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IDENTIFYING MASLOW’S BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ON MOTIVATION Essay Help From Professional Writers

Identify Maslow’s 5 basic assumptions regarding motivation as well as Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs. Discuss each assumption and hierarchy level. Include specific examples from Scripture regarding motivation


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ANALYZING RESEARCH DESIGNS cheap mba definition essay help

For this assignment, again, it is beneficial that you keep the topic you would like to research for the capstone proposal in mind. The capstone will require a literature review for your proposal, of which you may use articles obtained during this course. Select a peer-reviewed, non-experimental research study that exemplifies a correlational and quasi-experimental design (use keywords method, results, and discussion in your Boolean search). These studies can be found using tools such as Google Scholar. Write a 600-800-word paper in which you:



Compare the research design of the two studies chosen.
Were the research designs appropriate to their hypothesis (the goal of the research or research question)? Why or why not
Discuss the limitations of drawing conclusions from a non-experimental study.
Did the study have a random sample? Were there other problems that were noticed?

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.


 


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INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Assignment detailed instructions: Write a three-page (minimum of 750 words) essay addressing the following eight questions. The paper should be in APA format, double spaced, 12 font, and include references/bibliography(MINIMUM 3) on the fourth page.


 


Write eight paragraphs addressing these eight prompts:


Part 1 Intercultural Competence



Identify and describe a specific issue of concern to a specific community for the focus of your essay. Choose from DACA and immigration laws, racism, prochoice/prolife, millennials, rape culture, gender equality, same-sex marriage, marijuana laws, religion in schools, human trafficking, white privilege, police brutality, gun control, or another social justice issue.
Define culture and cultural competence and discuss how your own culture has shaped your identity and world view related to the issue you chose.
Discuss significant characteristics about another culture and how and why they see this issue perhaps differently than you. (put yourself in their shoes, see it from their perspective)
Discuss how you have or how you might adjust your actions and communication style to successfully interact with someone from another culture/viewpoint.

 


Part 2 Engagement with Communities: Social Responsibility



Discuss your civic responsibility related to the issue you chose to write about in this essay.
Discuss effective participation in civic engagement activities related to this issue.
Describe your understanding of the purpose and benefits of civic engagement.
If you have engaged in civic activities related to this issue or another issue of importance to you, describe that experience. What was the purpose? What were the benefits? What did you learn?

 


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CURRICULUM PLANNING IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN melbourne essay help

could be implemented as part of an effective curriculum for preschool children (ages 3–4). Ideally, curriculum planning is a collaborative process. For this Work Product, you will interview a teacher to learn more about his or her curricular goals and find out how you can collaborate with one another to achieve those goals. You will also observe in the teacher’s classroom in order to learn more about the children in the setting. If you are currently working as an early childhood teacher, collaborate with a colleague in your setting to complete this Assessment.


You will collaborate with a colleague or early childhood teacher to design three learning experiences that are appropriate for the children in the preschool classroom that you observed. (Implementation is not required, but it is important that you have a real setting in mind as you plan.)


 


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DISCUSSION ON RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

PART1-Due Thursday — Initial Response


What are reliability and validity? I like to post this video because it helps give a visual to understand the two concepts.


Introduction to Reliability and Validity


Is there a difference when we talk about reliability and validity about tests and assessments vs. research or is it the same?


What are your thoughts?


 


Part 2– please see attachment …. Reliability and Validity Worksheet


 


Part3– I ONLY HAVE TO COMPLETE QUESTION 2. PLEASE SEE   Dr. Zak Case Study ATTACHED BELOW


 


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SCREENING, ASSESSMENT, AND TREATMENT PLAN need essay help: need essay help

Assessment and Diagnosis


 


Write a 750-1,000-word paper that addresses the following:


**********please include an introduction and conclusion


**********Please use the attached template**********************


 



A definition of screening, assessment, and treatment plan
What is the assessment process for identifying addictive disorders?
What considerations must be made for choosing an appropriate assessment tool?
A general overview of the substance use disorder criteria according to the DSM.
A discussion about the potential problems that can arise when a counselor relies solely on the diagnostic criteria listed in the DSMfor treatment planning.
Include at least two examples of commonly used substance use disorder assessment tools.
Discuss the need for crisis management when working with a client.
Include a minimum of two scholarly sources in addition to the textbook.

When writing the paper, consider using the following level-one APA headings to help organize the content:



Definitions
Assessment Process
Considerations
General Overview of Criteria
Potential Problems
Examples
Crisis Management

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide


*****I want to give you some tips for how to score well on this assignment.*************************



Review the rubric!

o If you want to get points for a certain area of your paper, look at the rubric. It tells you how to make this happen


o One common error is that people do not include an Intro or Conclusion, and so it is hard for me to rationalize that they have a strong Thesis Statement & Development score. Be thorough and show strong attention to detail. If it is not present = 0.


o Address all the content areas identified in the guidelines for the assignment.


o Use an appropriate structure for your paper.


o FIND 2 PEER-REVIEWED SOURCES



Not web pages. Scholarly = Peer-Reviewed / Published
Aim to use current resources as well. Sometimes dated information leads people to state things as fact when they really are not viewed this way in the present.

o APA is King in the counseling field



All written submissions you will do in this field assume you understand APA format.
If you are not sure how to do this, consult the APA Manual and do a full read through for a few hours. This will earn you so many points in the future.
Find reputable web resources for specific formatting questions if you feel stuck.

 



Also- check out: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_style_introduction.htmlThis page has lots of good resources

The rubrics for each assignment are fully utilized in my courses, and I have high expectations for my graduate students in relation to writing and articulating your message through your assignments


 


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ANALYZING THE COUNSELOR DISPOSITIONS WORKSHEET cheap essay help

Complete the counselor dispositions worksheet.


While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines.


USE ATTACHED WORKSHEETS


 


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DEVELOPMENT, BEHAVIORS, ATTITUDES, AND CHOICES IN CULTURE extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

Write a 5–6-page assessment of how circumstances in a case study unfairly impact members of one or more diverse populations, and what cultural competencies a psychologist may use to help resolve such issues.


 


Consider how your own culture impacts your development, behaviors, attitudes, and choices in terms of daily interactions with persons similar to or different from yourself. In the workplace, cultural awareness is critical, particularly in terms of the changing demographics in our society. Most jobs involve working with people from different cultural backgrounds. These individuals can be coworkers, clients, supervisors, or subordinates. To be successful, it is important to develop the ability to work and interact with people from different cultures. In other words, you need to be culturally competent.


 


 


Preparation

Return to the case study that you considered in Assessment 1: Ethical Issue Analysis. Again, think of this assessment as a report you would make in a professional context.



Analyze how this problem may unfairly impact members of the populations described in the Introduction to Hays’s ADDRESSING Model document. Initially, you should brainstorm as many of such effects as possible. You may also develop fictional scenarios related to your problem where individuals behave inequitably. However, if you do so, take care that your scenarios are realistic.
Combine ideas that are similar when you have developed many entries.
Assess each of your remaining entries in terms of importance:

In what ways is it inequitable?
How great or severe is the effect?
How many people may be affected?


Take care that you do not allow your own biases to minimize your assessments.
Choose the entry that seems to be of greatest importance, on the basis of your evaluation.
Organize your notes and attach them to Assessment 2 as an appendix.

Instructions

Complete the following:



Create a title page: Write a brief title that concisely conveys the purpose of this report. It is suggested that you use the APA Paper Template, linked in the Resources under the APA Resources heading to format your paper according to the APA manual (current edition).
Write an introduction: For the introduction section of your paper, include the title at the top of the first page. (In APA format, the word Introduction is not used as a heading.) Briefly summarize:

The case you have chosen.
How theories and research, in general terms, explain why the issue may have developed.
How the case relates to culture-related attitudes that may affect future professional behavior.


Create a heading titled Cultural Issue: Describe how the circumstances in the case study you chose unfairly impact members of one or more of the populations described in the Introduction to Hays’s ADDRESSING Model document.
Create a heading titled Theoretical Explanations: Apply two or more psychological theories to explain how this culture-related issue may have developed.
Create a heading titled Professional Behaviors: Analyze how attitudes related to culture, ethnicity, and diversity may have adversely affected professional behaviors within the case study scenario.
Create a heading titled Proposed Cultural Guidelines and Competencies:

Evaluate what cultural competencies a psychologist may use to help resolve this culture-related issue.
Propose general guidelines to improve or resolve this cultural issue and help prevent its reoccurrence.
Describe the competencies necessary for working in a culturally diverse environment.
Integrate psychological principles with your personal values and goals to formulate guidelines for your personal and professional behavior with regard to culture, ethnicity, and diversity.


Create a heading titled Conclusion:

Reflect upon and assess how your own attitudes associated with culture, ethnicity, and diversity may affect your future professional behaviors.
Explain how the guidelines you developed will help you.
Discuss some steps you could take to further your own growth in cultural competencies.



Refer to the Cultural Dimensions Scoring Guide to ensure that you meet the criteria for this assessment.


Additional Requirements

Your assessment should meet the following requirements:



Written communication: Written communication is well organized and free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA style: Comply with current APA style and formatting.
Number of resources: A minimum of three academic resources.
Length: 5–6 typed, double-spaced pages, excluding the cover page and references.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

 


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DISCUSSION ON USE CONTEMPORARY TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES essay help 123

The following Course Outcomes will be assessed with this Assignment.


PS497-6: Use contemporary tools and technologies to communicate psychological principles and concepts effectively in diverse social and professional settings.


PS497-7: Explain how academic and applied psychology can improve interpersonal relationships across cultural boundaries in a variety of treatment settings.


