beyond the poverty line despite the rising living costs. Congress has not found any reason to increase the minimum wage on top of the federal government’s level of $7.25 per hour since 2009, which has incited activists in cities and states to push for an increase in wage level (Dreier, 2014). This has made corporate firms and foreign companies continue to get rich at the expense of poorly paid employees. The growing activism has led to several strikes by fast-food chains, such as Taco Bell and McDonalds, as workers demanded a rise of minimum wage to at least $15 an hour. Thus, raising minimum wages will minimize workers’ strike and enhance accountability in organizations.

Key Actors in Minimum Wage

In California, the issue of raising minimum wage incorporates numerous actors who are likely to be affected either positively or negatively. Citizens are the main actors in this endeavor, as they are affected directly by any change in minimum wages. Legislatures and local government have a role to ensure that a rise in minimum wage does not discourage investment or create unemployment. Policy makers in California have to guarantee citizens they will maintain their job, and the state will benefit from economic growth resulting from raising the minimum wage.

Businesses have an interest on issues concerning rise in minimum wage because it would mean low profits, high income tax, and low productivity. Small businesses would feel the effect because they do not enjoy economy of scale as large businesses. Interest groups, such as activists, trade unionists, social groups, and economists, are concerned with raising minimum wage to enhance individual and community welfare. Such groups are advocating for an increase in minimum wages to cushion the poor people from the rising inflation. A higher minimum wage benefits union workers by minimizing competition from lower-skilled employees. For instance, increasing minimum wage to $13 where the union wage is $39 means that employers will surrender three hours of low-skilled employee for every hour of a union employee.

The US Department of Labor is apprehensive about an increase in minimum wage, as the low-level workers are incessantly asking for an increase of their wages to meet the rising inflation. Although the department is aware of the consequences of raising the minimum wage, it has admitted that Congress has taken long time to make any adjustment. The department supports the increase of minimum wage to enhance customer service, increase job opportunities, reduce turnover, and increase productivity.

Why Minimum Wage should be Raised

California’s minimum wage should be raised to increase per capita. When wages are increase, low-earners would have enough money to spend on basic needs such as food, housing, clothes, and transport. Such spending would enhance business growth through increased sales and create more profit to business people in the cities, as well as in the countryside. More jobs are likely to emerge through the multiplier effect. Many Americans believe that the working population should not be living in poverty.

Raising California’s minimum wage will increase social welfare and security in the state. Low-level workers will be motivated to join community groups, health insurance, and other income generating groups, which can assist in boosting their lifestyles. Higher wages will enable low-level workers to save for their retirement, as well as medical expenses.

Increasing minimum wage in California will assist those in the poverty zone to rise to a new lifestyle. Increasing the minimum wage may hurt the low-wage workers, but it will substitute such effect by increasing the demand for them. When individuals and firms opt to increase minimum wage of their employees, they contribute towards changing their lifestyles. In addition, raising minimum wages reduces the gap between workers earning high wages and workers who earn low wages, thus, minimizing income inequality. Most companies are earning exorbitant revenues, as they rely on the federal level requirement for minimum wage. Thus, increasing minimum wage will balance their earnings with making their employees’ lives better.

Why Minimum Wage should not be Raised

Much of the discussion concerning the increase in minimum wage revolves around the possibility of job losses. Small business owners are fervently opposing raising the minimum wage because they would be coerced to cut back on working hours or lay off employees to sustain their labor costs. Such businesses encounter a harsh competitive market, which often drive their profits to the bottom level to remain in operation (“Raising the Minimum Wage,” 2014). Raising minimum wage will have a negative effect on small businesses that do not employ many people, as their economy of scale, which can absorb the added costs, does not apply to their operations. They believe that jobs are likely to be lost while their productivity will also decline due to inadequate workers.

Raising minimum wage to $13 in California will create monopoly, as few companies will remain in the market, thus increasing the demand of some products and services. Monopoly only benefits few individuals at the expense of the masses. An increase in the minimum wage will lead to inflation in California, as consumers will have more to spend while business owners will utilize the opportunity to increase prices due to high demand of commodities.

California residents are likely to become jobless if the proposal to increase the minimum wage up to $13 is accepted by the state government. This is because small firms will incur high production costs and opt to exit the market, leaving many people without jobs. The National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB) has already projected a decline in California’s economy by $5.7 billion by the end of 2023 if the minimum wage would be raised to $10 by 2016 (“Raising the Minimum Wage,” 2014). Minimum wage earners who are employed by large corporate firms are also likely to be affected; as such, corporate firms encounter pressure from their shareholders to minimize their production costs.

Policy Recommendation

The rising wage inequality in California has led to inequality in family incomes for the last few decades, despite the existence of federal minimum wage policy. Low minimum wages usually become problematic because they are set too far below the state’s median wage, thus, California should stop adhering to the federal minimum wage, as it does not correspond to the cost of living. California government should call the stakeholders who are concerned with raising the minimum wage in order to reach on the appropriate level where everyone will be satisfied. The best policy that the state government should adopt is the one that ties wages to inflation.

The state government is the appropriate body to carry out the policy because it has the capacity to carry out such duty without exhibiting prejudice. The state government should adhere to the principles of utilitarianism, where all that matters is to increase individuals’ happiness while minimizing their sufferings. According to Perry (2012), utilitarianism focuses on what makes an individual’s life good, and proceed to attain this goal for everyone by ensuring that they encounter minimum suffering. To the consumer, utilitarianism means getting the most without incurring much cost, assuming that the government exists to promote the greatest pleasure for all citizens.

The government should implement measures that would limit radical increase of pricing of various commodities. In addition, it should create adequate resources for food production to maintain a reasonable price of food where many people, particularly from the middle and lower-levels, can afford. The number of people receiving minimum wage is reducing gradually, thus, implementing food subsidies will help the low-level workers to afford good lifestyle. In order to relieve poor people from high rents, the government should secure more land to construct houses that would be affordable to the low-level residents.

Pros of the Policy Recommendation

Every policy has its benefits and limitations. Raising the minimum wage to match the inflation will assist in fighting poverty, as low-level workers will have enough money to pay for their basic needs, in addition to achieving high levels of education. Higher wages not only benefit individual workers, but also the entire economy through increased consumer spending. The minimum wage forms the base under which other wages are calculated; hence, raising the minimum wage will increase overall spending and, consequently, expand the state economy.

When the wages of low-level workers are raised, they are given the capacity to access commodities with relative ease. Higher minimum wages will enable low-level individuals to access better housing, access to better health facilities, road networks, and other public amenities. Allowing low-level workers to access basic amenities enhances their independence and minimizes their dependence from the government, or other charitable organizations.

Most poor people in California live in settlements where security is not guaranteed. Joining social welfare groups such as Social Security, health insurance, or even community services, is quite difficult to them, as they do not have the means to sustain them. Thus, raising minimum wage would enable low-level workers to enjoy welfare services, in addition to settling in neighborhoods where they are assured of their security.

Cons of the Policy Recommendation

The push for the increase in minimum wage to match with the current rate of inflation is likely to affect the state economy, as the unexpected inflation will only benefit large companies that respond through raising prices without raising wages until the government’s action. The government may opt to allocate its resources depending on the level of purchases, thus, resulting to unequal provision of resources.

California economy is likely to experience a slump in the long run due to uncertainty that occurs during inflation. The state has long-term plans, where tax and revenue collections are anticipated depending on the current trend. Thus, commitment to a certain level of revenue income can be frustrated by unexpected inflation, which results to low spending among the consumers. Besides, investments are likely to fall due to uncertainty, which consequently results to low tax revenue from businesses.

Inflation that results from an increase in minimum wage is harmful to small businesses. Small businesses cannot cushion themselves from uncertainties brought by inflation. This leaves only the large corporations that are owned by the affluent, to compete in the commodity and service market. Large firms are capable of taking risk, as they are protected by economy of scale.


The solution for minimum wage has become a fundamental topic to be discussed by the Californian government, as increasing the minimum wage to $13 per hour will enhance the lives of California residents, as well as the state’s economy. Although California can boast of having the largest economy among all the states in the US, its current minimum wage level has been blamed for exacerbating poverty. Increasing wages is the only way that the state government can accommodate the rising inflation, as the low-level workers will be affected when the government opts to stick to the current level of wages. The best policy that California government can adopt should focus on matching minimum wage with the rate of inflation, and enhance the capacity for food production to cushion poor people from the rapid rise in food prices. Involving all stakeholders in deciding the appropriate level of minimum wage is critical for a utilitarian state.


Allegretto, S. A., Reich, M., & West, R. (2014). Ten Dollars or Thirteen Dollars? Comparing the Effects of State Minimum Wage Increases in California. Institute for Research on Labor and Employment University of California, Berkeley, Policy Brief. Retrieved on 15 May 2015 from

Card, D. (2015). Do Minimum Wages Reduce Employment? A Case Study of California, 1987-89. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 46(1), 1-17. Retrieved on 15 May 2015 from

Dreier, P. (2014). The Battle over the Minimum Wage, City by City. New Labor Forum (Sage Publications Inc.), 23(3), 85-88. doi: 10.1177/1095796014542615

Krisberg, K. (2015). Raising minimum wage good for public health, not just wallets: Advocates call for federal increase. The Nation’s Health, American Public Health Association. Retrieved on 15 May 2015 from

Perry, J. (2014). God, the good, and utilitarianism: Perspectives on Peter Singer. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Raising the Minimum Wage: The Effects on Employment, Businesses and Consumers (2014). American Legislative Exchange Council, the State Factor. Retrieved on 15 May 2015 from

Shilling, D. (2015). Complete guide to human resources and the law. New York: Wolters Kluwer.

Sample Essay on HRM and Organisational Performance in Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs) operating in the UAE english essay help

Human Resource Management

Performance management programs are plans of action that are established by organizations to monitor crucial aspects of its systems and processes of care. Management of performance enables a company to determine and measure its level of performance. Performance measurement involves data collection which in turn reflects how the organization’s tasks work as well to effect the organization’s decisions. Performance management provides an insight on how the current programs of an organization are working and how it can optimally optimize its resources to achieve efficiency and effectiveness (Crandall & Crandall, 2015). Performance management enables an organization to establish identify a measure to measure performance, determine its baseline, and evaluate performance as well as establish measures to achieve desired performance.

Desired performance in an organization is brought about by the use efficient research and evaluation. Conducting adequate research enables an organization to gain enough and reliable information for decision making. Decisions that are made out of existing and solid information always prove to be the most effective as they address the performance gaps precisely and effectively (Crandall & Crandall, 2015). Organizations can engage in different processes of research to gather the required information for its decisions. Examples of these processes include job analysis and job description which enable an organization to establish the tasks that it needs to complete to achieve certain goals and the skills required respectively.

Job analysis involves an examination of human attributes that are required by an organization to perform the defined jobs successfully (Imran, Cheema & Azeem, 2014). Organizations should accurately identify the human resources that they require in order to remain competitive in their business industry. Strategic job analysis enables an organization to recognize the changes that need to be done to fit the future needs of an organization. It also provides the basis for a major part of human resource management activities in the organization. The human attributes involve knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics and are summarized by the word KSAOC. Knowledge is concerned with the needed information, skills constitute of the required proficiencies, and abilities are the stable attributes possessed by an individual while other characteristics include all other factors that an individual owns that can determine their performance.

The job description, on the other hand, involves the process of identifying the tasks, responsibilities, and duties of a certain job. Job descriptions provide useful information to an organization that includes the statement of different job positions, a summary of the responsibilities covered under these positions, states the essential functions and duties to take care of their responsibilities (Moynihan, 2013). In addition to these functions, job specification provides a description of jobs that constitute and organization. A job specification, on the other hand, provides a listing of the KSAOCs that are required by an individual to perform a given task successfully.

Job analysis, the KSAOC statements and job description are highly related and form a basis for the measurement of performance in a performance management program. Job analysis provides an organization with the examination of those human resources that it needs to achieve a set of jobs successfully. KSAOCs, on the other hand, provide the basic attributes that an individual needs to possess to achieve a specific job analysis. The job description, on the other hand, completes job analysis by stating the different skills required to perform tasks in an organization. These activities contribute towards a performance management program by making their respective specification determine if an organization has the right human resource base to achieve their goals. Job analysis, KSAOCs and job description, therefore, form the basis for measurement in an organization’s performance management program.


Crandall, R. E., & Crandall, W. (2015). How Management Programs Can Improve Organization Performance: Selecting and Implementing the Best Program for Your Organization. Information Age Publishing.

Imran, H., Arif, I., Cheema, S., & Azeem, M. (2014). The relationship between job satisfaction, job performance, attitude towards work, and organizational commitment. Entrepreneurship and innovation management journal, 2(2), 135-144.

Moynihan, D. P. (2013). Advancing the empirical study of performance management: What We learned from the program assessment rating tool. The American Review of Public Administration, 0275074013487023.




Sample Research paper on How did the ideas of Charles Darwin lead to Social Darwinism? argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

How did the ideas of Charles Darwin lead to Social Darwinism?


Social Darwinism refers to modern theories that emerged from 1870s claiming that biological concepts in relation to natural selection and survival of the fittest can be applied to discuss politics and sociology. The theorists, also known as Social Darwinists, argue that strong species ought to experience their wealth and power enhance. Conversely, the weak should also witness their power and wealth decline. These theorists however differ in relation to views discussing the groups of people classified as either weak or strong. They also hold differing opinions on the mechanisms to be applied to promote strength and weakness in order to promote and punish the strong and weak respectively. Social Darwinism gained popularity and global usage after 1944. The creators of the term sought to affirm that Social Darwinism involves policies formulated and implemented to ensure weak persons perish, and the strong prosper in order to achieve a logical consequence. Thus, the term Social Darwinism evolved from the theory of natural selection in biology that was developed by Charles Darwin (Leonard 37).

Charles Darwin has greatly influenced science on political and economic aspects to describe and discuss natural selection. The concept of natural selection is based on the notion that some characteristics enhancing survival of species have enhanced qualities enabling them to continue increasing the population than others. This concept was applied widely in attempts to discuss and understand human relations. Thus, natural selection was applied to reinforce the already existing ideas and bigotry by complimenting them through scientific justification (Joe 1).

Types of Social Darwinism

Economic Social Darwinism

Economists have always relied on competition to achieve industrial growth and development even before Charles Darwin sailed to the Galapagos Island. During the 19th Century, middle class industrialists emerged. The class mainly comprised bankers who were eager to fight and win the battle against hereditary privilege. They believed it undermined powers of aristocracy. As a result, they argued their battle sought to permit individuals in a society to freely compete and emerge at the top through a fair process. They also believed the government had to be regulated in order to control how taxes were being spent (Joe 1).

This argument was allied to the line of thought that the government should utilize the taxes to help persons belonging to the lower economic class. This would encourage, motivate, and support lower economic class individuals to work hard and avoid engaging in the competitions. As a result, Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection would be seized proofing that fierce competition is a natural mechanism striving to improve the world. This led to creation of the term ‘survival of the fittest’, which became a slogan for ruthless and unrestrained economic competitors. Thus, the main goal and objective of economic Social Darwinists is to create a monopoly ceasing evolution and competition (Leonard 42).

Social Darwinism in relation to Racial Conflicts

It is established that Charles Darwin developed and explained natural selection as a way to ensure human beings and genes compete for the best in life and survival. Social Darwinists therefore applied the theory of natural selection to argue that nations and races are diverse, as they possess different qualities ensuring they survive in this earth. Thus, strong nations are always empowered as they have the resources to fight and destroy the enemies until they conquer the weak intruders. This further provides them with an opportunity to spread their superior high quality traits and characteristics. Social Darwinism however contradicts this notion. This is because economists argue that human beings should have the freedom to compete and acquire a position in the superior societies (Joe 1).

Superior societies are defined or distinguished by their high quality aspects in relation to organization and discipline. National selection theory gained popularity at the end of the 19th century when class animosities increased obscuring extreme nationalism. The nationalist upsurge resulted in the First World War during which warring populations gained the will and desire to put up with any pain and suffering in order to succeed being victorious. The Social Darwinism therefore applied a twisted version of the Charles Darwin theory in order to support the notion that supported beliefs had to be popular and convenient (Joe 1).

The colonial expansion experienced in the 19th Century ensured Europeans contacted several societies due to lower technological powers. For example, the African continent comprised local populations that were mainly slaves. Conversely, the American citizens and inhabitants face the risk of being exterminated. Both continents however struggled, fought, and suffered until they conquered. Thus, the theory of natural selection can be applied to affirm that the behaviors displayed by the two continents were perfectly natural and necessary as they ensured the fittest survived (Joe 1).

There are claims however arguing that some racial groups had not evolved fully in comparison to the European race. Thus, they were considered closer to apes than human beings. As a result, the Nazis engaged in perverse racial Darwinism during the 20th century. The Nazis claimed Aryans were the master race. Thus, other races had to prepare either being enslaved or destroyed by the master race or the Aryans. Comparing this argument to Charles Darwin theory of evolution, it is clear racial Darwinism also undermines such abominable doctrines as it emphasizes that all races belong to the same species as they share a common ancestor. This has further prompted genetic researchers to conduct intense studies with the aim of affirming that genetic variations among races are very little. More so, those variations that have been noticed cannot be linked to racial diversity (Leonard 49).

Social Darwinism in relation to Evolution of Human Beings

During the 20th century, human beings were accustomed to being regarded as products of evolution. However, a new concept developed in attempts to determine if the race hosting human beings was still evolving. It was crucial to determine the level and direction of the new evolution. The new concept mainly developed after strong, wealthy, and powerful human beings persistently refused to share with the weak and poor. They claimed utilizing their wealth was wastage as the weak and poor human beings were incapable of gaining wealth and improving due to genetic inferiority. It was also observed that weak and poor families comprised several children than rich families. Thus, this enhanced the proportion of inferiority characteristics within the human beings’ race (Joe 1).

The fact that workers and slaves were not as healthy and wealthy as human beings belonging to the middle and upper socioeconomic classes should have been appalling. The upper and middle class human beings should have utilized their wealth and power to improve their conditions. For example, they should have provided them with an opportunity to access healthcare in order to resolve their medical conditions and risks. This would also have encouraged them to seek healthcare mechanisms limiting the number of children through family planning to achieve fit reproduction process. More importantly, Social Darwinism should have discouraged discrimination, abuse, and killing of mentally unstable human beings. Such undertakings would have affirmed that the race human being was not evolving. Instead, it was growing and developing into a peaceful, supportive, and dignified group of individuals (Joe 1).


Social Darwinism has therefore led to creation of policies designed to ensure weak and strong people continue to perish and prosper respectively. The creators of Social Darwinism believed the fallacies involved in discussing this concept appealed to nature as the theory of natural selection aimed to describe biological phenomenon. Thus, Charles Darwin theory utilized to develop Social Darwinism should be utilized as a moral and theoretical guide within the human society to explain principles of biological evolution. As a result, Social Darwinism should not be utilized to promote and enhance discrimination or prejudice. Instead, Social Darwinism should be applied to improve global societies. For example, Social Darwinism should be applied to ensure socioeconomic differences are eliminated. This can guarantee human beings gain the ability, wealth, and power to afford and lead comfortable lifestyles. Consequently, Social Darwinism should be applied to prevent racial discrimination, abuse, and slavery. Human beings should acknowledge that they belong to the same human race. They should therefore treat each other with respect and dignity as they are equally worthy and valued. Ultimately, Social Darwinism should be applied to improve the world.

Works Cited

Joe, Walmswell. Charles Darwin and Evolution 1809-2009. 2009. Web 16th May 2015

Leonard, Thomas. Origins of the Myth of Social Darwinism: The Ambiguous Legacy of Richard Hofstadter’s Social Darwinism in American Thought. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2009. Print.

Sample Paper on Ethical Considerations in the IT Systems persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

Ethical Considerations in the IT Systems

            Information and Communications Systems play an integral part in ensuring the success of any institution; government, private as well as corporate institutions employ the best technologies that ensure that there is proper dischargement of the duties. They ensure adherence to the set rules and regulations while engaging the use of these systems so that they can be of importance (Brennan & Johnson, 2004). Among the various ethical concerns that are mandatory for any system that organizations decides to utilize in handling its activities, there is the need to promote honesty, integrity as well as create a sense of objectivity.

It is critical that organizations employ IT systems that enable them to have the basic ethical considerations; governments in particular from the virtue of being at the service of the entire nations populations should ensure that the IT systems they adopt are able to display all the information and activities that are performed with in an open and transparent manner so as to  ensure that people build trust with the government of the day.  They should also be ready to uphold the integrity of a nation as this would enable the information to portray a true picture of the situation as it is.

For a university set up, since the greatest beneficiaries of these institution are scholars, the information the IT systems employed relays should be confidential and have a sense of respect as the people who utilizes the services are from a similar social class (Brennan & Johnson, 2004). Another ethical concern that is critical is the level of competence of these IT systems; they should be able to improve individuals’ level of thinking while giving him/her new expertise that can be utilized in his/ her future endeavors.


Brennan, L. L., & Johnson, V. E. (2004). Social, ethical and policy implications of information technology. Hershey, Pa. [u.a.: Information Science Publ.

Sample Religious Studies Research Paper on Love my essay help uk


Although love is one of the greatest commandments as indicated in the Bible, human beings are finding it difficult to love their fellow humans freely. According to the Catholic religious faith, love is expressed through liturgy. Even when God has promised a great reward for those who will obey the rules of love, human beings are still in dilemma. They believe that it is only God who can love human beings freely without conditions. Agape is the Christian love, which is underlined in the New Testament to mean affection, kindness, high esteem, and showing concern towards the welfare of others.  Love is equated to patience, kindness, lack of envy, and hiding one’s pride (1 Cor. 13:4). Love does not delight when other people are suffering, but always persevere and gives hope in times of trouble. It is God’s command that people should love their neighbors, as a great reward is kept for those who would commit themselves to do so.

The word “love” is normally overused, as people refer to it when they want to demonstrate affection of anything, even without any deep feeling.  However, the Bible utilizes the word to express how God feels about His people. Love is freely presented to human beings and they do not necessarily need rewards to conform to it. Love that is not freely awarded is not true love. God opted to honor man with a free will, which would assist him to experience true love that is found in His creation. Consequently, God can derive pleasure when He sees His people loving each other. The free will enables man to love God cheerfully, but man is known of breaching the free will that God has given him. Human beings find it hard to express their love to their enemies, unlike God, who provide for all humans, regardless of their relationship with Him (Matthew 5:44). Human beings are relatively weak to believe that they can adhere to God’s command without any restrictions.

From Paul’s perspective, the traits of love are similar to the traits of God. God is patient and kind to human beings. He does not envy when blessing man with resources and wisdom. God is not self-seeking, and does not attract pleasure from evil. In the beginning, God chose to create man, who bore His image, and this implies that God is not selfish, for He could have decided to create another creature that did not resemble Him. Loving His creation is one component of what God’s love is. Stubblefield accepted that God is love, and for this reason, the world was made.[1] God always perseveres when human go against His will. God’s love that Paul was trying to demonstrate is so heart-flooding to be matching with only a transcendent Beloved.[2] A divine love, which is unconditional and enduring, can never be compared to the earthly love. God’s love is not restricted by Him as human beings always do towards one another. Thus, it is quite hard for human beings to love unconditionally, even when they are assured of a reward.

Loving our neighbors is an essence of being, for no individual can live in isolation. Participating in liturgy enables Christians to fulfill the second commandment of love.[3] Liturgy enables Christians to enhance their relationship with God and, consequently, strengthen their connection with each other. Love is the substance that hold people’s lives, as it drives their thoughts, feelings, as well as their communication. Love is what enables human beings to remain closer to each other, to assist one another, and to offer their services without necessarily asking for compensation. Apart from being a feeling, love drives people to act on behalf of those who are weak. The story of the Good Samaritan challenges Christians to become good neighbors through loving and caring for others.[4] The core feature of love is demonstrating affection to others, as this implies how united individuals can be when they exercise love.

When the Bible commands individuals to love their neighbors as they love themselves, it implies that individuals may forget that love is the origin of their happiness. Individuals may not attain happiness if they hate each other. Although the command of love is quite radical, it assists individuals to move from their sins. The desire for individual happiness breeds sin and expose individuals to pride and selfishness. Pride makes individuals to think that they can gain happiness without God and that other people do not mean much to their lives. Whoever fails to love others does not recognize God. Individuals should understand that without God, they can never attain the happiness. Hence, when seeking happiness, individuals should remember that there are other people who are suffering from hunger, sickness, and loss of hope.

Agape love incorporates the gift that God’s spirit offers to Christians for charity. Agape love is one in an existential state that can only be defined as charity or strong commitment to something, such as salvation.[5] God’s commitment to the salvation for all is a sign of agape love, which enables Christians to commit themselves to love each other because God has demonstrated his love to them. Certainly, it is quite hard to love somebody without knowing anything about him/her. By letting His son to be sacrificed for human sin, God demonstrated agape love, as a form of charity. No human being has the capacity to demonstrate such love, thus, human beings were undeserving recipients of God’s love (1 John 3:1).

Some Christians tend to believe that God does not necessarily have any connection with earthly creatures, yet they still rely on God to love them. There is no basis for having two conflicting opinions about God and love. Love has its origin from God, whose motive, desire, and considerations are born out of love. Thus, God’s connection to human beings is demonstrated through love. God has a reason as to why we should love our neighbors. Some people say that they already know that God loves them, as if they do not understand that God’s love for human beings assists them to live in union with God, so that human beings can enjoy peace and joy. However, it is not all the time that individuals claim to be peaceful or happy. This is because they take for granted that God’s love is always there, yet they do not struggle to know what God requires from them. In addition, religious love may not breed real love because it is built on culture and is bound to develop in sinister ways.[6]

Real love is expressed when individuals agree to share their happiness with their neighbors and accepting them without considering their social class or origin. Letting other people have pleasure on things that they like is a show of love. Love is not a reciprocity approach, where one should expect returns for favor. Christians cannot gain reward for love if they only love those who love them.[7] Individuals should not forget their neighbors because they represent God in sharing their love. God’s love is manifested when individuals show love and compassion to their neighbors by being close to them at all times. Neighbor’s love does not create threat to self-love because God’s love is also demonstrated through self-love. Self-love is attained when an individual is capable of providing basic needs.

The Bible explains clearly on matters concerning God’s opinion on sinners to prove God’s love. In Ezekiel 33:11, God does not gain pleasure when He sees sinners die, for He does not want His people to end up in eternal punishment. God’s love is also extended to sinners who He treats with tenderness and compassion that they deserve. God allowed His Son to die for the sinners so that they can realize their sinful nature and repent. No human being could have sacrificed his life for another human being’s sin; hence, God’s love surpasses all forms of love. Nothing should disconnect individuals from the love that God has given them. Even in the periods of tribulation, anguish, persecution, famine, danger, and vulnerability, people should not think of leaving God’s love (Rom. 8:35). It is God’s love that makes people to win life’s battle, for there is no power or dominion that can separate people from God’s love.

The love that God has on human beings made Him offer His only Son to die for them so that they should not perish, but live to enjoy eternal life (Jn. 3:16). However, Christians may fail to demonstrate love to other people because of harboring hatred to God, who they believe is incapable of protecting them from evil deeds. It is not surprising to say that some Christians may harbor distorted and vicious view about God because the devil has managed to convince them that God does not love all times.[8] The devil does not want Christians to receive God’s reward for obedience. He knows that humans’ hearts are quite weak, particularly when discouraged; hence, can be manipulated by instilling hate.

In conclusion, God’s love to humans is special and unconditional, and that is why humans cannot attain such love. God’s command to love our neighbors does not necessarily amount to a reward from Him, but assist us to lead a happy life with one another. Every human being would like to be happy and have somebody who cares and show love. However, human beings are usually driven by self-interests and jealous in their actions. It is God’s love that manifest in human beings that makes them love others. The study of love does not require further research, as the Bible offers all the answers that an individual wish to have. Loving others can be equated to sharing God’s word with other people. Christians should not let the devil deceive them, as God has the power to make them love their neighbors and to receive His reward.



Cuneo, Terence. “Love and Liturgy.” Journal Of Religious Ethics 43, no. 4 (December 2015): 587-605. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 22, 2016).

Hefling, Charles. “How wide is God’s mercy? (Cover story).” Christian Century 132, no. 23 (November 11, 2015): 22-27. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 22, 2016).

Stubblefield, Jean Anne. God’s Love for Us Our Christian Foundation. Bloomington, IN: West Bow Pr, 2013.


[1] Jean Anne Stubblefield, God’s Love for Us Our Christian Foundation. (Bloomington, IN: West Bow Pr, 2013), 9.

[2] Charles Hefling, “How wide is God’s mercy? (Cover story).” Christian Century 132, no. 23 (November 11, 2015): 23. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 22, 2016).

[3] Terence Cuneo, “Love and Liturgy.” Journal of Religious Ethics 43, no. 4 (December 2015): 587. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 22, 2016).

[4] Ibid., 591.

[5] Charles Hefling, “How wide is God’s mercy? (Cover story).” Christian Century 132, no. 23 (November 11, 2015): 24. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed April 22, 2016).


[6] Ibid., 25.

[7] Cuneo, “Love and Liturgy,” 590.

[8] Stubblefield, God’s Love for Us Our Christian Foundation, 12.

Sample Research Proposal on Landscapes of Renewable Energy college essay help service: college essay help service

Landscapes of Renewable Energy

Literature review

The energy issues are driving prolonged and disputed policy changes as well as economic and political conflicts and the overall socio-ecological disaster in the contemporary society. Primarily, historical and geographical forces have the far-reaching consequences amid widespread problems in pushing the present energy quandaries. Globally, communities face the conflagration of the capricious energy markets, profound uncertainties in providing the essential services and goods, social justice implication, economic risks, reduced supply of oil, geopolitical security, and climate change issues. For sure, energy is truly the most fundamental international resource as well as economic nexus, chipping in as the central issue of most large companies, parastatals, as well as national enterprises. Furthermore, the fossil fuel sector is currently straining to produce the growing amounts of energy from the geologic reservoirs which have become too old and depleting at a much faster rate or from new ones characterized by being energy intensive as well as very expensive to develop. Currently, various governments, as well as companies, are hastening to develop advanced renewable energy machinery that can compete on the cost basis with the fossil fuels. Moreover, renewable energy experts trust that once the price obstacles are won through the market manipulations as well as technological advancements, both energy issues and even environmental related problems linked to the current energy industry shall be tremendously reduced.[1]

Bioenergy, wind, hydropower, nuclear, solar, tidal, and geothermal are non-fossil sources of energy and possess renewable features, albeit with extremely varying aspects as well as environmental and social impacts. Considerable reconfiguration of energy generation landscapes is linked to each of the renewable sources named above. Bioenergy (which refers to the production of energy from the recently decomposed living plants through the process of biomass) and biofuels (which primarily encompasses biodiesel and ethanol) are a special focus of the current geographic studies. Furthermore, biofuels and bioenergy presently account for an estimated half of the renewable sources of energy in the US. Worldwide, installed capacity of solar and wind energy production capacity are growing between 30% and 50% every year with wind energy in the US expanding at 24% yearly since 2000. Presently, the global development of wind energy capacity is approximately 38 percent.[2]

Furthermore, the wind, just like other sources of renewable energies is comparatively less dense in line with the geographical concentration of sourcing hence poses challenges of scaling on the spatial supply of energy demands. Even though there is a colossal general support, domestic resistance is particularly very common in several wind projects. Establishing greater density wind energy sources typically tend to cause enormous consequences on the landscape processes. Research on this matter of the landscape of renewable energy gives a detailed overview as well as a series of dexterously illustrated case studies about oppositional sentiments, right from identities, sense of place, seen characteristics to economic contemplations that have formed part of cultural and social processes in many landscapes of the wind energy.[3]

Finally, hydropower is mostly considered as the controlled scope for the future growth because of environmental as well as social confines of this resource utilization. Moreover, bioenergy prospects can be observed as having same concerns. In fact, hydropower has been actively extended through policies such as the clean development mechanism initiated by the world bank as well as other agencies at international, global, and even local levels. Those kinds of outcomes are a robust notice that the natural resources of the renewable kinds of energy are economic, cultural, and technological appraisals of the landscape that are often shaped by human activities as well as instructional agendas.

The mini-proposal

The global structure of energy generation as well as consumption experiences systematic problems that have been decades in the making and that people are struggling to make new technologies to help solve this matter of energy demands. Just as depicted in the current studies about energy demands, people face huge hurdles to the continuing the recent energy bonanza through this period and beyond. Furthermore, the universal economy requires a vast, unremitting energy flow each day, the better majority in the type of renewable energy sources. The fossil sources of energy are steadily depleting.[4] Therefore, there must be effective ways of handling the matter as well as successfully tap new energy sources that the same supply can be tomorrow as it was today plus other sources such that the world increasing populace and economies. However, the transition between the new sources of energy shall be far away from seamless. The physical infrastructure especially of the contemporary society is well-designed to run majorly on powerful, cheap conventional fossil fuels. Unconventional fossil energy sources come with huge environmental as well as economic costs, considerably lowering the benefits of energy whereas renewable sources of energy fall short at matching several of the features people value in the fossil energy sources.

Problem statement

While research on energy geography has helped us understand more about the significance of renewable sources of energy and how it helps to solve the growing energy demands, further research is needed to shed light on how renewable sources of energy can be sustained for further use. Furthermore, sustainable energy shift is a transition from fossil to sustainable energy systems characterized by renewable sources of energy as well as efficient use of energy. The transition needs adjustments especially in the spatial arrangement as well as land use as such prompting the land use. In fact, just from the definition, sustainable energy landscape must encompass a physical environment, which may evolve on the grounds of domestically existing renewable sources of energy without compromising the landscape biodiversity, quality, and food production.

