The article indicates that the construction industry is related with the release of enormous quantities of non-toxic waste into the environment. However, proper waste management can be achieved by the deployment of closed-loop supply chains in production processes. Waste and depletion of natural resources, which are harmful to the environment, can be prevented by reverse logistics (Pushpamali et al., 2019). Therefore, reverse logistics is a strategy for controlling waste in upstream processes.
Researchers have brought awareness to the fact that reverse logistics provides economic and social benefits as well as environmental vitality. Since materials may be easily reused and recycled, it reduces pollution within the main manufacturing system and saves consumers money on building costs. The research examines the adoption of reverse logistics in the upstream process, utilizing data mining and literature review for comparative comparison. Due to the prevalence of recycling in the building industry, reverse logistics is required to realize economic and environmental benefits (Pushpamali et al., 2019). In the construction upstream process, correct designs should be utilized. It would ensure that regulations to minimize waste, pollution, and overconsumption of resources are implemented.
IJPR Studies on Reverse Logistics and Closed-Loop Supply Chain Management: A Review
Analysis of Biometrics and Content
The concept of reverse logistics has been utilized as a profit-generating method by recovering used merchandise. It involves planning, developing, and controlling the reverse flow of production resources. Therefore, reverse logistics is the foundation of closed-loop supply chain procedures, which includes accounting for forward and reverse items at the beginning and conclusion of their lives. Consumers return worn-out and defective goods to the industry for the manufacturing of replacements. The review was undertaken using a well-planned procedure for gathering data from International Journal of Production Research (IJPR) articles (Kazemi et al., 2019). For both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the findings in the field of reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain, biometric and content analysis were performed.
Papers in the International Journal of Production Research examined the content analysis that revealed expanded ranges of Reverse Logistics and Closed-Loop Supply Chain. It is understood that inventory management and product return control must be well-programmed. The collecting of end-of-life products from consumers and their return to manufacturers is essential for reducing waste. In addition, it can be demonstrated that closed-loop supply chain techniques lead to maximum output through effective coordination (Kazemi et al., 2019). In addition to academic works, versatile and active industrial production publications should be recognized as future advancement factors in order to shed more light on the reality of reverse logistics implementation for economic gain.
A Review of the Literature on Closed-Loop Supply Chains
Modeling and optimizing supply chain management is a technical process, but it is essential for producing high-quality goods at the lowest possible cost. The emergence of environmental and economic issues has led to the concept of developing closed-loop supply chains. A closed-loop supply chain includes both forward and reverse activities (Konyalolu & Zafeirakopoulou, 2020). The review examined published articles on the closed-loop supply chain from 1999 to 2017 to determine its development or evolution through time.
Utilizing a variety of techniques, a closed-loop supply chain has been optimized for maximum productivity. Initially, 0-1 integer programming was used to handle the distribution concerns of remanufactured products that were being collected. Currently, mathematical modeling including numerous objectives is utilized to design a sustainable supply chain, enabling the realization of advantages while simultaneously resolving location or distribution difficulties. Combining deterministic and stochastic variables allows the model to reflect real-world events, such as the industrial production process, in addition to academic discoveries. Over time, it has been apparent that implementing a closed-loop supply chain eliminates the environmental and economic downsides of industrial manufacturing (Konyalolu & Zafeirakopoulos, 2020). Various techniques are utilized in the closed-loop supply chain to achieve the desired outcomes, and mathematical modeling is essential to increase the likelihood of its realization.
Managing a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Remanufacturing Process Innovation
It is acknowledged that remanufacturing is essential for attaining sustainable future development, as it reduces the disposal of discarded products and conserves energy required in the production process. Therefore, consideration should be given to the processes involved in the development of new products in order to reap the most benefit from remanufacturing. It is vital to prioritize economics in order to make the product cost-effective. The management of closed-loop supply chains and remanufacturing are of great importance (Reimann et al., 2019). The article assumes that for all new manufacturing, remanufacturing utilizes extremely low production costs and maximizes savings opportunities. Therefore, it illustrates that remanufacturing typically necessitates procedural innovation to achieve significant cost savings.