Please re-read the Unit 3 Assignment Case Study, which you previously used to conceptualize your theory, and write a critical analysis of the case.


Address the following in your paper:



Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Tom’s situation. What tools or interviewing strategies would you use to assess his drinking and its impact? What do you assess his drinking risk to be? Why?
Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Tom’s situation.
Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Tom’s situation.
Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.
How would you apply motivational, cognitive behavioral, and relationship therapy approaches with Tom?
Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.
What elements would be different in this case if Tom were, instead: (a) a woman, (b) a white collar professional, (c) elderly, (d) single, (e) divorced, (f) a member of an historically stereotyped, oppressed ethnic group?

Be sure your paper is 7–9 pages in APA format. Include at least three academic references. Your paper should be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful.


 


Unit 3 Assignment Case Study:


Tom is a 38-year-old factory worker who entered a treatment center after being arrested for drinking and driving. His attorney has suggested that he quit drinking and enter treatment, at least until his trial, which is scheduled in 2 months. Tom does not anticipate serving jail time, but he believes that treatment could strengthen his legal case. After his first arrest for drinking and driving 2 years ago, he simply paid a fine and attended a special driver’s education program for 6 weeks. Tom found the program to be “a waste of time.” Tom has been married for 10 years and has two sons aged 8 and 6 years. He has had numerous arguments with his wife, concerning his drinking. He gets very angry and defensive when she confronts him about his heavy drinking, and asserts that he is not an alcoholic. He knows this is true because his father was an alcoholic and Tom says that he is not like his father. His father died as the result of a fight that occurred in traffic when he was drunk. Tom says that his father used to “beat the tar out” of him and his brother when he was drunk, and that his father always belittled, taunted, and threatened their mother, whether he was drunk or sober. Tom’s work history is very good; he misses less than 1 day per year. He works the day shift on weekdays, putting in time-and-a-half overtime on most Saturdays. He is well regarded by his supervisors and peers at work. He is fearful that his employer will find out about his treatment (it is being covered by his HMO), and that people at work will learn about the second arrest. Tom drinks with his buddies from the plant, and does not think that his drinking is any more than what they do. He was just “unlucky” and got caught doing what everyone else seems to get away with. Tom’s drinking is very predictable: he drinks 8 or 9 beers on a weeknight. Several of these are consumed at the bar with friends, the remainder at home over the course of the evening. He usually falls asleep in front of the television. On weekends, he often drinks 3–4 twelve packs between Friday and Sunday. A typical Saturday involves getting up at 10:00 a.m., playing soccer with friends, and going to the bar for the rest of the day and night. This pattern leads to arguments with his wife, who calls him a “lousy father.” At times, Tom has had unsettling episodes of being unable to recall what happened while drinking. He has commented to friends that “maybe I overdo it a bit.” Several times, he has attempted to cut down on his drinking, especially after the last arrest. He once attended a few AA meetings, but did not feel that it was helpful: “It was listening to a lot of guys whining” and he especially did not care for the prayers. Despite these attempts, Tom has experienced increased consumption levels over the past 2 years. He admits that, as a result of the drinking, he has become increasingly estranged from his wife and sons. Tom feels that his marriage has been basically good, but that he would not blame his wife for leaving him, the way things have been going lately. She will no longer “sleep” with him while he is intoxicated, which occurs regularly. She complains that the house is “falling apart” because he does not keep up with his chores. He believes that his marriage would become solid again if he stopped overdoing the drinking. PS497: Bachelor’s Capstone in Addiction Tom is not close to his remaining family members. His mother is very religious and wishes Tom would see religion as a way out of his problems. His siblings live in other communities and they rarely get together. His wife and sons regularly attend his mother’s church, but Tom only attends on Christmas Eve and Easter Sunday. Tom is distraught about having to remain abstinent in preparation for the trial. He has trouble getting to sleep without alcohol. He also “gets jumpy” when he tries to stay away from drinking, feeling “closed in” or “like he is suffocating.” He also cannot imagine how to explain to his buddies why he is not joining them in the bars. NIH. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Case Examples. (2016, September 19). Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Social/TeachingCaseExamples/CaseExamples.html


 


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DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES ON LIFESPAN AND FAMILY DEVELOPMENT best essay help


Resource:Brochure Builder

Imagine you are currently working for a family counseling agency and have been asked to create an educational brochure to explain the different perspectives on lifespan and family development.


Include the following in your 6-panel brochure:



A description of each of the major perspectives on lifespan development, along with a behavioral example of each
An outline of the stages in the family life cycle, as well as how they relate to individual lifespan developmental stages
An explanation of systems theory, as well as how it applies to family development
A description of the interrelations between work, family, and other life roles in family development
Include images and graphics, as appropriate.

Includeat least two additional sources beyond the textbook, formatted consistent with APA guidelines.


Submit your assignment.



 


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OBSERVATION OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR admission essay help: admission essay help

One of the most important techniques employed by ethologists (individuals that study animal behavior) is the observation of animal behavior. Observing animal behavior involves systematic recording of the activities of particular animals. To familiarize students with this common technique, each student will be required to complete a series of observations of an animal’s behavior. Each observation will consist of a detailed description of an animal’s behavior for at least 30 minutes (Observation 1) and 1 hour (Observation 2) over the course of several sessions. Record your observations in a digital journal (document). Any animal can be observed for these exercises.



The same individual animal can be used for the 2 observations
Domestic animals (dogs, cats, livestock, etc.) can be used for your observations
Non-domestic captive animals (zoo animals, etc.) can be used for your observations
Observation 1 must be at least 30 minutes long
Observation 2 must be at least 1 hour long, over the course of several sessions (at least 2)

You will be using focal-animal sampling where the actions of a focal animal are observed and recorded during a prescribed time period.


Recording Behavioral Observations 


Your observations must include the following:


Date:


Location: be specific enough for me to find your location


Conditions: cloud cover, approximate temperature, moon phase (if observation occurs at night), wind speed, etc. (include anything that may influence or alter behavior)


Subject: species, include if subject is within a group or isolated


Sample frequency: e.g., every 30 seconds, 1 minute, etc. (This gives you time to write in your journal in between observations. For example, you choose to sample behavior every other minute. For one minute just observe, then the next minute you write your observations in your journal, then return to observing for a minute, then writing in your journal for a minute, and so on until you get 30 minutes of behavior. This would mean a total of an HOUR- 30 minutes of animal behavior observation, 30 minutes of writing observations in journal).


Description/name of behaviors: e.g., alert – animal sits up and scans area, grooming – animal cleans fur, aggressive – animal chases/bites others, greeting – animal smells others


Start time:


Stop time:


Summary: At the end of your journal, include a summary of your findings. Write down your observations, then, ask researchable questions about your animal’s behavior.  Avoid anthropomorphic questions/comments.


 


Behavior Chart 



It may be useful to create a behavior chart
You should include the behaviors on the list below (and may also include others that are not listed there e.g. sexual behaviors- see textbook for addition behaviors that can be observed)
Write one behavior at the top of each of the seven columns below: resting/sleeping, eating/drinking, grooming, traveling, aggression, social interaction or not visible.
Choose one individual (focal animal) to watch for several minutes. After each 15 second interval (or your desired interval), put a mark under the behavior you observe the focal animal doing at that moment.
If you see any other behaviors you think are interesting or noteworthy, describe them in the “Behavior Notes

 


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DISCUSSION ON COMMUNITY INTERVENTION PROGRAM essay help online

The Harlem Children’s Zone is an example of a Community Intervention Program, which specifically uses a block association model.


 


Watch the video below and reflect upon what components of Community Intervention Programming were incorporated (said another way, what made this program successful).


 


reflecting on how this program may effect children’s stress, coping, social support and resilience. More specifically, address the following points



Describe the Harlem Children’s Initiative
Describe which Community Intervention Components (from Ch. 5) were incorporated into the Harlem Children’s Initiative, and thus made it successful
Explain how these program components would affect community members’ (i.e., children’s) stress, coping, social support and resilience (from Ch. 3)


 


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EXPLORING DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP STYLES devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

During the Discussion this week, you explored different leadership styles. For this Assignment, you will use your leader assessment results to identify a style that comes naturally to you and a different style that might be useful in the leadership role you selected. As you do so, keep in mind that leaders often use more than one style at a time to meet the unique needs of the organization and followers. As a result, you may determine that it is best to combine styles to be most effective in the leadership role you selected. In addition to identifying your leadership styles, you will consider your current and desired stages of development in the Leadership Maturity Framework. The framework includes nine stages of leader development, with lower stages representing rigid and simplistic ways of thinking and higher stages representing flexible and complex ways of thinking.


To prepare for this Assignment:



Review the results of your leader assessments. Identify a leadership style that comes naturally to you and a different leadership style that would be effective for your chosen leadership role.
Read the article, “Leadership Maturity Framework.” Consider the characteristics associated with each stage of development. Identify your current stage of development and the stage of development that most closely maps to the leadership role.
Go to the leader development Learning Resources.

Review the resource entitled “SMART criteria” and the chapter “How to Set Development Goals.” Create one SMART goal to improve or maintain your stage in the Leadership Maturity Framework and one SMART goal to develop a leadership style (or combination of styles) that would be effective for the leadership role you selected.
Peruse the other resources and identify one development activity you would complete to achieve each goal.
Read the article “Evaluating Leadership Development Programs.” Consider the methods you would use and data you would collect to assess whether you achieved your goal. Be sure to focus on Level 3 (Application and Implication) and 4 (Results or Business Impact) of the evaluation framework.



By Day 7

Submit a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following.



Using the Leadership Maturity Framework, identity the stage of development that is closest to how you currently operate. Then identify the stage that most closely maps to the leadership role you described in Week 1.