Thesis statement

The research seeks to expound more in the niche of the landscape especially in sustainable energy change from fossil energy and particularly how the effective approach may assist in creating significant sustainable renewable energy landscapes.

Research question

What role does the landscape play in creating sustainable renewable energy?


There is a relationship between landscape use and effective creation of sustainable renewable energy sources.


Study area

The study area for this particular research shall mainly be confined in the Post Carbon Institute suited in Santa Rosa California USA. This shall provide the researcher with the much-needed information as well as analysis on matters that pertain to energy scarcity, climate change, and other issues associated with sustainability and even long-term environmental issues. The researcher shall also stand to get the much-needed information on fossil fuels, renewable sources of energy, water, and population. The study area gives the right place to gather the essential data that shall be used to carry out this particular research.

Data and methods

Selecting the correct research method is very vital to every researcher since it aids in tackling the questions and answering them rightly. Therefore, research methodology represents a way of establishing the outcome of a given problem on a precise matter or even a challenge that is typically known as the research problem. The objective of the research is to inform about action. Thus, this study seeks to contextualize its outcomes in the broader perspective of the research. The study should be of superior quality to generate the knowledge that is very applicable past the study setup with inferences that stretch beyond the relevant information that has been done on the topic. For the sake of this particular research, the study shall merely employ the grounded theory method to develop the hypothesis from the available information from the pieces of literature. Furthermore, this shall help in the evaluation of secondary data related to the previous opinions and research, and hence, this contributes to testing of the research hypothesis.

The collection of data is one of the essential aspects that forms part of any research study. Therefore, it must be conducted properly to help solve the problems that may by in any research. Furthermore, this study shall majorly employ both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data shall come from the study areas where interview, as well as questionnaires, shall be issued to the relevant official in the renewable energy plants. On the other hand, secondary data shall originate from the pieces of literature that discuss the research topic, books, and journals.

Anticipated outcomes

The study aims at exposing the significance of landscape in the transition from fossil energy to non-fossil renewable energy sources.



Angelis-Dimakis, Athanasios, Markus Biberacher, Javier Dominguez, Giulia Fiorese, Sabine Gadocha, Edgard Gnansounou, Giorgio Guariso et al. “Methods and tools to evaluate the availability of renewable energy sources.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, no. 2 (2011): 1182-1200.

Breukers, Sylvia, and Maarten Wolsink. “Wind power implementation in changing institutional landscapes: an international comparison.” Energy policy 35, no. 5 (2007): 2737-2750.

Pasqualetti, Martin J. “Opposing wind energy landscapes: a search for common cause.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101, no. 4 (2011): 907-917.

Zimmerer, Karl S. “New geographies of energy: Introduction to the special issue.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101, no. 4 (2011): 705-711.


[1]Angelis-Dimakis, Athanasios, Markus Biberacher, Javier Dominguez, Giulia Fiorese, Sabine Gadocha, Edgard Gnansounou, Giorgio Guariso et al. “Methods and tools to evaluate the availability of renewable energy sources.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, no. 2 (2011): 1182-1200

[2]Zimmerer, Karl S. “New geographies of energy: Introduction to the special issue.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101, no. 4 (2011): 705-711.


[3]Pasqualetti, Martin J. “Opposing wind energy landscapes: a search for common cause.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101, no. 4 (2011): 907-917.


[4]Breukers, Sylvia, and Maarten Wolsink. “Wind power implementation in changing institutional landscapes: an international comparison.” Energy policy 35, no. 5 (2007): 2737-2750.

Sample Paper on Hypnosis Therapy assignment help sydney

Hypnosis Therapy

            Definition of the term hypnosis has been highly contested, with argument about whether it is a process or product of a process. The most recent definition was formulated by APA division 30 and defines hypnosis as a “A state of consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness characterized by an enhanced capacity for response to suggestion (Elkins et al., 2015, p. 382). Another definition describes hypnosis as “an altered state of consciousness in which a person is able to bypass certain aspects of reality, tolerate logical inconsistency, experience distortions of perception and memory as real, and feel a compulsion to follow cues from an outside source” (Covino & Bottari, 2001, p. 340). Hypnosis has had a checkered history despite its moderate acceptance in the modern times. Its practice dates back to the pre-medieval times. Egypt had healing temples in the 5th B.C that were used for rituals that involved curative sleep and suggestions.  It was then adopted by people in Greece and the Roman Empire. Another commonly referred healer, using similar techniques is Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1814) who called his method animal magnetism. In the middle ages, there were physicians who used the magnetic healing. Later in 1874, it was found that imagination was used to induce hypnotic trance and Mesmer’s method of healing was despised (Whorwell, 2005)

In the 19th century, resurgence in the research of mesmerism referring to hypnotic process led to its application in reducing pain in surgical procedures. James Braid who lived between 1795 and 1860 has been known as the originator of modern hypnosis (Whorwell, 2005). He rejected the magnetism idea in mesmerism and argued that trance had the healing and analgesic effects. In 1829, there is evidence of use of mesmerism by Doctor Chapelian to relieve pain in Madame Plantin who was undergoing breast cancer surgery (Montgomery, Schnur, & Kravits, 2012). In the twentieth century, hypnosis has been more comprehensively studied. The field of behavioral medicine has been created after realizing the role of behavior in health, health care and disease prevention. Behavioral medicine combines psychosocial knowledge with biomedical knowledge in order to come up with novel techniques of preventing diseases, diagnosing, disease management and therapy. Interest has increased in the use of hypnosis in the recent past (Fisher, 2011). Hypnotic induction refers to the procedure of hypnotizing people. Hypnotizable people are able to experience hypnosis. Therapeutic use of hypnosis is called hypnotherapy. Hypnotherapy has resulted from identified clinical benefits of hypnosis in health care and psychology (Elkins et al., 2015). Also, the method has been found useful in patients who are refractory to drugs as an alternative to pharmaceutical treatment. The method is a cost-effective clinical therapy that saves on medicine. The following is an examination of four articles that indicate the efficacy of hypnotherapy in managing various illnesses.

Hypnotherapy intervention has been explored for management and relieve of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).  Lindfors et al. (2012) carried out a research entitled “Effects of Gut-Directed Hypnotherapy on IBS in Different Clinical Settings-Results from Two Randomized, Controlled Trials”. Previous studies that had been performed from highly specialized gastroenterology centers and gut-directed hypnotherapy found hypnosis to be effective for patients who are refractory to IBS drugs. Lindfors et al. (2012) carried out a randomized, controlled study to find out relative efficacy for gut-directed hypnotherapy carried outside a specialized hospital setting.  In the research, Lindfors and colleagues chose participants who were patients diagnosed with IBS using Rome II criteria and they were also supposed to be refractory to pharmacological treatment. The patients were required to be not using antidepressants or psychotropic drugs.  They were trained on self-hypnosis in order to have mental and muscular control and also control of symptoms by distraction or enabling focus. Hypnosis was done according to the method used by University Hospital of South Manchester in the1980s. For study 1 carried out in highly specialized gastroenterology center, 45 patients received gut-directed hypnotherapy from specialists while the another group of 45 acted as control and were subjected to supportive therapy in the waiting list. In study 2, 25 patients received the same therapy but from a small county hospital, while 23 acted as control by waiting for one year (Lindfors et al., 2012).

Efficacy was measured through assessment of quality of life using nine dimensions of health for study 1 and SF-36 with 36 items for study 2. Depression and anxiety were evaluated using Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale that uses Likert scale for each of the 7 items. Third component was measurement of the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms at 3 months and after a year using questionnaires. Excluding the control groups, the results indicated significant improvements in patients after 3 months for both studies. However, more improvement in severity was observed in study 1 carried out in a specialized gastroenterological center (p < 0.05) compared to study 2 (P= 0.017) even after one year follow-up. The researchers concluded that gut-directed hypnotherapy is effective for treatment of refractory IBS but efficacy is dependent on whether therapy is carried out in a highly specialized health institution (Lindfors et al., 2012). Thus, hypnosis can be used to manage IBS and better when such patients are under specialized or skilled hypnotherapists. Given that discomfort or pain is the main cause of distress, leading to anxiety and depression, psychological intervention is viable for IBS symptoms.

IBS is a functional disorder that affects the gastrointestinal tract. It causes abnormal functioning of the gut leading to persistent abdominal pain and distress, bloating, alteration of bowel working leading to constipation or diarrhea or both. Patients may also experience non-colonic symptoms including nausea, backache, lethargy and bladder symptoms. It is a common disorder that has a worldwide prevalence ranging from ten to fifteen percent of the population. Majority of the victim are female who constitute 70 percent of people diagnosed with the disease. Currently, diagnosis of IBS is based on the symptoms as described in the Rome III criteria as “Abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort at least 3 days a month in the last 3 months, where at least 2 of the following were also true: The pain/discomfort was relieved by defecation and/or the start of the pain/discomfort was associated with altered stool frequency and/or the start of the pain/discomfort was associated with altered stool form (appearance)” (Freeman, 2010). The disease greatly lowers the quality of life of the patient. IBS patients have been treated with pharmacological drugs that are specific to bowel symptoms and gender. The drugs include antidepressants, laxatives, antispasmodics, and bulking agents. Also dietary changes are used, for example, fiber-rich diet for constipating patients. Nonetheless, both pharmacological and usual relieve methods such as colon cleansing, are not good enough for alleviating the IBS symptoms (Freeman, 2010).

Asthma is among disorders that are refractive to pharmacological treatment, and whose symptoms have high psychological association. Zobeiri et al. (2009) in a study called “Self-hypnosis in attenuation of asthma symptoms severity”, the researchers tested efficacy of self-hypnosis in treatment of asthma or improvement in lung function. Asthmatic patients (n=40) were randomly selected and diagnosed using spirometric findings. The patients had mild to moderately severe asthma and had been on agonist and corticosteroids dugs for the last one month. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups, where one was self-hypnotized and the other acted as control group. Relaxation through use of imagery was taught to the patients as well as relieving of dyspnoea through imagery. The control group did not use hypnotherapy and used only pharmaceutical drugs. Severity was measured using Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume for one second (FEY1) using spirometry at the beginning and the end of one month and symptoms. Loss of breath (dyspnoea) was measured using Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale (MRC scale) ranging from 0-4, at three intervals for ten days. Median changes in FVC, FEV1% and FEV1 were assessed for the two groups by comparing the variance using Kruskal-Wallis test. Lessening of dyspnoea symptoms and reduction in suffering was detrmined using logistic regression. The results of the 29 patients who completed the randomized trial indicated that median change in loss of breath (dyspnoea) was higher in the group that used self-hypnosis than for the control group (p=0.004). The results indicated no significant changes in FEY, FVC and FEV% in each group and between them. The researchers concluded that self-hypnosis improves symptoms but does not appear to alter lung function in asthmatic patients for short durations (Zobeiri et al., 2009).

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory illness that affects of respiratory system due to various factors including allergens, environmental, genetic, infectious and psychological aspects. Psychological stressors are effective in triggering asthmatic symptoms. There have also been clinical studies associating stress with asthma. Initially, asthma had been thought to be caused by psychological factors only. Pharmaceutical drugs have been used to treat but long term use of the drugs has side effects and psychogenic causes of asthma can exacerbate the disease (Zobeiri et al., 2009). Thus, alternative complementary remedies are sought after. Hypnosis has been used to manage asthma but efficacy of hypnotherapy has been contested. In some patients, asthma can be triggered by a mere look at photo of an allergen. Strong emotions are also recognized to precipitate asthma in some people. It is therefore logical to conclude that psychological stress and suggestions stimulate asthma. Therefore, due to the ability of hypnosis to induce relaxation and think on suggestions, it can be a suitable remedy for asthma. Due to limited clinical trials, there is no adequate evidence to support use of hypnosis to support the observed benefits and generalize to the public.

Asthma involves obstruction of the airway and bronchitis mainly caused by reactivity of the smooth muscle. Studies on pathophysiology of inflammation in asthma have found a number of cells involved including mast cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and epithelial cells. Thus, therapies are intended to reduce inflammation. There are various inflammatory mediators; lipids secretion in the mucus, secretion of chemokines and cytokines along the airway cause chronic inflammation. Emotions can precipitate asthma reaction, and studies have confirmed anxiety and depression to be prevalent among asthmatic patients (Kumari & Rana, 2012). Thus psychological approaches can involve alterations of the emotions that cause pathogenesis of the symptoms. Also, research can be done on how the biochemical released can be inhibited using psychological methods such as hypnosis.

Migraine is another disease caused by psychological stressors and, therefore, behavioral therapy can be exploited through hypnosis. In a 1975 research entitled “Migraine and hypnotherapy”, Anderson, Basker, and Dalton carried out a controlled study among 47 migraine patients, aged 14 years and above in order to compare the results of  pharmacological treatment (n= 24) and hypnotherapy (n= 23). The participants had at least a year of migraine distress. Medication included prochlorperazine and ergotamine. The 23 were subjected to six sessions of hypnotic therapy by skilled hypnotherapists using the 1971 Hartland’s model after 10 to 14 days. The patients were hypnotized to alleviate anxiety, tension and apprehension. A suggestive therapy was induced whereby they were required to visualize head and neck arteries that were pulsating and swollen contracting and easing the discomfort. The patients were trained on self-hypnosis to reduce migraines and instructed to practice hypnosis daily.  Outcomes were measured based on the number of people and frequency of migraine attacks and the severity of the migraines. The patients were assessed for a year (Anderson, 1975).

The hypnosis group had a lower frequency of migraines and blinding attacks per month compared to the group under medication with p < 0.0005 and p < 0.005 respectively. The hypnosis group had a monthly average of 0.5 migraines while the group under medicines had 2.9.  Pharmaceutical treatment lowered the recurrence of grade 4, severe migraines more significantly compared to hypnosis. In the last three months of the tear, 10 patients, constituting 43.5% of the patients under hypnosis experienced a reduction in recurrence of migraines compared to only 3 patients after one year follow up. A difference of p< 0.39 was observed significant to conclude that hypnosis had higher efficacy in reducing migraine attacks compared to pharmaceutical treatments (Anderson, 1975).

The name migraine originates from the Greek word ‘hermikrania’ meaning ‘half the head’. It is a symptomatology characterized by sporadic headaches causing unilateral, pulsating moderate pain or severe. It has symptoms of nausea, irritability, constipation or diarrhea, photophobia and vomiting. Chronic migraines have been associated with psychological conditions such as depressive personality, environmental stress, compulsiveness, hostility, feelings of vulnerability and inadequacy. Interactions between physiological and psychological factors occur when psychosomatic factors trigger neurological, biochemical and vascular responses. Factors such as depression and anxiety can trigger serotonin imbalance. Body organs are stimulated by the brain following information gathered from external environment. Stimulation of organs occurs in a negative feedback loop regulated from the brain. A falter causes disorganization leading to psycho-physiological imbalance (Rothrock, 2008). Hypnotherapy can be exploited through various routes of interaction that cause migraine. Self-hypnosis can be used to self-manage stress and anxiety. Also, depression can be alleviated by relaxation techniques of hypnosis that would change secretion of serotonin. Physiological factors can be controlled through hypnotic relaxation. Vasoconstriction and vasodilatation can be controlled through hypnotizing.

Studies show that hypnotherapy is an efficient means of controlling pain in women undergoing breast cancer surgery. In 2007, Montgomery et al. undertook a study called “A randomized clinical trial of a brief hypnosis intervention to control side effects in breast surgery patients”. 200 patients were randomly selected averaging at 48.5 years of age and who were waiting to go through a lumpectomy or excisional biopsy. The patients were divided into two groups. One group underwent through a hypnosis session of 15 minutes guided by a trained psychologist while the other group received only a compassionate listening session for control of attention. The participants were not blinded. Use of analgesics was assessed together with recording of side effects and self-reports of pain using a visual analog scale (Montgomery et al., 2007).

The results indicated that the pre-hypnotized patients required lesser analgesic than those in the control group ( propofol, mean of 64.01 mg Vs 96.64 mg, confidence interval (CI) = 3.95 to 10.68 and lidocaine 24.23ml Vs 31.09ml). Comparative analysis of the outcomes of the two groups using self-reports was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The six outcomes were recorded from a visual analysis scale (VAS) that ranged from 1 to 100. The following were the means and mean differences for each outcome measured between hypnosis and the control groups.



VAS Measure
Means Hypnosis

Mean Difference
95 % Confidence Interval


Pain Intensity




Emotional Upset

Pain Unpleasantness

Figure 1. Table of Summary of MANOVA results of VAS outcomes from Montgomery et al., 2007

The results indicate that the hypnosis groups experienced less severity of each symptom than the control group. There was no significant difference in the use of midazolam, fentanyl, and recovery room analgesics. The results indicated that patients in the hypnosis group required less propofol and lidocaine, reported less pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, nausea, fatigue, discomfort, and emotional upset (Montgomery et al., 2007).

Surgical procedures cause physical and psychological stress leading to somatic discomfort and feelings of anxiety before, after and in the course of surgery. Hypnosis can supplement psychological interventions in order to alleviate anxiety and as an appendage to analgesics. It can help the patients to cope with pain experienced during surgery. Thus, it can be used for palliative care in cancer patients, and also to relieve the symptoms associated with surgical invasions. In addition, self-hypnosis can be trained to cancer patients for clinical management of the various symptoms of cancer. Relieving pain experienced during surgery is vital in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. Therefore, hypnosis can act as a suitable non-pharmacological intervention.

In conclusion, the role of hypnotherapy in treating various illnesses is being discovered by modern researchers. One of the roles includes improving skin conditions by hypnosis due to the ability to reduce stress (Shenefelt, 2000). Another role is in digestion system where pains of IBS, peptic ulcers can be relieved through hypnosis. Patients are able to control pain as well as control bowel functioning. Asthma, a common inflammatory disease involving psycho-physiological interactions can also be treated by altering emotions. It is also a novel tool for stress management that would prevent extents of depression. Prevention of diseases is vital for public health and hypnosis offers remedy for controlling addictions such as smoking. Although there lacks enough information on hypnosis, application of hypnosis started long time ago. It is therefore important that as researchers look into ways of exploiting hypnosis for therapeutic use, parallel studies on its occurrence in the body and brain should be investigated. The phenomenon of creating a single state of mind needs to be understood and how psychological and social factors such as imagination and potent responses to suggestion. The role-playing effect during hypnotic induction indicates a social process and learning.

Hypnotherapy has been found to work for a number of diseases and disorders especially by lessening symptoms and alleviating pain. The Joint commission requires hospitals to assess pain experienced by patients. Ensuring that patients experience minimum pain as possible has been the clinical practice. Coping with pain has been a notable benefit of hypnotherapy. Thus, hypnosis introduces a solution to the various painful ailments and an aid to clinicians. A limitation in its use is due to hypnosis being not possible all people. Psychotic patients are among the contraindication group. Also, the ability to hypnotize is limited to some specialized psychologists and traditional specialists. Thus, it means that health care workers will require training and understanding of the process for them to apply the method. Nurses are involved in care giving and thus there is need for increased training of medical hypnosis. Training is necessary because appropriate suggestions need to be given for the subject to imagine and form imagery that causes hypnosis. Reduction of chronic pain can conceal a serious ailment when people use hypnosis as an exercise or routine relaxation. Besides, false memories can be generated during hypnosis that needs to be erased from the mind.


Anderson, J. A. D., Basker, M. A., & Dalton, R. (1975). Migraine and hypnotherapy. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis, 23, 48–58.

Covino, N. A., & Bottari, M. (2001). Hypnosis, behavioral theory, and smoking cessation. Journal of dental education, 65(4), 340-347.

Elkins, G. R., Barabasz, A. F., Council, J. R., & Spiegel, D. (2015). Advancing research and practice: The revised APA Division 30 definition of hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 57(4), 378-385.

Fisher, E. B., Fitzgibbon, M. L., Glasgow, R. E., Haire-Joshu, D., Hayman, L. L., Kaplan, R. M., & Ockene, J. K. (2011). Behavior matters. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(5), e15-e30.

Freeman, K. (2010). Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Retrieved April 21, 2016, from

Hofbauer, R. K., Rainville, P., Duncan, G. H., & Bushnell, M. C. (2001). Cortical representation of the sensory dimension of pain. Journal of Neurophysiology, 86 (1), 402-411.

Kumari, K., & Rana, A. C. (2012). A review on epidemology, pathopysiology and management of asthma. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci, 2, 55-64.

Lindfors, P., Unge, P., Arvidsson, P., Nyhlin, H., Björnsson, E., Abrahamsson, H., & Simrén, M. (2012). Effects of gut-directed hypnotherapy on IBS in different clinical settings-results from two randomized, controlled trials. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 107(2), 276-285. doi:10.1038/ajg.2011.340

Milling, L. S. (2014). Hypnosis in the treatment of headache pain: A methodological review. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(4), 431.

Sample Essays on Tax Law Knowledge towards Financial Planning college essay help los angeles

Tax Law Knowledge towards Financial Planning


            The law is very clear with regards to payment of taxes and the consequences therein in tax evasion. There is a great significance in the knowledge of tax law for the purpose of aiding in financial planning and ensuring compliance among all the parties involved. In the United States, all state parties are liable to tax payment regardless of their supposed class, racial background, sex or religious affiliation. This paper therefore delves deeper in tax law, giving insight on the importance of the laws with regards to financial planning and financial freedom.


            The purpose of financial literacy is to gain knowledge of the tax benefits that may ensure towards keeping vigil with the tax regulation and exemptions. Tax benefits which are most at times received from tax deductions only depends on the marginal tax rate with regards to a particular tax payer. The benefits realized thereof as a result of the tax credit are independent of the marginal tax rate of the taxpayer. In the case of the non-refundable credits, there is only an annual excess provision of the carryover, this is to mean that should a non – refundable credit exceed the liability of the taxes, the excesses that are realized are automatically lost. Therefore, in the case of a non – refundable credit only current tax liability can be offset.

However, in the case of a refundable credit, there is a provision for the payout should the amount of credit exceed the tax liability. This scenario is called withheld taxes or earned income credit, they comprise many business credits which are synchronized into one. Further, the limited to net income tax has the ingrained tendency of reducing by the greater of a minimum tax which is considered to be tentative and a regular tax liability that exceeds a particular amount depending on its percentage. Mostly, an unused credit is usually forwarded 20 years after being carried back by one year. There has to be a knowledge of these respective tax credits for the purpose of financial literacy and accuracy of the individuals(Kim Joo-suk 397-423). The lack of knowledge of such credits coupled with benefits, places an individual at a proximal position to exploitation by fraudsters or law offenders. In the case of an individual aiming to minimize taxes, the best option would be to combine all the taxes into one in the form of a refundable credit.

Work opportunity tax credit is one which applies to the first twelve months of payment to people within such groups as; a percentage of $ 6,000 wages which are payable per each eligible employee, individuals with high rates of unemployment, and individuals with high rates of welfare benefits from family(Kim Jihyun 423-466). The work opportunity tax credit has its merits in the deduction of wages which are subsequently reduced by the amount of credit. The work opportunity tax is important in the sense that it places into perspective individuals who are highly unemployed and do not have an advantage of receiving a regular salary.

A quick overview of the tax system reveals a greater consideration of individual income. Simply, an individual pays as they earn with the highest taxpayers being the rich and companies that are top notch in the country. The consideration of an individual income is vital toward showcasing to the society that the tax regulation system is not meant to extort the citizenry but work as a team toward achieving some desirable level of balance between the financial distribution between the rich and the poor. For an individual seeking financial planning and literacy, the knowledge of these tax exemptions along with the credit brings about the merits of knowledge of manipulating the system to their advantage and not failing to embrace opportunity where is.

Vital to the individual taxpayer is the understanding of the criteria that is normally used in the selection of the tax structure. Adam Smith is particularly remembers for the development of the particular tax structure which financial planners should gain knowledge of. First, there is a consideration of the equality of the taxpayers. Each individual ought to pay taxes with regards to the amount that they receive as regular income/ salary (Hoffman, Smith & Boyd, 4). Any amount paid as tax which is not in due consideration of the level of income earned is pure usury and extortion. Second, convenience which dictates that the administrative laws of collecting taxes should be convenient. The current withholding system is a merit to the taxpayers because it involves the pay as you go type of a system which is proving to be very convenient(Hoffman, Smith and Boyd, 4).

More importantly, the certainty of the tax system ought to be assured, individuals aiming to achieve financial economy have to know the tax implication of a particular business transaction or venture. Finally, a tax system is meant for only nominal collection costs which prove to be economic in nature. The government’s economy in taxation and the selection of the desired personnel is important for the purpose of transparency and accuracy in tax collection. However, misappropriation must always ensure at some point thus calling for vigilance and accountability for the purpose of attaining efficacy(Hoffman, Smith and Boyd, 15).

The major types of taxes such as property taxes, transaction taxes, and general sales taxes must be put into considerations and the impetus of such taxes with regards to an individual earning must be set clear. It is thus unadvisable to purchase a property bearing large transaction taxes during purchase as well as sales taxes that proves hard for a client with regards to financial planning. The most probable angle to take as far as taxes is concerned is to engage in transactions that have the prospects of bringing returns other than using up entire savings for purchasing and tax evaluation.


Ethics must be considered in tax payment with the client refraining from committing tax fraud. This is because the impact of being identified by the IRS or other bodies can be life changing. Moreover, financial freedom comes about with much transparency and financial literacy. It is thus important to stay transparent and avoid circumstances that can deny one financial freedom. Freezing of assets is yet another disturbing tax measure which comes with tax fraud. Ethics in tax collection and transactions has to be factored in for the sole purpose of creating a better world for all. Financial literacy and freedom is a path of constant update requiring the gain of new knowledge, skills and professional expertise. As a lawyer, it is important to state the earnings from the cases and make payments to clients promptly, engaging in tax fraud can cost jobs.

         Work Cited   

Hoffman, William H, James E Smith, and James H Boyd. Individual Income Taxes. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning, 2015. Print.

Kim Jihyun,. “Review Of 2012 Corporate Tax Act Law And Income Tax Law Cases”. Seoul Tax Law Review 19.1 (2013): 423-466. Web.

Kim Joo-suk,. “Review Of 2011 Corporate Tax Law And Income Tax Law Cases”. Seoul Tax Law Review 18.1 (2012): 397-423. Web.


Sample Article Review on Business Law Issue On “Anderson Cooper 360” essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Business Law Issue On “Anderson Cooper 360”

Anderson Cooper 360° is program aired by CCN, which is hosted by renowned American Journalist Anderson Cooper.  The program provides a platform for airing views from different perspectives.  This paper focuses on the “Dave Chappelle on Anderson Cooper 360” episode whereby Anderson interviews Dave An American comedian to determine why he left Chappelle’s Show. In the paper, a law related-issue from a business point of view on the episode of “Anderson cooper 360” is addressed.

In a nutshell, nearly a decade age, Dave walked away from one of the famous sketch comedy series central at the epitome of its popularity. In addition, he left the show when he had signed a $50 million contract offer with comedy central, an offer that was attractive (CNN, 2014) He left the few months after he become part of the business contract for its 3rd and 4th episodes.  Dave stunned Comedy Central, his staff, and fans a mid-production and headed to South Africa for two weeks (CNN, 2014). He later returned to Ohio, his home town, and later resumed stand-up comedy independently. The emerging legal issue in this episode from a business point of view is breach of contract.

A breach of contract exist place when one of the parties fails to honor their part of the agreement. After an offer has been made by the offerer and accepted by the offeree, then an agreement is reached and a contract is entered. Failure to meet the demands of the offer results to an automatic breach of contract is realized. From the “Dave Chappelle on Anderson Cooper 360” episode, Dave signed a contract with Comedy Central, and failed to fulfill it by leaving production in the halfway. From a business point of view, such an act resulted to losses to Comedy Central which was expecting to gain from the show. On the other hand, Dave did not receive the full value of the contract, which implies that payments were possibly not made. Additionally, he terminated the contract without any notice, because he just left when the show was halfway and left his fans in a state of limbo.

Based on the interview with Anderson Cooper, Dave admitted that what he did was legally unethical, but noted that he admitted that he was not working away from the money offered by Comedy central, but from circumstances. He also admitted that he was afraid that he by signing the contract he was being controlled and not allowed to expand and this stressed him and he considered walking out of the show. In this perspective, Dave was affected businesswise because of the choice he made since he no rich as he could have, and his integrity was affected. Moreover, because of not fulfilling the contract, lawsuit for nearly $1 million in damages as well as royalties was filled by one of his employees’. Therefore, walking away from the contract has attracted financial problems to the comedian, which from a business perspective was awful.

In conclusion, the paper has explored a legal issue in “Dave Chappelle on Anderson Cooper 360” episode. The identified legal issue is breach of contract by Dave amidst production of 3rd and 4th shows. The respective setbacks linked to the breach were damaged reputation, lawsuits, and financial losses.

References List

CNN. (2014) Dave Chappelle On Anderson Cooper 360.[Video File]: Retrieved from

Sample Essays on The Economy Attention: Museums homework essay help

The Economy Attention: Museums


Art Museum has been stuck with the old tradition and architecture. Though translated as a means to conserve the explicit forms and themes depicted by the different forms, it is falling out with the general public. The 21st century seems to seek and ascertain relevance and aesthetics by the art museums for continued business prosperity. Innovations and re-inventions by the museums are a means to increase the spectrum by the public during their visits to the museums. Current focus levels can be attributed to the different learning structure by the modern education. Modern education puts less focus on the art themes and paintings presented in the museums which contributes to the decreased low-focus visits to the existing museums around the globe.

The museum contributes to the growth of the society. These have to present the ideologies and consistency in the presentation of their art forms. The new museum exhibits characteristics not previously envisioned in the 19th or 20th century. This is explicit of the 21st centuries where the new museum exhibit commercial orientation than focusing on the art forms and development of these art. According to Karsten Schubert, the new museum exhibits new architecture and strategies to draw the masses to the centres. They have exquisite displays, galleries and the buildings themselves. Priority has shifted more to increasing the number of visits/subscription to the museum (Schubert 75). Much has been commercialized, leaving little/less consideration of the art forms and themes. Unlike old periods where art defined the societal setup, the perspective has changed. In the 21st century, art is seen as a fulfillment for the indolent curiosity of the public.

Potential problems that may arise when the museums imitate corporations is the decreased developmental aspects of the art forms (Schubert 61). With much pressure on the private investments and sponsorship, the focus shift of the museum will be to the development of financial resources more than the perpetration of the art forms. The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) paints the strategies of the new museum in that it has formed several business partnerships for the generation of funds, for example, LACMA leased its building formerly housing to May Co.  (Schubert 36). This acts as a funds drive for more cash flows to the museum. It has also managed to acquire historical art pieces and organized their display centres/gallery in the museum. Care is given more to the maintenance and aesthetic value of the pieces than the portrayed meaning or themes perceived by the pieces.

The rapid transformation instigates the need to re-evaluate the functions of the museums. This will provide focus and goals to be fulfilled for the continued development of art and the society in general. Art has been commercialized, with local pieces being collected internationally for stocking by other museums (Jewsiewicki 47). Economically, it is of great advantage but this downplays the main need for art. Considering the Lubumbashi, as described by Bogumil, art is meant to act as a remembrance and perpetrate societal development for the people in Lubumbashi. With the pieces produced local artists in Lubumbashi being outsourced for display in other international museums, the public will have little or no access to the themes presented (Jewsiewicki 59). This makes the Lubumbashi public devoid of the intended change, yet to be instigated by the art pieces and forms made by their local artists. Jewsiwiecki depicts the adapting of the Lubumbashi museum to the needs of the people. The project, Memoirs de Lubumbashi, outline the architectural history and transformation realized in the capital since the colonial periods (Jewsiewicki 63). This fulfills the public’s curiosity to know the advent of Lubumbashi and possibly the developments realized forth.

China has registered increased number of museums across the nation. The growth has been attributed to the government support and the global shift to museums’ commercialization. The growth rate is approximated at 100 museums a year which portrays the Chinese growing art scene. The number of museums built between 2000 and 2011 is 1198 (Wong 23). The competition with other international art scenes and exhibitions contributed to the increased focus by the government on these museums, especially in major towns like Beijing and Shanghai. Corporation is maintained between the public and private museums to achieve synchrony and competitive advantage against other international museums (Wong 11). The Chinese museums are a reflection of the Schubert’s perspective on the new museums. The museum tries to tap into the international market and focus more on the commercial aspect of the museum projects. Outsourcing of the art pieces portrays the little effort to develop the local art scenery (Wong 19).


The new museums- are developing their aesthetics and marketing aspects. This is a true fact, but the shift of focus from the main purpose of the museums has degenerated their value and appeal to the general public. The competition created forth, in the global market, has put pressure on the local museums to concentrate more on the cash-flows and sponsorships other than the perpetration of the art. In the previous years, art had a critical position in the society. It held the major influence to spur growth or even revolution. This has changed as art has become more for the leisurely idle displays in the museums.


Works Cited

Jewsiewicki, Bogumil. “Museums for the People? Two Joint Projects for Haiti and the Congo” in Contemporary Art and the Museum: A Global Perspective (Peter Weibel, Andrea Buddensieg, eds.). Ostfildern : Hatje Cantz, 2007.

Schubert, Karsten. “Democracy of Spectacle: The Museum Revisited.” In “The Curator’s Egg, 2nd ed. London: Ridinghouse, 2009.

Wong, Winnie. “Arresting Development: Winnie Wong on China’s museum boom. ARTFORUM, 2015.