A closed-loop supply chain consisted of a manufacturer and a retailer was analyzed in this study. Either the store or the manufacturer uses end-of-life materials for remanufacturing, which can be costly due to the gathering and innovative processing required to create new items. It demonstrates that cost reduction in the remanufacturing process will not always result in a beneficial outcome. The manufacturer should avoid remanufacturing choices that do not allow for variable cost reduction in order to generate a profit at the end of production. In contrast, retailers would capitalize on remanufacturing to compete with the new goods on the market (Reimann et al., 2019). The management of closed-loop supply chains and innovation necessitates the manufacturer's efforts to make the process cost-effective.
Review of the Literature on the Methods of Measuring Reverse Logistics Performance
Reverse logistics is essential for increasing a company's market competitiveness. Recognizing its relevance in the production process, a system for monitoring and evaluating performance based on both financial and non-financial factors must be implemented. By recovering products and returning them to the company at the moment when consumers desire to dispose of, resell, or reuse them, the maximum profit is realized through subsequent processing and sale (Fernandes et al., 2018). In addition, the reduced likelihood of pollution promotes environmental health and social well-being. In the review, methods for monitoring the performance of reverse logistics in relation to anticipated advantages are explored.
Customers are intimately linked to the good performance of reverse logistics in the economic dimension, as demonstrated. The rate of their consumption and the ease of their recovery define the effectiveness of reverse logistics in enhancing the company's competitiveness and decreasing the likelihood of environmental contamination. Typically, optimizing a company's internal operations is necessary to generate customers with a high quality or value. The government must be pleased with both the rate of energy use during manufacturing and the state of the environment. As a measure of innovation, profitability and employee satisfaction must be satisfactory (Fernandes et al., 2018). Therefore, reverse logistics should play a significant role in fostering development anytime a company executes its manufacturing procedures.
New developments in reverse logistics
Reverse logistics is defined by the Executive Council of Reverse Logistics as "a movement of materials from a typical final consumption in the opposite direction to recover value or to dispose of wastes." It is a strategic process of establishing and controlling raw resources, inventory that is being processed, final products, and customer consumption requirements. Reverse logistics includes the management of manufacturing, sorting, and storage of resources, as well as the recovery of consumed assets and transportation of commodities (Antonová et al., 2016). All of these are carried out to guarantee client happiness and improve economic and environmental viability.
Garbage management is the focus of reverse logistics, which requires the development of a system to identify the primary sources of waste, assess their economic implications, and determine their appropriateness for recycling. Therefore, a suitable procedure can be designed, which may include recycling, remanufacturing, supply control, and transportation. The integration of society and technology has spawned new reverse logistics practices, such as research on materials and the viability of recycling, reuse, and diversification in the creation of new products. In addition, the economic impact of reverse logistics is accounted for in the model used to estimate cost factors. Consequently, algorithmic modeling has led to stochastic and deterministic approaches in the supply chain. (Antonová et al., 2016) Nonetheless, there are a variety of approaches applicable to assuring maximum income creation for various businesses. Consequently, model definition and the projected benefits of operating small-scale businesses with reverse logistics are crucial to determining economic effects. Consequently, it constitutes the trendiest issue for future research.
Specifics of Food Sector Closed-Loop Supply Chain Management
In the business world, sustainable development is one of the concerns discussed. It highlights social responsibility and economic expansion. Therefore, supply chain management should be consistent with regard to reverse logistics, which includes reusing materials for production and limiting waste and environmental contamination. Closed-Loop Supply Chain in the food business is associated with substantial wastage due to the short shelf-life of raw materials and finished goods, as was described in this study (Szmelter, 2016). Thus, environmental contamination is strongly connected with both food production and marketing inconsistencies.
Closed-Loop Supply Chains that are concerned with waste management should ensure that products are withdrawn from the seller's inventory in order to restrict their distribution. Consequently, it calls attention to the management of food production sequences. Consumable goods that are damaged or improperly packaged should not be distributed to the market. Therefore, it means that comprehensive programs should be implemented in the food industry's closed-loop supply chain management (Szmelter, 2016). Therefore, it is vital to establish a distinct research field devoted to Closed-Loop Supply Chain Management in the food business.