If the stages are different, create one SMART goal and identify one leader development activity that would help you progress to the desired stage of the maturity framework.
If the stages are the same, create one SMART goal and identify one leader development activity to help you maintain that stage.


Based on your results from the leadership assessments(MLQAL attached), identify one leadership style that comes naturally to you. Then, identify a different leadership style you think would be effective for the leadership role and explain why. Finally, create one SMART goal and identify one leader development activity that would help you further develop that leadership style.
Explain the methods you would use and data you would collect to assess whether you have achieved each of your SMART goals.

 


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DECODING THE ETHICS CODE scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Respond in 1000 words with three or more scholarly references. Use citations, cite your references. Please use chapter 7 attachment to answer question. Cite every sentence with content from your sources. There are a few ways to do that including just putting the citation at the end of each sentence.  


What did you find most interesting or “surprising” about chpter 7?


 


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DISCUSSION ON INTEGRATIVE PERSONALITY THEORY best essay help

Integrative Personality Theory


For your final paper, you will complete the rest of the assignment which you began in week three and create your own theory of personality development by synthesizing the concepts and constructs of all the theories that seem most accurate and appropriate to you and by using those concepts to reflect on your own personality and development.  Remember to use the template provided to guide you through the steps.


Research a minimum of eight scholarly sources related to these concepts in the Ashford University Library to support your statements in the paper. Popular websites and your textbook may augment, but they will not count toward, the minimum number of sources needed for the paper.  The following content and headings must be included in your paper.


Please visit the Ashford Writing Center for guidance on how to format headings in APA Style. Also, please take note of the suggestions provided for the length for each section in the instructions below.


Instructions:

Provide a general introduction to the topic of theories of personality. Explain what you plan to cover and describe the direction your paper will take. This section will not feature a heading, and it will be approximately two to three paragraphs.


Major Concepts

In this section, you will present the seven specific concepts identified from the seven models you think best apply to the study of personality in distinct subheadings.  For each concept, identify the major personality model from which the concept was taken as well as the theorist associated with that model.  This completed section will be approximately four to five pages.


Excluded Concepts 

In this section, present the concepts you have chosen to exclude in your theory of personality development.  Reflect on the basic assumptions that define personality and identify three specific excluded concepts from any of the theories studied in the course.  For each of the excluded concepts, provide a rationale explaining the various aspects of the concept that make it unsuitable for your use.  This section will be approximately one to two pages.


The Differences between Healthy and Unhealthy Personalities

Describe the basic differences between healthy and unhealthy personality, based on the concepts that you have chosen to include and exclude from your theory.  This completed section will be approximately one page.


The Roles of Heredity, the Environment, and Epigenetics

Provide your analysis of the roles heredity, the environment, and epigenetics play in the development of personality. Discuss how heredity and the environment might affect personality disorders. This completed section will be approximately one page.


Assessment and Measurement of the Theory

Reflect on the major concepts you have selected for inclusion and provide a brief description about how those concepts are measured and/or assessed. Review the assessment sections of each chapter and discuss those measures you think are most applicable and effective.  This completed section will be approximately one page.


Self-Reflection 

In this section of the paper, review the self-reflection you wrote in Week One of this class and describe how and in what ways your views have or have not changed. Analyze your Week One self-assessment using the concepts that you have included in your integrative theory and describe how your theory explains your personality. This section will be approximately one page.


Provide a brief conclusion that summarizes the ideas presented in your integrative theory of personality. This section will not feature a heading and it will be approximately two to four paragraphs.


Allport, G. W. (1968). The person in psychology: Selected essays. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.


The Integrative Personality Theory paper:



Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length (not including the title page and references page) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
Must include a separate title page with the following:

Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted


Must use at least eight scholarly sources in addition to the course text.
Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.


 


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ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSIS ON DISORDERS writing essay help: writing essay help

Write a 500-750-word paper that answers the following questions:


 



What is the assessment process for identifying substance use and other addictive disorders?
What considerations must be made for choosing an appropriate screening and assessment tool?
How do screening and assessment techniques for substance-related disorders differ from those for other addictive behaviors?

Include a minimum of two scholarly references in addition to the textbook in your paper.


 


Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.


 


This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.


 


You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.


 


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PAPER ON ETHICS academic essay help

Your final exam essay gives you the opportunity to identify ethical problems faced by individuals or communities and propose reasonable solutions. You will apply theories we covered in this course, and interpret various issues using a number of ethical theoretical constructs, both traditional and contemporary.  You will analyze, evaluate, and distinguish between ethical theories to critique contemporary issues. This activity aligns with module outcomes 1 and 2.


Your essay should be 1,000–1,200 words (4–5 pages), double-spaced, in APA format, and with 3 or more credible sources. Begin your essay by choosing one issue from the list below, and then choose a total of 6 theories (from the subsequent 3 options) to analyze your issue.


Choose one issue from the categories below, about which you feel most passionate:

Animal Rights and Environmental Ethics
Business or Health Care Ethics
Cloning, Stem Cell Research, Genetic Issues
Civil Liberties
Death Penalty
Drug Policy
End of (Human) Life Issues
Global Justice and Injustice
Racism, Discrimination, Hate Crimes, Oppression
Sexuality
War and Terrorism

Analyze your chosen issue using 6 theories. Choose 2 from each of the 3 categories listed below.
Choose 2 from the primary list:

Utilitarian ethics
Kantian ethics
Virtue ethics

Choose another 2 from the traditional theories list:

Ethical Egoism
Ethical Relativism
Divine Command Theory
Natural Law Theory
Social Contract Theory

Choose an additional 2 theories from the contemporary or non-Western list:

African ethics
Eastern ethics
Feminist ethics or Care-based ethics
Postmodernism ethics
Environmental Theories (Ecofeminist, Deep Ecology…)

Technical Requirements:

1,000–1,200 words in length (4–5 pages).
Formatted according to APA standards, using Times New Roman, 12-point font, double spacing, and one inch margins.

Writing and Content Requirements:

The introduction should explain the chosen issue in detail.
The thesis, argument, or focus of the essay should be evident in the introduction.
The body of the essay should:




explain the approaches by various philosophers and/or ethical theories.
analyze which approach(es) you find most compelling and explain why.
incorporate high quality ideas and key concepts from the ethical theories.
include some suggestions for the most practical solutions to your topic.
assess the future of your chosen topic in terms of solutions.




The entire essay should contain correct grammar, spelling, and syntax.
Please use transitions between paragraphs.
The essay should be documented by properly citing at least three or more credible sources.

This course uses the American Psychological Association (APA) format for scholarly writing.  References and citations must adhere to the proper format for all written work presented including essays, discussion postings, and essay exams. Online tips for using APA style may be found at the Perdue Online Writing Lab. Your research should be documented by citing one or more credible sources. Please use the Excelsior library resources and databases to find e-books, journal articles, or other scholarly materials. Wikipedia, websites, or any similar online reference sites where the content may be authored by anyone are not considered credible sources for scholarly writing.


 


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DISCUSSION ON EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE college essay help los angeles

Being aware of emotional responses is important when interacting in social settings. Complete the Emotional IQ assessment located at http://www.ihhp.com/quiz.php.


 


Compose a journal entry of 250-500 words in which you describe your Emotional IQ findings. Be sure to answer the following questions:


 



What value does EQ have that IQ does not?
How can we be “in check” with our emotions?
What are some consequences of not being in check with our emotions?
What are some strategies for managing our emotions?
How do we ensure our emotions are appropriate when interacting with our family, friends, significant others, and peers?

 


Please refer to the textbook and the Module 5 Readings to assist in completing this assignment.


Refer to the “Emotional Intelligence Journal Entry Scoring Guide” for grading criteria.


GCU style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.


 


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WHERE DOES APPLIED RESEARCH FIT INTO YOUR FUTURE? essay help for free: essay help for free

Where Does Applied Research Fit Into Your Future?


 


Resources.


 


As you look ahead to your future as a professional counselor, consider how program evaluation promotes and sustains improvements in delivering mental health services. How do you see yourself implementing the research and evaluation skills you have learned in order to promote best practices? Consider the following possibilities:


 



Will you engage in action research in your community?
Will you will be asked to help write a grant or to administer one?
Will you assist with the collection and analysis of data at your site in order to demonstrate your agency’s effectiveness?
Will you adapt counseling programs described in published efficacy studies for use in your own community?

In this discussion, share your vision of how you see research fitting into your future as a professional mental health counselor. Use and cite the readings from this course that you find particularly helpful when envisioning your future possibilities.


 


 



Use your Royse, Thyer, and Padgett text, Program Evaluation, to complete the following:

In Chapter 4, read section, “Dissemination and Advocacy,” pages 111–112.
In Chapter 14, read sections, “Results (Findings)” and “Discussion”, pages 387–391.
In Chapter 14, read section, “Considerations in Planning and Writing Evaluation Reports and Manuscripts,” pages 391–396.
In Chapter 14, read section, “The Utilization of Evaluation Reports,” pages 397–398.



 


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SHORT QUESTIONS ON IDENTITY university essay help

Task 1


 


Watch the two videos “The Outsider” and “I am Jazz”, and write about the following:


 


–          Draw parallels between the characters in The Outsider & the lead character inI am Jazz.  In what ways are their identity crises similar?  In what ways are their identity crises different?


 


Can you relate to either one of their experiences from an identity perspective? If so, how?


 


(NOTE: I am not saying that you need to be Amish and/or have a gender identity crisis to relate to these movies; I am rather asking you to compare your identity experiences either the characters in these movies)


 


 


 


It should be about 300 – 350 words


 


Don’t forget to cite from this week’s articles, and the videos


 


 


 


Video links:


 


“I am Jazz.”