Sample Essays on Violence and Hate Crimes nursing essay help: nursing essay help

Violence and Hate Crimes

Violence comes in different forms such as domestic, societal and individual aggression. Thus, individual must be trained through education and other forums how to deal with these vices. Violence at its simplest form distresses family associates because they are part of the target audience of crime. To a greater measure, the society suffers the drawbacks and impacts of household and collective hostility. This brings in insecurity, inequality and injustice. Therefore the population ought to find ways of solving these issues before they get out of hand. An intercultural approach is needed to see the end of extreme actions that bring suffering to members of a community. Therefore, this paper provides an intervention to hate crime and violence through intercultural praxis, education and socially responsible actions. Social crimes or violence involves people from different cultures and their diversity lead to emergence of superiority and inferiority (In Sorrells & In Sekimoto, 2015). Abhorrence’s are carried out by individuals due to their dislike for other. The perception held by one community against the other accelerates this process hence widens rivalry. Cultural groups branded as inferior are looked down upon by superior cultures hence creates rivalry. In order to end this social education, intercultural praxis and social responsibilities will help unravel the stalemate. Thus, the essay will focus on the intervention mechanism to end detestation offenses and hostility.

In this section, we focus on the historical ideas, concepts and theories that explain the origin of social violence as well as hate crime. There are many factors that contribute to social hitches. Some of them emanate from historical injustices while other comes from social interaction. There are several theories that try to explain the method through which peace can be restored in warring or rivalry communities.

Standpoint Theory

This theory concentrates on the influence of social groups we interact with on our daily lives. The behavior of an individual is shaped through these interactions. Groups are subjected to influence and development of ideologies. In situations where an ideology adopted by one group goes against the others then the community is deemed to experience strives. Some groups adopt extreme ideologies that threaten security of community members. To avoid extreme teachings and conformity to negative ideologies, government should ensure that its population accesses the necessary education (Morewitz, 2010). One thing that accelerates ignorance among group is illiteracy. Therefore, education is a tool that can assist people deal with the situation. At this point, the concept of ethnocentrism emerges. This brings in an element of superiority where the dominant group controls the behaviors and action of inferior groups (NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Political Violence, Organized Crimes, Terrorism and Youth, Ulusoy, & North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 2012).

Critical Theory

This theory intends to evaluate and criticize the social set up at the same time advocating for change. It deals with the society and destines to change the narrative that groups within the community ascribe to. Social communication is an ingredient to the formation of a responsive society. This goes hand in hand with the social structures established and outlined in the society. This infers that the community should be more concerned about the structures formed by diverse groups (Perry, Levin, Iganski, Blazak, & Lawrence, 2009).

Some of the concepts that emanate from the discussion include Ethnocentrism and intercultural praxis. Ethnocentrism is a negative behavior that intends to demoralize the social set-up by treating communities differently.  Numerous factors attributes to this situation. They include ethnicity, racism and discrimination. The fruit of these actions is hatred and increased insecurity in the country because members constantly engage in social stifles (Jackson, 2015). Intercultural praxis on the other hand talks about the steps undertaken by communities/individuals in promoting peace and cohesion among members.

Intervention Plan for Intercultural Social Justice

This document proposes a number of interventions and measures to be implemented to oversee the restoration of social justice. First, we focus on education. It is the most powerful tool that any society could implement to change the way people think and act towards other. Education changes the following. First, it opens up an individual mind and facilitates decision making. Individual will question and evaluate group decisions hence follow a certain direction. This means that an individual is not obliged to do what the group proposes rather adopt individual decisions (Bruce, 2009).  Children brought up in a hostile environment tend to behave and act with hostility. This insinuates that the process applied in bringing up the sibling affects their perception and reaction towards others. To educate the society, a set of plans should be adopted to help members make formidable decisions and relate well with others. First, basic education should be free for everyone so that communities learn the basic social values (Moodian, 2009). There are numerous issues that need to be addressed through education (Williams, Roberts, & McIntosh, 2011). This is because education prepares individual for the future and facilitates interaction among members. Different communities will tolerate each other only if they understand the value of cohesion and peace. To input values to the communities or social groups, the government or authority has to find ways to lobby society to embrace education. For those members beyond the school age, enrolment into adult learning will help improve their understanding of social justice (Wood & University of Mississippi, 2011). Thus, community members will respect one another as they engage at various forums. No person will see or view the other as an inferior being based on racial or cultural affiliation.

The second value that education inculcates is social cohesion. This is where equality is created across communities by the fact that education brings people together (Collier, 2014). This means that education is incognizant of social and cultural ideologies that intend to divide people into religion, racial and cultural lines. It infers that the endeavor focuses on bringing up an all round community that is aware of social differences between cultures. Government should also strive to have mixed schools where student from diverse cultures study together. They will share a lot and be able to learn other cultures (In Simmons, 2013). Eventually, they will get familiar with diverse teachings hence able to tolerate and accommodate their peers. Lastly, education changes the perception that people holds against others. It therefore creates a leveled ground for cultures. I therefore propose that government introduces programs that teach the need and values of social cohesion to the population be it for the general curriculum or special education.

The second strategy is to have new laws and regulation that protect cultures in the world. Minor groups in the community often fall victims to the dominant or major groups that seems to marginalize them based on cultural features. The features that define one culture from the other should never be used to marginalize or discriminate against people. However, the perception and any other ideologies that people come up with is conceived in the minds through the system provided or intercultural praxis. To manage intercultural conflicts and violence, the following steps will be necessary (Darity, 2008). First, analyze the conflicting values of both groups before involving them in a brainstorming session to discusses and establish a leveled ground where they can settle their differences. Second, community programs such as competition and games need to be improvised to bring people together. These programs can be implemented at different levels in the social setup. Corporation and government departments should incorporate these programs into their busy schedule.  The coming together of different cultures results to social cohesion and cooperation in matter of nation building. Therefore, the population will have little time left to think about their differences.

In conclusion, there is no single strategy that can be applied to solve social problems that involve violence and hate crime. The factors that forces community to act the way they conduct themselves; are profoundly entrenched in their culture. Thus, to change their perception and way of thinking; the nation has to come up with a comprehensive formula that includes all aspect of culture. This means that a multifaceted formula will be applied across regions. One of these formulas is to improve the state of education and introduce new programs. These programs offer knowledge that is socially oriented and covers all areas that may attribute or lead to conflict.


Bruce, J. (2009). Hate crimes. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Collier, M. J. (2014). Community engagement and intercultural praxis: Dancing with difference in diverse contexts. New York: Peter Lang.

Darity, W. A. (2008). International encyclopedia of the social sciences. Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA.

In Simmons, E. (2013). Indigenous earth: Praxis and transformation. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books.

In Sorrells, K., & In Sekimoto, S. (2015). Globalizing intercultural communication: A reader. Chichester, West Sussex U.K: Wiley-Blackwell.

Jackson, J. (2015). “Unpacking” International Experience through Blended Intercultural Praxis. Internationalizing Higher Education, 13(5), 231-251. doi:10.1007/978-94-6209-980-7_15

Moodian, M. A. (2009). Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence: Exploring the cross-cultural dynamics within organizations. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Morewitz, S. J. (2010). Hate Crimes. Death Threats and Violence, 23(3), 102-118. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-76663-8_10

NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Political Violence, Organized Crimes, Terrorism and Youth, Ulusoy, M. D., & North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (2012). Political violence, organized crimes, terrorism, and youth. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Perry, B., Levin, B., Iganski, P., Blazak, R., & Lawrence, F. M. (2009). Hate crimes. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Williams, L., Roberts, R. A., & McIntosh, A. (2011). Radical human ecolog

Sample Essays on The Bush Doctrine aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Bush Doctrine

Primarily, the Bush doctrine refers to a phrase used to illustrate many ideas that relate to the US foreign policy. Initially, the term was used to infer to the notion that a given place that hides terrorists may be regarded similar to terrorists themselves (Krauthammer, 2001). Further, the idea encompasses other implicit rights the US had in the universal arena, including the highly controversial right to declare the preemptive war. The phrase, Bush Doctrine was fundamentally used when President Bush first assumed the office. In fact, from February 2001, the phrase was employed to mean what was seen as the movement of the president towards the unilateralism. Furthermore, Bush exemplified this when he decided to withdraw the United States of America from the subject of Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty (Cox, 2004). However, the core of the Bush Doctrine was formulated in the period of the September 11 terrorist attack. The president famously announced that we should make no division between the terrorists who actually commit the acts as well as those who hide them (Lieber, 2002). Therefore, in his decision, he decided to initiate the way for the attack on Afghanistan despite the fact that the country of Afghanistan had not truly invaded the United States. After the 9/11 attacks, many people were worried that the terrorist may attack the US again. Therefore, this worrying trend created a huge implication on the country and even changed the manner the US would handle the places that hide the terrorist (Krauthammer, 2001). Hence, the Bush Doctrine represented one of the changes that came because of the 9/11 attacks where the doctrine suggested that an attack must be done on potential terrorist threats before they actually invade the US.

In essence, various pundits have given many meanings to this particular doctrine. Others see it as the way that has been used to show precise policy elements that encompass the approach of the preemptive strikes used as a defense against an imminent threat to the United States security (Jervis, 2003). The policy also majorly focused on the Middle East nations to help counter the multinational terrorist organizations. Hence, the doctrine was applied to depict the disposition to pursue the United States military interests unilaterally (Jervis, 2003).

National Security Strategy

The major elements within the Bush Doctrine were delineated in a single paper, National Security Strategy that describes the supreme goals of United States military and foreign policy as well as a broad framework of how to attain them. This document was published on 17thSeptember 2006 and mainly been cited as the definitive statement of the Bush Doctrine. After that, the document was updated in 2006. The introductory part of the National Security Strategy states that it is just a matter of self-defense and common sense that the US shall act against any emerging threats (especially of weapons of mass destruction spread) before they fully materialize (Daalder et al., 2002). America as well as the friends cannot be defended by just hoping for the best. Therefore, the country must always be prepared to overcome the threats that stem from the enemies plans by applying the refined intelligence as well as moving wit deliberation. History shall judge austerely those who observed the impending danger yet failed to act accordingly. Hence, the new world we now live in, the single path to security as well as peace is the just to assume the way of action.

In viewpoint, this National Security Strategy is the most extensive presentation so far among the policies that the president articulated in his tenure where some of which shows a stagy departure from the known national strategy of the past periods. The prime threat to the US, the document states, no longer stems from the rival powers inclined on conquest but from the disastrous states that hide terrorists. Deterrence and containment represent two masts of the Cold War strategy, which are dismissed as principally archaic.

To some extent, I agree with certain issues and policies in this document due to the following reasons. First, it provides limitless in space and time. Not only it commits the US to controlling the world from now and even in the future, but it also advocates what it terms the preemptive utilization of force where the US shall act against the new threats right before they entirely emerge (Lieber, 2002). Second, given the seen abilities of the terrorists, this document puts the US in the prime position to no longer depend on the non-proliferation, which is a multinational strategy to regulate the spread of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons and missiles that may deliver them. This policy has counter proliferated the much active as well as the aggressive strategy that may encompass the pre-emptive strikes.

On the other hand, I also do not agree with some policies and issues in the document. The Bush National Security Strategy displays romance, bluster, and illogic in the same measure. The premise is that the United States is basically righteous. Finally, the international concern, as well as fury this National Security Strategy has caused for detouring global process and even agreements obligations, has made countries to worry regarding the nature and intent of the US power.



Cox, M. (2004). Empire, imperialism and the Bush doctrine.Review of International Studies, 30(04), 585-608.

Daalder, I. H., Lindsay, J. M., & Steinberg, J. (2002).The Bush National Security Strategy: An Evaluation.Brookings Institution.

Jervis, R. (2003). Understanding the Bush doctrine.Political Science Quarterly, 118(3), 365-388.

Krauthammer, C. (2001). The Bush Doctrine.American Foreign Policy, a New Motto: Don’t Ask. Tell. Time March,5, 2001.

Lieber, K. A., &Lieber, R. J. (2002).The Bush national security strategy.US Foreign Policy Agenda, 7(4), 32-35.


Sample Case Study on Padilla vs. Rumsfeld Cases extended essay help biology

Rumsfeld v. Padilla

Rumsfeld v. Padilla is an example of the case filed in the United States Supreme Court whereby Jose Padilla filed a habeas corpus against Donald Rumsfeld, who was the Secretary of Defense. The habeas corpus aimed to protect Padilla from being unlawfully detained by the military. Padilla claimed that such actions were tantamount to unlawful combatant. Padilla is a citizen of the United States who flew to Chicago from Pakistan after the September 9/11 attacks. On arrival to the airport, Padilla was arrested by military officials. Initially, he was classified as a material witness before being classified as an enemy combatant in later stages. Enemy combatants are readily imprisoned in the United States, and thus, Padilla would suffer the same fate (Chemerinsky, 2006). Padilla would also not be provided with legal resources or access and was held the same way the United States held them in the war on terror. Padilla’s attorney claimed to act as a friend filed the habeas corpus petition. The petition filed at District Court, Southern District of New York denied the petition and held the view that the President of the United States had authority to designate an individual as being an enemy combatant after they had been captured on American soil. Since the Secretary of Defense acts for the president, the views were held to be right (Pious, 2006). Thus, Padilla was to be captured for the entire time when the country was in armed conflict with Al Qaeda. The Court of Appeal for the Second Circuit held the view that the President lacked any authority to conduct and detain American citizens in their country of origin. This ruling was made after an appeal was lodged at the above court. The Supreme Court ruled that the president had powers to detain any individual considered to be an enemy or otherwise risk running against the Non-Detention Act, which requires that all citizens of the United States be detained pursuant to an Act of Congress (Pious, 2006). The Supreme Court never gave a ruling but required the petition to be filed afresh since it had been improperly filed.

The case of Padilla highlighted the rights that were denied to all people who had been arrested and imprisoned at Guantanamo bay. Such rights include the right of filing a petition, which was to be heard and decided in a court of law. The Supreme Court of the United States had initially ruled that it was unconstitutional for anyone to be denied a right to see a judge or file a petition (Pious, 2006). Thus by keeping them at Guantanamo Bay and not allowing them to file a petition denied them their rights. Secondly, the United State supreme court requires that a habeas corpus shall never be suspended unless there is a case of rebellion or invasion. To the best of Padilla, such threats were not warranted (Pious, 2006). Additionally, the Non- Detention Act requires the president of the United States only to detain citizens after approval by Congress. Essentially, this never happened meaning many rights were left out in the above case.

Ex parte Quirin

Ex parte Quirin is a case brought before the United States Supreme Court in 1944 during the Second World War. The case involved eight individuals, two American and six Germans who attempted to sneak in the United States at the height of the Nazi war and after the invasion by the Japans on Pearl Harbor and attack the United States (Kent, 2013). The decision set forth by the court has been used as a precedent for unlawful combatants. The decision arrived at the court required a distinction to be drawn between peaceful populations and armed forces. This was also referred to as the law of war. The difference was to separate belligerent nations and those perceived to be lawful and unlawful combatants of war (Kent, 2013). All lawful combatants had to be arrested and be subjected to both detention and torture since they were prisoners of war. Any unlawful combatants were to be subjected to capture, detention and were to be punished and tried by the military tribunals, which was either to determine if the acts committed fell under belligerency. Spies who would enter countries without entering any non-military uniforms seeking to gather information that was to be passed and used to an enemy were also subjected to a trial by the military (DeVeaux, 2009). Enemy combatants who would pass borders without uniforms and enter for the sole purpose of starting or waging a war were never to been entitled to the status of a prisoner of war and in such a case they were not to be subjected to the similar laws as individuals as normal offenders (Kent, 2013). They were required to follow the set down procedures in which they were to be tried by military tribunals. In the case of the eight suspects, they entered the united states wearing military uniforms so that if they could be captured they could be associated with prisoners of war. In reality, they were never military men but were military combatants (DeVeaux, 2009). Thus, the above argument by Qurin can justify why there were a large number of either prisoners of war or enemy combatants in Guantanamo bay.

Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Hamdi v. Rumsfeld case came to the Supreme Court of the United States where Hamdi, a United States citizen was caught in Afghanistan during the war after the September 9/11 attacks. Hamdi was born in the United States and later raised in Saudi Arabia. Later on at a young age, Hamdi went to Afghan to seek employment. Hamdi was captured alongside other individuals and taken to Guantanamo bay (Hartz, 2013). Moreover, Hamdi was classified as an enemy combatant and therefore there was no judicial mechanism that was applied in the case against Rumsfeld. It was stated that the president of the United States had rights to detain an individual under the Authorization of Military Force. This law was in place to detain all enemy combatants planning any activity against the United States (Hartz, 2013). As a consequence, such individuals would be detained without due process. The United States Supreme Court ruled that it had jurisdiction to rule on such a matter and that by the fact that Hamdi was a United States Citizen, the judicial due process  was to be followed in determining whether or not Hamdi had changed the current alleged enemy combatant trait as labeled by the United States government. As a result, a habeas corpus was filed, and due process was followed which led to the acquittal of Hamdi against the majority of allegations presented in court (Hartz, 2013). In essence, the United States Supreme Court requires that all of its citizens be tried following the due process. It also expects the court to allow United States citizens to denounce their enemy combatant deeds against their country.


Chemerinsky, E. (2006). Assault on the Constitution: Executive Power and the War on     Terrorism, The. UC Davis L. Rev., 40, 1.

DeVeaux, C. (2009). Rationalizing the Constitution: The Military Commissions Act and the         Dubious Legacy of Ex Parte Quirin. Akron Law Review, 42(1).

Hartz, E. (2013). Hamdi v. Rumsfeld. In From the American Civil War to the War on Terror (pp. 75-86). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Kent, A. (2013). Judicial review for enemy fighters: the court’s fateful turn in Ex parte Quirin,      the Nazi Saboteur Case. Vanderbilt Law Review, 66, 153.

Pious, R. M. (2006). The war on terrorism and the rule of law. Oxford University Press, USA.

Sample Essays on Interrogation Techniques melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

Interrogation techniques

            There are various ways in which the laws and legal limitations have affected the use of coercive interrogation techniques in the United States. After the September 11th, 2001attack on the United States twin towers by suspected al-Qaida terror group, there emanated philosophical and political debate as to the applicability, effectiveness or justification of the use of torture to get information from detainees (Evans 53). After the attack, the US was accused of using extreme torture on the suspected terrorists who had been detained in military camps. Though they misled the senate and the government in general, they were aware that the use of torture to get the required information was not giving the necessary result. The claims by the department of defense that the act was not bearing fruits nor giving positive results was confirmed. As a result of this, the department of defense undertook investigations that led to the establishment of standards and guidelines that would ensure proper approaches and techniques were used by the investigators and were abided by. The Bush administration at the time faced criticism from the human right activists on their application of torture on the terror suspects. It was found out that many people arrested in connection with the terror gang both in America and in Iraq were subjected to harsh treatment in detainment. The public therefore started debating on the effects and effectiveness of the torture rule in public domain leading to public outcry. The aim of the debaters was to find out whether the use of enhanced interrogative techniques could be used entirely, or they could be prohibited, or whether being a lesser evil and in certain situations, could be used to get information that would otherwise destroy the community (Posner and Adrian 5-7).

Following these guidelines, the United States department of justice drafted a memo titled the “Torture memo” (Parry 176). This memo was then sent to detention camps including in Guantanamo and was implemented in 2003 thereby suspending the previously used interrogative methods that were under public outcry (fdfdf). Despite this law being implemented, a legal counsel by the name John Yoo wrote his opinion indicating that the implemented laws or the laws that had been passed did not apply to those investigators and interrogators who were working overseas including the Guantanamo detention camps and those in Iraq (gddg).

With the laws implemented and the legal limitations in place, the US has been able (though not fully) to apply better methods of combating lawful and unlawful enemies in a manner deemed to be safer, just and that which is not overdue or meaning to harm the detainee. The federal government has been able to implement interrogation standards that should be applied in any given case when interrogators and military are in a combat zone or are fighting terrorists. The laws also refrain and prohibit the force and interrogators from using unlawful force or abusive techniques in all their missions both locally and internationally. In regard to this, the FBI conducted investigations into the alleged misuse of interrogation technique and their findings were given to the relevant departmental agencies for specific investigations and action. The CIA detention and investigation  program that was carried out had concluded that the use of enhanced techniques was effective since it enabled the identification and the capture of other terrorists, warned of terrorists plot, helped verify other detainees information as well as providing information on the terrorists operations (al-Qaeda). There was however not sufficient evidence that was able to lead to the capture of the mastermind or Osama. The information was therefore not unique, in some instances was not accurate, and was not able to help in gaining cooperation from the other detainees.

Upon the implementation and application of standard rules and techniques that interrogators and the military ought to use when retrieving information from detainees, locally and abroad, various legal constraints were derived from such application (Taylor 31-4). The legal constraints led to the loss of tactic physical torture on the detainee. This has the implication that the detainees or the suspects may refuse to give the necessary information in regard to a given case since they are under no duress to do so. The instant strikes as reported to some extent led to the detainee opening up and giving the necessary information regarding the criminal activities in questions. Hardened criminals may not open up unless force is applied and this being the case, failure to apply excess intelligence technique like torture would lead to failure to disclose other group members, activities, and potential threat of the group. Despite this fact, torture as a means of retrieving information especially valuable information should be advocated for if the use of force could lead to the avert of an impending attack/threat on the US and its affiliations. Despite the challenges of not using physical torture to get information, the legal constraints have helped increase the required knowledge and skills to handle a given case (Kleinman 1577). It has also enabled the interrogators and other military personnel’s learn other means of interrogation that do not use coercion to get the necessary information (Pfiffner 127-33).


Works cited

Evans, Rebecca. “The Ethics of Torture.” Human Rights & Human Welfare 7 (2007): 53.

Kleinman, Steven M. “Promise of Interrogation v. the Problem of Torture, The.” Val. UL Rev. 43 (2008): 1577.

Parry, John T. Understanding Torture: Law, Violence, and Political Identity. Ann Arbor, Mich: University of Michigan Press, 2010. Print.

Pfiffner, James P. “the efficacy of Coercive Interrogation.” Examining Torture. Palgrave Macmillan US, 2014. 127-157.

Posner, Eric A., and Adrian Vermeule. “Should Coercive Interrogation Be Legal?.” Michigan Law Review 104.4 (2006): 671-707.

Taylor Jr, Stuart, and Benjamin Wittes. Looking Forward, Not Backward: Refining American Interrogation Law. Brookings Institute Working Paper, Washington, DC, 2009.

Sample Essays on The American Model of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) essay help service

American CSR is better than international CSR


Organizations and companies that believe that they should pay back to the community subscribe to the model of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The model of CSR has been used by many firms whether an international corporation or a domestic company to empower the community in various ways. Furthermore, when it comes to the idea of CSR, one should consider two things. First, the company that offers resources and funds for meaningful social causes like donating some money or even employee time to charities and many people tends to think this as the sole role when it comes to corporate responsibility. On the other hand, there is also the CSR that encompasses getting together an actual plan about making products or even generating services that are of the best interest of the community as a whole. Having known the concepts of CSR, this paper narrows down and gives an insight though on how American CSR is better than the international CSR. In particular, tough questions of why American CSR is better than the global CSR? What do they do to edge the global CSR? More significantly, what models or concepts do the America CSR adopts to make them better than the international counterparts?

Research Overview

This research employed the use of secondary data collected from the secondary sources that pertain to the research topic. Academic websites were mainly used to gather data that could help get the information that gives much insight into the subject matter. The study entailed various secondary sources such as books, journal articles, magazines that discuss the research topic. In the process of the study, several articles were encountered, but since some were not specific and just conveyed general information about CSR, they were rejected because they could not offer the much-needed data to complete this research.

Therefore, further research on the topic presented related books, as well as articles, used in the completion of this study. For instance, the book titled Corporate Social Responsibility: A Very Short Introduction, primarily was very fundamental since it directly touches the research topic. The book states various reasons why American CSR edges that of international aspect. For instance, it states that American CSR mostly distances itself from the many government responsibilities and barely encompasses collaborates with governmental organizations as compared to the international CSR that inclines to participate through numerous policies. The google scholar database was very useful tool since it has a series of information that relates to the subject matter of the research. The part of data collection also become tough since a lot has been done on CSR but when you narrow down to the research topic, extracting specific information was very tough.

Discussion Overview

Mainly, there has been intense debate regarding whether American CSR is better than the international CSR. However, the developing debate has been bolstered by the recent development in the international CSR especially those found in Europe as well as Asian countries. The aspects of CSR in these two scenarios has been debated on the structural makeup, the model of operations, as well as the overall approach or strategy that they regard as the best when conducting the corporate responsibility.

The research reveals what some scholars feel about the hotly contested debate about the issue of CSR. Therefore, various sources give an insightful look at the topic and give information that is very useful. Just as seen in the sources, the two parties in the debate mainly focus on the shareholder concept and the stakeholder theory. The champions of the stakeholder concept support the provisions of the discretionary anticipations of the society. Alternatively, the proponents of the shareholders concept maintain that the business just conforms to the law as well as maximize the wealth on the shareholder. The study reveals that even though several social progressives have enthusiastically embraced the CSR, it has never been a panacea for the communities’ ills. Marten and Moon (2008) article supports that the research topic where vast arguments have been presented to advocate for the American concept of CSR. Furthermore, Gjølberg, M. (2009) articles support the research topic by giving structural differences as what makes American CSR edge that of the international counterpart. On the other hand, the Jamali’s work refutes the claim and provides numerous evidence to support why another international CSR has reinvigorated to be the best.

Annotated Bibliography

Moon, J. (2014).Corporate Social Responsibility: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jeremy Moon in his compares the aspects of CSR in American and on the international level with examples drawn from the European nations such as the UK, Sweden, Finland, France, and many other states.  He proceeds to state that even though the leading companies in Europe have adopted the practice as well as language of CSR, they do uphold the distinctive aspects and bring new dynamics to CSR regarding American. Therefore, he notes there are fundamental differences between the CSR in American with the international arena. These differences make American have an edge in the CSR as compared with the international perspective. First, he states that American CSR inclines to accentuate on the essential values of the CSR whereas other international countries CSR places more attention on the broad stakeholders relations as well as integration with strategy. Second, the American CSR gives comparatively more prominence to the society sphere than the international CSR especially the European nations that tend to accentuate more on the marketplace, workplace, as well as the environmental sphere. Furthermore, he states that the American CSR tends to be more focused on the domestic issues instead of the international matters. Where an international issue exists, more concerns are placed on human rights instead of transparency and climate change for instance. Finally, Moon states that American CSR is more of Company-oriented than the international counterparts are where several CSR notions and practical projects depict the multi-actor partnerships, as well as business association, works. Where American firms employ the collective strategies, then these incline to be more of being standards instead of partnerships.

Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). “Implicit” and “Explicit” CSR: a conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 404-424.

Marten and Moon (2008) article primarily compares the American CSR perspectives as well as in the international scope such as in Europe and other Asian nations to develop a better understanding of the two scenarios and reach some definitive inferences about the case. In this particular, the two scholars address the question of why and how CSR differs in many countries and why and how it changes. Furthermore, they give their insights on why they feel the American CSR perspective somewhat have an edge compared to the international CSR. In attaining this particular objective of the study, they executive two schools of thoughts where they use the institutional theory where they conceptualize the dissimilarities between American CSR and the international level, and second, they conceptualize on the recent developments in ASA and Europe CSR. Moreover, they delineate the potential of their framework for other application to some parts of the universal economy. They establish that the American CSR philosophy makes them have some slight advantage over the international CSR perspective.

Pillay, R. (2015). The Changing Nature of Corporate Social Responsibility: CSR and Development. London: Routledge.

Pillay work shows many insights in the CSR question. She demonstrates the much-needed development that CSR has been able to bring to the society at the international level when organizations plan good work. In the book, she employs a case study to expound on the matter and shows that global CSR stands a better chance to bring more to the people.

Gjølberg, M. (2009). Measuring the immeasurable? Constructing an index of CSR practices and CSR performance in 20 countries. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 25(1), 10-22.

Presuming that the firm’s institutional environment concerns to its CSR approach, this article of Gjølberg intends to play a role in the establishment of a better structurally as well as a comparatively oriented framework for evaluating CSR. Therefore, the material encompasses two parameters: one gauging CSR practices while the other measures CSR performance in twenty nations. The index reveals vast differences between CSR in American other countries and basically, the structural differences accounts for what is observed between the nations used in the study.

Jamali, D. (2012). CSR in the Middle East: Fresh Perspectives. New York: Springer.

This book explores the practice of CSR on the international level especially in the Middle East makes some bold findings of the study. The author examines how the deep-entrenched customary of generosity, as well as philanthropy in the Arab culture, has played a huge role in reinvigorating the aspects of CSR and terms it as the best since it has institutionalized types of giving and encouraged through advances relating to CSR.


Sample Essays on Juvenile Criminal Behavior among the Youth research essay help

Juvenile Criminal Behavior among the Youth

Juvenile criminal behavior among the youth has been on a steady increase. Research conducted by Pyrooz and Sweeten (2015) indicates that children as young as five years old in the United States are involved in gang membership. These kids are engaged in all crimes ranging from petty theft and public disturbance to robbery with violence and drug abuse. The alarming rate at which juvenile centers admit young offenders has led to the need to conduct further research as to what promotes the growth in some young people, and how to deal with the situation. This paper seeks to establish some of the reasons leading to juvenile criminal behavior, patterns studied in juvenile crime, and ways to prevent the youth from participating in crime.

Pyrooz and Sweeten (2015) attempted to establish factors contributing to the probability of youth getting involved in crime. According to their study, some of these factors include substance abuse, financial instability, and peer pressure from their fellow young people and adults. They also noted that the ratio of gangs forming increased in areas of low-income status, and the offenders were associated with criminal activities such as drug abuse and trafficking, petty theft, robbery with violence, and public destruction of property.  Due to financial instability , most people seek for other means of fending for themselves. A large number of juvenile offenders are school dropouts who lack qualification for employment. Others find an easier way out by resorting to the crime pattern which has faster returns, than having to wait for a low wage due to their lack of experience or qualification. Young people also tend to be dysfunctional under the influence of drugs. They lose the ability to think rationally, and act out unreasonably under influence, or have a false sense of confidence in committing crimes.

Some of the patterns noted by Martin (2008) in their research after profiling young offenders can be classified according to age, gender, environment, and race. It was noted that the number of male offenders was higher than that of the females. The figure was higher because boys are more agile, daring, and easily influenced into joining gangs, and committing the vices mentioned. Some act out individually while for others, becoming part of a group is a privilege. Most of them are oblivious to the activities that other gang members get involved in, and later find out that their counterparts take part in criminal activities. Most of them get initiated willingly or unwillingly, just to be part of the group, while others are threatened against leaving.

In the journal done by Martine, their research sought to develop methods that are useful in identifying young offenders (2008). Their methods would then be used to come up with adequate programs used to prevent further increase of juvenile criminal activities. The research was conducted through observation, whereby participants were selected from a city with a high crime rate. These participants were taken from a juvenile system and underwent behavioral and psychological assessment. From the research, a profile was created that indicated that most of the offenders were male, mostly from African –American descent, and they came from a poor background living in an environment that promoted crime.

Various studies indicate that several methods can be used to curb the high crime rate among the youth. The first major step is to understand the reasons that motivate young offenders into committing a crime. As discussed above, the main reasons prompting criminal activities include peer pressure, financial instability, and access to drugs. Spruit (2016) suggest that young people need to be kept busy and involved with positive recreational activities. Their study mainly focuses on using sports to promote healthy activities during their free time. The authors state that young people stand to gain a lot by participating in sports. Those activities are healthy for their body and mind. However, the study mentions that the extent to which sports has influenced juvenile delinquents is yet to be determined. Participation in sports has been suggested as a substitute for other means used before, for example, the boot camp program. Boot camps have been previously used as a rehabilitation method for juvenile offenders (Polsky & Fast, 1993). The programs involve intense physical, psychological, and emotional exercises and activities, meant to punish young criminals and serve as a warning to prevent them from further committing crimes. This program is supposed to scare young children from crime, and give them an oversight of what to expect when imprisoned as adults.

Other ways mentioned in preventing the increase of juvenile offenders include counseling for those already incarcerated to determine the reason for their actions, the introduction of community policing programs in which members keep vigilant watch over the children to prevent them from joining gangs (Spruit, 2016). The young offenders can also be rehabilitated by being enrolled in community schools, and teaching them basic skills that can be used by them to get employment as an alternative to crime for financial reasons. The state should also work in close collaboration with communities to keep watch over those released to ensure they do not go back into crime.



Martin, D., Martin, M., Dell, R., Davis, C., & Guerrieri, C. (2008). Profile of incarcerated

juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders. Adolescence, 43 (171), 607-622.

Polsky, H., & Fast. J. (1993). Boot camps, juvenile offenders, and culture shock. Child & Youth

Care Forum, 22(6), 403-415.

Pyrooz,D., & Sweeten, G. (2015). Gang Membership between ages 5 and 17 years in the United

States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56 (4), 414-419.

Spruit, A., Van Vugt E., Stouwe, T., & Stams, G. (2016). Sports participation and juvenile

delinquency: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(4), 655-671.



Sample Essays on Summary of “The Land Ethic” medical school essay help: medical school essay help

Summary of “The Land Ethic”

Humans and nature have always had an active relationship since creation. According to Aldo Leopold, this relationship has not been right since it has always made man appear to be the superior member; above land, water, and soil. In his view, humans should look at nature as part of the members of a community hence treating them with much respect. Leopold believes that humans have the sole responsibility of ensuring that the ecological system is protected to give opportunity for the future generations to enjoy a healthy life.