Reverse Logistics and Closed-Loop Supply Chains: A Review
Focus Journal for Cleaner Production
The forward supply chain is concerned with completing a product for consumption but is unconcerned about the product's demise. The reverse supply chain, on the other hand, involves reusing items from their point of disposal due to depletion for continued production. However, a closed supply chain incorporates the characteristics of both forward and reverse supply networks. It is simple to determine the trend in reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain through review articles (Govindan & Soleimani, 2017). Approaches to modeling supply networks, problem-solving techniques, and decision-making variables are the paper's primary topics.
It has been discovered through a comprehensive literature analysis that there are three layers of decision making within the closed-loop supply chain. The majority of articles published in the Journal of Cleaner Production are grounded in real-world study, enabling for the dissemination of insights that are applicable to reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain. According to the journal's articles, additional research is required in the field of modeling that involves algorithmic output optimization after factoring in the investment variable (Govindan & Soleimani, 2017). Decision-making should take into account the strategic variables, all other determinants, and indications of closed-loop supply chain and reverse logistics in fostering economic success.
Reverse Logistics for Retail Return Management
A Systematic Review of the Literature from 2007 to 2016
Reverse logistics is an important business management tool. The retail sector plays a crucial role in the supply chain since it distributes items to consumers and maintains social relationships between them and manufacturers. Determining the efficacy of reverse logistics in the management of returns is crucial, as demonstrated in this research. According to the paper's premise, reverse logistics is still a new industry in supply chain management; therefore, further research should be explored for its use in return control. As prices are monitored even at the retail level, it is anticipated that this strategy will increase competitiveness by fostering social cohesiveness and economic appropriateness (Dias et al., 2019). Investing in more research would aid in the collection of additional data regarding the feasibility of reverse logistics in returns monitoring and retail sector management during marketing.
Evaluation of Reverse Logistics Performance
Possibilities for Future Studies
As a result of technical breakthroughs and a wealth of information in business disciplines, numerous firms across the globe have undergone numerous transformations. Therefore, performance is a factor for success in the competitive economic domains. Various indicators are used to evaluate performance and assess success. Due to the fact that reverse logistics is a frequently exploited aspect of corporate operations, establishing its success through performance evaluation is vital and the focus of this article. The performance of businesses utilizing reverse logistics must be reviewed, and successful management techniques must be established (Voigt et al., 2019). Theoretical frameworks should be developed to aid in establishing the performance requirements of various businesses that utilize reverse logistics for operations management. By investing in gaining a deeper understanding of reverse logistics and business performance, management can be simplified.
Antonyová, A., Antony, P. & Soewito, B. (2016). Logistics management: emerging reverse logistics trends Conference Series of the Journal of Physics, 710(1), 1-10. Web.
Dias, K. T., Braga Jr., S. S., Silva, D. & Satolo, E. G. (2019). Reverse logistics for retail return management: A systematic assessment of the literature from 2007 to 2016. New Global Perspectives on Industrial Engineering, volume 5, pages 145 to 153. Web.
Fernandes, S. M., Taboada, C. M., Bornia, A. C., Trierweiller, A. C., Maria da Silva, S. & Sá Freire, P. (2018). A systematic literature study on the methods for monitoring the performance of reverse logistics. Gestao and Producao, 175-190. Web.
Govindan, K. & Soleimani, H. (2017). A Journal of cleaner manufacturing evaluation of reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chains 142, 371-384 Journal of Cleaner Production. Web.
Kazemi, N., Modak, N. M. & Govindan, K. (2019). A bibliometric and content study of the reverse logistics and closed loop supply chain management papers published in IJPR. Web.
Konyalıoğlu, A. K. & Zafeirakopoulos, I. B. (2020). A survey of the literature on closed loop supply chains 2019 International Production Research Symposium, 547-556. Web.
Pushpamali, N. N., Agdas, D. & Rose, T. M. (2019). A review of reverse logistics from the standpoint of the upstream construction supply chain. Sustainability, 11(1):1-14 online.
Reimann, M., Xiong, Y. & Zhou, Y. (2019). Managing a closed-loop supply chain using remanufacturing process innovation. 276, 510-518. European Journal of Operational Research. Web.
Szmelter, A. (2016). Food industry closed loop supply chain management details. 2, 14-19, Journal of Reverse Logistics.
Voigt, D., Filho, N. C., Macedo, M. A., Braga, T. G. & Garbin da Rocha, R. U. (2019). Future research possibilities in performance evaluation of reverse logistics Sustainability, 11, 1-17. Web.
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