 


“The Outsiders: Amish Teens” (Note: You must watch all 7 parts on YouTube).


 


 


 


This week’s articles: Attached


 


 


 


 


 


Task 2


 


This week, you read Why are all of the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? (Tatum, 1999), and Feminine Ideals (Lamb, 2001).  I am asking that you choose only one of these articles and answer the following questions:


 


Q1: What struck you most about this article? Why?


 


Q2: Can you personally relate to the discussion in this article? If so, how? If you cannot, why not?


 


Q3: How does this article contribute to your overall understanding of adolescent identity development?


 


A conclusion


 


(Total of 4 paragraphs, each about 200 words)


 


 


 


Don’t forget to cite from the readings, you might also relate to the previous readings and draw from them


 


 


Articles:Attached


 


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QUIZ ON PSYCHOLOGY essay help services: essay help services

Question


Week 2 quiz


Question 1. An 86-year-old patient who wears a hearing aid complains of poor hearing in the affected ear. In addition to possible hearing aid malfunction, this condition is often due to:


Acoustic neuroma


Cerumen impaction


Otitis media


Ménière’s disease


Question 2. In examination of the nose, the clinician observes gray, pale mucous membranes with clear, serous discharge. This is most likely indicative of:


Bacterial sinusitis


Allergic rhinitis


Drug abuse


Skull fractur


Question 3. A 45 year old patient presents with ‘sore throat’ and fever for one week. After a quick strep screen you determine the patient has Strep throat. You know that streptococcal pharyngitis should be treated with antibiotics to prevent complications and to shorten the course of disease. Which of the following antibiotics should be considered when a patient is allergic to Penicillin?


Amoxicillin


EES (erythromycin)


Bicillin L-A


Dicloxacillin


Question 4. Presbycusis is the hearing impairment that is associated with:


Physiologic aging


Ménière’s disease


Cerumen impaction


Herpes zoster


Question 5. Epistaxis can be a symptom of:


Over-anticoagulation


Hematologic malignancy


Cocaine abuse


All of the above


Question 6. Your patient has been using chewing tobacco for 10 years. On physical examination, you observe a white ulceration surrounded by erythematous base on the side of his tongue. The clinician should recognize that very often this is:


Malignant melanoma


Squamous cell carcinoma


Aphthous ulceration


Behcet’s syndrome


Question 7. A 26 year old patient presents with cough and general malaise for 3 days. They note that their eyes have been watering clear fluid and a ‘runny nose’ since yesterday. They note they ‘feel miserable’ and demand something to make them feel better. What would be the best first plan of treatment?


Saline nasal spray for congestion and acetaminophen as needed for pain.


Z-pack (azithromycin) for infection and Cromolyn nasal for congestion


Hydrococone/acetaminophen as needed for pain and Guaifensin for congestion


Cephalexin for infection and Cromolyn ophthalmic for congestion


Question 8. Which of the following findings should trigger an urgent referral to a cardiologist or neurologist?


History of bright flash of light followed by significantly blurred vision


History of transient and painless monocular loss of vision


History of monocular severe eye pain, blurred vision, and ciliary flush


All of the above


Question 9. Dizziness that is described as “lightheaded” or, “like I’m going to faint,” is usually caused by inadequate cerebral perfusion and is classified as?


Presyncope


Disequilibrium


Vertigo


Syncope


Question 10. It is important to not dilate the eye if ____ is suspected.


Cataract


Macular degeneration


Acute closed-angle glaucoma


Chronic open-angle glaucoma


Question 11. Mr. GC presents to the clinic with nausea and vomiting for 2 days, prior to that time he reports occasional ‘dizziness’ that got better with change in position. He denies a recent history of URI or any history of headaches or migraines. What would the most likely diagnosis be?


Vestibular neruitis


Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo


Vestibular migraine


Benign hypertensive central vertigo


Question 12. Which of the following patients with vertigo would require neurologic imaging?


A 68-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and sudden acute onset constant vertigo. She has right nystagmus that changes direction with gaze and that does not disappear when she focuses.


A 45-year-old man with recurrent episodes of brief intense vertigo every time he turns his head rapidly. He has no other neurologic signs or symptoms. He has a positive Dix-Hallpike maneuver.


A 66-year-old man with recurrent episodes of vertigo associated with tinnitus and hearing loss. His head thrust test is positive.


A 28-year-old otherwise well woman with new onset constant vertigo with no other neurologic symptoms. On physical exam, she has unidirectional nystagmus that disappears when her gaze is fixed.


Question 13.A patient presents with eye redness, scant discharge, and a gritty sensation. Your examination reveals the palpable preauricular nodes, which are most likely with:


Bacterial conjunctivitis


Allergic conjunctivitis


Chemical conjunctivitis


Viral conjunctivitis


Question 14. In assessing the eyes, which of the following is considered a “red flag” finding when associated with eye redness?


History of prior red-eye episodes


Grossly visible corneal defect


Exophthalmos


Photophobia


Question 15. A 64-year-old male presents with erythema of the sclera, tearing, and bilateral pruritus of the eyes. The symptoms occur intermittently throughout the year and he has associated clear nasal discharge. Which of the following is most likely because of the inflammation?


Bacterium


Allergen


Virus


Fungi


Question 16. Patients that have atopic disorders are mediated by the production of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) will have histamine stimulated as an immediate phase response. This release of histamine results in which of the following?


Sinus pain, increased vascular permeability, and bronchodilation


Bronchospasm, vascular permeability, and vasodilatation


Contraction of smooth muscle, decreased vascular permeability, and vasoconstriction


Vasodilatation, bronchodilation, and increased vascular permeability


Question 17. You have a patient complaining of vertigo and want to know what could be the cause. Knowing there are many causes for vertigo, you question the length of time the sensation lasts. She tells you several hours to days and is accompanied by tinnitus and hearing loss. You suspect which of the following conditions?


Ménière’s disease


Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo


Transient ischemic attack (TIA)


Migraine


Question 18. In examining the mouth of an older adult with a history of smoking, the nurse practitioner finds a suspicious oral lesion. The patient has been referred for a biopsy to be sent for pathology. Which is the most common oral precancerous lesion?


Fictional keratosis


Keratoacanthoma


Lichen planus


Leukoplakia


Question 19. Rheumatic heart disease is a complication that can arise from which type of infection?


Epstein-Barr virus


Diphtheria


Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus


Streptococcus pneumoniae


Question 20. A patient complains of fever, fatigue, and pharyngitis. On physical examination there is pronounced cervical lymphadenopathy.Which of the following diagnostic  tests should be considered?


Mono spot


Strep test


Throat culture


All of the above


 


 


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DISCUSSION ON BABY BOOMERS research essay help: research essay help

NEED COMPLETED IN 5 HOURS OR LESS 


 


 


 


The largest segment of the U.S. population, the “baby boomers,” are moving into middle adulthood and, in some cases, even becoming grandparents. The advertising and marketing industries study this age cohort, and it has been increasing in visibility in primetime television, print ads, and in digital advertising, pop-ups, and internet solicitation.


 


Find at least 4 images or video clips of advertising or other popular media that illustrate this point.  Use a caption for each piece of media to explain the advertisements mirror the specific physical and cognitive changes in development.


APA Format


500 words.


2 resources (other than the images or clips) to support the claims you are making.  


 


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DISCUSSION ON DIVORCE’S IMPACT ON PRESCHOOL, SCHOOL-AGE, AND ADOLESCENT CHILDREN medical school essay help

Week 4 Divorce’s Impact on Preschool, School-Age, and Adolescent Children: Outline


 


The divorce rate in the United States remains at an all-time high.


 


Using the textbook, lectures, the Internet, and a minimum of three scholarly sources from the GCU library, research and compare the impact of divorce on preschool, school-age, and adolescent children.


Develop a detailed outline of a research paper in which you consider the socio-emotional response by each age group regarding divorce and custody arrangements.


 


You are encouraged to use attachment theory in your paper.


 


Additionally, answer the following questions:


 



What steps can be taken to minimize the number of divorces and help children cope more effectively with their parents’ divorce?
As a professional counselor, how might you provide support for the parties involved?

 


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DISCUSSION ON COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL FAMILY THERAPY college essay help service: college essay help service

Summarize the strengths and weaknesses of cognitive behavioral family therapy in a 12-15-slide PowerPoint presentation that includes notes or a 500-750 word paper.


Address the following in your summary:



What might be considered the major contributions of this approach to the field of family therapy?
Consider its theoretical adequacy, specificity of constructs, strategies and techniques, roles of the therapist, and types of client problems best suited for this approach.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.


 


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DISCUSSION ON PERSONALITY research essay help

Please See Attached Document for further explanation and read thouroughly before sending a handshake, please:


 


 


Analysis of a Personality


All Original Content Please. Write a 7 page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. At least one peer-reviewed reference and at least one other reliable reference.


For this assignment, you will have a chance to put into practice all you have been learning throughout this course. You will analyze the personality development of Carl Rogers.


Use your textbook, the Internet, and online library resources to research the life history of the theorist, Carl Rogers.


Do the following:



Describe the major life events of the theorist that you feel influenced his or her (Carl Rogers) personality development.
Describe the cultural influences that had an influence on the chosen theorist’s (Carl Rogers) personality development.
Analyze Carl Rogers from Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective.
Analyze Carl Rogers from two other theoretical perspectives studied in this course and choose the two from these mentioned theorists: Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Erik Erickson, Alberta Bandura, Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, Julian Rotter, or Walter Mischel – DO NOT USE the trait perspective.
Summarize and present your critical opinion about how well (or not) these theories explain Carl Rogers

 


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DISCUSSION ON INDIVIDUAL CAREER PLAN free essay help online

Individual Career Plan
Resources

 


As a counselor advising clients or students in career decisions, you will use assessments and inventories to help them create career plans. For this assignment, you will consider yourself as the client, interpret the assessments you completed in Units 3, 4, and 6 in the Career Exploration Workbook, and create a career plan with actionable steps. Use your completed Career Exploration Workbook as a reference to complete this paper.