The Land Ethic has for the longest time been ignored by humans. It is clearly evident that humans have not in any way loved land, which is made up of water, soil, plants, and animals. This is due to their attitude towards nature. For instance, they believe that soil should be left to be washed down the rivers while water should continue to carry sewers. On the other hand, animal species are killed while plants are not given the opportunity to flourish. Land ethics promotes the fact that the Homo sapiens should not in any way be considered a conqueror but a citizen together with land, animals and the soil. The attitude of conquering the land and not having it as an equal shareholder in the community has had its adverse effects on the ecosystem. For example, the Mississippi Valley was subjected too much pressure due to its fight for control by the Native Indians, the English, French as well as the Americans. This not only had an effect that caused an overflow of people, but it also led to plant and animal extinction.

Over the years, conservation has been considered as an option for restoring the beauty of land. However, conservation, which is a state of harmony for plants and animals, has not been achieved yet. Conservation education has been a consideration for promoting this harmony but has raised more questions than answers. Apparently, this type of education appears ineffective and unsubstantial. It is unfortunate to note that other projects such as the improvement of roads and schools have been placed as a priority while the betterment of nature remains less of a priority. Farmers have all along not been educated enough to take good care of the natural resources. Grass has been cleared for the purpose of feeding cows while chemicals have been used on plants increasing the amount of lime on the soil. For change to exist there must be an internal transformation of individuals. The fact that philosophy as well as religion has not heard anything to do with nature is a sure proof that the conservation of nature has not been considered important in the present society.

The major hindrance towards the conservation of land is the fact that everything has been viewed in terms of its economic value. For instance, the songbirds and wildflowers have been subjected to economic value rather than to conservation. The two members of the biotic community have been put under the Homo sapiens as their conqueror. The lack of economic value forms part of nature for the communities in the biotic systems. Members such as the deserts, mashes and dunes lack any monetary value to the human community hence subjected to extinction. The American government has had difficulty in having control of such communities since most of them are in privately owned lands. However, the government continues to carry out its duties such as fish and wildlife conservancy, management of water and soil together with the migration of birds and animals. For success in conservation, individuals must embrace the right attitude. With or without any economic value, conservancy must be embraced broadly both by the government and the private land owners. An effective conservation system must be based on the ethic obligation of every individual.

The high regard for land is one of the main factors that will promote its conservancy. Maintaining love, respect as well as admiration for nature is more valuable than any amount of money. Evidently, the kind of education offered and the economic system today offer little regard to land. This forms part of the huge hindrances towards land ethics.  Today, man has no particular consciousness for land. Land is considered as the distance between two buildings or an area where crops are grown. Any spotted free land is taken away for golf links or for scenery developments.

Various steps can be taken towards the conservation of land ethics. First, the attitude of the farmer towards land must be changed. A farmer should think of land as a citizen in the biotic community other than a lesser member. In addition, the modern trends that seem to be taking root in the society towards land must be avoided. A clear understanding of ecology through ecological training should be embraced. Land ethic is both emotional and intellectual. Right decisions must be made and implemented to maintain the value of land. Finally, there is need for objectivity and sanity in dealing with land to ensure that the future generations enjoy its beauty.


Sample Article Review on “Licensing Parents,” by Hugh Lafollette global history essay help

Evaluating Lafollette’s Argument That Parents Should Be Licensed

Ensuring children’s safety is probably a challenging responsibility for many parents. In the article “Licensing Parents,” Hugh Lafollette asserts that the state should necessitate all parents to be licensed to enhance security of children. The process of licensing parents is compared to that of adopting children, but Lafollette’s proposal advocates for a less strict process, since no parent should be denied raising children. This study will support the argument that parents should be licensed because we need parents who are accountable to their responsibilities.

Lafollette is arguing that the society is bound to regulate certain activities, particularly when such activities are likely to cause harm or injury to others. For instance, the driers are required to have licenses since “driving an auto is an activity which is potentially harmful to others, safe performance of the activity requires a certain competence (Lafollette 183). This implies that an individual requires a display of proficiency to be eligible for a license. This argument is bound to work on licensing parents because parents should be competent in their quest to raise responsible children. Society relies on competent parents to remain productive in both social and economic aspects. Unless preventive investment is carried out during early childhood, the future of our society would be undesirable.  Thus, licensing parents would assist in investing on a healthy society.

One of the arguments that Lafollette raised in supporting his claim is that licensing parents would assist in regulating potentially harmful activities (183). Just like we license some activities, such as medical practice, driving, fishing, and manufacturing, so is the need for licensing parents. If the society has placed high valued on parenthood, then a new standard of parenting is necessary. The existing custom only considers children as ‘properties’ of their biological parents. No rule is available to guide on responsible parenting. No wonder we are witnessing parents claiming children that they have not raised, many years after the children have already forgotten them. Licensing parents would enable parents to be not just biological parents, but also adhering to parental responsibilities. Some of the socioeconomic problems that the society is experiencing today can be blamed for poor parenting.

People may argue that licensing is intolerable since every individual has the right to bear children, but Lafollette believes that such argument is not credible enough (186). Although right to have children is equated to other rights, such as right to speech and freedom to worship, individuals break these rights, thus, causing risks to other individuals. No individual is permitted to talk about anything that could harm other people just because such individual has the right to speech. This can also apply to parenting, where children require responsible parents who would guarantee them safety at all times. One reason why we have street children is because some parents have failed to live up their expectations, leading loss of hope, substance abuse, and juvenile crime.

Although licensing parents is perceived as an essential side-effect of licensing parents, Lafollette believes that government intervention in licensing parents is “probably less than, the present (and presumably justifiable) encroachment into the lives of people who apply to adopt children” (187). If we consider situations where some parents have abused their children, we could say that the government is to blame for allowing such parents to handle children. Real parents should show the same commitment as those parents who apply to adopt children. The government may not be harsh on parents who would be having licenses as it would be to parents who are denied licenses.

One of the realistic objection that individuals could raise about licensing parents is that no adequate criteria to identify good parents. According to Lafollette, it is not necessary to create fine distinctions that would rate parents as excellent or worst parents, as licensing should only target to distinguish the bad parents (190). Society would prefer dealing with an average parent to a bad parent. The difference between a caring parent and uncaring parent is can be visible through children’s behavior. If the technique of licensing parents is capable of recognizing bad parents, then such technique should be applauded.

Lafollette has compared the system of licensing parents with the adoptive process, though he proposes a less rigorous process. Individuals who want to become parents must be tested on their capacity to care for the children. If individuals who want to adopt children can agree to undergo a thorough procedure to qualify for adopting children, than parents should be eager to demonstrate how well they can cater for their biological children. Children’s safety cannot be guaranteed if parents do not demonstrate their capabilities before entering parenthood. What should come out of both biological parents and adoptive parents is the capacity to raise responsible children.

Parents should be licensed to facilitate an upright society where parents are committed to taking sufficient care of their children. Licensing would demonstrate the society’s commitment to able parenting. Lafollette proposes that a system of licensing parents should not be as stringent as other that of drivers or doctors, as it should be focused on attaining desired results. He stated that unlicensed people should not be denied a chance to rear children, but incentives should be awarded to encourage parents to acquire the license. This is an excellent idea because parents would ensure that they raise their children in the right way to acquire the license, which would, in turn, qualify them for tax incentives.


Work Cited

Lafollette, Hugh. “Licensing Parents.” Philosophy and Public Affairs 9.2 (1980): 182-197.


Sample Research Paper on Nasir –e- Khosrow aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Nasir –e- Khosrow


Nasir-e- Knosrow is one of the most renowned poets and writers of his time. Nasir-e- Knosrow is a much-celebrated poet from Persia. His famous works in literature and poetry are compulsory reading in many countries such as Iran. The writer undertook a visit to Mecca four times to observe a zealous pilgrimage. However, it is the reason behind the journey and lessons learnt about religion that shall inform this discourse. He is well versed in science, applied mathematics, medical studies, astrology, and Greek methodology and has undertaken the interpretation of the Quran. His works have been cited by many scholars for their insight and persuasiveness. Additionally, he is a spiritual as an intellectual authority. His writings cut across many thematic issues and agendas such as religion, politics, history, art, and culture.

Amongst his great works is, The Book of Travels, where he documented his pilgrimage journey to Mecca. This book details a quest for religion and desire for spiritual wealth. It is a compelling, well-written book about his four visits to Mecca and his travels to Egypt. The events surrounding the four visits are vividly described and a chronological account of places travelled to is given. The theme of this study therefore is Nasir brings issues concerning religion and governance clearly and in a concise manner in his works. The study seeks to answer the following research questions:

What is the significance of the journey to Mecca for Nasir?
What pertinent issues does Nasir raise from his journey to Mecca?
How does Nasir as the author address these issues?



Nasir-e- Khusraw was a Persian poet and writer in the eleventh century. His major subjects were religious as he wrote accounts on his travels to Palestine, Arabia, and Egypt. Through his poems and religious writings, he became significant more so to the Ismaili Islam in central Asia and in Iran. In 1986, his safarnama was translated to English. The book offers unique information in a coherent, first hand picture of the sights of Jerusalem, Cairo, and Mecca. The study focuses on the religious influences of Nasir to Islam. The theme of this study therefore, is Nasir brings issues concerning religion and governance clearly and in a concise manner in his works. The study seeks to answer the following research questions:

What is the significance of the journey to Mecca for Nasir?
What pertinent issues does Nasir raise from his journey to Mecca?
How does Nasir as the author address these issues?


Nâsir-i Khusraw whose full name was Abu Muin Nasir b. Khusraw b. Harith al-Kubadhiyani was born in 1004 in the eastern region of the Iranian province of Khurasan. Celebrated as the medieval cultured poet, philosopher, and traveler, Nasir was among the most significant figures in the 11th century in Iran. This era was marked by other significant personalities such as Omar Khayyam, Hasan bin Sabbah. and al-Mua’yyid ash-Shirazi (Khusraw, 9). His father rose to be a landowner in the region of Balkh. He sought for education from childhood and devoted more than 30 years attaining education. Nasir went on to memorize the Holy Quran and became skilled in issues regarding tradition. Having memorized the philosophy of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, Nasir benefitted from more than the assumed religions. He is assumed to be initially a Shiite as he kept referring to himself as an Alawi. However, having resided among the Sayyids before his death, Nasir is taken to be a Sayyid, with descendants strongly following the Sunnis. It is controversial how Nasir died, as no one knows how and when he died. Researchers however believed that he died at the age of 87 to 100 as it is assumed that he died in the year 481 A. H. at Yamgan and buried in the same place. His mausoleum is perceived a holy shrine by the residents of Badakhshan (Wright 102).

Nasir Khusraw pursued family customs and became a government worker in a financial level and a government secretary. In his adulthood, he began searching for answers concerning personal dissatisfaction. At forty years, he describes a dream he had that eventually transformed his life to assurance and preaching. He resigned from his position and began his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1046, which lasted for seven years. He travelled through Persia, Syria, and Asia Minor before arriving in Cairo the following year where he settled for three years (Nāṣir-i, Khusraw 36).

Studying and receiving training with other Fatimid intellectuals, Nasir acquired more insights on poetry, theology, grammar, and astronomy. After his return home, Nasir assumed the role of the head of the Ismaili administration. Due to the ongoing persecution in his home place, he had to flee to Yumgan region in Badakshan where he resided all his life (Al-Atawneh 723). His major Persian works included the travelogue, poetry, and philosophy. The travelogue described cities, societies, customs, and archaeological works of that period. His expertise in poetry has led many Persian speakers to rank him among the best poets. French majorly knew Nasir later in the nineteenth century after the translation of the Safar-nama by Charles Schefer of Paris. It was during this period that the German Scholar, Ethe and French orientalist Fagnan edited his other works. These translations offered significant introduction to the medieval prose.

Significance of the journey to Mecca for Nasir

The journey Nasir made to Mecca defined his later life as he rose to become one f the powerful imams of his time. He commenced on his journey as an orthodox Muslim and was converted to Ismailism in Egypt making him to come back as an Ismaili missionary of high ranking as a Hujjat. According to Khusraw (2), the truth that Nasir acquired was only Islam, interpreted from religion. Concerning his conversion, he gave two statements in his Safarnama. First, he had a dream at the beginning of his journey and secondly, he confessed of his qasidas. In his travelogue, he narrated how on a certain night as he was asleep, he dreamt of seeing a man who enquired from him how long he was to continue drinking wine that destroys human reason. The man advised him to seriously consider being sober. He answered that, “The wise have not invented any better means for reducing sorrows of the world.” That man told him that a senseless and unconsciousness does not result to peace of mind. A wise man fails to have followers when he in still unconscious. The addresser in the dream retorted that it is essential to search for an element, which flourishes reason and increases wisdom. Such element can only be located in Qibla. This man showed him the direction, which is apparently on the direction of Mecca and then he disappeared. This was first the sign of the Fatimid Imams in Cairo Egypt (Shani 308). Nasir resigned from his job and set out for the journey. He knew the risks involved by his actions but was obliged to obey the voice, which precisely was from either the Prophet or the Imam. According to the Islamic belief, it is the prophet only appears in a dream to pious personalities and not everyone (Kettella 95). Thus, the holy visitor in Nasor’s dream was holy with exceptional devotion and asset. The sincere devotion of his Shiite compelled him to convert to Ismalilsm so he could recover from the chronic drunkenness. Nasir was thus awakened from his intoxication, convinced to adopt the Ismailia faith before accepting higher training and instructions.

Nasir’s journey to Mecca was highly significant as it defined his later life as a poet and as a religious leader. He was able to recover from his chronic drunkenness and awake from the intoxication. Through the man in the dream, Nasir managed to direct others through the warning he had received. After the dream, Nasir was able to adopt a higher calling of his life, which was contrary to the government job he had. He managed to set out, travelling by the way of Shaburqan to Merv and visiting the tombs of the holy men gone ahead of him. He passed by the tomb of Sufi saint Bayazid of Bistan at Qumis, met ustad Ali Nisai, who was a pupil of Avicenna and professor on arithmetic, geometry and medicine. Nisai was instrumental later to his acquired knowledge in the arithmetic and medical fields. Going ahead, Nasir encountered poet Oatran, to whom he dispatched passages in poems of Daqiqi and Maujik. As he went on with his journey, he had the opportunity to meet significant Arabic philosophical poets like Abul-ala-af-Ma’arri, who greatly influenced his writings. In Syria, he went on to visit the tombs of prophets and other religious places such as Jerusalem and Bethlehem.

Nasir attained climax in his life while in Cairo. This is the place where he encountered excellent administration of Imams of the Fatimid Caliphs. He encountered vast wealth, contentment and security of his subjects (Kettellb 64). This he further explains in his description of the mosques, gardens, and buildings. He acquired values skills on leadership from the Fatimid administration, became impressed with the authority of the military, and preservation of the laws peace and order. This impression is further noted in his travelogue where he stated that the Fatimids are the only lawful authorities and preservers of the garden of Allah. Thus, Nasir managed to acquire the rich lifestyle and wealth of the Muslims. He experienced prosperity, the rich bazaars, and tranquility in the Islamic regions he passed especially in Egypt, irrespective of the wars and differences he encountered in other countries such as Persia. He concluded that only the Ismailism could liberate the true believers of Islam from the unavoidable destruction. This is as a result of the wise and prudent leadership of the Ismaili in Egypt.

As he traversed the Islamic regions, Nasir encountered in Fatimid Caliph, Al-Imam Mustansir billah. In the Court in Cairo in 439 A. H. this personality was among the twelve ‘Hujjats’ of the Imam (Helen 94). Nasir managed to discuss with him the allegories of the holy Quran and the secrets of the religious law. From this religious acquisition, Nassir was better equipped with more comprehension regarding religious law. It is also at this location where Nasir acquired the right-fullness of the Imam and accepted him as his Imam. He recorded that he searched in the entire world for the meaning of the allegories of the Holy Quran but found them only with the Fatimid Caliphs. The excellent knowledge of the teacher was above all that he had ever acquired in his religious journey.

Nasir acquired philosophical knowledge at Jama-Azhar, held discussions with the intelligent Dai-ui-Duwa’t, where he acquired knowledge on philosophy. He came before Imam Mustansir billah, from whom he received the blessings of an Imam and the title of Dai-ud-Duwa’t. Hence, the journey to Mecca enabled Nasir modify his behavior and personality and acquire the higher discipline of an Imam, and a role model to Muslims (Shani 308). This journey enabled him to overcome personal luxuries and propagate the Da’wah with immense eagerness. In this religious works, he managed to send missionaries to provinces, he had knowledge of religions and the eloquence of these regions.

Pertinent issues Nasir raises from his journey to Mecca

From his journey, Nasir introduced the world to various Islamic cities he was well versed with. He comprehensively talked about them including intricate details about the colleges, mosques, scientists and the populations. He wrote his poems in his Diwan upon retirement, majoring on praise of Ali. He defines his passionate outcries over Khorasan and the rulers who drove him out of his home. Nasir explores on the satisfaction he acquires by living in solitude in Tumgan (Steiner 80). He goes on to include his dejection when he experienced hatred from his previous friends. He was apparently secluded from participating in the magnificent game of life. his other work, Gushayish wa Rahayish a Persian philosophical work discusses about creation, concerns related to the soul, epistemology and Ismaili Islamic doctrines.

From the outbursts of anticipation and desolation, Nasir enlightens the reader on aspects of morality and warning the reader on issues related to deception and treachery of humanity (Wright 197). The audience comes to realize the foolishness and prejudice of humankind, insincerity, giddiness, and brutality of the courts precisely. His works, Shish Fasi and the Book of Felicity contains aspects of cosmography and the requirements of shunning the company of fools and double-minded friends. These writings further enlighten the reader on the secret snares of greedy men in search for power and wealth. Comparing these writings culminates in the praise of Mustansir, warranting the reader to perceive it as a covert allusion to the eminent men revealed to the poet in Cairo. The man confirmed to him what he considered the delightful hierarchy to advanced facts and religious happiness. The Sa’datnama contains related series of outstanding teachings on practical understanding and the sanctions of honorable life of a more brutal and uncompromising character. Evaluating from extreme bitterness of attitude noticeable in the writings, the reader is inclined to believe it is a complaint touching the vile aspersions poured out on the writer’s moral and religious outlook throughout the tribulations that drove him to Yumgan.

From his writings, Travelling Provisions of Pilgrims and the Face of Religion, hypothetical descriptions of his religious and philosophical principles are incorporated. Nasir’s poetry is stuffed with advice and wisdom (Haynes 156). Being a role model, Nasir guided his subjects through his poetry. The Persian poetry is mostly enjoyed by the typical present Persian speaker. These poems can additionally be taught in grade school. The journey reveals background of Ka’bah as originating from Adam. After conducting his research, Nasir concluded that God Almighty through his perfect wisdom revealed to Adam about the holy structure, not only for himself but for his descendants too.

How Nasir addresses Pertinent issues

Nasir noted particular concerns in his travelogue, Safarnama thereby defining the prospect of conventional Persian travel writing. The travelogue contains aspects of his seven-year journey in the Islamic world. At the onset, he set out on a Hajj through a less direct route. He headed north towards the Caspian Sea. He therefore described numerous challenges and elements of life in the Islamic world through the Persian travelogue. The travelogue is therefore highly essential as it depicts an accurate account of the condition of the Muslim world (Khusraw 208).

Later in his life, Nasir compiled the Safarnama that he had used to compile notes about his seven-year journey. He applied a straightforward prose to write the travelogue, instead of the poetic and philosophical nature of Diwan. He describes himself, his life and monumental decisions made towards Mecca (Khusraw 69). He offers an account of extraordinary dream, in which he communicates with a man that motivates him to seek only the beneficial and intelligence aspects. From his account, he gains an impetus to perform a hajj from the direction the man in the dream gives. Later on in his travelogue, Nasir defines cities and town, particularly focusing on Mecca. Through the vivid descriptions, the audience and religious faithful are able to acknowledge and appreciate the cities, and precise civic buildings.

Another approach Nasir adopted to introduce precise concerns to his writings was through the Persian philosophical writing, Gushayish wa Rahayish. This writing was translated to English under the title ‘Knowledge and Liberation’. He managed to introduce aspects of the souls and the body, epistemology, creation and Ismaili Islamic doctrines. Conventional Persians were able to read accounts of different stories from Nasir’s account. ‘The Book of Felicity’ and ‘The Book of Enlightment’ were additional writings through which Nasir managed to introduce topics related to cosmography, mainly, Avicenna’s theories. These books are useful as they highlight the pure Ismaili ideologies, moral maxim, and inventive thoughts of man. These writings were useful to Nasir as they offered him an opportunity to discuss the theoretical descriptions of religion and philosophical principles. Concerning mathematical concept, Nasir gives an account that no one could surpass him in coming up with mathematical concepts to solve mathematical problems. Through finding a solution to a problem, Nasir was able to assist readers overcome tasks and challenges (Bader, 10). In poetry, Nasir gave wisdom and advice to the audience regarding different aspects. Among these poems were “The Gourd and the Palm tree.”


Among the foremost Persian poets and writers in the eleventh century is Nasir-e- Khusraw whose major subjects were religious. Nâsir-i Khusraw whose full name was Abu Muin Nasir b. Khusraw b. Harith al-Kubadhiyani was born in 1004 in the eastern region of the Iranian province of Khurasan Nasir was influential in his poems and religious writings, through his safarnama were translated to English. The book offers unique information in a coherent, original perspective of Jerusalem, Cairo, and Mecca. From the study, Nasir greatly contributed to Islamic religion. The theme of this study therefore is Nasir conveys issues concerning religion and governance clearly and in a concise manner in his works. Research questions of the study therefore are:

What is the significance of the journey to Mecca for Nasir?
What pertinent issues does Nasir raise from his journey to Mecca?
How does Nasir as the author address these issues?

. Travelling to Mecca, Nasir’s journey was highly significant as it defined his later life as a poet and as a religious leader. He recovered from chronic drunkenness and awake from the intoxication. It is through this journey that Nasir is able to introduce the world to various Islamic cities. From his poems in his Diwan, Nasir explores on the satisfaction he acquired by living in solitude in Tumgan. He includes his dejection when he experienced hatred from his previous friends. He was apparently secluded from participating in the magnificent game of life. His Gushayish wa Rahayish discusses about creation, concerns related to the soul, epistemology and Ismaili Islamic doctrines.

Works Cited

Al-Atawneh, Muhammad. “Is Saudi Arabia a theocracy? Religion and governance in contemporary Saudi Arabia.” Middle Eastern Studies 45.5 (2009): 721-737.

Bader, Veit. Secularism or democracy? Associational governance of religious diversity. Amsterdam University Press, 2007.

Haynes, Jeffrey, ed. Routledge handbook of religion and politics. Routledge, 2008.

James, Helen, ed. civil society, religion, and global governance: Paradigms of power and persuasion. Routledge, 2007.

Kettell, Steven. “Do we need a ‘political science of religion’?” Political Studies Review (2014).

Kettell, Steven. “Has political science ignored religion?” PS: Political Science & Politics 45.01 (2012): 93-100.

Khusraw, Nāṣir-I. Nasir-i Khusraw’s Book of travels. Ed. Wheeler McIntosh Thackston. Mazda Publishers, 2001.

Nāṣir-i, Khusraw, and W M. Thackston. Nasir-i Khusraw’s Book of Travels: Safarnāmah. Costa Mesa, Calif: Mazda Publishers, 2001. Print.

Shani, Giorgio. “Transnational religious actors and international relations.” Routledge handbook of religion and politics (2009): 308.

Steiner, Sherrie. “Religious soft power as accountability mechanism for power in world politics.” Sage Open 1.3 (2011): 2158244011428085.

Wright, Brendan J. Divine Entanglements: Religious Claims-making and American Democracy. Diss. University of Michigan, 2013.



Sample Research Paper on Web CMS college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Executive Summary

This report is an analysis of the content management system that is virtually used in different areas within organizations, institutions and companies. The report gives an in-depth analysis of the capability of the system both in strategic and operational aspects, including a brief history of their emergence and as to why they have become very central in most organizations. It also highlights these aspects while critically looking into the system’s potential capability in an economic area, while discussing how it is beneficial in various ways. This is discussed in the literature review section of the report where an analysis is made based on the research findings, and a conclusion of the above subject.


The wide use of information systems has been a game changer in various fronts around the globe. This is because information systems have changed the way businesses, organizations and companies operate, and as well have benefited an organization in various ways. While they are used in one or more areas, information systems such as the content management system plays a crucial role in enhancing operations within a given sector in that they result to efficiency within that particular area. As they are becoming a game changer in the operations of a company, they are critically important in the strategic direction and operational capability of companies (Mauthe 2004), as they dictate on whether service delivery, attainment of goals and the vision of companies will be met.

Background information

A content management system is a web-based application system that uses extensive database system to support organizational data (Shelly et al, 2010). It is usually programmed, configured and implemented on the web to perform various functions depending on the need of the organization.

In many instances, they are dynamic in nature in that they can be enhanced or the content can be changed within the shortest time through a central back-office module. This gives the administrator the capability to publish content based on user needs as well as the power to change the functionalities from the back-office module. In order to deliver such functionalities, the content management system is designed to handle data intensive applications that can run simultaneously, comprising of a collection system, management system and a publishing system (Zhu 2010).This gives it the ability to accommodate simultaneous user requests since the modules are separated hence enabling the system to handle both incoming and outgoing traffic.

In addition to these, a content management system has the ability to support workflow within the application itself, given the in-built features and application modules which are integrated within the system. This makes it to have the ability to accommodate many users in a collaborative environment, mainly in the front end section. One of the areas that such a system has been used tremendously is in the economic area. In this, the system has brought a lot of significance both strategically and operationally, given that it can be accessed over the web while at the same time encourages collaboration among users in an economic area.

Particularly within the economic area, the content management system has been used in trade, where different parties and users such as traders, customers, suppliers and wholesalers can be able to collaborate within the trade chain in order to enhance operational efficiency while conducting trade. This is an element that is clearly depicted in the 21st century as a result of the emergence and growth of various content management systems.

Literature review

There are significances of implementing a content management system within an organizational setup. This is because they come with both strategic and operational significances. In the example of trade, many organizations use content management systems to manage their online presence as well as integrate to other third party service providers systems to enhance operations, collaborate and achieve their strategic roles. According to Asprey and Middleton (2003), a web content management system is an integral part in businesses as it helps bring about automation by integrating various systems which are very central in enterprise development.

This is especially seen in the strategic aspect where businesses deploy their content management systems that can be accessed around the globe. This can completely change the operational strategy in that trade can occur across the globe since customers, suppliers and other third party service providers can collaborate and simultaneously exchange information and services, rather than depend on the domestic market alone. In deploying such a strategy, an organization will likely achieve its strategic goal in terms of linking to other markets, growing volumes of trade and market share as well (Fischer 2012). For instance, Amazon uses a content management system to trade across the globe where the services and products being sold are displayed through the content management system. In this, the company is able to customize its content, change products given the dynamic state of the site. Other than helping an organization to achieve a strategic advantage of being able to link into other markets, content management systems also provide a strategic role of enabling people to be able to share and access information, which is a key tool in service delivery.

According to Misty (2016), the success of an organization will depend in its ability to share information across various segments with third party providers and customers. In many corporate environments, information gathering and sharing is a strategic tool for achieving strategic advantage especially when information being gathered pertains to market intelligence. This would benefit an organization especially when a hybrid content management system has been implemented.

This is because it would act as a tool of information sharing and collaboration. In this, business organizations are able to share and disseminate information from various markets, which would help them align their objectives given the needs of the customers. In this method, a content management system would be customized to collect market intelligence from customers which would then be analyzed by the management hence tailor their requests in their product offerings.

In addition to this, a content management system can help organizations to form strategic partnerships across the globe, which can also be used as a business re-engineering tool given the needs of this 21st century business landscape. In this, as seen in businesses such as Amazon which have linked their systems with other third party service providers such as PayPal, are able to achieve a strategic advantage of being able to accept payments across the globe. In such linkages and partnerships, businesses would be able to achieve a strategic advantage by being able to add new services as a result of an integrated content management system spanning across the boundaries. This is the norm, particularly in this 21st century where online strategies play an important role in most businesses.

As it is becoming clear on the importance of web content management systems in the operations of organizations, institutions and companies, the system is able to place an organization in a competitive advantage compared to its competitors. This has particularly been observed in many, given the dynamic nature of the 21st century workforce. According to Bidgoli (2006), this mostly occurs through group collaboration where organizations with a dedicated number of employees can remotely work for an organization from any location, hence bringing about mobility (Graham 2016).

In this, the web content management system is configured in the form of an extranet that allows for external logins hence giving employees or other remote workers the capability of logging from remote locations. On the other hand, as such systems can be deployed over the web, they also come with the operational element in that they enhance operational efficiency in a number of ways.

According to Mathis and Jackson (2012), the most vivid area where web content management systems have enhanced operations is in the human resource management. Human resource management, as an important tool that organizations use to recruit and manage its employees has heavily relied on web content management systems to automate the search process for potential candidates. In this, a web based platform configured with capabilities of enabling a candidate to search and apply for jobs in the online environment is becoming a norm in most recruiting firms and other organizations. This enhances operational efficiency of such organizations as it tends to minimize costs associated with paper based applications. In this, an organization can also filter the applications based on some pre-configured system attributes

which helps it to filter out unwanted applications, through the use of an online screening tool such as questionnaires. On the other hand, web content management systems can be a game changer as they enhance customer interaction within an organization. In most cases, organizations can be re-engineered in a way that it transforms the customer experience element, within an operational point of view where it would help the organization to respond to customer queries within the shortest possible time. According to Blashki and Isaias (2014), the model of using a web content management system to enhance user experience is common, with many organizations adopting the model in order to appease to its customers, an operational strategy mainly used by many web-based organizations to attract and retain its customers.


Web content management system is becoming an indispensible tool in the 21st century, given the myriad of advantages, in both strategic and operational point of view. This system is used in virtually all areas with trade being the most vivid area in the economical point of view. The system has increased the operational efficiency and strategic intent given that it supports automation, an aspect that resonates with efficiency in modern business environments. In addition to this, the system plays a big role towards establishing strategic linkages which has helped organizations to compete favourably in a market characterised by intense competition. It is therefore clear that web content management systems can benefit an organization in a number of ways, and hence its use should be encouraged, especially in this 21st century where business operations have gone to the web.


Asprey, L., & Middleton, M. (2003). Integrative document & content management: strategies for exploiting enterprise knowledge. Hershey Pa, Idea Group Pub.

Bidgoli, H. (2006). Handbook of information security . Volume 1, Volume 1. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley.

Blashki, K., & Isaias, P. (2013). Emerging research and trends in interactivity and the human-computer interface.

Fischer, L. (2012). Delivering the customer-centric organization: real-world business process management. Lighthouse, Fl, fsi.

Graham, C. (2016). Strategic Management and Leadership for Systems Development in Virtual Spaces. Hershey, IGI Global.

Mauthe, A., & Thomas, P. J. (2004). Professional content management systems: handling digital media assets. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons.

Misty, V. (2016). Enhanced Discovering Computers 2017. Cengage Learning.

Mathis, R. L., & Jackson, J. H. (2012). Human resource management: essential perspectives. Mason, Ohio, South-Western.

Shelly, G. B., Vermaat, M., Quasney, J. J., Sebok, S. L., & Freund, S. M. (2010). Discovering computers 2010: living in a digital world : complete. Boston, MA, Course Technology, Cengage Learning.

Zhu, W.-D. J. (2010). Federated content management accessing content from disparate repositories with IBM Content federation services and IBM Content integrator. [Place of publication not identified], Vervante.



Sample Research Paper on Biography of Nicolaus Copernicus instant essay help

Nicolaus Copernicus: Biography

Nicolaus is a renowned scholar who changes the perspective of how we considered the solar system and has been referred as the father of Astronomy. He was born in February 19, 1473 in Torun, Poland. He is credited by his development of heliocentric planetary system as a celestial model of his own. His parents Nicolaus Copernicus Sr and his mother Barbara Watzenrode were renowned affluent copper merchants where Nicolaus was the fourth and the youngest son. Nicolaus’s first language was German but was also believed to speak some Polish as well. At his university years in 1491 at the University of Cracow, Nicolaus studied mathematics and painting. His early interest in cosmos developed at early stages when he started collecting books on the topic though never studied it in early years at the university ( Editors 1).

In 1494 upon graduation, Nicolaus returned to Torun where he worked as canon at Frombork’s cathedral until his death although the position was a reserve of the priests (his Uncle organized the position for him). This position offered Nicolaus an opportunity to fund his further studies as long as he liked and in a field of his interest. In 1496, Nicolaus travelled in Italy where he enrolled at the University of Bologna to study religious law program. It is at the university where he met an astronomer Domenico Maria Novara and they began exchanging ideas concerning the topic (Wolf 18). Their relationship was described by a historian Edward Rosen as, “In establishing close contact with Novara, Copernicus met, perhaps for the first time in his life, a mind that dared to challenge the authority of [astrologist Claudius Ptolemy] the most eminent ancient writer in his chosen fields of study ( Editors 1).”

Nicolaus interest in astronomer had developed so much that he read various books and works on the topic. It was not until 1508 that Nicolaus developed his own celestial model (a heliocentric planetary system). He identified various inconsistencies, which were developed by earlier works. In his model, he replaced the earth with the sun as the center of the planetary system in his heliocentric solar system (Sarton 12). Consequently, from his description, Nicolaus postulated that the size of each planets orbit was dependent on its distance from the sun. His theory further strengthened the works of Aristarchus of Samos who in 270 B.C had identified the sun as the center of the planetary system. His theory however was heavily criticized especially due to the immense support and inclination of the Roman Catholic church believe in the earth-based solar system theory compared to Nicolaus’ sun-based one (Samir 43).