Although you are using yourself as the client, be sure to write from the third-person point of view. Address the following aspects in your assignment:


Client Profile

Describe the client’s identifying information such as age, race, gender, family, work status, educational background, current educational status, et cetera.
Describe the presenting issues (as you would gather from an intake interview with yourself).
Be sure to write from the third-person point of view.

Results of Assessments

Personality:

16-Type Jungian Personality Test: Identify your client’s preferences (E/I, S/N, T/F, J/P).
Big 5 Personality Theory: Identify your client’s scores regarding extroversion, openness, agreeableness, neuroticism, conscientiousness.


Values:

Identify your client’s top five values from the card sort.


Interest Assessment:

Identify your client’s highest categories in realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional.


Interpretation of Assessments:

Connect the assessment results to the presenting issues. What themes emerged?
Use your reflections from the Career Exploration Workbook to help you complete this section.


Analyze the appropriateness of the inventories and assessments completed in relation to the client’s developmental stage and profile.
Professional Assets:

Assess your client’s training, education, and professional and volunteer experiences in relation to his or her career goals.


Career Options:

Identify 2–3 job titles that match your client’s skills and interests.
Describe the education and or training needed, the employment trends, and expected salary for each job.



Individual Career Plan

Create a career plan for this person moving forward. Include in your plan your client profile, goals, and an action plan. Use an example career plan from your text or find one that you like on your own.

Personal Reflection

Describe what you learned about yourself in this exercise and how you will use this knowledge in your specialization.
As part of your reflection, assess your professional limitations as a career counselor.

Your paper should be 4–6 pages with at least four references, written in third-person point of view, and following APA format. Include your completed Career Exploration Workbook as a supplement to this assignment. Review the Individual Career Plan Scoring Guide for the detailed grading expectations of this assignment


 


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DISCUSSION ON MEMORIZATION PROCESS free essay help online: free essay help online


Imagine that you have a son in 7th grade. Your son needs to memorize all the states and their capitals for his social studies class. Based on what you have learned in your text, provide twomemory tips or techniques for your son to use. In each case, provide enough detail to illustrate the technique you are recommending.
State onefact you’ve learned about memory this module that will help you in your own studies.

 


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SHORT QUESTION ON PSYCHOLOGY essay help free

Directions

 


Choose just one of the two options below to complete this assignment.


Option A

 


Identify any historical purpose(s) behind the writing of Mark’s and Matthew’s Gospels. Include a reference to any historical factor mentioned in the recommended sources that may have triggered the writing of both Matthew’s and Mark’s Gospels as well as references to statements within both of the Gospels themselves. Class lesson material can be used in addition to the recommended sources. Include at least one historical factor and at least one reference to each Gospel studied. Restrict your resources to those below as well as any information within the course modules. Be sure to distinguish between paraphrase and direct quotes. Type a 350-750 word paper using MLA formatting. Submit the completed assignment to the appropriate Dropbox by no later than Sunday 11:59 PM EST/EDT.


Resources for this paper relative to Mark’s Gospel:


See the ebook via SLU library: The Gospels of Jesus by Stanton (2002), pp. 48-53.


Resources for this paper relative to Matthew’s Gospel:


See the ebook via SLU library: The Gospels of Jesus by Stanton (2002), pp. 74-78.


See the ebook via SLU library: New Testament History and Literature by Martin (2012), pp. 93-107.


Resources for this paper relative to Mark’s Gospel:


See the ebook via SLU library: The Gospels by Barton and Muddiman (2010), Ch. 3.


Resources for this paper relative to Mark’s Gospel:


See the eBook via SLU library: The Gospel to The Romans: The Setting and Rhetoric of Mark’s Gospel Leiden: Brill, (2003), Ch. 5


Resources for this paper relative to Matthew’s Gospel:


 


See the eBook via SLU library: The Gospel of Matthew and Christian Judaism by T&T Clarke by Sim, David (1998), p. 113 and following


Option B

 


Explain how and why Matthew may have edited Mark’s Gospel. Use the following two sets of passages to support your claim.


According to course materials (Bible, textbook, digital materials linked below, etc.):



How and why would Matthew have edited Mark 6:45-52 contrasted with Matthew 14:22-23?
How and why would Matthew have edited Mark 9:2-10 contrasted with Matthew 17:1-13?

Be sure to distinguish between paraphrase and direct quotes. Type a 350-750 word paper using MLA formatting. Submit the completed assignment to the appropriate Dropbox by no later than Sunday 11:59 PM EST/EDT.


Resources for this paper:


See the ebook via SLU library: New Testament History and Literature by Martin (2012), pp. 106-108.


See the ebook via SLU library: The Gospels by Barton and Muddiman (2010), p. 56.


Grading Rubric

 



Accurate use of English including careful documentation (including ability to paraphrase and use quotations) and good organizational plan. 40 pts
Adequate research. 20 pts
Accurate and complete reflection of material read for assignment. 40 pts

 


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DISCUSSION ON PSYCHOLOGY CAREERS “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

*****Very detailed instructions, Please review before agreeing to assite PLEASE*****


 


Careers in Psychology


This assignment has two major sections.  However, you will be creating a single document for submission.



In Section I, you will read the case scenarios of three adults who are about to complete their bachelor’s degree in psychology and provide responses based on your reading and research to address the concerns in the scenarios.
In Section II, you will evaluate yourself and rate your own credentials in terms of your readiness for the next step after obtaining your bachelor’s degree, should you be interested in pursuing your education further.
Please label the sections as Section I and Section II in your document.

Section I

Use the information presented in Chapter 8 of your course text as well as the required websites to assist you in addressing the scenarios. You will also need to do some additional research. Recommended websites are provided and you will find useful information on the websites of graduate programs in psychology and other mental health-related fields.



Denise has decided she wants to counsel children and adolescents. She has a modest amount of interest in reading research findings that are relevant to counseling children and youth. She has little interest in conducting research. She is exploring the following options for her degree after her bachelor’s degree:

Master of Arts/ Master of Science in Clinical Psychology
Master of Arts/ Master of Science in Counseling Psychology
Master of Education in Counseling Psychology
Master of Social Work
Master of Science in Pastoral Counseling
Master of Science in Counseling.
Research the programs Denise is considering and list at least two pros and cons for each option.



 



Raul always thought he wanted to be a clinical or counseling psychologist until he did some volunteer work in a psychiatric clinic and interviewed several psychologists and counselors. Now, as a senior who is months away from graduation, Raul is trying to decide what his next academic and career steps should be. He has a moderate interest in research but does not care much for writing papers. He could see himself teaching, if necessary, but it is not his passion. He already has a wife and two children, so earning potential is important to him.

What advice would you give Raul based on the information from this week’s resources?


After many years in the corporate world, John was let go from his company due to down-sizing. He is interested in integrating what he learned in business with psychology. He believes that Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology might be a good fit for him.

What types of graduate options are available for John?
How competitive are graduate programs in I/O psychology?
What does he need to do to make sure he is competitive enough to be accepted into a graduate program?



Section II

For this section, copy and paste the information from Table 8.4 in your text and then rate yourself for each of the items.  Be sure to include an explanation for each at the bottom of the individual sections. See the document with the information attached here. ( Section II )


Writing Careers in Psychology


The Assignment:



Must be at least three to four double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference pages), and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate title page with the following:

Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted


Must include all the information listed in Section I of the prompt as well as the copied information from the Section II document.
Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate reference page that lists any cited sources and is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

 


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SHORT PSYCHOLOGY QUESTIONS online essay help: online essay help

Question 1


Marilyn is a full-time nursing student. She is also a wife and mother of three children.  Recently her husband’s job has required that he travel away from home during the week.  Without his help on the home front, Marilyn will most likely experience:





[removed]
 
overload.


[removed]
 
conflict.


[removed]
 
an emotional breakdown.


[removed]
 
a physical breakdown.



Question 2


____________ is defined as a response made by individuals to threatening events that tax their ability to cope?





[removed]
 
A stressor


[removed]
 
Stress


[removed]
 
Adaptation


[removed]
 
Resistance



Question 3


To maintain their standard of living, today’s workers in America are working ____________ than in the past decades.





[removed]
 
longer hours and at a harder pace


[removed]
 
longer hours but at an easier pace


[removed]
 
shorter hours but at a harder pace


[removed]
 
shorter hours and at an easier pace



Question 4


Acculturation tends to be the LEAST stressful for persons who adapt through:





[removed]
 
Assimilation


[removed]
 
Marginalization


[removed]
 
Separation


[removed]
 
Integration



Question 5


_________________ is the scientific field that explores connections among psychological factors, the nervous system, and the immune system.





[removed]
 
Psychoneuroimmunology


[removed]
 
Neuropsychosis


[removed]
 
Immunoneurosis


[removed]
 
Neuroimmunopsychology



Question 6


Recent research reveals that the trait of _______ is more precisely linked with heart disease.





[removed]
 
hardiness


[removed]
 
competitiveness


[removed]
 
impatience


[removed]
 
hostility



Question 7


In ____________, individuals evaluate their resources and determine how effectively they can be used to cope with the event.





[removed]
 
the resistance stance.


[removed]
 
the resolution phase.


[removed]
 
primary appraisal.


[removed]
 
secondary appraisa



Question 8


The rates of PTSD would most likely be:





[removed]
 
higher in victims of hurricanes.


[removed]
 
higher in victims of interstate highway accidents.


[removed]
 
higher in victims of terrorist attacks.


[removed]
 
the same no matter what the cause.



Question 9


Which of the following is the BEST summary of the relationship between stress and the immune system functioning?





[removed]
 
Stressors improve the functioning of the immune system.


[removed]
 
Stressors lead to immune system adaptation.


[removed]
 
Stressors can reduce the responsiveness of the immune system.


[removed]
 
There is no relationship between stress and the functioning of the immune system.



Question 10


When people move into the larger culture but maintain many aspects of their distinctive cultural identity, the people have adapted to the new culture through:





[removed]
 
marginalization.


[removed]
 
integration.


[removed]
 
assimilation.


[removed]
 
collective separation



 


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DISCUSSION ON PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE (PAS) summary and response essay help

I need help wih this assignment the work has to be orginal and follow all guidelines. Please read instrustions be responding please


 


In the Week One Assignment, you formulated a concrete ethical question, took a position on that topic, and identified a reason supporting and a reason opposing that position. In the Week Three Assignment, you discussed either deontological or utilitarian theory, applied that theory to the question, and raised a relevant objection.


By engaging with the course material, you now have had a chance to refine your thinking and broaden your understanding of the problem by approaching it from the perspective of multiple ethical theories.


In this paper, you will demonstrate what you have learned by writing an essay in which you



Present a revised formulation of the ethical question and introduction to the topic.
Explain the kind of reasoning you think is the best way to approach this question, and how that reasoning supports the position you think is strongest.
Raise an objection, and be able to respond to it.

 


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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY essay help: essay help

Prepare an annotated bibliography of the resources that are attached to the instructions. When completing the annotated bibliography make sure to put the citations in alphabetical order and not separated by website and article but as one in alphabetical order.


Please note  that the same rules for citation that apply to other documents (such as  proper paraphrasing and the use of quotation marks where necessary)  apply to Annotated Bibliographies as well. It is not acceptable to cut  and paste from the abstract or the body of an article. Rather, the  student is expected to read the article completely and appropriately  paraphrase the necessary material. For those few situations where  paraphrasing is not acceptable, then material that has not been  paraphrased needs to be placed in quotation marks.


 


 


 


Note that there are four sections to the entry for an annotated bibliography: hypothesis, methodology,  conclusion, and evaluation. Be sure to include each of these sections  in your annotated bibliography entries.


 


 


 


Length: 20 research articles and 10 scholarly sites


 


Your  annotated bibliography should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of  the ideas and concepts by providing new thoughts  and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should  reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.


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DISCUSSION ON THEORETICAL PSYCHOLOGY college essay help free

I need one full page of a full page critique


essay paper . Do you agrre or not about what the writer said .


 


Theoretical Psychology


What Is It and Who Needs It? Daniel N. Robinson


OXFORD UNIVERSITY


ABSTRACT. It remains unclear as to just what a ‘theoretical psychology’ might be or might claim as a mission. This is distinct from various and ad hoc psychological theories (e.g. Hullian learning theory, the opponent- process theory of color vision) which admit at least in principle of empiri- cal tests of adequacy. The example of theoretical physics is offered heuristically to test the different senses of ‘theoretical psychology’.


KEY WORDS: central theories, civic development, culture of grant-getting, mainstream, metaphysics, morality, theoretical psychology


Psychological Theories and Theoretical Psychology


The history of psychology, contemporary and remote, includes any number of theories subject to tests of adequacy and coherence. Hullian learning theory, Freudian psychoanalytical theory and Ewald Hering’s opponent-process the- ory of color vision are illustrative. They are also indicative of the diversity of models and formulations plausibly subsumed under ‘psychological theo- ries’. Note that the three I’ve cited differ considerably in their generality. Psychoanalytic theory would seek to reach nothing less than culture itself, whereas the opponent-process theory is designed to account for such restricted phenomena as complementary after-images, small-field dichroma- tism and the dichromat’s ability to see yellow. What all three have in common is the articulation of a model of presumed processes or mechanisms on which observed outcomes are assumed to depend. Clearly, there are theories of many other and various psychological findings. If all that is meant by ‘theo- retical psychology’ are accounts of the factors reliably associated with the


THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY Copyright © 2007 Sage Publications. VOL. 17(2): 187–198 DOI: 10.1177/0959354307075042 www.sagepublications.com


Downloaded from tap.sagepub.com at UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on May 22, 2013


188 THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY 17(2)


observed main effects, then the specialty is exhausted by such models and by standards of coherence and adequacy now more or less conventional in sci- ence. Note that one might acknowledge the (alleged) under-determination of theory by data but still accept that, for example, normal ‘yellow’ perception by deuteranopes is a challenge to Helmholtz’s trichromatic theory of color vision, whereas it can be accommodated by versions of Hering’s opponent- process theory (Hurvich & Jameson, 1957).


Again, if all that is meant by ‘theoretical psychology’ is of this nature, then there is no need for theoretical psychologists to ‘engage’ the mainstream, for the theoretical psychologists (Hull, Freud, Hurvich and Jameson, et al.) sim- ply are mainstream. On this understanding, there is no distinct specialty of theoretical psychology, for the theories emanating from research are no more than reasonable implications that investigators draw from their findings. It would be doubtful in the extreme that some body of specialists in ‘theory’ would have done more with the available data than did Newton, Galileo, Darwin, Freud and Breuer, Hull. It is certainly arguable, then, whether there is or ought to be a ‘theoretical psychology’ (or, at any rate, theoretical psy- chologists) distinct from the mainstream.


Less debatable, I should think, is the need for some sort of meta-psychol- ogy devoted to conceptual examinations of the logical or psychological char- acter of research and of the theories putatively warranted by the findings. Illustrative of the better work in this area is Bennett and Hacker (2003) in their examination of the explanatory misfeasance so common in ‘cognitive neuroscience’. They are entirely successful in exposing the mereological (part-whole) fallacies at the bottom of reductionistic modes of explanation, as well as the reification of biological events into the very psychological reali- ties for which explanations are sought. It is doubtful that Bennett and Hacker would describe themselves as ‘theoretical psychologists’ or would even regard their significant contribution as a contribution to ‘theory’. It is, rather, a contribution to clear thinking, which, one would presume, is as available to the researcher as to the theorist in any field of inquiry.


A meta-psychology is, itself, beholden to conceptual and linguistic rigor, for its mission is nothing less than identifying the proper subject-matter of the discipline and the constraints and potentialities of various candidate methods. Consider the alleged tension between ‘idiographic’ and ‘nomo- thetic’ approaches to the study of personality (Allport, 1937). As Allport understood it, there is a conflict between accounts of the unique life lived by the actual person and the search for laws sufficiently general to encompass whole aggregates. Granting that in one sense every life is ‘unique’—which is the basis on which it can be identified as a given life—one might nonethe- less ask whether this requires abandoning the search for general laws through the study of collectives.


Much confusion surrounds this very issue. The problem is not that N = 1 must be an unreliable guide to the general state of things. The history of


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medicine is replete with general laws unearthed through the exhaustive study of individual cases. All one needs to know about the Krebs Cycle in relation to carbohydrate metabolism can be gleaned from the examination of one healthy digestive system. In this case, the ‘idiographic’ approach serves the ‘nomothetic’ end. The sense in which each person is numerically unique may or may not bear upon the extent to which one person may be taken as a model of the collective.


I should expand this point. Suppose one had a hundred thermometers placed on buildings in 100 chosen towns and cities of the US for the purpose of discovering the ‘average temperature’ in the US. It is true but trivial that the average temperature does not help one determine the temperature in, say, Arizona or Alaska. The statistical average is misleading if used to describe or characterize the particular city. If one wishes to know how hot it is in Scottsdale, one must take readings in Scottsdale. What is important to keep clear on here is the difference between the failure of averages to describe indi- vidual cases, and the adequacy of thermometers in the task of assessing tem- peratures. One might say that the same modes of inquiry and measurements are validly applied both to the individual case and to collectives, but the aver- aging of results may be useless for the individual case. It is neither the meas- uring instrument nor the data that can settle questions regarding the aptness of a description or an explanation. It would be a mark of innocent incompre- hension if, after being told that the average temperature for the nation did not describe Scottsdale, the meteorologist were to conclude that something was wrong with the thermometers.


Perhaps in some sense what I’ve sketched above exemplifies ‘theoretical psychology’, though the more traditional subject of ‘philosophy of science’ seems to cover just this very terrain. Accordingly, if the aim of this volume is to host engagement with the mainstream by scholars in philosophy of psy- chology, one must applaud the mission, hope for its success and—with hope tamed by reality—expect little. There is scant evidence that the discipline has been especially attentive to important developments within philosophy of sci- ence. That more attention might be reserved just in case other psychologists are the bearers of the message seems implausible. In the following sections, I shall lightly work the grounds of my pessimism.


Metaphysical Considerations


According to the somewhat old-fashioned taxonomy, metaphysics has two interrelated sets of issues: issues regarding what there is and issues regarding how we know. Thus does textbook metaphysics arise from the twin-subjects of ontology and epistemology. I begin this brief section with a reflection on the most developed of all scientific thought, that which is subsumed under the heading physics.