During his lifetime, Nicolaus raised various controversies in the field of astronomer and his written works, Commentariolus and De revolutionibus orbium coelestium were the center of these controversies. Many who criticized his work believed it lacked enough explanation of why the earth orbits the sun. Though Copernicus was not in good health to defend his work especially when De revolutionibus orbium coelestium was published, his works in astronomer were far more reaching with scholars and world leaders engaged in the debate of his work and some went as far as naming his work as a theory as opposed to facts. Copernicus died on May 24, 1543 in Frauenburg, Poland. The works of Copernicus can only be described as symbol of brave actions of a scientist who lonely defended his works and theories against a wave of common beliefs during his time (Leonard 18).

Works Cited Editors. Nicolaus Copernicus Biography, A&E Television Networks, Retrieved from:

Leonard, Peter. Great Men of Science, Bell and Sons Publishers, London, 1964. Print.

Samir, Kumar. Nicolaus Copernicus and his Heliocentric Theory, Visva Bharati University Press, 2001. Print.

Sarton, George. Six Wings – Men of Science, Bodley Head, London. 1957. Print.

Wolf, George. History of Science and Technology, George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London, 1962. Print.

Sample Movie Review on Star Wars movie ‘What is a Hero?’ college essay help service: college essay help service

What is a Hero?

A hero can be termed as any person who can demonstrate bravery when faced with a predicament. A hero is an individual who is celebrated for acts of courage or dignity of purpose, particularly someone who has risked or forfeited his or her life for a big cause. He/she is also someone who is willing and able to assist another human being in numerous ways. An individual can turn into a hero by saving a person in danger. Further, a hero is someone who is there to assist others and give them courage to continue facing life’s intricacies. A person who has given up his or her life for another live can also be termed as a hero. Nonetheless, a hero does not need to always demonstrate courage, he can be scared but still be a hero in other actions.

The first segment of any mythic story introduces the audience to their hero, his/her background and eventually the intricate task he/she has to complete. At some point in the story, the character comes across helpers and obtains the tools that will finally help in completing his mission. The escapade of Luke Skywalker tracks the typical phases of a hero’s expedition. Luke is a farm boy from the Tatooine and he is dragged from darkness into a place of escapade when two strange droids emerge in his life carrying a veiled message from a strange princess. Through the help of an astute guide, Luke obtains a magical understanding of the Force, enrolls rugged new friends, Solo and Chewbacca, and passes through the galaxy to save the princess. In mythology, a hero’s expedition commences with a call to quest, the first occurrence on a risky path that will detach him from his habitat and relatives. The call normally comes in the form of a messenger, who carries a message that instigates the commencement of the adventure. Regularly, a hero is not aware of the hand of fate at work, and an occasion that may appear normal may become a turning point that propels the superman into a world of risk and anticipation.

When the Star Wars movie commences, a clash in space fumes high above the Tatooine with the evil powers called the Galactic Empire, persistently hunting the forces of good referred in the film as the Rebel Alliance. It is due to this battle that Princess Leia sends a request for help to the planet Tatooine. The hand of Fate, in the form of Jawa businessmen, brings her letter to the restless farm kid, Luke Skywalker.

Luke aspires to become a space pilot, but he is torn between his need to join the Academy and his devotion to his kin, who need him on the ranch and fear that he will never go back if he departs. Luke’s life is altered when his uncle procures the droids, who carries the Princess’ request for help, from passing traders. Their appearance heralds the commencement of the mission that allows Luke to find out his factual birthright and fate. When he observes the message hologram contained within the droid, he is drawn into a mission to save the Princess and eventually liberates the entire galaxy.

As a hero embarks on a path of escapade, his voyage will not just be a physical one, but more significantly, a divine one. The spiritual world is always sheltered by guardians of some kind. The Nio guard Buddhist places of worship, an angel safeguards the Garden of Eden, Cerberus protects the Hades, the Scorpion-men safeguard the mountain passageway which directs to Dilmun, and the dragon Smaug guards the riches of Misty Mountain.

Luke’s expedition from the temporal to spiritual world is at first obstructed by the Tusken invaders. On the other hand, it can be disputed that Uncle Owen is also a protector, trying to stop Luke from beginning his mission, knowing of the course which Luke could seize was the same path taken by his dad, one which leads to the Dark region of the Force.

Before getting started, a hero must primarily bump into threshold guardians, who will block the way to his quest. Luke bumps into such guardians when he is assaulted by the Tusken invaders although he is saved by Obi-Wan.

Normally, the inexperienced hero finds that he cannot progress without supernatural help in the form of a shrewd guide who offers assist. The hero could be unconscious of his fate, but even when he realizes his fate, he may try to snub his difficult mission until the guide directs him to the right path. His master, Obi-Wan is able to fulfill this responsibility for Luke, counselling him, Jedi exercise, and the mystical understanding of the Force that he requires on his quest. The journey ahead will contain numerous barriers to test the hero’s abilities and courage, but with Obi-Wan’s assistance, Luke takes on the test.

During the mission, a hero is normally presented with insight from some spiritual, unearthly source. With regards to Greek myths, this insight is normally granted by the gods. Ben explains to Luke that, in George Lucas’ world, the insight is afforded by the Force, an energy field formed by all living things, which encloses human beings and penetrates and connects the galaxy altogether.

Heroes normally have a clear-cut goal, yet they are more often sidetracked along the way and will roam for ages. Odysseus is a major example and also the life of Moses will match this pattern. Luke will be headed for Alderaan when his life will abruptly be changed perpetually. His ambition is to grow and be a Jedi, yet after the incidents of Star Wars, he will roam far and wide as he gradually makes progress towards attaining this goal.

Throughout the expedition, the hero requires a vehicle and usually, they use a vessel and mates. This relates to both Odysseus and Luke, whose boat, initially, will be the Millennium Falcon. The hero will then turn out to be quite close to his cohorts who are now partners in his quest. Therefore, in this film, Han Solo and Chewbacca come into play.

In the majority of the most loved fairy tales, there is always a damsel in anguish and this film is no different. In the film, there is a princess who needs to be rescued, but Leia is no passive damsel in suffering. At some point in the course of the fairy-tale, she will pursue her own path towards developing into being a heroine.

In several myths, there is a conventional character triangle of a hero-ogre-woman. In relation to Star Wars the monster, or employing the medieval shape of monster, is the Death Star. To rescue Leia from the dragon, the heroes play the role of medieval knights, donning shield as they set of to rescue her.

Modern Day heroes are not the same as traditional mythical heroes. People have changed and they no longer require a hero to fight the evil that runs out of control like the Greek mythical views. Celebrities are looked up to now compared to superheroes and people now worship those who have the matching interest as they do. Heroes nowadays, are individuals who people look up to and dream of becoming. In today’s civilization, a hero is depicted as someone who opposes what is wrong and conquers it.

Sample Essays on Factor’s that Impact a Healthcare Entity’s Financial Position essay help free

Health Care Organizations

Health care organizations financial position is affected by several factors.Firstly, government greatly influences the finances of these organizations through taxation,subsidies and donations. The government provides free hospital equipment, pharmaceutical products and a portion of the staff.The government affects the health care entities finances both positively and negatively. Through free donations, subsidies especially to public health sector and finally through availing cheap and readily accessible pharmaceutical products the health care entities finances is influenced positively .Negatively it’s through imposing high taxes especially to private health care facilities.Another factor is the tendency of most patients seeking medical care in progressed stages of illness when it’s expensive to treat them. Thirdly, the pressure from the government and the general population to provide cheap and affordable services compelling them to run under constrained budget with little or no profit. Technology is another factor that has improved the financial position of these organizations by reducing operating costs.

Payer mix is a word used in medicine to describe the relation between government, insurance firms and individual revenue payment to health care facilities.Payer mix comes into play since most hospitals receive payments from different payers. The payers include Medicare,Medicaid,private insurers and non-profit corporations. Some patients are also not covered by any Insurance and therefore pay their bills in cash.Some of these payers tend to negotiate for the method of payment while others have a fixed method of payment.For example some will pay acertain percent of the bill,others pay on a daily basis and others will only pay when the bill exceeds a certain amount.Medicare and Medicaid have a complex mode of payment and all these affect the financial position of health care entities.The uninsured patients greatly affect the financial position of a health care facility due to bad debts. The economy will affect the amount of money the government and the general population is willing to spend on health care. During depression more people are unable to paytheir medical bills thus affecting negatively the position of the health care entities(Clough, Richman & Glickman, 2015).

Informatics plays a great role in health care systems. To begin with, they assist in public health surveillance and data analysis to predict the future position of the health care system. Secondly, informatics helps in administration, finance and accounting and remote monitoring of outpatients.

Information Technology (IT) has improved the documentation of health related data to a global scale. This makes it accessible to any person in need of it from any location (Davis &Pavur, 2014).IT enables doctors, patients and paramedics to become aware of new information quickly. This information can be about availability and prices of pharmaceutical products and services. Application such as e-prescription allows patients to get prescriptions from pharmacists and doctors remotely. Another application is personal health information which allows the doctors to access patients’ history and medical records securely and privately(Gianchandani, 2011).



Gianchandani, E. (2011). Toward smarter health and well-being: an implicit role for networking and information technology. J Inf Technol, 26(2), 120-128.

Davis, M., &Pavur, R. (2014). Understanding claims-based quality profiles in primary care practice. Health Care Management Review, 39(4), 293-304.

Clough, J., Richman, B., & Glickman, S. (2015). Outlook for Alternative Payment Models in Fee-for-Service Medicare.JAMA, 314(4), 341.

Sample Essays on Airline Alliance aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Alliance programs

Airline program alliance is an aviation agreement between several airlines which agreed to partner and cooperate in matters affecting them. These arrangements were made in order to protect common interest or advance a common goal. Alliances offer various services to facilitate their travelers. For instance, an alliance may present marketing branding to help passengers to make interline code share connection within countries. A common computer reservation system is used to offer seamless services to the passengers, the services include, coordinated flight schedules, automatic baggage transfer, code-sharing of flights, fares and ticketing, joint marketing to name but a few.  The world’s largest airline alliances are One world (purple), Sky Team (blue) and Star Alliance (grey). The idea of airline program alliance was brought by the fact that most of the competing airlines operate from almost similar technology in offering similar goods and services. Tourism and airline industry operates in a connected manner and thus they are prone to global calamities like terrorism, epidemics, cyclones, earthquakes and many more.

There are several benefits that accrue from these alliances. First, this alliance program helps to cut the cost of operation. By cutting down the cost of operation the airline can be able to save more. Members of the same airline normally shares the same sale offices by doing this they are able cut cost as opposed to a case where an airline would be required to rent an office on its own and employ its own employees. By the fact that members of the same airline alliance share the same maintenance facilities and personnel is another reason that helps them to cut their cost. Maintaining an aircraft is a very expensive and similarly setting a hangar is very expensive. When the airlines join hands they can be able to comfortably contribute amount required for hangars and maintenance facilities as opposed to the case where each airline would be required to have its own maintenance facility.

Another factor that leads to cost reduction is the fact that even services like catering, computer systems they tend to share them. After the airlines have come together while they are purchasing goods and services they are able to negotiate extra volume discounts. After they have been issued with extra discounts the cost of buying goods will be low thus it will enable them to save more. Lastly, operational staff is airline alliances are shared. These staffs include, ground handling personnel, at check-in and boarding desks. Sharing the staffs means that the airlines will not be required to employ many workers and hence saving a lot (Casanueva, Gallego & Sancho, 2013).

An extended network is another benefit that the airline gets. Normally an extended network is realized through code sharing agreements. Majority of the airline alliances starts a code only share network. These extended networks help the airline to reach some new markets where on its own it would not have reached. By reaching some new grounds the airlines customers tend to increase. Under normal circumstances an increase in passengers will automatically lead to increase in the profits (Janawade, 2012).

With the airline alliances the alliances can be able to offer better airport facilities for example the lounges. After joining hands the airlines can be able to offer world class lounges to their customers which would not be the case if each airline had its own lounge. By joining hands the airlines will be in a position to contribute a lot and use those resources to construct a world class lounge.  Lounges for these airlines normally have all that the customer may require in lounge.

When the airlines have merged and formed alliances they enjoy a greater ability to serve their passengers. When these alliances are formed their airplanes cover more destinations. For instance, star airline planes cover numerous destinations across the globe. By covering many destinations the customers of these airlines automatically increases.

Apart from the airlines enjoying the benefits of alliance programs the customers also benefit. Frequent travelers benefit more as compared to average customers. For instance, for one to earn tier status in one world program the passenger must travel several times using that airline. When a customer has a silver status in star alliance silver enjoys some benefits which include priority reservations wait listing and airport stand-by, priority boarding whereby the members will be given priority while boarding the aircraft in case the spaces are limited, some airlines goes a notch high where members are given priority while checking in into the airport and lastly their preferred seats are preserved.

When travelers are members of this airline program enjoy reduced prices in their ticket of a certain given route. This is because the operation cost of the airlines is normally reduced. The airlines tend to pass over this advantage to their customers and in the long run the number of their customers tends to increase. Another advantage is that there is a wide range of lounges shared by the alliances (Çetiner, 2013). Moreover, the customers of these airlines have more departure times to choose from for a given route. Alliances in these programs normally have many airplanes so it’s possible for them to have several airlines going same routes after a given time interval. Another advantage that the customers enjoy is that there is shorter travel time as a result of optimized transfers. Finally, travelers enjoys a round-the-globe tickets, this enables travelers to fly over the planet at a considerably low price.

Last but not least the customers enjoy quick mileage gifts by earning mile for unit account on numerous different airplanes. Even if the customers are carried by another aero plane but from the same airline they will still earn rewards. These rewards encourage travelers to use these airlines. In the long run the airline also benefits because it gets more customers.The only disadvantage with these alliances is that they may charge a lot after the competition from other carriers has been erased. If the alliance may start enjoying monopoly of the market it may start charging high.

In conclusion, relationships between airlines started a long time ago. Even though the level of competition between individual airlines is very high the airlines operates within a cooperative framework. The airlines usually sell and accept each other’s tickets among other conveniences. For non-competing airlines it’s only logical for them to take such cooperation to the next level of creating joint fares, sharing codes and many more. This is how the idea of airline alliance programs came up. A recent conducted study shows approximately 66% of the passengers use an alliance carrier that suppose in the aviation industry the alliance are very crucial. The success made by the three largest airline alliances is brought by several reasons including better usage of services at the airports, seamless travel but the most vital reason is code sharing which efficiently merges the airlines.



Casanueva, C., Gallego, Á., & Sancho, M. (2013). Network resources and social capital in airline alliance portfolios. Tourism Management, 36, 441-453.

Janawade, V. (2012). Consumer Perceived Value of International Networked Services: An Exploratory Study of the Case of Airline Alliance. IBR, 6(2).

Çetiner, D. (2013). Fair revenue sharing mechanisms for strategic passenger airline alliances. Berlin: Springer.

Sample Essays on The Bosnian conflict in the 1990s college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Conflict Based on Nationalism

After the Bosnian Conflict in the mid-1990s and the 2001 September attack on the U.S, many blamed religious extremists for these happenings. However, the two conflicts are well explained from a nationalist point of view. According to Bingman, nationalism is described as a group of individuals who are loyal to their nationality or ethnic orientation, with their loyalty surpassing any religious or political ideology in their jurisdiction. However, after the purported end of the cold war, religious affiliation has played a significant role in perpetuating nationalism through propaganda. According to Rieff, the Bosnian conflict in the mid-1990s is an example of the impact of nationalism after the cold war. Similarly, Amanat explains how nationalism based on the Muslim extremism has contributed to post-war tension between the U.S and the extremist Muslims. The paper will discuss how nationalism has contributed to post-cold-war conflict with reference to the Bosnian conflict in the 1990s and the September 2001 attack on America. Though the end of the cold war was described as a global hegemony, the emergence of nationalism signaled the start of ideologically based conflicts.

Concisely, the Bosnian conflict in the mid-1990s was a scramble of the dominant Serbian state by the Bosnian Serbia and the Bosniak civilians. The worrying groups were guided by different ideologies, with religion as the key factor. The Serbs subscribed to the Orthodox Church in the East. Majority of Croats were Roman Catholics while there was a group of Muslims related to Ottoman in Bosnia (Riffe). The civil war was fought in three fronts where both the Serbian Republic and Bosnian Serbs started an aggressive seizure of Bosnia, through the infamous “ethnic cleansing “strategy where Muslims were brutally expelled from their territories. On the other hand, the Croats started evicting Serbians and claiming part of Bosnia. The two developments prompted Muslims in Bosnia to create an army that would protect its territory from both the Croats and Serbs. Consequently, by 1994, the war had claimed a hundred thousand lives, with millions turning into refugees. It was until 1995 that the international community, courtesy of the NATO military force halted the civil onslaught, and a peace treaty signed. However, the treaty was just paperwork, ethnic division and nationalism had officially taken its toll.

The religious conflict that started in Yugoslavia was to be rekindled in the September 2001terror attack on America by the Iraq-based Muslim extremist, the Al-Qaeda. Ideally, the aftermath of the September 2011, fueled the effect of nationalism on current global political and economic struggles. A section of Americans felt more endeared to their country while developing a negative attitude towards Middle East states. On the other hand, a majority of Middle East countries seems to be upholding their ideology of rejecting Western culture influence with a high regard. The ideological difference has contributed to the rise of other extremist groups such as the ISIS, Boko Haram, and Al Shaabab, who are inspired by nationalism.

Both the Bosnian conflict and 2001 terror attack on America are characterized by ideological struggles between two groups. According to Bingham, nationalism is the upholding of one’s belief as superiorcompared to your rival’s. Notably, this whatAmanat and Riffe describe in their conflict analysis of the Bosnian war and the 2001 September attack on America. The two authors quote the Serbians and Muslims purporting their cultures and ideologies as superior to others. In fact, one of the propaganda used by the Serbs in the Bosnian Conflict was that Muslims were lesser beings. Further, the Sarajevo conquer was based on an ethnic division where Muslim Serbs were singled out for an attack. Interestingly, the same strategy was adopted by Muslim extremist prior and after 2001, September attack. Their terrorism activities have been portrayed as a war against the western ideologies and in most instances they spare Muslims in their brutal killings. In overall, both the pre and post-cold war religious wars are down to nationalism where worrying groups try to show superiority over each other.

Works Cited

Amanat, Abbas. “Abbas Amanat “Empowered Through Violence” (2001).” N.P. 2001. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.

Bingham, James. “How Significant Is Nationalism as a Cause of War?”E-International Relations. N.P. 2012. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.

Rieff. “David Rieff, “Slaughter In Yugoslavia” (1995).” N.P. 1995. Web. 3 Apr. 2016.


Sample Essays on Environmental Values and Environmental Behaviors college essay help online

Environmental Behavioral Gaps: Gap between Environmental Values and Environmental Behaviors

Environmental degradation remains one of the major threats to human existence. Over the last 10,000 years, the trajectory of human development has not been sustainable. The condition points to an urgent need to save the environment from additional exploitation. The efforts to change such a trajectory ought to be guided by the ideology of environmentalism. Although there have been gains in spreading environmental values among people, there is no parallel demonstration of environmental friendlybehaviors (Nickerson, 2003).


There is sufficient global research indicating the gaps between environmental values and gaps. A survey conducted in Canada found that 72 percent of the respondents confessed to having gaps between their plans and actual behavior. This discrepancy in values and action is a major concern to bothpractitioners and academics. Essentially, human survival and the general existence of the ecosystem are under threat. The study identified three variables that contribute to the gaps (Kennedy et al., 2009).The variables enhancing the EVB gap are individual, household, and societal variables. Individual variables include basic values, environmental beliefs, and lack of information. The significance of basic values is in its influence on other values, including an individual’s personal values on the environment. Environmental beliefs are shaped by an individual’s observations, learning, and perceptions about the environment.

Household variables include time, money, and support from other household members. In a family setting, a powerful member has the ability to influence opinions and behaviors of other members, including their actions towards the environment. The element of time as a household variable comes to play with the perception that environmental-friendly behaviors are more time-consuming compared to normal behavior. Suchperceptions aredeterrent to positive actions towards the environment, despite an individual holding strong environmental values.Money is not a significant element of the variables, with a weak link between an individual’s income and the gap between values and behavior.

Societal variables include services in environmental community and perceived control over decisions. Perceived control is a person’s autonomy over important decision-making. In addition, the availability of community environmental services is a major influence in an individual’s precipitation in environmentally-supportive behavior. Arising from this analysis, the most significant contributors to gaps between a person’s environmental values and environmentalbehavior arelack of information and lack of time (Kennedy et al., 2009).

Changing Attitudes

The findings in Kennedy et al (2009), offer important insights in efforts to narrow the gap between the values and behavior. People do not feel threatened by environmental problems, demonstrating the lack of information on the consequences of environmental degradation. In addition, individuals have selectively chosen to adopt the rhetoric of environmentalism, and not the core beliefs. The civil society, markets, and the state can play a crucial role in changing the trajectory. Importantly, changing individual’s attitudes is crucial in narrowing the gap in EVB (Nickerson, 2003).


This analysis demonstrates that there is no major problem in individuals’ values with regard to environment. Essentially, a significant proportion of population believe in protecting the environment. These values, however, are insignificant if they are not reflected into environmentally-supportive behaviors. The main cause to this gap is lack of information. As such, increased awareness among the masses is important in achieving the goal of narrowing the gap between the values and behavior. In addition, there is need to change attitudes and perceptions towards the environment. Consequently, time will not be a barrier to environmentally-supportive behaviors, as the perception that it is time-consuming will be eliminated.



Kennedy, E.H., et al., (2009). Why we don’t walk the Talk: Understanding the Environmental Values/Behavior Gap in Canada. Human Ecology Review, 16 (2): pp. 151-160.

Nickerson, R.S., (2003).Psychology and Environmental Change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sample Essays on Childhood Obesity compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

Childhood Obesity

            Currently, over 30% of the children are overweight or suffer from obesity. Research indicates that overweight children have a high probability of growing into obese or overweight adults. Differentiating between overweight and obese is important. A child is said to be obese if he/she is excessively overweight. The body mass index of an obese child falls in the 95th percentile. Conversely, a child is said to be overweight if he/she exceeds the average weight.  The body mass index of an overweight child falls above the 85th percentile (Hippel & Nahhas, 2013).

Childhood obesity results from the accumulation of body fat and has adverse impacts on the well-being of the child. Currently, the doctors do not have mechanisms for measuring body fat.  It underlines why they are mostly unable to identify kids that are overweight in advance. The doctors use the body mass index to determine children who are overweight. In the United States, the rate of childhood obesity is on the rise. The same problem is experienced in many other countries across the globe. Childhood obesity has both short-term and long-term health impacts. According to Hippel and Nahhas (2013), a child who suffers from obesity is vulnerable to type 2 diabetes. The diabetes was previously associated with adults. However, today, many kids who are obese exhibit signs of type 2 diabetes. Other health conditions include heart problems and asthma. Indeed, the doctors have cited childhood obesity as a grave public health concern. Changing dietary habits can help to curb the rise in cases of childhood obesity.

Problem Analysis

Background Information

            Obesity is a major health issue in many countries. According to Flegal, Graubard, Williamson and Gail (2009), obesity accounts for over 112,000 deaths annually. Nowadays, the disease affects both the children and adults in equal measures. Children who are overweight are vulnerable to becoming obese. Besides, children who are obese are likely to suffer from the same disease in their adult life. In the past two decades, the rate of childhood obesity has increased tremendously, particularly in the United States. Doctors associate this rise with changes in lifestyle behaviors and the environment.

            Childhood obesity does not discriminate against gender or ethnic background. The disease affects both sexes and all races. In the United States, over 18% of the teenagers are obese. Besides, 20% of the children aged between six and eleven years suffer from obesity. Surprisingly, 10% of the kids aged between two and five years also suffer from the same health condition. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has been analyzing the problem of childhood obesity and overweight for over five decades. The data from the survey shows a shocking trend.  Flegal et al. (2009) claim, “Between 1963 and 2008, rates of obesity among children between the ages of two and nineteen years went up significantly” (p. 1864). In 1988, over 11.3% of the kids aged between six and eleven years were obese. Similarly, over 10.5% of the teenagers aged between twelve and nineteen years suffered from obesity.

Causes of Childhood Obesity

            Childhood obesity can result from a combination of numerous factors. The doctors use the phrase “Obesogenic environment” to refer to the combination of the factors that favor childhood obesity. A child can inherit obesity from the parents. Indeed, “the highest risk factor for childhood obesity is the obesity of both parents” (Hippel & Nahhas, 2013, p. 2154). The family’s genetics may result in a child suffering from obesity. A child may also suffer from obesity due to body type and emotional factors.  A study conducted in 2010 stated, “Childhood obesity likely is the result of the interaction of natural selection favoring those with more parsimonious energy metabolism and today’s consumerist society with easy access to energy-dense, cheap foods and fewer energy requirements in daily life” (Daniels, 2007, p. 605).

The excessive use of technology among children and consumption of junk food contribute to the development of childhood obesity. The research discovered that children who use electronic gadgets for over three hours per day have high chances of contracting childhood obesity. Daniels (2007) claims that childhood obesity is prevalent among the minority groups like Hispanic and African American societies. Additionally, the disease is common among the low-income families. The children who hail from low-income and minority families do not engage in physical exercise. Instead, they spend a lot of the time in the house either playing video games or watching television. Besides eating junk food and not engaging in physical exercise, environment, genes, behavior and metabolism also lead to childhood obesity.

Doctors claim that encouraging behavioral and environmental change can go a long way towards curbing childhood obesity. Children can be encouraged to engage in physical activities and avoid a sedentary life. Daniels (2007) alleges that changes in family life play a significant role in the increase in the rate of childhood obesity. Many mothers stop breastfeeding their children when they are very young. They introduce the children to infant formulae that lead to them becoming overweight. Eventually, the problem degenerates to obesity. Many families do not allow the children to engage in physical exercise. Rather than letting the children walk to school or bus stop, the parents volunteer to drive the kids to school. In schools, they do not engage in physical exercise because the teachers fail to emphasize on its significance.

Social policies also contribute to the rise in the cases of childhood obesity. Diverse societies and countries have come up with various social policies and practices that either improve or damage the physical health of their kids. One of the social factors is the nature of meals that children eat at schools (Anderson & Butcher, 2006). For many years, most schools have been feeding their kids with foods rich in energy. Today, the schools are gradually changing the feeding habits to guarantee the health of the children.

A part from the feeding habits of schools, many children have access to junk food hotels and vending machines. In the United States, it is not hard to find a junk food outlet or a vending machine in most neighborhoods. Consequently, the parents cannot regulate the feeding habits of the children. Many residential areas do not have parks where children can visit and play. Moreover, most communities do not set aside space for sidewalks or bike paths. Some governments have introduced subsidies for sugar and corn oil. Therefore, most families can afford to purchase corn oil and sugar, which lead to children consuming calories and subsequently suffering from obesity. According to Anderson and Butcher (2006), promotion of candy and fast-food hotels also contributes to children suffering from childhood obesity. It becomes hard for the child to identify healthy foods.

Anderson and Butcher (2006) maintain, “Childhood obesity is often the result of the interplay between many genetic and environmental factors” (p. 23). Variations in genes that regulate metabolism and appetite dispose children to childhood obesity. The children can hardly metabolize excess calories. At least 200 genes control body weight by influencing food penchants, metabolism, and activity level. Childhood obesity comes as a result of numerous atypical genetic conditions that arise during infancy. The conditions include MOMO syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome. Other genetic conditions include leptin and melanocortin receptor mutations. The study shows that 80% of children who are born of obese parents suffer from obesity.

Impacts of Childhood Obesity

            Childhood obesity is associated with numerous social, psychological and physiological effects. A majority of these results surface during childhood. The primary concern is that an obese child is likely to suffer from the same problem in adulthood. Besides, obesity lowers the life expectancy of the children and youths. Children with obesity are likely to suffer from type 2 diabetes (Laura, 2014). If not treated, the children may even die. Children suffering from obesity experience breathing problems. Doctors claim that excess weight results in swelling of the respiratory tract. Eventually, a child develops asthma. Research shows that most children who suffer from childhood obesity are asthmatic. Being obese overworks the heart. Childhood obesity leads to children developing heart complications. Other health conditions associated with childhood obesity include hypertension, orthopedic and glucose intolerance problems.

Childhood obesity is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease among children. Research in Netherlands showed that over 62% of the children who are obese suffer from various cardiovascular diseases. A study in the United States revealed that childhood obesity contributes to adulthood hypertension. According to Reeves, Postolache and Snitker (2008), childhood obesity not only predisposes adults to cardiovascular diseases but also leads to children suffering from cardiovascular damage. Children who are obese suffer from orthopedic complications like tibia vara. Doctors claim that childhood obesity results in children suffering from diverse musculoskeletal complications (Paulis, Silva, Koes & van Middelkoop, 2013). Many children who are obese complain of musculoskeletal pain.

Psychological impacts of childhood obesity include depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem (Xavier & Mandal, 2005). Children and particularly girls who suffer from obesity are not comfortable with their body structure. Besides, they face stigma from their colleagues. Failure to accept their health conditions results in the girls suffering from depression and anxiety. Additionally, the children have low self-esteem and are unable to interact with others. Xavier and Mandal (2005) claim that children who are obese engage in anarchic eating. The children engage in unhealthy eating as a way to counter depression. Eventually, they are unable to regulate the bodyweight.

Fig 1: The impacts and causes of childhood obesity

Source: (Xavier & Mandal, 2005)

Figure 1: A campaign against childhood obesity showing the potential cause and the consequences of childhood obesity.

As shown in Figure 1, childhood obesity may be hereditary. A child may acquire obesity from one or both parents. Hence, it is imperative to screen a child as early as possible, particularly if the parents are obese. Additionally, Figure 1 shows that poor eating habits can lead to childhood obesity. Children are advised to eat healthily. From Figure 1, it is evident that childhood obesity affects the life expectancy of the present generation. Most children who are obese are unlikely to live longer than their parents. The figure also warns against the possibility of an obese child growing into an overweight grown-up.


            The society can use diverse ways to resolve the problem of childhood obesity. The most efficient method of dealing with childhood obesity is changing the nutritional habit of children. Feeding habits contribute significantly to childhood obesity. Unfortunately, it is hard to pinpoint the impacts of diet in childhood obesity. At times, children who enroll in physical exercise programs take long to reduce weight. Others do not reduce weight at all. One may attribute this observation to failure by the children to avoid eating food that is rich in calories. The schools may get rid of meals that are rich in calories. However, if the same does not happen at home, it would be hard for a society to resolve the dilemma of childhood obesity. Many people are likely to embrace dietary change because it would help to prevent long-term diseases. Additionally, they might adopt the approach because it would minimize expenses in the families. Besides, the strategy is likely to receive massive support since it would help to restore body shape.

Other mechanisms that contribute to curbing childhood obesity include banning the advertisement of junk foods and implementing policies that discourage children and parents from eating junk food (Yamaki, Rimmer, Lowry & Vogel, 2011). Even though the two mechanisms may help to curb childhood obesity, they are hard to implement. It would be hard to regulate what the hotels sell. Besides, it would be difficult to regulate what the children or parents purchase. However, educating the public on the importance of dietary change would encourage them to take the initiative of living and eating healthy. The reason changing a dietary habit is unique compared to other solutions is because it helps the parents and children to take the initiative of managing their health. Only the local or state government can implement the other methods.

The fight against childhood obesity must be a concerted effort among schools, the government, and society as a whole. It would be hard for a family or school to regulate the feeding habit of the children in the presence of junk food outlets. In the United States, availability of junk food in schools and residential areas contributes to over one-fifth of childhood obesity cases. Educating the children about the dangers of eating junk food and drinking sugar-laden drinks can go a long way towards guaranteeing healthy eating. Parents should be at the forefront in the fight against the sale of junk food. They should stop frequenting fast-food restaurants as this encourages children to buy the food. Besides, the parents should ensure that they do not stock products that are rich in calories such as corn oil.

Encouraging changes in nutritional habit would not only help to curb an increase in the cases of childhood obesity but also minimize other diseases associated with poor diet. The number of children who are overweight would go down tremendously, therefore saving families and the government the cost of treating obesity-related illnesses.


            On of the advantages of encouraging households to embrace dietary change is that it would help to minimize expenses. Families spend a lot of money buying junk food and later treating children due to illnesses related to poor feeding habits. Thus, encouraging families to embrace healthy eating would facilitate the elimination of such costs. Poor feeding pattern is common in low-income households. The figure below shows the level of childhood obesity in low-income families. The figure indicates that childhood obesity is high among the minority groups since they engage in poor nutritional habits.

Figure 2: Prevalence of obesity among children from low-income families

Source: (Yamaki et al., 2011)

Educating the low-income families on how to ensure healthy eating would go a long way towards reducing the rate of childhood obesity. The families would not be forced to spend money to treat their children due to obesity. The public can be educated about the importance of healthy eating through forums. Besides, one may print brochures and pin them on public notice boards. Schools can also facilitate by introducing lessons on the benefits of healthy eating.