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Consider the quite remarkable field of theoretical physics. It exists owing to the fact that there actually are physical entities and also theories about them and their interactions. It is possible to have theories about such entities and interactions because they are either subject to direct or aided observation or because an as-of-now successful theory requires them. What makes theoreti- cal physics so respectable—as in worthy of the respect of all who take physics itself seriously—is that it has generated a set of ultimately confirmed predic- tions and a set of relevantly related explanations that account for success at the level of prediction. It is in these respects that astrology is, alas, not respectable. So, the answer to the question ‘What is theoretical physics?’ would thus be something along these lines: theoretical physics is that domain of scientific inquiry in which models of what we take to be physical reality are constructed, and are framed in such a way as to allow (at least in princi- ple) specific experiments or observations sufficient to reveal the defects of these very models.


There are apparent similarities between the theoretical psychologists cited at the beginning of this essay and theoretical physicists. Note, however, that the latter frame theory to account for physical phenomena that are widely accepted as such. This is assuredly not the case with, for example, Freud, Hull and (even) specialists in color vision. For even in the last of these, there is such a dearth of realistic context that the theoretical disputes are less about color vision (as in seeing colors) than about the visual process. Freud and Hull, of course, were both guilty of importing theory terms directly into observation statements. The congruence between their efforts and those expended in the productive world of the theoretical is more at the level of appearance than substance.


The answer to the second question raised in connection with theoretical physics, ‘Who needs it?’, is simply: ‘Anyone seeking to avoid false or mis- leading or incoherent accounts of this very physical reality.’ If more is needed here, there may also be tacked on one or another version of the ‘inference to the best explanation’ qualifier. Thus, the best explanation we have for our send- ing persons to the moon and back is that the scientific laws and theories on which the project was based are sound. The best explanation for Raymond’s infection clearing up is that antibiotics function in the manner studied and asserted within the relevant fields of science. For theoretical psychology to avail itself of this sort of support, there would have to be clear evidence of successful predictions and modes of control that would be entirely unexpected in the absence of the theories that explain them.


It is useful to stay with theoretical physics a moment longer. Within its pro- ductive domain three different categories of theory are found. There are, first, what are referred to as central theories, such as classical mechanics, field the- ory and general relativity. It is here that one finds the most rigorously tested models, constructed in ways compatible with prevailing standards of scien- tific explanation, prediction and methodology. However, physics does not


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wear this as a strait-jacket, for there is also ample space given to what are called proposed theories, which have not been subjected to observational modes of confirmation and, at a given time, might be beyond the possible. Here one finds M-theory, loop theory and, yes, the theory of everything. Finally—and most speculative of all—there are those fringe theories which occupy a limbo between the decisive dead end and the ultimately credible productive theory. Luminiferous aether theory is illustrative. Before Einstein, it seemed essential that light have some sort of aether-like medium for its propagation, a theory made otiose by relativity physics.


Against this background, we now might ask: What is theoretical psychol- ogy? Following the model of theoretical physics, we would be inclined to say that it is the domain of inquiry in which models are constructed of what we take to be (some sort of) ‘psychological reality’. Further, we might say that the models are framed in such a way as to generate experiments and observa- tions of the sort that would reveal the defects of the models themselves. We might go on to liberate the theoretical enterprise by admitting not only cen- tral theories but also proposed and fringe theories not yet amenable to empir- ical and quantitative tests if only provisionally passed by the central theories. This much stated, we would then conclude that this aspect of inquiry is of fundamental importance to anyone hoping to avoid false, misleading or inco- herent accounts of psychological reality. And, by way of parity, we might then add the ‘inference to the best explanation’, noting that the best explanation of our success in predicting the color-naming behavior of dichromats is that our theories and laws of color vision are adequate.


It should be obvious by now, however, that the broader translation of the theoretical physics model into psychological terms does not work. First, color vision aside, there is no settled position regarding the contents and boundaries of ‘psychological reality’. As there is no settled ontology, there is no settled position on the nature of the interactions that might obtain between and among whatever ‘entities’ there may be. There is much talk of ‘processes’, but very little clarity as to just what renders events a ‘process’. Typically, the word merely reifies some data-set. Persons failing to recall briefly presented stimuli when stripped of possibilities for rehearsal may be said to have lim- ited ‘short-term memory’, but this, after all, merely summarizes the finding itself. To say that what is operating here is a short-term memory process adds nothing, explains nothing and predicts nothing.


It might be asserted in defense of process notions that they are the important ingredients of analogical models (a species of proposed theory) that might well rise to the level of central theory. The temporal range over which an observer retains briefly presented stimuli, considered now as a form of ‘buffer storage’, might be incorporated into a more general model of information- processing analogous to physical information-processing systems. This line of reasoning was advanced by George Sperling in his pioneering studies of visual short-term memory and proved to be productive (Sperling, 1960). Nonetheless,


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192 THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY 17(2)


such carefully conducted research and credible explanation did not give rise to or prove to be grounded in a more general theory of psychological reality itself. It is important to be clear on this point. There is no area of psychological research and theory as developed as that of visual perception. Such journals as Vision Research and the Journal of the Optical Society of America rou- tinely include basic research and contributions to central theories by experi- mental psychologists at the leading edge of empirical and conceptual work. How revealing, then, that neither the specific studies nor any compilation of them as yet yields a coherent and general ontology of what is really seen. I refer here not to an account of, for example, alterations in the brightness of colored flowers as seen in sunlight and moonlight, or the waterfall illusion, or even why the sky is blue. I refer instead to the fundamental difference between (a) electromagnetic radiation falling in the range of wavelengths


from 360 to 760 millimicrons and (b) the psychological reality of the seen. Readers will be reminded here of Goethe’s famous Farbenlehre of 1810, which chided the Newtonians for thinking that the physics of light had much to say about the perception of color (Goethe, 1840). Although wrong in his appraisal of Newton’s physics, Goethe was sound in his distinction between the passive reality of light striking physical bodies and the active reality of percipients who introduce every variety of complexity into the equation. This fact raises but does not at all settle the fundamental ontological question. The robust development of vision science, to which psychologists have made core contributions, offers support for the claim that psychology’s central theories should be at the level of basic processes. The enduring near-independence of perceived reality in relation to these very processes offers support for the claim that psychology’s central theories should be at the level of global and richly contextualized experience and activity. It will not be the data and meth- ods of the vision sciences that resolve the conflict here, for the conflict is


conceptual—I dare say ‘philosophical’.

In the spirit of a pax philosophica it might be argued that the two


approaches are both valid, that different investigators have different interests, that studies of basic processes have always been the launching pad for more general theories, and so on. It might even be contended that physics itself is plagued by the inability to frame a totally unified theory incorporating both microcosm and macrocosm. One might applaud so liberal an outlook but one might also note the danger of enhancing a field of view by wearing blinders. Consider illustratively the jolt delivered to the well-developed and seemingly settled field of psychophysics with the advent of signal detection theory. Once the latter’s paradigm became more widely known, along with the empirical results of its application, it was obvious that any number of core assumptions in psychophysics had to be reconsidered, beginning with the very notion of a ‘threshold’ (Swets, 1964). It is simply (or not so simply) in the very nature of a creature with various and shifting interests and values, various and interacting motives and sentiments, and various and ontogenetically


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dynamic psychological resources that any process-based strategy will explain all but the lived life itself. In a word, just in case there were to be a fuller appre- ciation of this, it would be necessary to invent a psychology adequate unto the task. The striking inadequacies of the current version are recorded monthly in the major journals.


It is in the nature of the interplay between ontology and epistemology that, lacking a settled a defensible ontology, there is no rational basis on which to choose a mode of inquiry. In order to establish what there is it is necessary to have the right sort of method, but then the right sort of method already pre- supposes at least a provisional answer to the question of what there is. Psychophysical research is predicated on a physicalistic ontology such that all the relevant participating entities are physical: quanta collide with molecules of photopigment at the receptor level, and so on. The psychophysical observer in this arrangement is something of a meter or measuring rod whose verbal or behavioral reports signal the presence or absence of a physical event or change in a physical event. Once the inquiry must take into account the over- all context, the payoff matrix, the subjective criteria of certainty, ands so on— once the rationale of signal detection theory is added—the previously settled ontology is transformed. No longer is the ontological domain of psychophysics limited to quanta and photopigments. Now included are entities with inter- ests, values and aims. This does not militate against orderly data and system- atic inquiry, but it does require us to incorporate into the narrow realm of inquiry more and more of the realm of reality.


This all confers on psychophysical investigation an enlarged ontology, a metaphysical foundation different from the purely physicalistic. As a result, there are fundamental epistemological consequences. Among these is the recog- nition that the ‘reality’ surrounding even the most basic perceptual events is not readily reducible to the physics of electromagnetic radiation. This is less an invitation to have the ghost enter the machine than a willingness to accept that the ghost is less mechanical than once thought.


To mention to psychologists the interplay of different factors in shaping a given outcome is to excite within most of them the nearly sacred image of the analysis of variance design. To go on to note that this sort of statistical manip- ulation is quite uncommon in science at large—used mostly by those working with, for example, X-ray scatter—is to find them undaunted. I recall a graduate student some years ago, liberated enough to accept that what he was interested in studying was likely to depend on just what persons are actually dealing with in life outside the laboratory, devising this strategy: the subjects would be instrumented in such a way as to hear an alarm, stop whatever they were doing, and then answer a set of questions. At no point did the student or his mentor understand the cause of the laughter confined to one or two witnesses to this proposed strategy. There seemed to be no thought about how such an arrange- ment would relegate ways in which research participants conducted themselves, given that their conduct would likely be distracted and shaped by the mode of


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inquiry itself. Bad science is such serious business as to leave its practitioners woefully deficient in witty but incisive self-criticism.


It will take a generation or longer for psychology-at-large to come to grips with the difference between statistics and measurement; between knowing the incidence of ‘X’ and the nature of ‘X’. Something is learned, of course, when we know the frequency with which events occur or the degree of coincidence between and among them. Insurance companies traffic in this sort of informa- tion all the time. But to assess how often something happens is not to know its magnitude, its place within the larger ontological framework of what there is, the ‘whatness’ of an event. When the psychophysicist constructs a frequency- of-seeing curve, the ordinate is indeed rendered as ‘percent seen’. But this is related to the physical magnitude of the stimulus. Moreover, ‘percent seen’ is, at least in principle, a figure that can be translated into, for example, ‘percent photopigment bleached’, itself subject to translation into, for example, ‘optic nerve discharge rate’, and so on. The measures are not ‘statistical’ as such, and the paradigm is assuredly not that of ANOVA.


Merely to invoke such a point of comparison is to stand too close to the threshold of foolishness. Multivariate statistical designs are mechanical approaches to problems already stripped of their realistic features. They offer the fool’s gold of confidence levels which pertain not to the confidence we might have that we’re on to something real, but only to the confidence we might have that, if we keep doing things this way, we’ll keep getting this as a reward for our efforts. That ‘everybody’s doing it’ should, of course, be alarming. It is sufficient to note that, before it died, the field of phrenology could boast more than a score of journals, most of them ‘peer review’.


In cynical and patronizing moments—lengthy or transient, depending on one’s choice of colleagues—the right answer to the question of what one might contribute to ‘the mainstream’ is: drain it. Then, with its minions finally having their feet on terra firma, lead an orderly march toward libraries and life. The libraries are the repository of failed attempts to settle once and for all the abiding questions; the repository of utterly successful attempts to trivilialize reality to such an extent as to make it seem simple; the repository of those few successful attempts to render the affair clearer and approachable.


If the diagnosis thus far is at all on target, something should be said of the aetiology which, in this case, is the very schooling of psychologists. What psychology’s mainstream provides by way of training is ultimately at the for- feiture of educating. Much of ‘higher education’ today would have been regarded as trite by junior high school students a half-century ago, and the discipline of psychology surely offers no counter to this. At the doctoral level in psychology, the already poorly instructed are now paced through ‘fields’ so intellectually barren as to render the product of it all ill-suited to an academic life. I have more to say on related matters in the following section.


On the verge of a rant, I had best return to the core ontological question: for there to be a discipline or field replete with theory and research and


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denominated ‘psychology’, we should be clear as to what entities or events comprise it. To put it another way, is there any natural kind of entity properly conveyed to psychology for study? It is profitable for psychologists to ask with persistence just what sort of being or creature is the object of their inter- est, and whether such a creature might have a nature that may flourish or become degraded under broad and definable cultural and political conditions. As regards this question, cultural relativists need not apply, for if all things ‘psychological’ vary with local norms and long tradition, we’re back to the fads and fashions of history and surely not a systematic and scientific inquiry into psychological reality. The weather, too, is fickle, but meteorology is nonetheless a scientific undertaking, in possession of predictive and explica- tive laws. Psychology stands as a discipline only to the extent that it is pre- pared to accept something foundational and then to examine the conditions that find it flourishing or failing. If there is a visible obstacle to the attainment of this perspective and this degree of maturity, it is the traditional departmen- tal organization of thought to which I now turn, again all too briefly.


Institutional Considerations


On the whole, departments were among the damaging bequests of the 19th- century German model. The departmentalization of thought, including its narrowing by doctoral programs of research, would come to yield scholarship and scientific discovery of a very high order. Much of Newton’s best thinking was done on granny’s farm and in the solitude of his rooms at Cambridge. But the world of science and scholarship as we know it is not the product of the occasional and eccentric genius. It arises from the very institutionalization of research, the creation of scientific guilds, the designated roles of apprentices and masters, and the ever-growing number and variety of individual, corpo- rate and national patrons.


On the whole and at the practical level, the effects here have been dramatic and positive. At the cultural level, the story is more subtle and the progression of outcomes rather more worrisome. Science and technology yield tools. Their use falls into many hands, some horrifically skillful in their destructive agility. The limitations of space are especially frustrating here, and brevity will certainly convey what is not intended. I wish to say that, for all its faults and its false starts, a higher level of civilization includes and seeks to install a higher level of moral sensibility, a heightened respect for the other, aware- ness that powers entail duties, and that vulnerabilities create protective rights. Chivalry, recall, gave Europe a gentility, an etiquette, a gracefulness that did not eliminate evil but surely tamed its vulgarity.


Civilization is the product of forces that are civilizing, which means forces rendering one ever more fit for a life that is civic. When the ancient Greeks declared, Polis andra didaske—that we are taught and shaped by the city—they


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were recording their awareness of the extent to which the psychological depends on the civic. Of all disciplines, therefore, it is psychology that pays the heaviest price for abandoning that reality in which the psychological dimensions of life are most fully expressed and most fully shaped. This is not an invitation to expand course offerings in ‘cultural psychology’ (typically a buffet of fashion and fable). It is instead a warning about ‘course offerings’ per se and the culturally and intellectually narrowing effects of departmental modes of teaching and study.


Consider today’s psychology departments and their curricular offerings. Pick any college or university; they’re all pretty much the same. Examine what is now on offer and then try to get hold of the programs that were dom- inant, say, thirty years ago. Where Freud and Skinner once dominated, we now find ‘cognitive neuroscience’, which, oddly, makes even less contact with lived life than did Freud and Skinner. Say what you will about Walden Two, there’s more to it than functional neuroanatomy. Granted that the over- all level of civilization sustained by Skinnerian ‘token economies’ would soon bore even the lower primates, there is still an element of shared life, social interaction, and at least the possibility of a breakout.


To this must be added a word about money, for this is, alas, what preserves the institutionalization of thought. But aren’t grants wonderful? Do they not liberate serious scientists from the burdens of teaching? Doesn’t that gener- ous ‘indirect cost’ category allow academic institutions to enhance the facili- ties for study and research? It was Henry Louis Mencken who defined Puritanism as ‘the haunting feeling that someone, somewhere, may be happy’. I do not wish to rob today’s psychologists of the comforts created by grants, or the happiness and exhilaration they seem to experience when learn- ing that their grant applications have been approved. Nor would I strip doc- toral students of the subsidies made possible by these grants. I would, however, offer these observations which may apply to a greater number of instances than we would wish to believe:



The ‘culture’of grant-getting and grant awards tends to reward the pre- dictable, the safe, the mundane and the trite. In order to win grants and then renewals, investigators must be ‘productive’, meaning they must publish reg- ularly in peer-review journals. The expected rate of publication guarantees that the publications themselves will seldom rise higher than the predictable and will seldom add much to what was published earlier.
The collegial bonds forged by the culture of grant-getting is such that research specialists are more closely associated with those working in the same ‘field’ than those in their own departments, let alone those in their own colleges and universities. There is little by way of shared allegiances, common cause, mutual intellectual influence. Thus is today’s academic an essentially entrepreneurial type, able to pay for his/her own upkeep and ready to move the operation to a more congenial (‘supportive’) venue. Undergraduates? Oh, they’re everywhere; not to worry.

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Persons eager to be liberated from the burdens of teaching should really be liberated from academic life. Those needing additional space, staff, facili- ties and subventions should understand that their needs and demands may be serving nothing grander than their own ambitions.
To institutionalize a practice is inescapably to bureaucratize it. Where large sums of money are changing hands, there must be accountability, and this begins with accountants and their inevitable superiors, et al., ad infinitum. In the US today, the ‘major research universities’—meaning the top ten or twenty or 100 listed by, of all organs of acute judgment, US News & World Report—are bloated in the managerial slots and thin where the student might find the committed, the erudite, the persons-of-the-book. It is no longer unusual for undergraduates at top-twenty universities to receive the bulk of their instruction from graduate students. This is close to scandal.

The point of these observations is that the institutionalization and depart- mentalization of disciplines must be seen as having mixed effects, but that the effect on psychology is graver owing to its special summons to consider the real world in its fullness. Of all subjects, psychology has most to learn from sources external to itself. Indeed, its own internal resources, limited largely to the arguable bounty of statistics and experimental design, have scarcely changed in decades. What has changed is, in a somewhat graphic manner of speaking, the host on which psychology finds itself parasitic. Again, for all the folly of Skinnerian psychology, it did offer an authentic and self-defining discipline whose progress did not require improvements in low-noise amplification.


Perhaps we might take a page from Skinner; careful, however, to choose the right one. We might read the closing sections of The Behavior of Organisms (Skinner, 1938) as laying down this challenge, mutatis mutandis: Imagine that those you’ve chosen for study possess no nervous system at all, are entirely independent of any genetic endowment, and have in common nothing more than a tendency to organize their activities within social con- texts and primarily through the instrument of spoken and written language. Furthermore, for reasons not here to be specified, you would have to make all your observations of these entities where they are actually found. They could not be moved to your campus or confined to windowless rooms. How would you go about studying such a creature? What ‘outputs’ would be the most dis- criminating? What interactions would be likely to yield the most information? Who, within your college or department, would be most apt as a collabora- tor? What would you be able to tell your students to read if they were to be current and competent in their understanding of this sort of entity?


Ethologists engage in this sort of study, going where the animals can be found rather than dragging them to places of confinement. This is not to say that what the ethologists thereby examine or conclude is invariably faithful to the facts; only that there are relevant facts to which description and theory are supposed to be faithful. There is a reality and at least some sort of willingness


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to engage it. What about human animals? Where are they to be most revealingly found? In churches and sports arenas, in bookshops and shopping malls, near watering holes and not far from their newly born, walking hand-in-hand or combating hand-to-hand, building Gothic cathedrals and castles in the sand, writing sonnets and constitutions. There really is a mountain of data out there needing to be comprehended. No need to bring a stat-pack.


 


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