            Ensuring proper feeding habit can go a long way towards reducing cases of childhood obesity. The mothers may prevent childhood obesity by making sure that they breastfeed their children. Besides, they should ensure that children do not consume foods that are rich in calories. Encouraging children to eat vegetables and fruits can help to prevent cases of childhood obesity. Additionally, consumption of fruits and vegetables can assist in weight loss among the kids who are overweight. The government, in collaboration with schools should take the initiative of encouraging parents and children to indulge in healthy eating.

For more information on how to embrace healthy eating, one can contact me through [email protected]. The public should also take the initiative of buying healthy food. People should discourage their children from buying junk food. Numerous nutritionists have written articles about how to live a healthy life. The public has the responsibility of reading these articles to gain insight in healthy eating.



Anderson, P., & Butcher, K. (2006). Childhood obesity: Trends and potential causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19-45.

Daniels, S. (2007). Causes of childhood obesity. The Journal of Pediatrics, 150(6), 603-618.    

Flegal, K., Graubard, B., Williamson, D., & Gail, M. (2009). Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. Journal of American Medical Association, 293(15), 1861-1867.

Hippel, P., & Nahhas, R. (2013). Extending the history of child obesity in the United States: The Fels Longitudinal Study, birth years 1930 to 1993. Obesity, 21(10), 2153-2156.

Laura, D. (2014). Childhood obesity in America: Biography of an epidemic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Paulis, W., Silva, S., Koes, B., & van Middelkoop, M. (2013). Overweight and obesity are associated with musculoskeletal complaints as early as childhood: a systematic review. Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 14(10), 120-167.

Reeves, G., Postolache, T., & Snitker, S. (2008). Childhood obesity and depression: Connection between these growing problems in growing children. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, 1(2), 103-114.

Xavier, S., & Mandal, S. (2005). The psychosocial impacts of obesity in children and young people: A future health perspective. Public Health Medicine, 6(1), 23-27.

Yamaki K., Rimmer, J., Lowry, B., & Vogel, L. (2011). Prevalence of obesity-related chronic health conditions in overweight adolescents with disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(1), 280-288.              

Sample Essays on Hillary Clinton essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers

Hillary Clinton

Hillary Clinton’s stance on immigration is that America is in need of an elaborate reform that has a pathway to citizenship. Based on this stand she will enact such a reform agenda that will create the path to citizenship thereby keeping families closer and together and allowing them to come out freely. In addition, her stance is that she will spearhead the ending of family detention and close such private centers that detain individuals. According to her, creating a pathway would be a broad venture as it will entail not deporting law abiding illegal immigrants and registering new individuals who have not committed crimes in their mother countries.

On healthcare she believes that access to affordable health care is a basic human right for all Americans, currently the health care system of U.S. is among the most expensive health care systems in the world (Kernell et al 23). This is because health care insurance is in the hands of both the private and public institutions with those with high incomes accessing the best healthcare services. When elected as the president she will defend the affordable health care act to reduce on the costs of accessing heath care services. In addition, she will crack down on those drug manufacturers who have consistently increased drug prices, protect women when accessing reproductive health care including safe and legal abortion while expanding access of health care services to the rural Americans.

On national security her stance is that there is need to keep the country strong and safe from any terrorism activities by defending the core values and leading with good norms. Her main focus will be to defeat the ISIS and any other global terrorism threats with ideologies that strengthen alliances with other like-minded parties. The cornerstone of her campaigns is affirmed on defending America and all its values by establishing a strong foundation for good leadership, improved diplomatic influence among other countries and establishing a strong military so as to protect the American people from any internal and external force. In addition, her stance is that the homeland must be kept secure something that she advocated for as the secretary of state by co-operating with other global anti-terrorism agencies, stepping to stop terrorism recruitment and championing safe anchorages. To ensure that homeland is secure Hillary has affirmed her commitment to ensure that the military personnel are well trained, equipped and respond promptly to their challenges.

In my opinion, Hillary should be elected president because of the wealth of experience she has amassed from being the secretary of state as she had advocated for women and families. Her stand on health care policy is excellent, Hillary understands child care and women issues more than any aspiring candidate in the race for presidency (Bardes et al 30). Her comprehensive immigration policy is a score as this will lead reforms that encompass equal and full citizenship in the country. It can be remembered that when she was a first lady she helped in ensuring that a whopping eight million American children access health care services due to the wide health care coverage she offered. Finally, she understands foreign policy more than anyone since things have changed as enemies are now partners, building a case for her is easy since she has served in more senior positions and travelled a lot throughout the world.

Works Cited

Bardes, Barbara A, Mack C. Shelley, and Steffen W. Schmidt. American Government and Politics

 Today: The Essentials. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.

Kernell, Samuel, Gary C. Jacobson, Thaddeus T. B. B. Kousser, and Lynn Vavreck. The Logic of

            American Politics, 2015. Internet resource.


Sample Essay Review on U.S Foreign Policy for Middle East essay help us

U.S Foreign Policy for Middle East: A Critical Review Essay

Several analysts believe that the U.S is losing grip in its relationship with the Middle East or else lacking a coherent policy on its dealing with Middle East issues. In order to argue the assertions, it is necessary to outline U.S historical policy in the region. Also, it would be rational to elucidate the cause of U.S foreign policies in the Middle East. U.S imperialism in Middle East has been felt on every nation in the region. Involvements have included calculated interests comprising of antagonism with Soviet Union. Besides, economic interests have drawn U.S to influence oil trade from the region. Also, immigrants from the region have created cultural ties that oblige U.S to get involved in Middle East matters.

In the eve of Cold War, U.S endeavored to contain a socio-political campaign of Soviet Union in the region and ensure survival of Israel. In addition, for economic reasons, it was to ensure uninterrupted global supply of energy from oil and gas supplies of the area. U.S policy of balancing of power in the Middle East was employed. It embarked on forming allies including Saudi Arabia, Iran, Persian Gulf and Jordan. However, the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran created enmity between Iran and US and confrontations with Saudi Arabia. Israel, a major U.S ally, has been involved in border conflicts with Palestine.

It might have been expected that the end of Cold War would lead to a decline in US interests in the Middle East. Nonetheless, the assault of Kuwait by Iraq was seen by US as a threat to other oil-rich countries especially Saudi Arabia. A new American policy of dual containment obliged the U.S to help in driving out Iraq forces out Kuwait. Lack of support for the Kurdish and Shiite communities who helped fight against Saddam infuriated the groups. The occupation of American troops in Saudi Arabia irritated Muslim fundamentalists. The anti-American dogma began to spread in Middle East Islamic countries. Additionally, sectarian differences arose among the Muslims Sunni and Shiite communities. Most significant was the rise of Al-Qaeda jihadists led by Osama who began terrorism activities against America and its allies. The 9/11 terrorism attack catapulted the invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan under Bush Junior administration. However, after the war in Iraq, another anti-U. S terror group, Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) group also referred to as Islamic State in Iraq and Syria arose. Selective reactions to Arab Uprising have created hesitant U.S allies in the Middle East.

Terrorism has become a universal threat. ISIS has political ideologies of expanding their territories beyond the already subjugated Syria and Iraq regions to form a caliphate that would use Islamic rule over the world. U.S as the superpower has an obligation to campaign and facilitate for stability in the Middle East. Thus, U.S cannot ignore its role and relationship with Middle East for global political, social and economic stability. Such a relationship is especially significant given the threats posed by terrorism towards global stability. Therefore, the relationship between the US and Middle East tends to impact the whole world as it determines the success or failure in the fight against terrorism. In the section below, the paper attempts to evaluate three main peer-reviewed articles that focus on the US foreign policy of the Middle East and the seemingly withdrawal from Middle East issues. I argue that, in the past issues, confronting stability in the Middle East were well defined and straightforward. However, over the years, burgeoning and complication of issues have risen in the region. On the other hand, I argue that American policy in the Middle East has complicated relations with its allies enabling their rivals to dominate their political intrigues. Political maneuvers by some rival states such as Iran include sectarian divides, Islamic unity, sovereignty, Arab nationalism and imperialism. Consequently, two blocs of status quo versus revolutionary have been created.

Iran Hegemony

Iran has had ambitions of dominating the politics of Islamic states through political control. After removing Saddam and the ruling Baath regime of Sunni Muslims, Iran is taking advantage to influence a possible Shiite dominance in the region. Ron Tira in the article, The United States in the Middle East: An Exercise in Self-Defeat, describes how U.S actions in Middle East have created a room for Iran to penetrate its ideologies and influence in the Middle East. To begin with, Ron says that both Obama and predecessor Bush employed idealistic policies in the Middle East. He explains that Bush made an unpopular decision to engage in military action that weakened Iraq, an Iran adversary. Additionally, Obama efforts of reconciliation further escalated the loss of grip to American Arab allies. The author claims that nature of Middle East issues are profoundly influenced by local dynamics and U.S has had little influence over the region (Tira 42). Accordingly, U.S has been forced to play the strategic game of Middle East nations. The U.S policy in the region has had an accidental result of assisting Iran’s political agenda by weakening the nations that contained Iran in the region.

The article gives the impression that the ability to contain Iran should have been the policy of the U.S. The author uses Iran factor to describe the purported failure of U.S policy in the Middle East. In fact, after reading the article, one finds the article as an explanation of failure in dual containment by America. Interestingly and contrary to traditional analysis, the author refers to the policy of U.S in the Middle East as an act of balancing power (Tira 42). Balance of power refers to reducing the dominance of a rival nation in a region. In this regard, Tira refers to Iran as the powerful rival. However, U.S invaded Iraq who was in the same category of rivals with Iran but a competitor to Iraq. The author is able to illustrate that the effect of Iraq war, was an assistance of Iran in spreading its political ideologies using carrots and sticks (Tira 45). The author succeeds in illustrating the counter-balancing effect throughout the subtitle “Optimizing the Theater for Iran”. Iraq and Afghanistan have become suitable regions for Iran to maneuver and even become a threat to Israel. However, having mentioned the use of carrots and sticks by Iraq, the author does not offer comprehensive information. The outlining of carrots and sticks could have been followed by a precise account of how Iran is using the methods.

Additionally, another theme observed is how U.S has weakened its support by Arab Allies. The author explains that U.S did not support Mubarak during the uprising against his government. It is a fact that despite flaws in the government of Mubarak, U.S and Israel had used Egypt to mediate talks between conflicting nations in the region (Tira 47). One of the consequences of losing an ally in Egypt includes mistrust among Arab monarchies. The author ignores the possibility of Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood taking over in the future and converting Egypt into an Islamic state. Tira asserts that there could be no revolution in Egypt and only a replacement of Mubarak with Army general who would maintain the traditional role of Egypt (Tira 50). The leaving behind of Mubarak has not only angered Arabs but also Israel due to fear of control of Muslim Brotherhood. Israel feels that U.S could should not have supported or allowed a coup led by an Islamic party. Again, the author connects an advantage to Iran, if Arab allies distant themselves from American policy. In the end, U.S military intervention in Libya to oust Qaddafi is described as inconsistent and confusing. U.S was tight-lipped in uprising in Tunisia against Ben Ali and in Iran against Ahmadinejad. In conclusion, the author advices unipolar American hegemony and Obama’s soft approach as ineffective in containing Iran. It is a good article that describes consequences of past U.S policies that have led to a stronger Iran. It illustrates a U.S that has lost grip and in a quagmire of how to deal with the consequences of the past policies in the region.

America to Stay

There has been a perception that U.S is exiting the Middle East and focusing on the East Asia. In the article, The End of the American Era in the Middle East, Yoel Guzansky explains the actions that have led to such a perception and then expounds how Middle East still remains significant to U.S. The author makes a strong argument about the waning influence of the US in the Middle East affairs. The reasons provided by the author indicating a weakness of US foreign policy on Middle East include the minimal efforts applied in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, the exit from Afghanistan without a reliable plan, lack of control in the Iran nuclear situation, decline in U.S control in Iraq, lack of power over Syrian civil war, an apprehensive relation with Arab allies and uncertainty over relations with Egypt.

The author provides a convincing discussion about U.S not abandoning the Middle East. The article first tends to convince the reader that there are valid reasons for U.S to exit the region in favor of China. Actually, he says that claims of a possible shift of U.S to far East are “well grounded” in the U.S strategy (Guzansky 25). He illustrates the claims that U.S is heading East. Firstly, he uses the announcements made by Obama’s administration that the pacific region and Asia constitute challenges of the twenty-first century. Another declaration by Defense Secretary Panetta that balancing of Chinese power in the region would occur through increased occupation of U.S naval in the Pacific. Thirdly, the author refers to Hillary Clinton’s description of the next decade as requiring an investment in Asia including diplomatic, economic and other strategic efforts. The author identifies a signaling of importance of the Pacific basin to U.S by Obama’s first visit in the second term to the region (Guzansky 26). U.S has been reaching out to China recognizing the influence its gathering over the region and on global economy. Since it recognizes that China through trade with other countries is gaining ground, it can only try to create a temporary ally for a multilateral support.

When the author says that U.S is cautious not to be drawn into military clash with China, it brings in an issue of balancing of power and not economic ties (Guzansky 26). China has been growing economically and conflicts with Japan over ownership of territories are historical. U.S cannot be relied on for moral authority in dealing with matters of controlling Chinese high-handiness in the border conflicts. U.S has used force before to curb conflicts and even to protect its sovereignty. Guzansky argues that abundance of domestic oil could have led to a lesser concern with Middle East (Guzansky 27). It seems contradictory for the author to use the same issue of oil to support that U.S has to stay in Middle East. The author also makes assertions similar to Ron Tira that that the effects of Arab Spring and selective engagement in Egypt and Libya and ignoring Iran demonstrations have led a nervous relation with Arab allies.

Although the bulk of the article covers intricacies about the challenges and reasons for focusing on pacific basin, the author offers compelling reasons against the initial assertions. However, they are an indication of a burdensome Middle East or else a region that U.S has left to stabilize itself. Guzansky outlines reasons that indicate U.S cannot abandon the region. Middle East still provides about half of the oil and gas supply (31). Thus, for stability of global economies, U.S cannot lose control of the region. China being second on GDP from U.S relies also Obama led a multilateral action against nuclear proliferation and global disarmament. In order to avoid acquisition of nuclear weapon by Iran and to protect Pakistan nuclear arsenal, Middle East remains of interest to U.S. There is still hope that resolving Israel-Palestine conflicts can help in stabilizing the region. Israel and U.S are tied through shared military investment and technology as well as curbing terrorism (Guzansky 33). Also, there is danger of Al-Qaeda thriving in the war torn Arab countries posing a threat to U.S. America has mega deals of supplying weapons to the Gulf States in order to contain Iran (33). In the end, the author claims that the challenges U.S has encountered of executing policies in the Middle East have not led to a retreat but additional focus to investment China. Although the activities in the Middle East show that U.S has interests in the Middle East, it’s clear from the article that U.S influence has declined if it is not a withdrawal from the region.

Obama Doctrine

Fawaz Gerges analysis of Obama’s foreign policy also alleges a weakness in the Middle East strategy. Entitled as The ‘Obama Doctrine’ in the Middle East, Gerges illustrates how an unclear ideology of engagement with Middle East has complicated U.S foreign policy in the region. The author says that Bush thought he was realistic in leading a war in Iraq based on claims of liberating people from oppressive government. However, it was realpolitik and founded on idealism. Gerges starts with mention of an ambiguous ideology in dealing with Middle East (Gerges n. p). Unlike in the past when conflicts were simply seen as ideological differences between West and East, terrorism and an anti-American Muslim has complicated matters. Specifically, he mentions that the US in general and Obama administration in particular has not been successful in establishing a strong working relationship with the Middle East. The reasons provided by the author include the lack of human right considerations, low risks approach in the Israeli peace process, and the lack of a decisive role in addressing the Arab uprising.

Gerges uses the same arguments as Tira and Guzansky by showing that Obama doesn’t have a clear policy for Middle East. He says that Obama’s appeasement of the Muslims and lack of clear foreign policy has had a little effect in reversing the excesses of Bush in the Middle East. The argument that Obama’s actions of reaching out to Muslims are not a foreign policy does not hold (Gerges n. p). Having recognized the dent that military action caused makes reconciliation a realistic policy. The results of reconciliation may not be immediate and, therefore, arguing that the efforts have been futile may be wrong. Trust from Muslims cannot be regained as quickly as the writer asserts. On the other hand, Obama said that involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq had distracted interest in the more important Pacific Ocean (Gerges n. p). America under Obama administration has been trying to beg allies in the region to be more helpful in containing stability in their region as it seeks leverage in the Pacific region. Besides, it is true that America has been inconsistent in promotion of values of democracy. This could have led the writer to conclude that the world does not trust U.S as a promoter of democracy. In the end, Gerges says that Obama has behaved like a moderate republican. It would be against U.S interests for Obama to ignore the national strategies and withdraw troops without considering consequences of security in the region. Having inherited an Iraq and Afghanistan that were not stable, Obama was trying to change tactics and try soft methods. Unfortunately, the allies in the Middle East including Israel have found the tactics to be blunt.


            The above three articles underpin the perception that U.S policy in the Middle East has failed. America got itself at the center of the Middle East cold war, and it would be irresponsible to withdraw from the region issues. Besides, the importance of the region to America and the world continue to pressure America to act. Although as Guzansky writes America is strengthening military force in Saudi Arabia, it needs the support of U.S to confront security challenges. It is an indication that American values and interests are yet to be inculcated in the allies. The situation has been worsened by the Arab uprising that has caused U.S to support depose of autocratic leadership. Regrettably, such uprisings have created vacuum in leadership of the countries. The ungovernable countries escalate the threat of terrorism because terrorists are finding safe havens in those countries. U.S seems to be disoriented both by the consequences of the past policies as well as the politics in the regions. Thus, with such a complexities and obligations, it would be prudent to reach out to other power centers. A multilateral approach would ease the burden of U.S in the Middle East. The balances of power in the region need to be hastened and carefully carried out to reduce U.S attachment. Saudi Arabia is an essential ally that U.S cannot manage to let go. Mistrust with the monarch leadership should be reduced as America pressures for systematic reforms.

Works Cited

Gerges, Fawaz A. “The Obama Doctrine in the Middle East.” Institute for Social Policy and Understanding, October 16, 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2016. <>

Guzansky, Yoel. “The End of the American Era in the Middle East?” Institute for National Security Studies (INSS), Strategic Assessment 15. 4, 2013. 25-36. Web. 12 Apr. 2016. <>

Tira, Ron. “The United States in the Middle East: An Exercise in Self-Defeat.” Institute for National Security Studies (INSS), Strategic Assessment 14.1, 2011. 41-54. <>

Sample Essays on Earthquake in Yellowstone buy essay help: buy essay help

Earthquake in Yellowstone

The Hazards and Ramifications

In the United States of America, Yellowstone is considered one of the most active areas as far as seismic activities are concerned. Each year, it receives an approximate of 1000 to 3000 earthquakes even though most of it is not felt. The earthquakes result from large number of faults that are associated with volcano. In 2014, an M4.8 earthquake hit north east side of Norris Geyser Basin, thereby being felt in Yellowstone National Park, towns of Gardiner and West Yellowstone, Montana and all around the area. Since the 1980s earthquake, this is the biggest earthquake at Yellowstone and was part of GPS-determined uplift episode that had built up about four months before the earthquake.

There are many hazards caused by the earthquakes, though the earthquake itself is a hazardous effect of the volcanic eruptions. There could be slipping of rocks, liquefaction, mudslides and landslides in regions that have been hit by the earthquake. Walls, buildings, bridges and other valuable structures in these earthquake-prone areas could also be brought down as a result of severe earthquake multitudes in such areas.These types ofhazards have been experienced in Yellowstone. The 1959 earthquake that hit Red Canyon and Hebgen Lake, producing 22 feet fault scarps. This caused the death of 28 people, with 19 of them having been buried permanently beneath the Madison Canyon landslide. This is because the intense shaking triggered landslide above the Rock Creek campground, making rocks and landslides to tumble into most areas along the highways of Yellowstone national park. The park’s west entrance at West Yellowstone was closed after the roads between Old Faithful and Mammoth were blocked as a result of the earthquake.The historic Old Faithful inn had its indoor chimney collapse into the dining room,and numerous other buildings situated throughout the park were also extensively damaged.

Earthquake Swarms

A frequent series of earthquakes within a local area over a short period, commonly dubbed ‘Earthquake swarms’ are a collective experience in Yellowstone, 1985 recording the biggest swarm, recording well over 3000 earthquakes in 3 months. In 2009 and 2010, the swarm was experienced close to both Lake Village and the Old Faithful areas respectively, and numerous earthquakes got recorded. According to scientists, as the hydrothermal fluids migrate, it releases a lot of pressure to the earth’s crust, and it is due to the changing and shifting of these pressures that result into the swarms. Despite the feared effects of earthquakes, they have played a significant role in studying, mapping and even understanding the geology beneath and around the earth surface in Yellowstone. Through studying of the seismic waves, geologists can create images of both caldera and the magma chambers since they can view below the surface and read earthquake-emitted seismic waves. The analysis of the 2014 Yellowstone earthquake showed that the series of earthquake swarms was originated from tectonic forces beneath the ground in the area.

Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

Earthquakes can trigger volcanic eruptions though that is still a topic of debate by scientists. A volcano can be brought closer to an eruption if the displacement of the earthquake closer to the volcano changes stress around the magma chamber. There have been a series of smaller volcanic eruptions in Yellowstone after the last major eruption that took place 640 years ago. Theses eruptions are believed to be catalyzed by the continuous earthquakes in the region, and they emit rhyolite lava filling a large part of Yellowstone’s caldera. Yellowstone has a  of history being one of the largest hydrothermal explosive regions, for instance a large hydrothermal explosion was experienced about 16000 years ago, measuring over 100 meters in diameter. This could have been affected by the earthquakes that hit the area frequently enough.

Works Cited

Husen, S., et al. “Changes in geyser eruption behavior and remotely triggered seismicity in Yellowstone National Park produced by the 2002 M 7.9 Denali fault earthquake, Alaska.” Geology 32.6, 2004). 537-540.

Pitt, A. M., and R. A. Hutchinson. “Hydrothermal changes related to earthquake activity at mud volcano, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth87. B4, 1982. 2762-2766.

Smith, R. B., et al. “Yellowstone hot spot: Contemporary tectonics and crustal properties from earthquake and aeromagnetic data.” Journal of Geophysical Research 82.26, 1977. 3665-3676.

Sample Research Paper on Clinical Chemistry english essay help

Clinical Chemistry


Clinical chemistry is one key critical area in medical laboratory technology. In other books, it is referred to as medical biochemistry, clinical biochemistry or chemical pathology. Essentially, clinical chemistry is a branch of clinical pathology that deals with analysis of different body fluids for both therapeutic and diagnostic purposes (Bishop et al 7). This discipline originated in the early 1900 where it was exclusively used to deal with diseases found in urine and blood. Clinical chemistry is one of the methods that utilize different instruments and apparatus to determine whether the results of any bodily fluid analysis are positive or negative. Some of the common methods that were utilized in the earlier phases included immunoassays, enzyme activity, spectrophotometry and electrophoresis (Bishop et al 33). Soon enough, other methods such as chromatography set in making the analysis and identification of different results very easy.

All biochemical conditions occurring in the body will always involve an increase or decrease in the amount of body fluids. Some of the elevated elements present in the body include enzymes, metals, white blood cell or other substances present in the body. All of these substances present in the body can be detected by the various instruments and apparatus used in clinical chemistry. In most cases, analysis of the products to be tested from the body is done on plasma and serum. Serum refers to the yellow watery part of the blood that lacks blood cells (Yang et al., 1507). One common method that has been used in serum preparation has been the use of centrifugation which involves separation of substances basing on their densities. Plasma is the same as serum but lacks clots. It is obtained during the first process of centrifugation. Though, it is significant to note that the type of tests will solely depend on the type of sample that was used.

Tests in clinical chemistry are classified into various categories. These include general chemistry or routine chemistry tests, special chemistry tests, toxicology tests, urinalysis, fecal analysis, clinical endocrinology, and therapeutic drug monitoring. General chemistry deals with the commonly blood chemistries that deal with liver and kidney function test. Special chemistry deals with techniques that relate to manual testing and electrophoresis. Clinical endocrinology deals with hormones and diagnosis of all related endocrine disorders. Toxicology involves study of drugs and all chemicals while therapeutic drug monitoring involves measurement of medication. Urinalysis involves analysis of effusions as well as cerebrospinal fluid while fecal analysis involves detection of all the gastrointestinal disorders.

Clinical chemistry covers a huge range of areas including direct tests mentioned above as well as panel tests. However, numerous instruments stand out in the analysis of most experiments in clinical chemistry. Analysis of serum, plasma and blood components would require use of certain instruments or use of certain medical laboratory techniques including centrifugation, spectrophotometry, chromatography, electrophoresis and immunoassays. All these methods use certain important properties to detect specific components in clinical chemistry. The basic understanding of most of these factors dictates the level of acceptance of results that will be obtained from most of the tests. Most clinicians have to understand then basic working behind most of these components as well as how to know the specific point at which most of the instrumental methods are applied. In recent years, new analytical techniques used in clinical chemistry have been revolutionized to make the process much easier compared to past process. This paper will look at specific techniques used in clinical chemistry especially when it comes to analyzing and incorporating analytical techniques.

Analytical Techniques in Clinical Chemistry

Centrifugation is one if the commonly used analytical method that is commonly used in clinical chemistry especially when it relates to analyzing blood samples. Blood is made up of various components with the two main components being blood cells and plasma (Foster 157). Analysis of biochemical changes in clinical chemistry requires exact determination of the amount of blood cells, plasma and serum (Lippi 172). Most of these substances that make blood have different densities. Centrifugation involves the separation of these substances depending on their density. Substances which are heavier tend to be found at the bottom while those found at the top are lighter. In the case of blood, blood cells and other components are denser and as a result they are found at the bottom of the centrifuge (Lippi 172). Plasma and serum will be the supernatant. In most cases, all tests that involve analysis of blood components would generally begin with the centrifugation process before any other form of analysis is conducted (Minder 1). The separation of blood by use of centrifuges will depend on some critical factors. These factors include the relative centrifugation force, temperature, length of collection tubes, centrifugation time. The volume of plasma or serum to be analyzed will depend with the volume of the tube. Relative centrifugal force is defined as the resistance of both the blood and tube components due to factors such as gravity and limits of the rotor and centrifuge (Minder 1). Change in temperature of the analyte under investigation affects its stability. The current guidelines require the centrifugation time for all serum components to be used for analysis to be at least ten minutes while plasma was to have a centrifugation time not less than 15 minutes (Minder 1). The speed at which the centrifuge should operate would also vary with the amount of revolutions per second. Generally, serum uses a force of 2000g while plasma uses a force of about 3000g (Minder 1). Centrifugation as a method has been used to increases the Turn Around time (TAT) in most of the clinical settings across the world. Consequently, new methods have been utilized which decrease the TAT to less than 30 seconds. Centrifugation is also the choice model when it comes to reducing removing sediments from urine as well as measuring the volume fraction of the amount of red blood cell commonly known as hematocrit (Minder 1). It is also used to separate free binding elements from other component in immune-procedure and in protein binding. Centrifugation is less commonly used in separation of lipoproteins as well as separating cellular components from cells. It also plays a critical role when it comes to extracting DNA from both plant and animal samples. For the machine to be utilized effectively, it requires that enough training be provided to the staff handling the machine. It also requires that the staff be fully aware of how the variables generally affect the functioning of the apparatus.

Spectrophotometry is another example of a technique that is used daily in clinical chemistry. The technique is based on the principle of Beer Lambert laws that relate concentration of a substance being measured to absorbance (Lakowicz: Behera). In essence, it states that concentration of a substance is directly proportional to the absorbance of a substance. Spectrophotometry commonly measures products by the use of a spectrophotometer. It detects the substances that have structures similar to benzene ring. These substances would normally absorb light of a certain wavelength. Once light has been passed through and the concentration determined, clinical chemists can look at the results and determine whether or not the concentration of the substance being measured in an individual is within or above the required limits. Standards are commonly used to determine if the values being measured are within the accepted levels. The standards contain substances that provide the true value of what is being measured. Analysis of most of these substances using a spectrophotometer is used as indicative values.

Spectrophotometers are predominantly used when analyzing protein substances present in serum or plasma. The total amount of proteins in a serum sample is determined by this method because proteins absorb light at a particular wavelength. Since samples provided will have different measurements, a standard curve is normally drawn using the values that have been obtained from the standards. The value obtained in the experiments, for example during analysis of total protein in a sample is then interpolated and determined from the curve. Spectrophotometry is also utilized in molecular biology techniques that involve the extraction of DNA to determine the purity of substances being measured (Didelot et al 815). It does this by measuring the amounts of RNA, DNA and proteins available in the sample. When values are found to be higher than anticipated, one of the products is in excess. Such results reveal that there has been possible contamination of the samples. Generally, all samples in a clinical chemistry lab that can absorb light at particular wavelengths can be determined use of spectrophotometers although this are not confirmatory methods since other tests will also be conducted confirm the results.

Different chromatographic methods are used in clinical chemistry. This method involves the separation of substances depending on their interaction with the mobile and stationary phase. The mobile phase is normally a gas or liquid that is moving while the stationary phase is the substance that is immobile (Peter et al 220). When the two surfaces interact, substances will separate depending on their interaction with both the two phases. Those that interact more with the stationary phase are left behind while those that interact faster with the other phase move out faster. As a result, separation of different substances is achieved.

Chromatography has become the method of choice since it involves detection of substances at higher sensitivity as compared to other methods of analysis. This method has other advantages compared to the currently utilized methods including its high selectivity rates, versatility and low cost of production. One type of chromatography that is constantly being used to examine most tests is the high performance liquid chromatography that is sometimes couples to the mass spectrometer to increase it selectivity (Yang and Sihe 96). Several examples are provided to show the important role that this machine plays in the analysis of substances in clinical chemistry. HPLC is used to analyze the presence of immunosuppressant drugs. Most of these drugs are provided to patients who are undergoing treatment after transplant (Kumar et al 1622). The immune system of individuals responds differently to different drugs that are commonly utilized. Some will respond quite well while others will respond differently. Some of the drugs that are being utilized may not be pure as earlier anticipated and would therefore reduce the likelihood that an individual gets better much faster. HPLC can be used to determine the purity of most of these drugs due to its high selectivity and sensitivity.

Secondly, chromatography is constantly used to monitor use of illegal drugs by different athletes and sportspersons. Gas chromatography is another method that is commonly used in clinical chemistry. It analyses for the presence of illegal products in blood through a method known as headspace analysis. As a method, it only requires the presence of a small amount of sample that is easily vaporized. The illegal substance plus the amounts will then be detected from blood. It can also be used to detect the type of alcohol present in an individual’s bloodstream especially when it involves cases where patients have taken too much alcohol that they have been admitted (Crunelle et al 2). This method is also selective and will only identify all products present in the sample. The only issue with gas chromatography is that it requires substances that easily vaporize. Thin layer chromatography commonly abbreviated as TLC is used to analyze products that are either amino acids or protein in nature. This method represents one of the easiest methods that could be used to analyze all substances present in a sample. Similar to the above two methods, it also utilizes standards to determine the amount of analyte of interest in a sample.

All other important chromatographic techniques that are frequently utilized in clinical chemistry include affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, partition chromatography, and adsorption chromatography. All of the above methods will depend on the nature of the stationary phase being utilized. Currently, the stationary phase can either be normal or reverse. Recent advances have seen the incorporation of a mass spectrometer which increases the efficiency of either gas or liquid chromatography by detecting substances at the parts per billion levels. This means that minute details in a sample can be easily detected via this approach. Initially, the HPLC and Gas chromatography were utilized it detects substances at parts per million (Lehmann et al 919)

Electrophoresis refers to the separation of substances by use of electric current. Different substances present in the body have charges (Giri 190). Examples of such substances include proteins and DNA. There are two methods of electrophoresis that are currently utilized in clinical chemistry. They include capillary electrophoresis and agarose gel electrophoresis. Capillary electrophoresis is currently utilized in serum protein analysis (McCudden 451). Agarose gel electrophoresis is also utilized to separate serum protein (McCudden 451). Serum contains different immuno-globulins of varying masses. There are five types of globulins present in any individual. These are immunoglobulins A, G, D, E and M (Kang 28). These immunoglobulins play specific roles in the body. Certain disease conditions are associated with varying types of immunoglobulins. Some increases in the number of immunoglobulins immediately during their onset while others are associated with a decrease in a certain type of immunoglobulin. All of the above immunoglobulins have different masses and contain charges (Kang 28). It becomes nearly impossible to separate these immunoglobulins by utilizing some of the methods mentioned above. Electrophoresis stands out as the only effective methods that can separate all of the above products in one go and identify the any form of disease that is associated with any condition (Hungria 5705). This makes it an effective tool in analysis of immune factors that play a critical role in the body of an individual. Electrophoresis is also used in determining the size of DNA fragments that may be required for analysis.

Immunoassays represent another method that is used to analyze some important factors present in the immune system. It solely bases its principles on the formation of the antigen antibody complex (Lequin 2415). Analyte is the molecule detected by the complex. Once a positive result has been provided with the analyte of interests, a coloring agent is applied and fluorescence is detected it provides to be an indicator of results. Failure to form the color at the end of the reaction means that both the antigen or antibody of interest is not present and as a result the result might be false (Lequin 2415). This is not the case if the method being utilized involves competition between the antibody and antigen of interest. There are several examples that help illustrate the effects of the above mechanism. The first method involves the use of pregnant kits that have been used to show that patients are pregnant. This method exclusively relies on the use of kits that are founded or based on the immunoassay. The kit is normally lined with antibodies representing Human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone commonly abbreviated as HCG. Immediately, an individual becomes pregnant the body releases antigens associated with HCG and as a result antigens and antigens come into contact and the fluorescent material that has been added is able to fluoresce indicating a positive outcome (Chang 14443). If the patient is not pregnant there is a likelihood that no antigen is produced and as a result, there would not be the formation of the fluoresce (Greene et al 220). This kit is commonly used to show the difference when an individual becomes pregnant.


Laboratory analytical techniques play a critical role when it comes to areas in clinical chemistry. As shown above most of the methods require an understanding of what is happening before analysis of any component in the human system can be initiated. Essentially, all of the above techniques have been utilized to improve or make the process to become much easier as compared to the past where a lot of time could be utilized to determine the main cause of a certain ailment or illness in the body. Some of this method such as HPLC and GC can be used to analsyse more than one sample at the same time increasing the likelihood of a keratin ailment being treated. Basically, when the method described above have made the treatment process to be much better as compared in the past cases and as a result more clinics have embraced the use of technology in dealing with issues associated with clinical chemistry. Diagnostic method such as immunoassays has come up to exclusively ensure that some sensitive tests can be conducted in different environments. Essentially, analytical techniques have improved clinical chemistry.



Works Cited

Behera, Siladitya, et al. “UV-visible spectrophotometric method development and validation of    assay of paracetamol tablet formulation.” Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical        Techniques 2012 (2012).

Bishop, Michael L., Edward P. Fody, and Larry E. Schoeff, eds. Clinical Chemistry: Principles,  Techniques, and Correlations. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013.

Chang, Chia-Chen, et al. “Colorimetric detection of human chorionic gonadotropin using              catalytic gold nanoparticles and a peptide aptamer.” Chemical Communications 50.92      (2014): 14443-14446.

Crunelle, Cleo L., et al. “Hair ethyl glucuronide levels as a marker for alcohol use and abuse: a      review of the current state of the art.” Drug and alcohol dependence 134 (2014): 1-11.

Didelot, Audrey, et al. “Multiplex picoliter-droplet digital PCR for quantitative assessment of      DNA integrity in clinical samples.” Clinical chemistry 59.5 (2013): 815-823.

Foster, Kimberly, et al. “Evaluation of a Centrifuge with Rapid Turnaround Time for the   Preparation of Plasma Samples for Measurement of Common STAT Markers on the           ACS: 180® System.” Clinical laboratory 46.3/4 (2000): 157-160.

Giri, K. V. “AGAR ELECTROPHORESIS Part I. A Simple Clinical Method for the Analysis of Serum Proteins.” Journal of the Indian Institute of Science 38.3 (2013): 190.

Greene, Dina N., et al. “Limitations in qualitative point of care hCG tests for detecting early         pregnancy.” Clinica chimica acta 415 (2013): 317-321.

Hungria, Vania TM, et al. “Comparison of Kappa & Lambda Freelite to Total Kappa & Lambda   Immunoassays for the Detection of Monoclonal Gammopathies, Both As Standalone  Tests and Alongside Serum Protein Electrophoresis.” Blood 124.21 (2014): 5705-5705.

Sample Essays on Taming the Cost of Medicare Program english essay help online

Taming the Cost of Medicare Program


Healthcare administration across United States faces diverse challenges emphasizing urgent reforms are needed. According to Niall, Nicole, Lawrence, Aaron, Marisa, Nadia, Mark, and Reginald, approximately forty six million citizens in the country are not insured. Conversely, insured Americans have to deal with rapid increases in premiums which are often classified under out-of-the pocket costs. President Barrack Obama and the Congress have had to consider ways of investing in healthcare while reducing number of citizens suffering due to lack of insurance coverage. The president has always stated that, addressing shortfalls with regard to healthcare quality and efficiency ought to be undertaken simultaneously. This will ensure healthcare costs are also addressed and poor healthcare outcomes resolved. As a result, feasibility and sustainability of quality and efficient healthcare ought to ensure systems and facilities are reformed and reorganized (Niall, Nicole, Lawrence, Aaron, Marisa, Nadia, Mark, & Reginald, 2009).

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was developed to achieve the primary goal of providing Americans and legal residents across United States with universal quality healthcare services. It was therefore fully implemented to ensure citizens access universal healthcare insurance including the uninsured and underinsured. Universal public healthcare systems aim at ensuring the reforms are undertaken for healthcare insurances to increase and costs to reduce to enhance affordability rates among Americans and legal residents in the country. For example, more than two trillion dollars were spent by Americans which was more than seventeen percent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product in 2009 on healthcare (Susan, 2012).

The amount has been rising with predictions affirming the trend will be observed for several decades if serious interventions and reforms are not undertaken. This led the healthcare administration to target thirty two million citizens by 2014 that ought to have healthcare insurance. Although it was a tipping point within the fiscally overblown healthcare system, the reform has increased number of people able to access and afford healthcare services. The changes however slow, have been promising. For example, spending on federal healthcare programs including Medicaid and Medicare as well as Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) has enabled a larger number of citizens to be reached and assisted in accessing healthcare services. The growing and unsustainable federal debt should therefore be addressed to guarantee more people will qualify for healthcare insurance in the future. Consequently, they will be enabled to access and afford quality and efficient healthcare services across diverse healthcare systems in the country (Susan, 2012).

Current Issues Affecting Healthcare Administration, Systems, and Industry

Population Health Issues

According to Shannon, Molly, Heather, Emily, Ellie, and Tamara, there are at least ten challenges affecting healthcare systems and administration in the country. The population health has always been considered as the major idea to be applied in maintaining or gaining momentum in the nation’s healthcare administration. Population refers to the multidisciplinary concept shared among social institution, policymakers, and public healthcare agencies. As a result, hospitals are required to play the role of providing expertise healthcare services to the population. This role however has been overwhelming as population health is ranked among the hardest skills set to find across the broader healthcare field (Shannon, Molly, Heather, Emily, Ellie, & Tamara, 2014).


In 2014, American Hospital Associated conducted a survey during which more than fifty percent of the executives identified that, management of community and population health suffers from a talent gap. The survey therefore provided proof that the talent gap across healthcare systems are often filled through creation of new positions such as executive and chief population health managers. This further challenges the process of quantifying the population health as healthcare leaders need to creatively think and develop methods improving health qualities and efficiencies across geographic populations. The leaders are also required to maintain healthy senses of skepticism with regards to populations’ efforts towards achieving and sustaining quality healthcare systems. Thus, the act of oversimplifying issues while overinvesting solutions for positive healthcare outcomes is not sustainable in improving healthcare administration (Shannon, Molly, Heather, Emily, Ellie, & Tamara, 2014).

Challenges Experienced when Shifting from Volume-based to Value-based Reimbursements

The second issue witnessed in healthcare administration involves shifts from volume-based to value-based reimbursements. This issue is described as inevitable as it depends on how quickly healthcare providers are able to make it successfully. For example, some medical facilities move too fast in providing healthcare services. They however also increase the risk of losing revenues and putting into practice strategies that are neither practical nor supported by the market. Conversely, some healthcare facilities move too slowly in providing healthcare services. This enhances the risk of either building or loosing opportunistic partnerships comprising of experienced and qualified healthcare providers. More so, a lot of time is utilized providing the healthcare services rather than modifying and transforming medical services and practices. A national study was conducted in 2014 by McKesson. The findings revealed that, at least ninety percent of healthcare payers and providers have transitioned to value-based reimbursement. As a result, healthcare providers including accountable-care organizations are very reluctant to embrace value-based healthcare initiatives, systems, and programs. Thus, at least sixty percent of healthcare payers and thirty five percent of healthcare providers have developed and embraced the behavior of believing in value-based reimbursement as it has a positive financial effect (Steven, & Peter, 2010).

Ineffective Hospital Infection Control and Prevention Programs

The third issue refers to hospital infection control and prevention programs. In 2014 in light of Ebola, the programs discovered new fame as healthcare facilities across United States received more attention from people and organizations afraid of contracting the disease. United States borders have been steering the citizens towards healthcare providers in order to be treated for infections. The providers are also required to develop and implement control measures to reduce the rate at which Ebola as well as other medical conditions are spread in the country. These efforts however, led to a larger number of healthcare providers being infected with Ebola as more than one million healthcare-associated infections were reported in United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These revelations are neither positive nor promising as they affirm the country’s infection, control, and prevention not strong or properly managed. Ebola infections have therefore acted as a way of enlightening the healthcare administration. They have raised awareness on the need to prevent infections. The healthcare administration ought to acknowledge, hospital infection control and prevention programs were developed to protect citizens from various diseases. More so, the programs reduce the number of Americans and legal residents likely to suffer from an infection or disease healthcare systems were required to prevent from spreading. Consequently, the amount of healthcare costs incurred the healthcare administration is reduced drastically as citizens are protected (Thomas, & Hoangmai, 2016).

Jumbled Healthcare Information Technology: Data Storage

Healthcare systems have often been described as jumbled collections of facilities operating under diverse cultures, strategies, campaigns, and reimbursement rates. Healthcare executives have been realizing the systems have not been successfully posting healthcare transactions. For example, a research conducted by Strategy and Booz Company affirmed healthcare transactions are not always successful. More so, a study was conducted among hospitals between 1998 and 2008. The findings affirmed that, only forty one percent were able to outperform peers with regards to operating income and margins. Thus, various healthcare facilities had failed to identify synergies required to make wise, practical, and manageable decisions. They therefore develop alliances and power bases making it hard to make difficult decisions within healthcare strategies (Fisher, Goodman, &Skinner, 2009).

The healthcare sector generates huge amounts of data on a daily basis. More so, the sector generates big buzzwords as the healthcare information technology supports innovation. It is also developed to operate under diverse healthcare disruptions while accessing big data and supporting bigger ideas that are either consumer or clinically driven. For example, the IBM supercomputer Watson was developed and tailored to suit treatment plans according to peoples’ genetics. The Telehealth is therefore applied in providing world class healthcare services to people located in the most remote areas across the country. In 2015, Apple, Samsung, and Microsoft among others participated in the launching of platforms dedicated in providing quality healthcare services to enhance wellness across the country. These organizations participated to ensure the process tracks the patient’s progress as they provided wearable consumer technology to the receivers. The advances witnessed across the healthcare information technology however have increased the rate at which data has been piling up as they have improved the speed. As a result, healthcare managers working in a healthcare system’s data warehouse have to work closely with other teams and stakeholders in delivering patient care under meaningful insights. This requires backdated systems to track without system-wide infrastructures to leverage the process. This issue has been a great challenge as making sense of data based on how it is stored and brought together for health managers to gain comprehensive understanding has been exigent (Shannon, Molly, Heather, Emily, Ellie, & Tamara, 2014).

This has encouraged healthcare managers to rely on descriptive and predictive analytics when analyzing big data. This helps them in understanding why patient return seeking further treatment. It also assists in predicting when a patient is likely to return. Consequently, healthcare givers have to understand the causes of a patient returning by being proactive with each patient in order to provide better healthcare attention. The experts within healthcare organizations therefore strive being proactive in provide medical care at reduced costs for improved outcomes. The data developed through this process however has to be integrated which has been challenging. Healthcare organizations relying on data warehousing have had either to move or leave some data (Shannon, Molly, Heather, Emily, Ellie, & Tamara, 2014).

Possible Solutions

Resolving the population health issue has to involve healthcare leaders. The leaders ought to reduce reliance levels on traditional programs. Conversely, the leaders should focus on establishing new partnerships with communities as well as private, public, and non-profit making organizations. More so, healthcare systems ignoring wealth associated with expertise and sufficient resource allocation in order to act autonomously will be reformed. Consequently, issues involving domestic violence, cases of sexual and elderly abuses and public healthcare crises will be identified and resolved by health managers and leaders with sufficient resources and qualified expertise. Accountability will also increase among healthcare organizations prompting them to develop and implement unique programs responding to issues affecting population health (Shannon, Molly, Heather, Emily, Ellie, & Tamara, 2014).

Consequently, resolving the issue associated with shift from volume-based to value-based reimbursement of healthcare services, a new model ought to be developed. The model ought to ensure healthcare payers and providers agree to replace the traditional program paying more attention on the amount of fees paid for a service. The new model should therefore focus on providing healthcare seekers and payers with quality and efficient services. For example, a mixed model that does not rely on the fee-for-service should be developed in order for the traditional program to be completely replaced by 2020. The pay-for-performance model has also been introduced in the market. Healthcare payers are required to make necessary transitions as worthwhile and efficient as possible for providers. Conversely, the healthcare providers ought to adjust their thinking from short-term to long-term. Healthcare leaders and executives should therefore build strategic plans detailing how healthcare organizations ought to develop in a period of at least five years. The plan however, ought to be detailed, flexible, and consistent with environmental changes (Bruce, Kosuke, Sara, & Kate, 2010).

Conversely, resolving the issue allied to infection control and prevention programs across various hospitals in the country sorely involves the healthcare industry undergoing reforms. Foremost, the government should invest in the programs in terms of human capital and medical resources. The government should therefore ensure qualified personnel with adequate skills and experience are tasked with the role of preventing citizens from various infections and diseases. Consequently, healthcare personnel should focus on performing day to day tasks crucial in controlling and preventing infections and diseases. They should undergo retaining to acknowledge the importance of donning and doffing personal protection gears properly. This will effectively and efficiently deal with infections and diseases while the prevention team collectively provides the much needed healthcare averting. Lastly, raising public awareness on the need to perform proper hygiene is vital as it will control and prevent other diverse infections. The culture of infection prevention should therefore be encouraged and supported as it can emphasize the need to develop and embrace programs among citizens, patients, and organizations as well as private and public sectors (Thomas, & Hoangmai, 2016).

In order to resolve the issue allied to integration of efficient healthcare systems, traditional integration approaches ought to acknowledge the need to merge assets. The process of merging and acquisition of healthcare systems and assets is bound to maximize synergy opportunities. As a result, a focus on footprint, operations, head counts, and cost reductions should be paid in order to enhance capabilities among healthcare systems in the country. Achieving true integration of healthcare systems however requires reevaluation and development of integration strategies. This will ensure stalled integrated healthcare systems with reserved mutually reinforcing capacities continue to achieve the benefits. Consequently, they can be gradually improved during integration process based on the strategy and objective roadmap. More importantly, the integrated healthcare systems should be utilized in setting and creation of milestones and temporary transformations. This will ensure difficult decisions and policies guaranteeing positive changes and efficient quality outcomes are formulated and implemented. This however requires a transformation office to be established to act as an unbiased third party driving the process of integrating healthcare systems. Lastly, healthcare facilities should recruit and train staffs with specific skills required in operating integrated systems (Brenda, & Jeanette, 2011).

The issue involving jumbled healthcare information technology with regards to data is closely associated with lack of interoperation in the sector and industry. Healthcare information technology lacking interoperation in the sector and industry should therefore be addressed as the incapability has been crippling the healthcare’s analytical capabilities. Although identifying easy solutions to this issue can also be challenging, advancing healthcare information technology should embrace population health based preventive analytics. They can be effective and impressive as healthcare experts can utilize them in identifying factors crippling particular patients’ healthcare strengths. Consequently, they can develop treatment measures to undertake in order to control and prevent healthcare risks in the future. Thus, the population health-based preventive analysis should be embraced as it will leverage health data while managing population health and pursuing value-based care (Shannon, Molly, Heather, Emily, Ellie, & Tamara, 2014).


In 2010, the government had to spend over eight thousand dollars per citizen on healthcare costs. The amount is more than twice the amount of medical care costs incurred by other advanced and developed nations such as Japan, Germany, and Canada. This revelation however, should not be applied in claiming or judging United States healthcare sector as either bad or ineffective. Instead, it should be applied in justifying that the healthcare administration within the country is expensive. The government is required to take responsibilities involved in payment of healthcare costs through Medicare and Medicaid which has been a burden especially for the poor. Addressing the issues affecting the healthcare sector in the country will therefore ensure future generations do not experience the current challenges (Thomas, & Hoangmai, 2016).

As a result, the first recommendation involves ensuring medical costs are reduced. They have been rising due to reasons beyond demographics of the aging nation. This has encouraged people as well as healthcare seekers and providers to opt for greater volume of healthcare services leaning towards volume-based reimbursement. This explains why Americans have been purchasing improved healthcare services as income levels increase. This however, does not guarantee improved healthcare outcomes even without making wasteful decisions. All levels of healthcare ranging between consumers’ co-payment to government spending has incurred eighteen percent of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product. This translates to the government incurring one dollar for every five dollars an individual is required to pay for medical care. The medical costs should therefore be cut down by at least thirty percent to resolve fiscal crises in the country. To achieve this objective, the following steps should be undertaken (Mark, 2013).

Foremost, traditional healthcare practices including Medicare payments indirectly in support of medical education should be declared obsolete. This will encourage and enable the government to invest in doctor training a process that can save the nation more than five billion on yearly basis. Several people that are Medicare beneficiaries often sped a lifetime contributing payroll taxes during their working years. They also continue to pay premiums after retiring. These hurdles however, do not guarantee that the beneficiaries will utilize the medical cover maximally. Thus, the entitlement bomb that is likely to increase by 2037 among beneficiaries ranging between fifty and eighty million is adversely affecting the federal budget. Consequently, social security claiming the nation’s financial resources for almost a decade will rise. The president and Congress should therefore make legislations reforming the entitlement claims among citizens. Fiscal crises will decrease prompting the national debt to decrease accordingly. Consequently, the government can focus on allocating funds, resources, and staffs in implementing the viable solutions discussed above to resolve the issues affecting United States healthcare sector (Fisher, Goodman, &Skinner, 2009).



Brenda, N., & Jeanette, E. (2011). The Nursing Shortage: Solutions for the Short and Long Term. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing.

Bruce, P., Kosuke, I., Sara, G., & Kate, F. (2010). High Value for Hospital Care: High Value for All? Client Report for National Business Group on Health.

Fisher, E., Goodman, D., & Skinner, J. (2009). Health Care Spending, Quality, and Outcomes: More isn’t Always Better. Milliman Medical Index Measures.

Mark, T. (2013). Taming Medicare Costs: What are the Options? The Christian Science Monitor.

Niall, B., Nicole, C., Lawrence, K., Aaron, M., Marisa, M., Nadia, N., Mark, S., & Reginald, D. (2009). Improving Quality and Value in the U.S. Health Care System. The Brookings Institution.

Shannon, B., Molly, G., Heather, P., Emily, R., Ellie, R., & Tamara, R. (2014). 10 Challenges and Opportunities for Hospitals in 2015. Hospital Review.

Steven, D. P., & Peter, B. B. (2010). How Medicare Could Use Comparative Effectiveness Research in Deciding on New Coverage and Reimbursement. The People to People Health Foundation.

Susan, A. C. (2012).Taming the Beast of Health Care Costs: Why Medicare Reform Alone is Not Enough. Annals Health Law, 21(1).

Thomas, B., & Hoangmai, P. (2016). Primary Care: Current Problems and Proposed Solutions. Health Affairs and Policies Review.

Sample Essays on Red Bull mba essay help: mba essay help

Red Bull

There has been increasing demand, production, and consumption of energy drinks in many countries worldwide. The energy drink industry has been able to produce a sophisticated variety of products to suit the ever-changing consumer demands. This has resultedin the creation of various brands, such as Red Bull, Monster, Shark, Mountain Dew, Lucozade, Mother, and LiquidX among others. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Red Bull, and find out whether it is recommended or its consumption may affect the consumer.

Red Bull was invented by Dietrich Mateschitz in the year 1987 after partnering with Chaleo Yoovidhya in Thailand. Dietrich drew the inspiration to create this product from an energy drink that already existed in Thailand known as Krating Daeng. He wanted to create such a drink for the Western countries.Dietrichmade some modification of the ingredients used to manufacture Krating Daeng and finally came up with Red Bull as a new product. Today, the product is being sold by Red Bull GmbH, an Australian company, packed in a tall slim blue-silver can, and it has penetrated the industry market to become the highest-selling energy drink globally. Red Bull has maintained its visibility in the world market through adverts, celebrity endorsements, sports team ownership, and Red Bull-sponsored events (Alford &Wescott, 2001).

There have been continuous claims associating energy drinks with health-related risks. Some claims are that repeatedly consuming, or excessively consuming it could lead to psychiatric and cardiac conditions. Others say that there could be intoxication if such energy drinks are taken with alcohol. Red Bull, however, is meant to provide the body some extra vital nutrients and energy, especially to those who engage in physical activities requiring a high level of energy, such as outdoor sports. Its ingredients are taurine, sucrose, glucose, caffeine and B vitamins (B3, B5, B6, and B12). Even with such claims of health risks, EFSA (European Food and Safety Authority) indicates that the amount of caffeine contained in Red Bull cans is not likely to interact adversely with alcohol or other constituents of energy drinks.

Therefore, this topic was chosen to critically research and examine the advantages of consuming such drinks, in this case, Red Bull, the disadvantages of using it, and find out if it is recommended or if its consumption may affect the consumer or benefit them health wise. This is a detailed study ranging from the ingredient analysis, analysis of provisions of authorities responsible for health products regulation, the parties that have benefited or have been negatively affected by consuming the product, and the media influence among many other variables.

Arguments in Support of Red Bull Consumption

Since Red Bull is a product that touches on the health of individuals, it has received mixed reactions from its market, some in support for, and some against it. However, why is it still very popular in the global market? It is clear that anything of no good, or any product that puts lives at risk can never receive the attention of such a large number of consumers, especially when there are many other competitor products in the same market. Hence, since in 2013, Red Bull saw a massive sale of 5.387 billion cans.There have to be positive reasons behind such love for the product.

Firstly, as indicated before, Red Bull contains a lot of important nutrients in form of ingredients. Such nutrients are needed not only by physically active persons, but also everyone uses them. The combination of all these ingredients make up the energy drink.

Caffeine has been proved through scientific studies to improve human performance in endurance sports and activities by as much as 19 per cent. The United States Department of Health and Human Services conducted a study with the United States Department of Agriculture to reveal that consuming the amount of caffeine contained in 3 to 5 coffee cups on a day-to-day basis is safe and can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes in adults. Evidence from the research also showed the ability of caffeine to protect the body against Parkinson’s disease (Candow & Grenier, 2009). The caffeine contained in the energy drinks like Red Bull is the main reason behind the increased attention, increased reaction to speed, and overall improved cognitive performance in the people who take the drinks.

Athletic and performance have also been proved to be increased by some percentage after taking the Red Bull. In prolonged driving, for instance, such energy drinks have been seen to improve the performance, and that is why energy drinks are used by most sports drivers, Red Bull and Formula 1 being the most accurate example. Other tests indicated that the Red Bull drink increased power and endurance on those who took the energy drink. Repeated Red Bull tests were conducted on young adults in Wingate and found out that it increased the endurance of the upper body muscles significantly in young adults, which is a very positive effect of the taking the drink (Ragsdale & Batool, 2010). The amount of caffeine and the sugar level in Red Bull energy drink is almost the same as those contained in coffee and fruit juices. Therefore, there is no cause for alarm when taking Red Bull, as long as a person does not consume it repeatedly and frequently.

Additionally, Taurine is among the constituents used in making different energy drinks. Despite the fact that taurine is efficiently available in healthy humans, some may lack the adequate amount due to issues, such as kidney problems, liver problems, and heart failure among others. Certain diets may also inhibit its availability in enough quantity, such as the vegetarian diet. Taurine helps the body to improve hearing functions, electrolyte balance, insulin sensitivity immune modulation and cardiovascular health if it is in adequate amounts in the body. Red Bull uses taurine as an ingredient, hence, ensures such important functions of taurine to the body are taken care of.

Sucrose and glucose used in the manufacture of Red Bull is the main reason it is known as ‘energy drink’. Consuming adequate amounts of sucrose and glucose ensures the availability of optimal amount of energy needed by the body. Only excess consumption of these essential elements may lead to sugar-related diseases.Therefore, Red Bull has taken into consideration this fact, and the drink is made using the recommended amount for each can.The drink does not put the life of the consumer at risk (Astorino & Evans, 2012). This means that consuming a few cans of the drink a day may not disturb the general well-being of the body system, but it may have a positive impact on the energy and performance levels.

Red Bull’s Positive Representation in the Media

Red Bull has a very visible media image all over the world. It mainly targets young adults and those who engage in extreme sports ranging from snowboarding, windsurfing, cliff-diving, motocross, rally, Formula one and many others. It also uses video games like PlayStation 3 and Worms 3D, music and even celebrity endorsements (e.g. the Red Bull EmSee Battle Rap Championship sponsored by Eminem). Red Bull hosts various events including Red Bull Flugtag and other art shows, aside from its ownership of football teams in different countries like Germany, Austria, Brazil and the United States of America. Red Bull has so far established a market for well over 150 related kinds of merchandise.

Arguments Against Red Bull Consumption

As Red Bull celebrates its success regarding broad market acceptance and superior competitive advantage in its industry, there have been various concerns related to health impacts of the same product.  However, it has come from a slight percentage of the consumers, and the company has continually reviewed the issues and produced safer products (Forbes & Chilibeck, 2007). There was a taurine concern raised by a French food safety agency since some people did not recommend the addition of the element to their body systems since it is right that a healthy body already has an adequate amount of the same. It was, however, easy for the Red Bull company as it introduced Red Bull without taurine. Regarding caffeine, glucose and sucrose in the product, there is no concern unless too much Red Bull is taken.

Therefore, it is clear that the positive impacts of taking Red Bull drink outweigh the adverse effects, which are very minimal and they only depend on excessive consumption of the product. The body needs extra energy at some point in time, for instance, when undertaking activities that require the addition of caffeine, taurine, glucose and sucrose as components of Red Bull. This is the cause of overwhelming demand and consumption of Red Bull by celebrities, sports stars, and the general population. I highly recommend the usage of Red Bull to an average young adult.




Alford, C., Cox, H., & Wescott, R. (2001). The effects of red bull energy drink on human

performance and mood. Amino acids, 21(2), 139-150.

Astorino, T. A., Matera, A. J., Basinger, J., Evans, M., Schurman, T., & Marquez, R. (2012).

Effects of red bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes. Amino

 acids, 42(5), 1803-1808.

Candow, D. G., Kleisinger, A. K., Grenier, S., & Dorsch, K. D. (2009). Effect of sugar-free Red

Bull energy drink on high-intensity run time-to-exhaustion in young adults. The Journal

 of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(4), 1271-1275.

Forbes, S. C., Candow, D. G., Little, J. P., Magnus, C., & Chilibeck, P. D. (2007). Effect of Red

Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle

endurance. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 17(5), 433.

Ragsdale, F. R., Gronli, T. D., Batool, N., Haight, N., Mehaffey, A., McMahon, E. C., &

Kastello, G. M. (2010). Effect of Red Bull energy drink on cardiovascular and renal function.

Amino acids, 38(4), 1193-1200.

Sample Argumentative Essays on Butler’s Point of View on Theories of Darwin and Freud my essay help uk

Butler’s Point of View on Theories of Darwin and Freud

Butler says, “The incest taboo not only forbids sexual union between members of the same kinship line, but involves a taboo against homosexuality as well.” The basic idea in this case is that the forbidden social act (incest) would probably hardly repress dispositions that could be regarded as primary. Incest would rather, in an effective manner create the difference that exists between dispositions that are termed as primary and those that are classified as secondary in a line of legitimate and illegitimate homosexuality. However, the question to ambiguity is why the act is underscored in some countries. The answer to the question is that the taboo has an imposition of exogamy as well as alliance on the biological events that take place during sex as well as during procreation. Incest has an effect of dividing the universe on the choices made concerning sexual matters into various categories that are either allowed or prohibited by various sexual intimacies. When Butler says this, she means that if people conceived of the taboo (incest) as a primary productive act by all the effects it has on individuals as well as to the society, the law that prohibits it consequently becomes the means that constitutes identity.

Butler continues to explain that the prohibitive law is the foundation the subject and therefore it could survive as the law on its own desires, thus making up the main constituent of gender identity. She concludes that all cultures aim at reproducing and thus a need to preserve the social identity among the kinship group. Therefore, so should exogamic heterosexuality. Another question to ambiguity in the conclusion is how incest is related to heterosexuality. This could be answered using Rubin’s explanation that ‘gender is not only an identification with one sex; it also entails that sexual desire be directed toward the other sex’ (Judith, prohibition, psychoanalysis, and the heterosexual matrix, 173). A new question about ambiguity in the last answer is why it is difficult why it is possible for incest to be implicated in the aspect of gender. The answer is that ‘the sexual division of labor is implicated in both aspects of gender, both male and female and therefore it creates them heterosexual. (Judith, prohibition, psychoanalysis, and the heterosexual matrix, 180).

The idea that ‘The incest taboo not only forbids sexual union between members of the same kinship line, but involves a taboo against homosexuality as well’ does not always apply for everyone. In some countries, specifically in the western region of the world, some people have embraced sexual acts such as heterosexuality and incest. I think it is sensible for such countries to allow the practices because they portray the free world in which the citizens are. In this case, people are left to make choices in their lives since democracy rules in their counties. It could be argued that there ought to be no limit of democracy as far as the policies and laws made do not interfere with the lives and freedom of other people. With democracy, citizens are allowed to decide whether the proposed rules and policies that are made by the government and other relevant authorities should pass or not. Passing of the proposed rules and policies is an indication that citizens are very much comfortable with them. In this case, when the governments allow incest and heterosexuality, it means that citizens have passed the rules and policies concerning the acts. However, another person could argue that it is against the religious and the social cultural beliefs to allow incest and heterosexuality. Allowing incest is a violation of the social laws and a failure to recognize the role of sexuality in the society, which is to procreate. Biologically, procreation does not take place when people of the same gender engage in sexual intimacy. Therefore, it is not healthy to engage in heterosexuality. In addition, incest violates the cultural values and customs and thus should also not be allowed.

Sample Research Proposal on Raising the Public Awareness of Stroke Symptoms for the Stroke Foundation of New Zealand gp essay help: gp essay help

       I.            Abstract

In New Zealand stroke is a major cause of death, disability and healthcare expenditure.  The most effective way of minimizing damages resulting from stroke is early recognition. Since 2007, the stroke Foundation of New Zealand has adopted FAST approach in increasing public awareness of stroke symptoms. The FAST approach advocated for assessment of facial weaknesses, arm weakness, speech disturbance, and advises of time to take appropriate action to reduce adverse effect of stroke. Nevertheless, the 2011 annual report on stroke awareness campaign shows little progress have been made on public awareness on early recognition of stroke symptoms. The study aims to identify best ways to maximize public awareness of the FAST message.  The study will use both qualitative method and quantitative method. Questionnaire and interviews will be used for collecting data from the selected participants. The study is targeting to obtain information from New Zealanders aged 25 years and above.  Descriptive analysis of the data will be done to provide relevant information that can be used to make a conclusion, recommendation, and future decision making.  The study will help in reducing the damages of stroke by saving lives, and improving treatment outcome

    II.            Background and Problem Definition

Stroke is the third cause of death, disability and healthcare expenditure in New Zealand (Feigin, Krishnamurthi, Barber, & Arroll, 2014). Stroke is defined as a sudden interruption of flow of blood to part of the brain leading to damages of brain cells and eventually the part of the brain stop working (Feigin, & Krishnamurthi, 2011). About 2500 people die every year as a result of the stroke, and a significant number of stroke victims are left with some form of disabilities. The most affected people by stroke are adults aged 65 years and above accounting for nearly 90% (Feigin, Krishnamurthi, Barber, & Arroll, 2014). People with suffering from high blood pressure and obesity are at a high risk of getting stroke than those without high blood pressure.

Although stroke is highly preventable, a large number of New Zealanders continue to suffer from stroke. The high rate of stroke is attributed to lack of awareness of stroke signs and symptoms as well as lack of emergency services that can increase stroke prevention and minimize its damage. Most of the people in New Zealand can’t recognize the signs of stroke occurring and only they realize when it is too late. Conversely, among those individuals who recognize early symptoms of stroke occurring, they lack access to emergency stroke service hospitals, and hence they suffer severe damage before they access the medication.

Stroke Foundation of New Zealand is a national health organization established with an aim of reducing incidences of stroke, save lives, improve treatment outcomes and provide support for those affected by stroke (Feigin, Krishnamurthi, Barber, & Arroll, 2014). In reducing incidences of stroke and saving lives, the foundation carries out public awareness campaigns for stroke risk factors as well as how to recognize early symptoms of stroke. The foundation educates the public on factors that increase the risk of having stroke and also teach them how they can prevent themselves from stroke. Additionally the foundation teaches the public on how to assess early sign and symptoms of stroke and take appropriate action. On improving treatment outcomes, the foundation focuses on health service delivery by improving acute and rehabilitation hospital services. Zeng, Mellon, Hickey, and Williams (2012) state that seeking treatment at early stages of stroke improves treatment outcomes and hence advocates for individuals to take immediate action if they detect signs of stroke. (March, 2011).

According to Burgess, et al., (2012), the most effective way of minimizing damage from stroke is early recognition. The Stroke Foundation of New Zealand has adopted the FAST approach to stroke symptoms recognition as a way of reducing the strokes deaths and disabilities among New Zealanders. Prompt action on stroke symptoms can save lives, improve recovery, and reduce medical expenditure from strokes. The FAST (face, arms, speech, and time) approach helps to recognize early symptoms and respond faster by calling an emergency service number (March, 2011). Some of the signs and symptoms of stroke detected by FAST approach include face dropping on one side, arm weakness on one side, and loss of speech or slurred speech. The Stroke Foundation has provided an emergency service number for people to call if they detect early signs of stroke.

The FAST campaign was started in 2007 with an aim of increasing public awareness of stroke-related symptoms. Prior to the campaign about 40% of New Zealanders could not correctly recognize symptoms of stroke and, as a result, most people could not realize they have stroke until it was too late. Therefore, the number of deaths and disabilities were on the rise. The Fast campaign used mass media leaflets poster, wallet cards, and fridge magnets to deliver the FAST message to a wide range of audiences in New Zealand. The FAST message advocated for assessment of facial weaknesses, arm weakness, speech disturbance, and advises of time to take appropriate attention to reduce adverse effect of stroke (Zeng, Mellon, Hickey, & Williams, 2012).

Although, the New Zealand Foundation have been promoting  the FAST campaign to increased public awareness of stroke recognition symptoms and quick response in case they detect stroke,  the 2010 report on stroke awareness showed no improvement in the levels of public understanding of stroke symptoms have been made since 2007. Therefore, there is need to establish a concrete strategy on how to increase public awareness of the FAST message to minimize damages from stroke. The 2010, stroke awareness campaign recommended that the FAST message campaign should be promoted through national media campaign as well as the use of fast materials such as posters, leaflets, and wallet cards among several others. Nevertheless, the campaign should develop other ways of increasing public awareness such as the use of social media to reach out more people (Te Ao, Brown, Feigin, & Anderson, 2012).

Thus, the main objectives of the study will be to find the best way to maximize public awareness of the FAST message. The study also aims at developing a viable means of establishing such awareness campaigns in a setting where funding and sponsorship to promotional campaign are scarce. In the course of the study, the researcher will answer the following main question; what is the best way to maximize public awareness of the FAST message?

 III.            Research Methodology

The section provides an overview of how the research methodology that will be applied in the study to answer the research questions.

Research Method

The study on raising the public awareness of stroke symptoms in New Zealand will use both qualitative and quantitative research method. Qualitative research design requires the research to collect data from previously conducted studies, peer-reviewed journals, books, and internet sources among others (Kothari, 2011). In this study, the available literature on stroke awareness in New Zealand will be reviewed to formulate the basis for the study. The qualitative research method gives a detailed explanation of the current stroke awareness in the country using the available information. The available literature will help the researcher to identify the gap that exists on how to raise public awareness of stroke symptoms in New Zealand. The available data will also help the researcher to define research question that will be answered in the course of the study. The method will use questionnaires and survey to collect relevant information from the selected participants of the study.

On the other hand, the quantitative study involves the researcher going to the field and collecting raw data from primary sources (Kothari, 2011). The data collected is based on the research question formulated at the beginning of the study. In this study, the researcher will collect primary data with an aim of identifying new ways of raising the public awareness of stroke symptoms in New Zealand. The collected data will be coded into numerical value to be analyzed statistically. The quantitative research method is considered more effective since it ensures accuracy of the study result.

Research Design

The study will employ descriptive research design. Descriptive research involves describing things as they are by identifying characteristics of the subject being studied (Kothari, 2011). The research design will use observation, interviews and survey to collect relevant information for the study. The analysis of the collected data will also try to explain the new ways of improving stroke awareness in New Zealand through FAST message.

 IV.            Sample Selection, Data Collection, and Data Analysis

The section describes how the study to find best ways to maximize public awareness of the FAST message in New Zealand will be conducted. The section describes the target population of the study and sample selection techniques to be used to obtain the sample. The section will also describe how data will be collected and analyzed.

The Target Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique

The population is a set of individuals having homogenous observable characteristics (Flick, 2011).  The target population for the study on how to raise public awareness of stroke symptoms in New Zealand targets New Zealand citizens aged 25 years  and above who are at a high risk of having stroke. As noted, stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in New Zealand thus most New Zealanders are at a very high risk of being attacked by stroke. Although, everyone is prone to stroke attack, people aged above 65 years are at a very high risk than other age groups. However, stroke awareness campaign targets everyone in New Zealand and therefore adult aged 25 years, and above can participate in the study. The current population of individual aged 25 years and above in New Zealand is 3.5 million and will be involved in the study.

The researcher acknowledges that is practically impossible to involve every member of the target population in the study. As a result, sampling will be done to obtain a small number of participants that will represent the target population. The findings obtained from the defined sample will be generalized to the whole population. The study is anticipating using a sample of 200 participants selected from the target population. A sample size of 200 participants is appropriate for the study since it is easily manageable, and the findings can represent the whole population.

To obtain the desired sample, probability-sampling technique will be used. Probability sampling ensures that every individual in the target population has an equal chance to participate in the study. Specifically, random sampling method will be applied in the study. Random sampling involves selecting participants randomly across the country. A computer program will help in selecting participant’s locations. The advantage of using random sampling method in the selection of the sample is that it avoids biases in the selection. The method is also applicable to the large target population and cost effective to apply. However, there are various limitations with the method such as less accurate when a large population is used and time used to access some of the study areas.

Measurement methods and data collection methods

The study will use questionnaires and interviews as the data collection tools. Questionnaires will have a set of questions relevant to the objectives of the study that the participant is expected to fill.  The questionnaires will include two types of questions which are closed-ended questions and open-ended questions (Flick, 2011). Closed-ended questions require the participant to select an answer from a set of multiple choices available. Open-ended questionnaires require participants to give their opinion in relation to the question. Questionnaires will be distributed to the selected participant to fill at their convenience and later collected for analysis. The interview will involve research setting a set of questions that he or she will ask the selected participants. The questions will be used as a guide during the interview to enable the researcher to remain focused to the study topic. The appointment will be made earlier with the participants to enable them to prepare and attend the interview at their convenience. During the interview process, the researcher will take notes on the participant response for future reference.

Both questionnaires and interviews will include the following research questions:

What is stroke?
What are the signs and symptoms of stroke?
How can you respond if you detect stroke signs in your partner?
How did you become aware of the FAST message?
How to maximize public awareness of the FAST message?

Prior to the study, both questionnaires and interview guide will be tested for validity and reliability. Validity test involves testing the extent to which a data collection tool measures what is supposed to measure. In this study, the questionnaires and interviews are supposed to measure public awareness of stroke symptoms and identify ways to increase stroke awareness. Various validity tests will be conducted such as face validity and construct validity test among others. Reliability refers to the extent to which a data collection tool is able to produce stable and consistent results. A reliable data collection tool should ensure consistent results if the test is repeated repeatedly (Flick, 2011).

To ensure validity and reliability of the data collection tools, a pilot study will be conducted. The pilot study will be conducted in Southland district in New Zealand, which will be excluded in the main study. The pilot study that will be conducted will help to detect any weaknesses in the data collection instruments and necessary improvement to be made. During the pilot study, questionnaire will be distributed randomly and then collected for analysis. Any discrepancies in the findings from the questionnaires will be addressed to improve both their reliability and validity (Flick, 2011).

Data Analysis

Data analysis involves breaking down the collected data with an aim of discovering useful information in relation to the study topic that can be used to make a viable conclusion, make recommendations and support decision making (Flick, 2011). In the study to identify the best way to maximize public awareness of the FAST message in New Zealand. Qualitative data analysis will be applied. Qualitative analysis will involve describing this as represented by the data collected in relation to the study question. Quantitative data obtained during the study will be analyzed statistically using computer aided programs such as Excel and SPSS for better understanding. The analyzed data will be presented in the form of notes, graphs, tables, charts and narratives where applicable.




























                                                                                                                                                                 V.            References

Burgess, N. G., Vyas, R., Hudson, J., Browne, O., Lee, Y. C., Jayathissa, S., & Thomson, T. (2012). “Improved stroke care processes and outcomes following the institution of an acute stroke unit at a New Zealand district general hospital.” NZ Med J, 125(1364), 37-46.

Feigin, V. L., & Krishnamurthi, R. (2011). “Stroke prevention in the developing world.” Stroke, 42(12), 3655-3658.

Feigin, V. L., Krishnamurthi, R., Barber, P. A., & Arroll, B. (2014). “Stroke prevention in New Zealand: Can we do better?” International Journal of Stroke, 9(1), 61-63.

Flick, U. (2011). Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. Sage.

Kothari, C. R. (2011). Research methodology: methods and techniques. New Age International.

March, E. G. (2011). “Towards Prevention and Early Recognition of Stroke: The Australian Context.” Brain Impairment, 12(03), 223-230.

Te Ao, B. J., Brown, P. M., Feigin, V. L., & Anderson, C. S. (2012). “Are stroke units cost effective? Evidence from a New Zealand stroke incidence and population‐based study.” International Journal of Stroke, 7(8), 623-630.

Zeng, D., Mellon, L., Hickey, A., & Williams, D. (2012). “An audit of the Beaumont Hospital Acute Stroke Unit and the effectiveness of the Irish FAST campaign.” In BMC Proceedings (Vol. 6, No. Suppl 4, p. O28). BioMed Central.



Sample Research paper on Railroads need essay help: need essay help


The U.S. economy is always experiencing growth. The constant growth causes high demand for rail service. It demonstrates that the rail freight industry is integral to this growth. Railroads provide cost-effective transportation of goods and this range from lumber to oil to auto parts. Also, railroads play a central role in positive economic trends. The economic growth includes an increase in gross domestic product, improving employment statistics and low gasoline prices.

Freight railroad has a set-aside fund for its development and renovation. For example, in 2015, the nation’s major freight railroads plans to spend an estimated $29 billion, which would set an annual record to build, maintain the rail network. Such private spending will go straightway to expenditures for new equipment and locomotives, installation of new track and bridges. It will also include the building of tunnels and new technologies that will be used to keep America’s railroad network the best in the world. Besides, freight railroads estimate they will hire 15,000 people in 2015. These are well-paying jobs being made available due to projected retirements and normal attrition.

The shared economic impact of freight rail spending roughly $575 billion over the past few decades has rippled throughout the country. The private investments have assisted in improving safety, efficiency and reliability of the nation’s 140,000-mile railroad network. It also supports more than 180,000 high-paying jobs at railroads nationwide. Freight railroads are providing an efficient and cheaper means, which U.S. can transport, products for marketing within the country and in the ports, everywhere around the globe

The tremendous benefits provided by private freight rail investments are only made possible by sound public policy and balanced economic regulations. It is essential that the public policy be set to permit railroad development as the 114th Congress begins its legislative session. It is a course that federal regulators ought to have promoted to allow railroads, private developers. The aim should be to work towards meeting the customer demand.. The objective will curb investment at just the time when rail customers are calling for an expansion of service to satisfy the demands of an ascendant economy. The railroad industry’s ability to transport products and commodities rests on its capacity to earn the capital essential to continue with the record of private investments while availing job opportunities in the country. With the right federal policies in place, strategies which support market pricing and fails to  stifle railroad investment is expected to improve.



The construction of the railroads in the United States heralded an economic revolution in the 19th century whose ripple effects are still being felt in the country and beyond up to date. It opened the country to new economic opportunities that attracted not only local but also foreign investors. It changed the transportation sector while offering new economic investment and employment opportunities for Americans and foreigners alike. This study focuses on the economic aspect of railroads in America. The study reviews the background of American railroads, economic developments, benefits of railroads, economic policies and regulations and rail traffic.

The Beginnings of American Railroads

According to James & Thomson in 1980 tracks were first presented in England in the seventeenth century as a method to lessen friction in moving loaded wheeled vehicles.  The first North American railway was established by 1764 for military purposes at the Niagara portage in Lewiston, New York. The builder was Capt. John Montressor, a British engineer, knew to students of historical cartography as a mapmaker. Furthermore, James & Thomson in 1980 noted that John Thomson drew the earliest survey map in the United States showing a marketable “tramroad” in Pennsylvania in October 1809. It is commonly known as “Draft Exhibiting the Railroad” as envisioned by Thomas Leiper. According to the survey by Thomson, he helped Reading Howell, the project engineer, and a well-known mapmaker, build the first useful wooden tracks for a tramroad. Poor in 1870 noted that a marketable tramroad was plotted and made at Quincy, Massachusetts, by Gridley Bryant, the technology employed through Solomon Willard in 1876 (Slason, 1925). These early uses of railways gave a little hint that a revolution in methods of transportation was underway.

Railroads Helping In Economic Development

Railroads have played a transformational role in the development of America- revolutionizing transportation and catalyzing the country’s economic development for more than 180 years. Today, America’s freight railroads assist nearly every industrial, wholesale, retail, and resource-based sector of the economy, operating over a network of approximately 140,000 miles. U.S. freight railroads are overwhelmingly privately owned. They are run almost exclusively on tracks the railroads build and maintain themselves. According to David, (1969), since 1980 to 2014, railroads have spent approximately $575 billion of the funds on engines. The cash expenditure also goes to cargo cars, tracks, bridges, tunnels, and other infrastructure and equipment. The cost was met to keep the economy moving (David, 1969). In 2015, America’s freight railroads plan to spend an estimated $29 billion to sustain and enhance their nationwide network and hire 15,000 people for jobs throughout the U.S.

Benefits of Freight Railroads

Freight rail is one of the country’s most essential industries, and it provides a foundation on which many other industries rely. Strengthening the Economy- Freight railroads carry the cargo that sustains American commerce in large cities and small towns across the country. Freight railroads have invested more than $575 billion since 1980. The investment includes record expenditures of $115 billion from 2009 to 2013 to maintain and improve bridges, tracks, locomotives, freight cars, and other infrastructure and equipment. These investments help increase the capacity and safety of the rail network to meet America’s growing and changing economy (Slason, 1925).

Delivering Global Competitiveness- Railroads haul approximately one-third of all U.S. exports, allowing American industry to be more competitive in the worldwide economy. The railway provides affordable Freight Transport according. An average U.S. rail rates fell 42 percent from 1981 through 2013 meaning the average track customer is now able to ship almost two times as much freight for almost the same price it incurred more than 30 years ago. Sustaining Jobs — A U.S. Department of Commerce model of the U.S. economy approximate freight railroads sustain more than one million opportunities across the country also to the employees. The model shows that every freight railroad job continues another 4.5 jobs elsewhere.

The road is useful in easing taxpayer burdens. This is unlike trucks, barges, and airlines that operate using infrastructure funded mainly by taxpayers, America’s privately owned freight railroads operate almost exclusively on infrastructure they own, build, maintain, and pay for themselves. Helps in increasing fuel efficiency; on average, railroads are four times more fuel-efficient than trucks. They are also useful in reducing pollution. Freight movement by rail reduces greenhouse gas emissions an average of 75. This mode of transport is helpful in lessening highway congestion. A train can carry the load of several hundred tracks reducing highway gridlock, the cost of maintaining existing railroads, and the pressure to build expensive new railroads.

Rail Investments

Privately Owned – The vast majority of U.S. freight railroads are privately owned and operated. The majority of funds needed to maintain, upgrade, and operate the rail freight network comes from the tracks, not taxpayers. There are the record Investments – In recent years, railroads have been reinvesting record amounts on tracks, signaling systems, locomotives, freight cars and more – including more than $25 billion in both 2012 and 2013.   There is also the capital intensive; railroads reinvest at six times the rate of the average manufacturer, building the rails that move America’s economy. The growing freight demand –according to government estimates, 56 tons of cargo are moved per person in America each year. Over the following 30 years, that amount is expected to increase more than 33%.

Freight Rail’s Critical Role In U.S. Economic Resurgence

The nation’s railroads are now transporting more goods than ever before the Great Recession. As business production and consumer demand continue to increase, rail is playing a central role in getting an enormous range of American products to market. The products are both domestic and international. It also provides delivery services from around the world.

Working With Customers To Forecast Demand

Proper management of the rail network means continuously working closely with the clients to understand how the demand for their products affect the supply of trains and equipment. Forecasting the transportation demand is a very difficult issue. It extensively relies on the input from customers, economists, and experiences. If the demand exceeds estimates, or if there is an unforeseen need for a particular type of rail car, it can have a temporary impact on service. It especially has been shown by the recent levels of freight traffic. Railroads continuously work with customers and the developers to improve transportation demand forecasts.  It also works to improve efficiencies and investments that provide the needed capacity across the world’s best freight rail network.  Here are a few ways they are doing this:

Strategic Planning – From redesigning yard and terminal processing plans to rethinking locomotive assignment and deployment, freight railroads are always looking to improve internal processes and planning to keep the network flowing more smoothly. Information technology- Developing and deploying new and improved information technology can improve system functions, from scheduling maintenance to “real time” movement planning. People and Equipment – Railroads know that moving more goods requires more railway assets:  trained employees, higher capacity freight equipment, maintenance machinery, and much more. Infrastructure – Over the longer term, new capacity can be added to the main line and terminal upgrades, new signal and control infrastructure, new maintenance facilities and other network replacements, updates and additions.

Types of Railroads

Class I railroads have annual revenue exceeding $453 million and account for sixty percent of the industry’s mileage, ninety percent of its employees, and ninety-four percent of its freight revenue (Henry, 1870). They operate in 44 states and the District of Columbia and concentrate largely on long-haul, high-density intercity traffic. There are seven Class one railroads, which include BNSF Railway Company, Canadian Pacific Railway, CN, Kansas City Southern Railway Company, CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern Railway Company, and Union Pacific Railroad.

Short line and regional railroads account for 31 percent of U.S. freight rail mileage and 10 percent of employees. They range in size from small operators handling a few carloads a month to multi-state operators close to Class I size. The more than 560 short line and regional railroads operate in every U.S. state apart from Hawaii and in most cases feed traffic to Class one railroads and receive traffic from Class one tracks for final delivery. Switching and terminal railroads usually perform pick-up and delivery services within a port or industrial area or move traffic between other railroads. Passenger trains in the U.S. typically operate over tracks owned by freight railroads. Approximately 70 percent of the miles traveled by Amtrak trains are on tracks owned by freight railroads. Moreover, hundreds of millions of commuter trips every year occurs on commuter rail systems that operate, at least partially, over track or right-of-way owned by freight railroads.

Rail Traffic Growth Reflects Changing Economy

The Business production and consumer demand are on the rise, and railroads are playing an important role in transporting American goods to market, both domestically and internationally. As the year-end results for 2014 indicate, freight rail is transporting more of many different commodities, as rail traffic patterns have shifted along with our changing economy. The rail industry is an indicator of the health of the economy at large. From energy products to consumer goods to agricultural commodities — railroads are continuing to move what helps power our recovering economy.

Rail traffic figures for the year provide a telling snapshot. In fact, 18 of the 20 commodity categories tracked by the Association of American Railroads (AAR) showed year-over-year increases in 2014. Another exciting indicator of overall economic growth is the meteoric rise in U.S. rail intermodal, the containers and trailer traffic that can travel by truck, rail or both. The nation’s rail network experienced this shift in traffic volumes in a relatively short period. The rapid change in customer demand to move more of different products is something neither railroads nor their clients fully anticipated. The industry is adapting and responding, working hard to remedy any service challenges, and the commitment to providing the super service the customers expect and demand.

Economic Regulations

At the top, of the freight railroad industry’s policy concerns is pushed by some rail shipper groups who strive to obtain price caps and force a change to rail operations through new regulations. The other proposals would majorly expand the role of government in the day-to-day management of railroads. It enables the government to curb railroads’ ability to earn the revenue necessary to sustain infrastructure spending. In seeking increased regulation and government intervention, the rail customers are simultaneously laying the charge that railroads are not investing enough to satisfy the growing demand for train service and to improve network efficiency. It is not possible for shippers to have it both ways. The U.S. rail system survives and expands overwhelmingly on private investment — its own.

Imposing price caps instead of letting the marketplace works on its means. Railroads have less revenue to spend on essential infrastructure improvements at precisely the wrong time. When there is a rise in demand to move more to power the recovering economy. The current economic regulatory structure works towards providing multiple avenues for shippers to seek regulatory review of concerns. Alternatively, it gives railroads the opportunity to earn the revenue that is necessary for the reinvestment in the rail system. The current economic regulatory frameworks also provide an enabling environment in which rail companies — rather than U.S. taxpayers — foot the bill for the maintenance and upkeep of the coast-to-coast railroads that support industries. A healthy freight railroad industry is critical to the nation’s economic recovery and growth. To continue with today’s balanced regulation is essential for a robust freight rail network in 2015 and beyond.


Just as historians argue over the fact whether railroads determined the pace of economic development in nineteenth-century America. Robert Fogel, among others, have tried to measure the impacts of transportation innovations on American development using new tools of economic history. The conclusion is that the contribution of railroads was not very as crucial as some had maintained. The issue is a very controversial one, but the fact remains that the railroads came, saw, and conquered nineteenth century in America in more than one ways.

They are considered the liberating means. They have increased mobility and speed across the continent. On the other hand, they have confined people, for instance, they had the power of economic life and death over many persons, often abusing that power. With no doubt, the railroads played a significant role important role in developing concepts of management and also brought forth big corporations, but usually accompanied by unique financial practices and greed. They provided employment opportunities for thousands of workers, but the conditions under which these laborers had to work and live was harsh and made them revolt and informed the nation of the hardships of the working class. The railroads were largely responsible for the settlement of the West. It simultaneously helped in extinguishing the Native American population. They were prizes won for every part of the divided nation in the initial years before the Civil War. It linked the country with the very first transcontinental railroad in 1869. They were all built on government money, yet eventually they became the first and most heavily regulated segment of the private sector.

Annotated Bibliography

David, P. (1969): “Transport Innovation and Economic Growth: Professor Fogel on and off the Rails.” The Economic History Review, 22(3), pp. 506-524.

David highlights innovation, which has taken place in the transport industry. He also highlights the economic growth of the railroads in the twentieth century. The author outlines the history of the American railway and the distribution of the ticket prices in the 1900s. From the journal, we get to realize that there have been great advances in the railroad transport. From the article, it is clear that railroads have played a transformational role in the development of America- revolutionizing transportation. It has further catalyzing the country’s economic development for more than 180 years. The transport system is presently useful in the industrial, retail and economic sector. According to the writer, U.S. freight railroads are privately owned and hence a good income earner for the government.


Henry, V. P. Manual of the Railroads of the United States for 1870-71. 1870. New York: H. V. H.V.& H. W Poor 1870), p. xxviii.

Henry highlights the historical developments, which led to demand of the railroad in the United States. There was the inward movement of people, agricultural growth and utilization of the natural resources which forced people to move from one region to another. He goes on to highlight the developments, which took place in the railroads. According to the writer, the objective of introducing the railroads was to reduce the congestion, which was experienced on the vehicles.


Slason, T. 1925. A Short History of American Railways. Chicago: Bureau of Railway News and Statistics. Page 154.

Sample Essay on The Feedback Process and its Influence in Shaping a Client’s Decision essay help service

The Feedback Process and its Influence in Shaping a Client’s Decision

The feedback that we regularly received from our client played a key role in influencing the decision of setting up a food bank. Feedback is the information received at regular intervals during the execution of projects. The client at hand needed to set up a food bank. The feedback that I was to provide to the client was on the technical feasibility of the food bank project. This includes the economic and financial viability and the human personnel capacity viability. The food bank was particularly intended to shield the client’s country from volatile food prices in the world market. The food bank project was economically viable since increase in the global population has consequently led to an increase in food prices due to high demand. This would in turn save enormous foreign exchange reserves and improve the current account deficit and balance of payments. The food bank would be established using either local food reserves or imports from abroad. The client confirmed that the food bank would be built from local food reserves produced within the country. The country is faced with production gluts seasonally. This excess food has been stored in reserves to cushion the country during the periods of low production – when there is high demand – leading to skyrocketing food prices. From our client’s perspective, setting up a food bank or food reserve was imperative to cushion the country from high food prices in the global markets.

Additionally, the client put forward the idea that importing from the world markets during a glut should be taken into consideration. During peaks of high production, it is followed by low prices, which provide an opportune time to mop up excess supplies into their own food bank. The client was faced with the question whether they would be able to beat bureaucracy and red tape to establish the food bank. The client requires approval from various stakeholders such as the Ministry of Agriculture and Standards bodies, among others, in order for their establishment to be successful. The client responded by stating that they had sufficient political connections at the top that may come in handy.


Cajander, Å., Daniels, M., Peters, A. K., & McDermott, R. (2014). Critical Thinking, Peer-

Writing, and the Importance of Feedback. In 44th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education.

Park, C., Wilding, M., & Chung, C. (2014). The importance of feedback: Policy transfer,

translation and the role of communication. Policy Studies, 35(4), 397-412.


Sample Essay on Statement of Purpose for Software Engineering essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Statement of Purpose for Software Engineering

Truth can only be found in one place: the code, this philosophy has been my driving force and it has immensely inspired me to study software engineering as a career. Since I was a child, I developed a strong interest in understanding how things work. I always found myself questioning how the computer that was in our home functioned, how the refrigerator and the bicycle were made, and how the electric switch was able to put electricity on and off with a single switch. Though I was curious in many things, I realized that what interested me most were computers. I spent many hours on the computer trying to understand how software interacted. The deep curiosity and the immense passion that I developed for computers motivated me to study software engineering. My strenuous efforts in this field helped me to gain entry to {KINDLY PUT THE NAME OF THE SCHOOL WHERE YOU DID YOU FIRST DEGREE}; this school is eminent in teaching engineering.

I personally believe I am well prepared for graduate work. During my undergraduate studies, I acquired significant knowledge: I was able to take advanced courses in the field of computer science. As a graduate student in department of software engineering, I developed a deep interest for working hard and being sincere with my work. I became more inquisitive; this motivated me to have passion for what appeared to be hard for many people. The rigorous curriculum in my graduate school helped me to study courses, such as testing and quality assurance, project management, software architecture, and the object oriented analysis and design. The testing and quality assurance helped me to learn about ways of monitoring the software engineering process and ways that were used for the purpose of guaranteeing quality. I have learnt that many methods can be used to monitor software engineering process. Since the software quality assurance is made up of entire software development process, I was able to learn about software design, software coding, reviewing codes, testing, and release management. Through software architecture, I am now able to organize a software system including selecting structural elements together with their interfaces. Through the object oriented analysis and design, I can design applications through object oriented paradigm, and utilization of visual modeling.

Besides having a master’s degree in software engineering, I also have a master’s degree in networking engineering. I have faith that this degree is important in pursuing my PhD degree. The degree has helped me to have immense knowledge when it comes to designing and operating devices. Through this degree, I have been able to gain skills in research, and project management through engineering. I am a member of the Golden key organization an NGO that is affiliated with over 400 universities. Through the organization, I have been able realize my full potential; this is because I have been able to link my individual accomplishments with service and lifelong opportunities that utilize the field of software engineering.

I believe that undergraduate and master’s degree are exposures to any branch at university level. I feel that both my bachelor’s and master’s degree have provided me with enough exposure to various possibilities for purposes of research and development in my area of interest. I chose software engineering because I believe that I have enough aptitude and liking for this subject. For a person to be able to pursue a PhD degree in software engineering, it is significant to study and have an understanding of the finer nuances of that subject. I believe that a PhD in your institution will provide me with both adequate skills and prepare me to be a good researcher and software engineer. I will consider the chance to be in your institution a privilege because your institution has the best facilities and rich research opportunities. I am positive that the interactions I will have with faculty members in the software department will be significant and will assist me in my development as a software engineer. I personally feel your institution has much it can offer me; I am positive that I will contribute positively to this institution. It is precisely for this reason that I am requesting a chance to pursue a PhD degree at your institution.

I expect that the graduate work in {PUT NAME OF INSTITUTION YOU ARE APPLYING TO}, will be immensely demanding, and challenging but at the end, I know I will receive the rewards for hard work. To be able to go through the challenges that will be presented during my graduate studies, I have adequately prepared myself from both an intellectual and a social point of view. Therefore, I believe that I am well prepared to adequately handle all the challenges that will come my way. I harbor a positive mindset, and believe this mindset will help me achieve all my dreams. I hope to learn from your prestigious institution and grow as a software engineer.

I will use my PhD degree in software engineering to prepare myself adequately for future research in the field of software engineering. I will be able to achieve my personal goals of becoming a successful software engineer. I believe I will carry the mission of your institution forward by serving with zeal in community. It is for this reason that I kindly submit my application and request that you consider me at your institution.

Sample Essay on Transactional leadership essay help service

Transactional leadership

This literature review examines scholarly literature that different researchers have documented as pertains to leadership. Evidence indicates that contemporary scholars have introduced two styles of leadership, transactional and transformational leadership, which are commonly being used to manage organizations in the 21st century society. As argued by Gardiner (2006) in his literature, transactional leadership, which is also defined as managerial leadership, is a theory of leadership that concentrates on supervisory, organizational and group performance. It is a style of leadership whereby an organizational leader enhances compliance among the subordinate members through rewarding and punitive actions. Different from the transformational style of leadership, leaders employing transactional leadership do not focus on future but they merely intend to maintain things in their present form. Transactional leaders further pay attention to the subordinate members’ work so as to establish possible faults or deviations from expected outcomes and subsequently imply negative reinforcement as a corrective measure. Unlike the transformational style of leadership that intends to integrate innovative ideas that can transform the organization as a whole, transactional leadership can only be effective when applied in crisis and emergency management particularly when undertaking projects that need to be implemented in a particularly way.

By contrast, transformational leadership describes a style of leadership that charges leaders with the role of perpetuating change through vision creation as well as inspiring committed members of a subordinate group. This style of leadership aims to influence major transformations in thoughts and assumptions of organizational members to enhance realization of key organizational objectives (Foster, 1989). From this definition, it agreeable that transactional leadership is a style of leadership that focuses on the current situation by aiming to improve current performance without focusing on the future as is the case with transformational leadership.

Qualities of transactional leadership

            Understanding qualities that distinguish transactional leadership can help to explain the appropriateness of its application in organizational management. A study by Fullan (1999) showed that transactional leaders integrate punitive and rewarding actions to enhance compliance among the subordinate members (Bass, 1990). Leaders using this style of leadership tend to be action-oriented and they are always willing to negotiate with the subordinate members to perpetuate realization of organizational goals. Transactional leaders tend to work with prevailing systems and think within the box when addressing problems. On this note, it is agreeable that this style of leadership is merely passive as it does not integrate new ideas but it only aims to employ already exiting ideas to address issues. Two key attributes, contingent reward as well as management-by-exception distinguish transactional style of leadership. Contingent reward is an attribute that offers rewards in recognition for good performance while management-by-exception upholds the status quo and only allows for intervention when subordinate members do not meet expected level of performance (Assaf, 2012).

Comparison between transactional and transformational leadership

            A comparative study was carried out by Boehnke at al (2003) with the intention of establish how transactional leadership differs with transformational leadership. He established that transactional leaders trade concrete rewards to compliance and achievements made by subordinate members. By contrast, transformational leaders engage with the subordinate members and focus on greater intrinsic needs and raise awareness on the need to enhance certain outcomes. On this note, it is apparent that transactional leadership is a more passive style of leadership where subordinate members only aim to respond to certain types of rewards (Dougherty, 2012). Transformational leadership is however a proactive style that allows subordinate members to exhibit active behaviors intended to accomplish certain organizational goals and strategies. Transactional leadership is inclined on management-by-exception factor, which intends to maintain the status quo and only seeks to implement corrective measures when desired performance is not met. By contrast, transformational leadership is based on individualized consideration where each performance-related behavior is directed to each member of the organizational team to express consent and support (Fullan, 1999). On this note, it is evident that transactional leaders do not create room for introduction of new ideas as is the case with transformational leadership.

Transactional management in educational context in UAE

Previous studies indicate that transactional leadership style has widely been used to manage educational institutions in UAE. Educational leaders in UAE increasingly promote contingent reward by giving reciprocal reinforcements in exchange for duty from subordinate members. The contingent factor is usually promoted by school principals who create employment contracts and define agreements that would guide teachers in achieving specific work-related goals. School principals for example clarify the specific outcomes that subordinate teachers ought to accomplish and they in return receive rewards that include complements, pay increment and recognition for achieving expected outcomes (Assaf, 2012). These transactional leaders are however not interested in promoting a high degree of motivation or job satisfaction. This however is not the case with the few educational leaders that manage schools using the transformational style of leadership (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999). This is because transformational leaders in UAE tend to be more focused on future stability of the system for which they are responsible. Such leaders are not committed towards exchanging rewards for the outcomes achieved but they aim to promote innovative ideas that can bring change. At this point, it is agreeable that transformational leadership is a more desirable form of leadership particularly because there is a rapidly evolving trend in educational transformation in UAE (Fullan, 2007).


Assaf, M. A. (2012). Students Learn Best in Schools that Learn: Professional Learning Communities, in Dougherty, P (Ed.).

Bass, B.M. (1990). From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision, Organizational Dynamics, 18(3): 20 – 31.

Bass, B.M. & Steidlmeier, P. (1999), Ethics, Character, and Authentic Transformational Leadership Behaviour, Leadership Quarterly, 10(2): 181 – 217.

Boehnke, K., Bontis, N., DiStefano, J.J., DiStefano, A.C. (2003). Transformational Leadership: an Examination of Cross-National Differences and Similarities, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(1): 5-15

Dougherty, P., (Ed.) (2012). Education and the United Arab Emirates: Perspectives from Experience. Abu Dhabi: HCT Press.

Foster, W. (1989). Towards a Critical Perspective of Leadership. In Smyth, J. (Ed.)

Fullan, M. G. (1999). Change Forces: The Sequel. Philadelphia, PA: Falmer Press.

Fullan, M.G. (2007). The New Meaning of Educational Change (4th ed.), New York: Teachers College Press.

Fullan, M. (2011). Change Leader: Learning to do what matters most. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.

Gardiner, J.J. (2006). Transactional, Transformational, and Transcendent Leadership: Metaphors Mapping: The Evolution of the Theory and Practice of Governance, Leadership Review, 6, 62-76.


%d bloggers like this: