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Homework Writing Help On Artists And Creators Hold A Special Place In Our Lives Persuasive Essay Help

Artists and Creators Hold a Special Place in Our Lives

Artists and creators have very slight distinction in the general description; Artists are people majorly concerned with wide range of activities linked to creation, and display of creative works referred to as art. Creators on the other hand, are individuals exploring their knowledge and talents to originate items or ideas. There are different types of Arts depending on the end product, these include fine art and crafts, decorative art and applied arts. Artists can in some instance be considered creator since they introduce new creative ideas in their works, which in most cases present varied effects in the lives of many, therefore artists and creators are correlated and work hand in hand. Considering the ideas presented by the works of art and creations, many have found attractive means of presenting information, resolving issues as well as using the ideas as societal attachments to create directions in lifestyle. The role of artists and creators in our daily life can be measured in consideration of the end product of their presented works (Landry et al, 1993).

Since early 1980s, arts and creative activity became increasingly considered in the urban revival projects in developed nations such as Britain, Major Cities seeking lasting economic rebuilding solutions as well as upgrading traditional manufacturing industry. Following after experiences of the United States of American and European, Britain embarked on artistic development approaches. These approaches were reinforced through publication of the Policy papers formulated to considerably institute the arts sector (Myerscough, 1998).

Direct high end expenditure on arts is a major contribution on the expenditure in other related divisions of the economy which otherwise generate wealth and employment opportunities enhancing growth and development in the infrastructure and thus attracting investors and the general population (Myerscough, 1998). Major financial divisions in the world’s economy such as the World Bank and the European Commission has acknowledged the creative industry as a major force in the fast growing global economy since through art, there has been notable cost effective wealth establishment as well as invisible exports in form of performances (Antal, 2009), creating major income earning activities within the economy.

 In the Social context, creations and arts have presented much profitable outcomes as they give communities cultural identity and pride of their own making. Some have acted as sources of taboos and beliefs and enhanced light interactions and interrelation among communities. In certain presentation of ideas in the form of arts and creations, much attention has been drawn to the various aspects of our lives such as addition of value to conservation of the environment for example. This has been achieved through invention of creative decorated buildings and infrastructural designs. Arts have special effects that go beyond the artifacts and their presentations have constant influence directly affecting the lives of people (Landry et al, 1993).

In broader spectrum, Arts and creations are the major sources of socially important leisure activities; they enlighten individuals and enhance growth in thinking, psychological and social comfort and improvement in sensitivity (Landry et al, 1993). These attachments have brought about rise in art and cultural institutions which have contributed largely in the improving life standards of many. These deep attachments developed through love of an artist or a specific creator has led to engaging most people in emulation and involvement in their most favorite forms of art following in the shoes of their most adored artists and creators. Through art, innovations have brought in establishment of social organizations such as amateur art theatres, media and creative art. The expansion of the arts industries have contributed to significant economic effects, such as creation of job opportunities; works of art and creative outcomes have their independent markets such as Gallery auditions and museums which provide room for viable investment in the creative arts sector transforming into diverse growth in several other relative economic sectors (Antal, 2009).

Artistic literature has greatly influenced the personal attributes and leadership skills of many leaders across the world. Some of the works have philosophical elements, created by scholars who have experimented with a variety of arts in their administration courses; others are motivational and in essence give inspiration to leaders to act according to the anticipated skills reflected within the works of creative art. In turn, creative art has majorly contributed to the changes in the models of management within organizations (Antal, 2009). Various studies have revealed that arts have the potential to tackle basic issues within organizations and strengthen the interventions presented in improving quality. However, these artistic publications may be faced with risk of formation of propaganda around the trend hence motivational literature may be conveyed into organizations plainly or under unsuitable circumstances, leading to disappointment and sarcasm when problems come up and high hopes broken. Leadership and Organizations are implanted in a socio-economic and ordinary environment that is affected by performance and production. Through art we identify the fact that persons within an organization are social beings who also have activities and relations in the immediate socio-economic and natural environment thus incorporation of the out of work activities to rejuvenate and enlighten workers on their capabilities (Antal, 2009). This influences the organization in scores of ways such identifying insight of value. Materialization of a substantial amount of ways to encourage innovation and organizational education, in reaction to changes in society in the past, artistic involvement is considered to prompt the education process. These developments are usually unique since the arts industry is usually seen as quite diverse from business and administration.

Nevertheless, apart from influencing the lives of people positively, arts could also negatively impact the lives of people (Antal, 2009). For instance graffiti is deemed dangerous, illegal, irresponsible, and an enhancement of gang activity. The graffiti artists do not seek permission from owners to draw on their property. Moreover, such artists facilitate criminal and gang actions. For instance, if the artists seek to draw on the territory of a rival gang, the rival gang could take it as insolence and they engage in war that could end up destroying the property of people or even killings. Some of the signs of art have also been attributed to road accidents for causing confusion and distraction of drivers.   

  Effects of artists and creators are to some extent inevitable within the society. Promotion of arts within the society has major effects in the day to day running of the life including vital advantages such as; enhancing societal cohesion, improving community image and self-confidence, reducing vices within the society, promoting environmental conservation; development of infrastructure and the entire economy through promotion of Good partnership among the divisions of the economy, supporting self-reliance and rights as well as reviewing the visions of our future (Landry et al, 1996). Works of arts and creative ideas commonly changes our perception, raises our esteem and energy, improves our creative thinking and gives us urge to learn thus enhancing deep attachments to the creators and the artists. We tend to emulate the lifestyle of our most adored artists and creators. Most expansions in various sectors of our economy and culture are largely attributed to major milestones made within the artistic developments and creations. Our lives at large are pegged on the lives of our favorite artists and creators thus influencing how we carry ourselves and interact within the society. Conclusively therefore, Artists and creators hold a special place in our lives.


Landry, C, Bianchini, F, Maguire, M and Worpole, K, (1993). The Social Impact of the Arts A Discussion Document. Retrieved from

Myerscough, J, (1998) The Economic Importance of the Arts in Great Britain. London: Policy Studies Institute

Styhre, A. and M. Eriksson (2008). Bring in the Arts and Get the Creativity for Free.  A Study of the Artists in Residence Project. Creativity and Innovation Management, 17(1), 47-57

Antal, A. B. (2009). Transforming Organizations with the Arts. Sweden: TILLT

Essay Writing Help on Caffeine and its Effect on the Body devry tutorcom essay help

Caffeine and its Effect on the Body

Caffeine is a substance that is chemical in nature and naturally found in many leaves of plants. For instance, most edible plants contain Caffeine. However, coffee and tea leaves form the greatest component of the caffeine found in plants. It is a stimulant. Therefore, it keeps people active and removes fatigue. Whereas some people use it as medicine, other people completely abuse it. As a result of this, caffeine is regulated and is in the list of the FDA, even though it is considered less harmful. In addition, it is a requirement that when caffeine component is used in the preparation of any food substance, it must be indicated as an ingredient. It is mostly common with people that have busy schedule, and need to be active most of the time. Addiction of the same occurs just as it does in other substances as a result of prolonged use (Victor 18).

The use of caffeine started long time ago in many parts of the world. For instance, some people believe that the utilization of the same started in Ethiopia where it was first seen. Therefore, it is believed that the first people to use the same are the Muslims. This assertion is justified by the allegation that it got its name from an Arabic word. Qahweh is the Arabic name that the word caffeine was derived from. The history of the product is long with the Turks on record that they controlled most of the caffeine for an extended time. Caffeine is mainly consumed in the drinks; however, it is also consumed in other different forms like drugs and medicine, and even in other food substances, which have been prepared using the same. Even though, the use of caffeine has been the way of life for some time, there has always been a general outcry concerning its effects on the body, and potential harm it poses to the health of a human being (Stoker 14).

A number of studies reveal that excess use of caffeine coupled with large amounts of sugar content pose serious dangers to the health of the body organs like the heart. In addition, the same is also a major source of dehydration. However, more follow-ups in the same have insignificantly confirmed the assertions. Nevertheless, the controversy surrounding the use of it has not ceased. For example, in November, the year 2010, the U.S (FDA) Food and Drugs Administration warned certain alcohol companies over the use of caffeine, as it was deemed unsafe food additive. There has been a growing concern over its misuse. For instance, some body builders use the same as a booster while other people that want to reduce their weights also use it. As a result of the continuing abuse of caffeine, there has been a general concern to remove the caffeine from the list of safe substances and foods (Victor 24).

By chemical composition, caffeine contains methylxanthine, which is the common stimulant in most of the species. Other substances are theophylline and theobromine found in tealeaves and cacao plants respectively. Even though the use of the same is synonymous with many people, it however poses serious health effects. Therefore, excessive and prolonged usage of it is harmful to the body. Whereas other people find pleasure in the use of the caffeine, some people get gastrointestinal tract irritation as they consume caffeine components. Therefore, most patients with ulcers are always advised against the use of caffeine itself, and other foodstuffs that contain the component of caffeine substance. However, a close follow-up study has not found patients with ulcers getting relief even after stopping the use of the caffeine products. Therefore, it is not clear whether the assertion that irritation in ulcer patients are as a result of the use of the same (Page et al 21).

However, the use of the caffeine substance has been found to be impairing the heart. For instance, irregular heartbeat is associated with the use of the same. Several cardiac arrest cases have been reported to be caused by the excess use of the caffeine. However, other health disorders like the increased anxiety are reported among the users of the same substance. For instance, it is evident that people that consume eight cups of the caffeine in tea or coffee are likely to be more anxious than others that have taken little or no amount of the product. In extreme cases, the use of the caffeine is also known to cause convulsion in most users of the caffeine. Diabetes can also be provoked by the use of the same. It is reported that the use of caffeine in extreme doses can be fatal, and can lead to death, especially if it is directly administered in the blood stream. Other effects of the use of the same substance include miscarriages in pregnant women (Stephen 20).

Therefore, doctors have advised pregnant women to cut the use of caffeine during pregnancy entirely. In conclusion, the use of caffeine is synonymous with many people across the globe. For instance, whereas some people consume it knowingly, others consume the product unknowingly in coffee and tea. However, what is of great concern in the use of the same substance is the health effect it has on the body. For instance, excess use of the same is associated with health problems like those touching on the heart among other complications (Louise 47).

Works Cited

Burke, Louise. Caffeine for Sports Performance. , 2013. Print.

Cherniske, Stephen S. Caffeine Blues: Wake Up to the Hidden Dangers of America’s #1 Drug. ,    1998. Internet resource.

Page, Melvin E, and H L. Abrams. Your Body Is Your Best Doctor. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse,          2001. Print.

Preedy, Victor R. Caffeine: Chemistry, Analysis, Function and Effects. Cambridge, U.K: Royal     Society of Chemistry, 2012. Print.

Stoker, H S. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry. Australia: Brooks/Cole Cengage                       Learning, 2013. Print.

Assignment Writing Help on Determining Validity and Reliability write essay help: write essay help

Determining Validity and Reliability

It is important for the reliability and validity of the data collection process used in a research to be determined. The validity of an investigation method is associated with the degree with which the method involved in a research measures the intended variables. Reliability, conversely, is associated with the consistency of a measuring device, test, observations, or a survey.

Processes used to Determine Validity

The variables in a research may be categorized into two; that is, those that are measurable and those that are difficult to measure due to their complexity. There are various construct validity processes used in research; they include “concurrent validity”, “predictive validity”, and “content validity”. Concurrent validity defines the measuring instrument ability to vary directly with respect to a similar variable or vary indirectly with respect to an opposing variable. This test involves the comparison of results obtained in a test with the results from an already verified test. An example of a concurrent validity test would involve the determination of an Adults intelligence, which can be compared with the Wechsler Adult intelligent scale. The Wechsler Adult intelligent scale is a verified test for measuring the human intelligence.

The content validity test is aimed at determining the ability of a variable to be all-inclusive. In the test of human intelligence, the ability of a valuable to incorporate the reasoning, verbal, analytical ability, and any other aspect that pertain to human intelligence must be considered for it to satisfy the content validity test. The content validity test is often carried out by experts. The predictive validity test, on the other hand, is used to forecast the future behavior of a research methodology or device. The self-assessment tests used in learning institutions are used as a tool of predicting the future students’ grades and performance.

Processes used to Determine Reliability

The different types of reliability tests include reliability coefficient, test-retest reliability, parallel form reliability, and the inter-rater reliability. The reliability coefficient determines the connection between, or among, identified variables. The test-retest reliability determines the consistency between various administrations. The parallel form reliability test is used to determine the consistency of different administrations under a common scale. The inter-rater reliability test is used to correlate observations of the same variable by two observers to determine their reliability.

Homework Writing Help on Health Promotion writing essay help


1.0 Introduction

1.0.1 Health Promotion

            Many individuals around the world suffer different problems that directly or indirectly affect their health statuses. Most people normally have to seek medical attentions or medical interventions in order to manage, treat, or control any given health problem. Doctors on the other hand have to work closely with such people in order to help them achieve their desired goals. Moreover, in many cases, the health professionals notice that the person needs to adopt changes in his or her behavior so that he or she can realize the desired health status. In addition, previous researches have proved that these professionals usually use various models to help their patients either through treatment or intervention procedures. Other studies have also proved that there are several theories or models that the professionals may use to help an individual or a group of people achieve a healthy living. In the world today, such models comprise the reasoned action model, trans-theoretical model regarding the human health behavior change as well as the health belief model. Additionally, the theories may include the most popular theory of planned behavior.

            Therefore, this paper was a discussion of the trans-theoretical model of health behavior change. It investigated how different physicians have successfully used this model to help promote health issues among adult smokers by helping them change their behavior towards smoking. The paper also critically analyzed the Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) campaign, and discussed how the campaign was effective in helping addicted and new smokers with ways of dealing with the vise of smoking (O’donohue & Krasner 1995, p. 9).

1.0.2 Trans-theoretical model of health behavior change

 Prochaska and DiClemente proposed the trans-theoretical model (TTM) of health and behavior change in 1983. The theory’s revision works took place in 1992 as stated by Prochaska et al., and finally refined by Prochaska in 2006. Evidently, it was a model that used cognitive and behavior strategies in helping people achieve desired behavior changes that would also change their health needs (Elsevier 2009, p. 13). Similarly, this model was effective in promoting health benefits because it used the stages of change in incorporating the most powerful principles and procedures of change from outstanding theories of counseling and behavior change. Moreover, the model was founded on principles developed from scientific research, medical intervention development and a variety of pragmatic studies carried out for a period more than 34 years.

The trans-theoretical model of health behavior change applied the results of research funded by over $70 million worth of grants and carried was out by more than 160,000 research participants (Lutzker & Martin 1981, p. 19). Additionally, different professionals around the globe are currently using this model to help their patients in promoting practical behavior changes (Riekert et al. 2009, p. 49). Various health professionals rely on TTM to help patients achieve optimum health statuses by aiding them to change their behavior through cognitive thought process which were used in the model. Studies have revealed that unlike other models of behavior change, which mainly focus on certain magnitudes of change, for example, theories that mainly focus on social or biological impacts, the TTM seeks to incorporate and integrate major paradigms from other theories into an inclusive theory of change that was applicable to a variety of behaviors, demographics, as well as settings. For instance, TTM can be used in areas of treatment, prevention, intervention and policymaking procedure, hence, the origin of the name trans-theoretical model.

Velice and Prochaska (1992, p. 287) stated that TTM assumes that no theory can attempt to fully analyze and effect behavior change, since change in behavior was found out to be gradual and that it occurred over a given period, and that it was important to come up with one comprehensive model that would monitor changes in behavior across other models and theories as well. Therefore, model seeks to use processes change after its proposers found out that people shift through a series of stages when changing or attempting to change their behavior. Whereas the time an individual may take in each stage was different, the tasks required to move from one stage to the next do not vary but remain constant throughout the intervention or medication process (Bergin & Garfield 1971, p. 31).

Various health professionals have used the TTM method in helping old adults and young individuals to change their behavior by repositioning their cognitive abilities in order to achieve a better health. Nonetheless, the stages of TTM include pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance and termination phases (Corner et al. 2003, p. 22). Pre-contemplation refers to a phase in which the people involved do not anticipate to take any action in the near future, which was generally projected to be a period of six months. Similarly, lack of proper understanding on the consequences of one’s behavior may lead to demoralization of the individual, hence, failing to make the decision to take actions towards their behavior change needs. This was particularly so with adult smokers who thought that there was nothing wrong with one being a smoker.

On the other hand, the contemplation stage was when the adult smoker starts internalizing the consequences of smoking and how this might affect his or her health, or how the behavior has already affected his or her health. The person may also consider how this vice was affecting the people around him or her and how close associates were reacting towards the same (Prochaska 2006, p. 36). At this point, the individual contemplates on how to go about changing his behavior in order to acquire a better health. In most cases, most young adults would contemplate on effects as well as advantages of changing their behaviors.

The process of weighting the pros and cons of changes in behavior can make the individual either stay for long in the contemplation stage or relapse to the pre-contemplation stage depending on his/her personal convictions.

The preparation phase is mostly used to refer to a given point when young and old adults intend to take immediate actions in the near future. It comes after an individual has given his or her behaviors thorough thought and critically analyzed how the behavior (smoking) negatively impacts his life and the lives of those around him (Prochaska 1997, p. 51). Moreover, at this point, the adult had made a proper decision and was hoping to seek help or intervention in order to change their actions. The people in the preparation stage had a plan of action, for example, they may have decided to join a health education class, consult a counselor, talk to their physician, buy and read a self-help book or else rely on a self-change program in order to change their behavior.

Action refers to the stage in when individuals have made definite and clear changes in their lifestyles in the past six months (Lenio 2006, p. 14). However, according to this theory, action point was just another of the many stages in the model, therefore, all changes in behavior cannot be considered as action in this model. In most professional applications, people have to achieve a criterion that scientists and health professionals approve as sufficient to reduce the hazards of the behavior or disease. For instance, reducing the number of cigarettes or switching to low tar and low nicotine cigarettes were formerly viewed acceptable actions, however, the person realizes that the only best way to abstain from smoking (Whyte 1991, p. 33).

Maintenance on the other hand was the phase when the adult had made specific notable alterations in their lifestyles. They were aiming to prevail over the possibility of reoccurrence of the past behavior. Nonetheless, they did not use processes of change as often as adults in action stage did. Adults in the maintenance stage felt a lesser urge to go back to their old ways of life. Research studies indicated that people could maintain being in this stage from half a year to five years without reverting to their former behaviors. The research further proved that after a year of abstinence, 45 percent of individuals relapsed to smoking (Burg 2005, p. 20). The degenerate cases reduced significantly to 7 percent after five years. 

Termination refers to the point in the trans-theoretical model when the adults were not tempted go back to their initial smoking behaviors. In addition, the people had achieved a hundred percent success in changing their smoking behavior (Shani, Woodman & Pasmore 2011, p. 74). In many cases, such individuals had fully quite smoking and were no longer using cigarettes. Whether they were lonely, depressed, angry, anxious, bored or stressed, people in this stage were certain that they would not revert to their unhealthy practices as a way of dealing with their problems (Martens & Mcmichael 2002, p. 21). It was an indication that their newly acquired behavior had almost become a mechanical routine and hence they could not go back to their former behavior methods.

Many professionals had used the TTM method in helping different individuals especially adults to overcome their smoking habits and to acquire behavior that would help them to stop smoking (Hardinge 1970, p. 18). Consequently, the model allowed the professionals to move in a systematic way and ensure that the individuals had successfully passed a stage before moving on to the next stage. The TTM enabled patients to work or move at their own pace without being pushed by the health care professional to move on to the next stage. Using this model, the caregivers were allowed to assess the patients critically from one stage to the next as they guided them through the different stages.

The advantages of this model were that it made it possible for health professionals to aid their clients in a systematic way. Additionally, it did not stop at actions stage just because an individual had decided to act on their behavior, however, the health professionals who used the TTM as a means of behavior change only stopped after realizing that the patients had fully recovered. The only disadvantage was that the clients could not agree with the duration, as TTM was gradual and did not happen over a short period (Adams 2002, p. 237). The main issue that the professionals had to deal with was aiding patients so that they did not relapse and helping them make a comeback after relapsing.

Stages of Change in Human behavior changePre-contemplation“ I will not” or “I cannot”ContemplationUse of reasons either for/against changePreparationWant to but…ActionDoing itMaintenance/RelapseNow a habit or risk of lapse

Figure 1.0.3 indicating the different stages of behavior change (Burg 2005, p. 27).

1.1 Health Promotion Campaign

Many organizations had come up with campaigns to help people stop smoking. The Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) refers to a health campaign whose main objective was to inform everybody in the United States and the world on the disadvantages of smoking. Moreover, the activists believed that every cigarette you did not smoke helped in preserving your health and that the vice versa was true. This campaign was inclusive and did not only aim at informing adolescent, youths or adults on the vices of smoking, but was tailor made for every group and age of people. Similarly, the campaign was effective in the sense that it targeted every smoker of every age, it was available both locally and internationally (, 2014). The campaign also seemed to tackle issues such as electronic cigarettes, who have them, their safety, and how effective they were in dealing with smoking issues. The health promotion informed people on all the facts and myths about smoking as well as offering suggestions on where an individual could find help (Eddy 1981, p. 39).

. In addition, it also told people about the negativity of consumption of cigarettes as well as how this act could harm those around the smokers. They also had proposals for rehabilitation centers that an addicted smoker could attend to get the much-needed help. The campaign also provided an access to information and resources that smokers and non-smokers could use to help gather more information about smoking as well as help people who smoked but were afraid to seek help (Markóczy & Goldberg 1998, p. 391). They had a site that was easy to use and invited more people to join them in the campaign to help others quite smoking and live a cigarette free life (, 2014).  

Moreover, the ASH movement also educated smokers on the costs of social care, and how they could participate in activities that would enable them end smoking. In addition, the movement also volunteered to inform and teach people on the impending dangers of smoking in cars and educated them about the new smoking policies put in place. This campaign was also aimed at aiding those struggling with smoking issues to quit and never relapse again (Dubé 2010, p. 16).

Figure 1.0.4 A representation of the behavior change in different individuals (Hardinge 1970, p. 89).

1.3 Conclusion

There are many smokers around the world who are either not aware of the effects of smoking or just do not care about the effects of the vice in regards to their health. There are also various campaigns found in different parts of the world whose mandate is to ensure that people do not smoke (Salmon 1989, p. 44). Health professionals can use a comprehensive model such as the TTM to aid individuals who wish to quit smoking with the aim of changing their behaviors for proper health. The TTM helps both young and old adult smokers in changing their behavior so that they can practice better help. They acquire appropriate behavior change by using this method through the assistance of their health professionals. Many professionals also prefer this model because it was very inclusive, not biased in nature and it was systematic (Elsevier 2009, p. 38). The application of the model enabled the health worker to aid the patients or clients in a systematic process through stages until they achieved the desired health behavior change. 

There are different campaigns that aim at influencing people to stop smoking and the ASH campaign was one of them. The use of campaigns was an effective method because it aims at influencing people from various backgrounds to stop smoking (Velice & Prochaska 1992, p. 67). The campaigns targeted both local and international audience.


1.4 References

Adams, J., 2002. Are activity promotion interventions based on the transtheoretical model effective? A critical review. Britwash journal of medicine. [online] <>

ASH. 2014. Action on smoking and health. [online]

Bergin, A. E., & Garfield, S. L. (1971). Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: an empirical analysis. New York, Wiley.

Burg, J., 2005. The transtheoretical model and stages of change: a critique observation: why don’t stage-based activity promotion interventions work? Oxford journal of medicine. [Online]. Available at

Corner, M., Norman, P., & Abraham, C., 2003. Understanding and Changing Health Behavior. New York: Springer

Dubé, L. (2010). Obesity prevention: the role of brain and society on individual behavior.

Amsterdam, Elsevier/Academic Press.

Eddy, W. B. (1981). Public organization behavior and development. Cambridge, Mass,

Winthrop Publishers.

Elsevier Australia, 2009. Psychology for health professionals. Melbourne: Elsevier

Hardinge, M. G. (1970). Behavior change. Stoneham, MA, Century-21 Better Living Tapes.

Lenio, J., 2006. Analysis of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. [Online]. Available at…/14lenio.p

Lutzker, J. R., & Martin, J. A. (1981). Behavior change. Monterey, Calif, Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.

Markóczy, L., & Goldberg, J. (1998). Management, organization and human nature: an

introduction. Managerial and Decision Economics. 19, 387-409.

Martens, W. J. M., & Mcmichael, A. J. (2002). Environmental change, climate, and health issues

and research methods. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

Mason, P., & Butler, C. C. (2010). Health Behavior Change. London, Elsevier Health Sciences


O’donohue, W. T., & Krasner, L. (1995). Theories of behavior therapy: exploring behavior

change. Washington, D.C., American Psychological Association.

Prochaska, J., Butterworth, S., Redding, C.A., Burden, V., Perrin, N., Lea, Michael, Flaherty, Robb M., and Prochaska, J. M. 1997. Initial efficacy of MI, TTM tailoring, and HRI’s in multiple behaviors for employee health promotion. Preventive Medicine

Prochaska, J., 1992. The transtheoretical model (TTM)

Prochaska, J., 2006. The transtheoretical model (TTM). [Online]. Available at Accessed on [14 Dec. 2014]

Riekert, K., Ockene, J. & Pibert, O., 2009. The handbook of health behavior change, 4th edition. New York: Springer Publwashing Company

Salmon, C. T. (1989). Information campaigns: balancing social values and social change.

Newbury Park, Calif, Sage Publications.

Shani, A. B., Woodman, R. W., & Pasmore, W. A. (2011). Research in organizational change

and development. Vol. 19 Vol. 19. Bingley, U.K., Emerald.

Velice, W. & Prochaska, J., 1992. The transtheoretical model of behavior change. The science of health promotion.

Whyte, W. F. (1991). Social theory for action: how individuals and organizations learn to change. Newbury Park, Calif, Sage Publications.

Essay Writing Help on Discussion – DNA Profiling academic essay help: academic essay help

Discussion – DNA Profiling

DNA is one of the sources of molecular insight because it stores the cell’s information (Lapham, Kozma, & Weiss, 2012). It is a chemical code that is found in every cell and differs among individuals. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Short Tandem Repeat Profiling (STR) are used to identify and describe DNA (Gilbert., 2010). DNA is contained in the genome of the cell. The most common specimen used in the extraction of DNA is blood and semen (Lapham, Kozma, & Weiss, 2012). The sample size is not a limiting factor in the identification of DNA because Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) can make multiple copies of small quantities of DNA.

After extraction of many copies, the fragments of DNA are heated to break it into single-stranded DNA, and a primer added to bind to the DNA. After priming, the DNA strand is run through Gel Electrophoresis to sort the fragments according to the size (Lapham, Kozma, & Weiss, 2012). One method of DNA sequencing is the Sanger Method. In it, the target DNA is denatured and annealed to an oligonucleotide primer, which undergoes extension by DNA polymerase in a mixture containing deoxy-nucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) and dideoxy-nucleotide triphosphate (ddNTP) (Lapham, Kozma, & Weiss, 2012). Therefore, the synthesized chains will be of different lengths depending on the lengths of the chains at the time when the ddNTP was randomly incorporated (Lapham, Kozma, & Weiss, 2012).

One application of DNA profiling is forensic science. In it, the traces of genetic material left during the commission of a crime are profiled (Gilbert., 2010). This is important because it helps in including or excluding suspects as being the sources of the genetic material found in relation to the criminal investigation to avoid an inappropriate conviction (Lapham, Kozma, & Weiss, 2012).      


Gilbert., H. F. (2010). Basic Concepts in Biochemistry: A Student Survival Guide. Houston, Texas: McGraw-Hill.

Lapham, E., Kozma, C., & Weiss, J. (2012). Genetic Discrimination: Perspectives of Consumers. Science, 274:5 (621-624).

Homework Writing Help on Discussion Assignment devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

Discussion Assignment

The Lacity domain URL .Org refers to an organizational website, most commonly used by nongovernmental organizations. This URL implies that the website is owned by a non-Governmental organizations geared towards a given goal. As an American based site is an informative website providing extensive information and directions concerning Los Angeles, widely referred to as LA, creating the LA-City.Org website. To access the site, key words such as la, and ladwp would be very important to provide guidance into the required segments of the website.

Lacity pages have numerous information, lifestyle, shopping, outing and residential among other general information links. It contains Jobseekers links for the residents of Los Angeles where important information such a volunteer services in Zoos among other nongovernmental facilities are listed. On the site, there are also government based pages with information about the Los Angeles council operations, most requested information for persons visiting Los Angeles, business links, directories as well as departments and bureaus providing directional and detailed information about the entire location and the activities therein. It comprises several search engines including regional location where parks, lakes and several social facilities can be located, social media links and well designated contacts link and a feedback segment. Apart from the contacts, they site also provides for email updates and newsletter subscriptions on the lower end of the web page. All these links are operational and provide comprehensive information about the city. All information contained in the website is well organized and do not lead to weak or fringe pages. The links are well highlighted with titles, which make it easy and fast to maneuver the required information. Each link has other sub links narrowing down searches to the most appropriate if not the exact information.

The website apparently contains quality information since it captures various aspects of life including environmental issues, technology, economics, residential, government, employment and directions. An obvious fact is that the kinds of information provided by the site have very low possibility of coming fake references. Articles within the site contain names of authors, phone contacts and addresses, which makes it, appear much more reliable revealing information about the information provider. This builds more trust in the site and its contents.

As reiterated by Alexa, is ranked 32,162 in the global platform and 7,405 in the United States. It registers quite a good number of hits comprising 12% (3hrs, 5 mins) of page view per visitor per day and an overall average time of 29% (2hrs, 34 mins) per visitor per day. There are more females than males visiting the site to browse more locations. Majority of the visitors, mainly from around the United States comprising about 91.5% of visitors, are positive about the website revealing having accessed numerous information from the site. Other people’s opinion about the site is very positive and portrays the site’s potential of growth.

In my view, is an informative and very resourceful website picking after Google at a high rate. It has earned numerous respects from the general public viewers. For individuals living, traveling around or visiting the Los Angeles for the first time, is the only alternative they would have to get information and directions regarding business and administration in the city. Surveys have shown that the site receives excessive views on daily basis and is gradually growing to overtake the many other competitors.

Essay Writing Help on Masters International Business Scholarship Application Letter essay help for free

Masters International Business Scholarship Application Letter

I am a male of Indonesian nationality and aged twenty-two. I went to Jakarta High School, Anglo-Chinese School International in Singapore. On completing high school, I joined Green River Community College. I have a bachelor’s degree in Management Minor Entrepreneurship. My personal goal is to ensure the continued success of my parents’ business back home in Indonesia after my education.

I have a passion for learning the culture of others. It excites me to hear how different my cultural background is from others. I have previously visited many parts of the world, and having lived in Jakarta, Singapore and Seattle, I have grasped a thing or two about various cultures. On the same note, I love to meet and hopefully interact with people of different backgrounds and bombard them with questions. I like to know what they do differently to achieve so much. I desire to know where they started so that I feel encouraged. At Hult, I have a guarantee that such leaders are easily accessible, more so to give motivational talks to the students. Since Hult has a diverse population, I am sure that I will interact with many people and have a chance to learn about cultures.

I, however, need to improve on the area of my interpersonal skills. I need to effectively sit with others and develop a solution to a problem while making sound decisions. I must work on being a good listener in both verbal and written communication. At Hult, I am sure that I shall get a chance to build on my skills through a teaching curriculum that promotes critical thinking through assignments and imagined situations.

A successful international leader must be familiar with other cultural aspects since the global market consists of personalities from diverse backgrounds. Experience from overseas is essential. In addition, the leader understands that his/her beliefs differ with others and must respect different views on the same value. International leadership calls for a show of interest in other cultures no matter how awkward they appear. Moreover, learning the culture of others demands that the individual be humble. Since culture, in part, involves generating answers to life’s common problems, a good leader must be one who can sit for hours just to listen to the interesting answers and get fascinated by them.

A successful international leader is open-minded; he/she does not pride in what they know, rather, he/she regards him/herself as lacking in some areas so as to develop a desire to know more and widen the scope of knowledge. Such individuals understand that every day is a learning day, and if left behind by their peers, they will lose the relevance of leadership.

It is human to design a reply to fit what the other person wants to hear. However, a world leader delivers his/her promises to make sure they do not ruin the reputation of their businesses. A global leader must have a network of the best people there are in the world of business. It helps to communicate the touch of international management required. A good leader is aware that time and speed mean differently in different countries. Therefore, in as much as the leader tries to catch up with technological advances, he/she must give time to the local and regional processes to take their course.

It is challenging to work with interpreters due to the language barrier. It is, therefore, a plus for an international leader to be able to converse in various languages and clearly. For a head to crown it all, it is essential to have robust negotiating skills. The title of an influential leader pulls people towards him/her, but only in part. The big picture is in the manner of dressing and self-confidence. The energy level, along with interest in others and being confident with challenges at hand, is also an advantage.

Assignment Writing Help on Argentina National Security Advisory history essay help: history essay help

Argentina National Security Advisory


This essay is a discussion of the background of Argentina and its government. It will also include its strategic importance to the U.S. The core value of this article is to provide the necessary information about Argentina to the commanding officer. The hope lies in convincing him/her that Argentina is the country that my unit should deploy to.



Argentina is a country in South America; in regard to the land size and population, it comes second to the continent, after Brazil. The continent has some natural features like mountains and oceans – for example, the Andes Mountains, the Atlantic Ocean. Between these features found in the southern region lies Argentina. In latitude terms, the country’s territory stretches from 22’S all the way to 55’S (approximately 2,300 miles). In terms of shape, the state resembles a triangle – an inverted one; its base is about 1,000 miles wide (Fearns & Fearns 2005).

Taking into consideration the area of the U.S., Argentina occupies one-third of it with an area of 1,072,067 square miles. The country’s climate compares to part of the U.S. and in particular, between the Mississippi river and the Rocky mountains. However, the winters in the North American society are colder. In the eastern side of this country, the humid lowlands, more so along the rivers of the Rio de la Plata system, closely take after the Mississippi valley. In the north where there is the Chaco region, the savannas and swamps find a parallel in coastal Louisiana (Fearns et al. 2005). In the west, due to the humid plains, there is a desert that betters with irrigated oases. Both mountains, the Andes and Rockies, are the landmarks of the country in the west and signify end of the plains.

The Pampas region has an area of one-quarter of the entire nation, a potential area for the country’s development. This area is pointed out as having some of the best topsoil in the world. It is used to grow wheat and corn, while providing pastures to millions of heads of cattle.

Argentina enjoys a vast range of natural resources such as fertile plains around the Pampas region. There are lead and zinc as well; it also has uranium and petroleum, besides manganese. Moreover, the iron ore adds to the list of its natural resources.

Its time zone is UTC-3. In other words, Argentina is two hours ahead of Washington DC during the standard time.

Trading Partners

Argentina’s trade features substantial amounts of both exports and imports. Its top ten export partners, in a descending order, include Brazil, Chile, and China, United States, Spain, Netherlands, Venezuela, Canada, Colombia, and Uruguay. In the import business, the country trades with Brazil, China, and the United States. Other countries include Germany, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, France, Japan, Italy, and Bolivia (Lewis 2003).

Trade Commodities

Argentina exports the following commodities animal feeds and motor vehicle and parts. It also provides cereals, fats, and oils. In addition, it also exports oil and mineral fuels, oil seeds, and precious stones and metals. Finally, it also provides the export market with chemical products and ores. It imports the following from other countries, motor vehicles and parts, and industrial machinery. Oil and mineral fuels fall both in the import and export category. Electrical machinery and organic chemicals come from other countries. Plastics, pharmaceuticals, and precision instruments are also imports. Chemical products, iron, and steel also add to the list (Mussa 2002).

Border Nations

Argentina has countries bordering it at specified lengths as follows Bolivia 832km, Brazil 1,261km, Chile 5,308km, Paraguay 1,880km, Uruguay 580km.

Recent Conflicts

The country does not have armed conflicts at the moment. In the past though, it has had violent episodes. In 1976, for example, around the month of March, the country’s armed forces, in what was called a coup, overthrew the government of president Isabel Martinez de Peron. Thereafter, they held him ostensibly to offer him protective custody. The country was in this war for a period of seven years whereby the dictatorship of the military emphasized on a brutal regime. There was torture as well as enforced disappearance. However, the system came to an end in 1983 through an overthrowing act.

On the same note, the country disagreed with the United Kingdom. Both nations had interest in the Falkland Islands commonly known as Islas Malvinas and its associated dependencies.  According to the study of Mussa (2002), the country lost to the U.K. though it still has claims of sovereignty over the islands.  Later, in the year of 1992, both countries re-established their diplomatic relations.

Natural Resources

The country has natural resources some of which include the Pampas (fertile plains). Others are iron ore, copper, and zinc. In addition, the state has manganese, petroleum, and uranium.


Following the study of Solingen (1996), the country has high levels of literacy due to the universal availability of primary education back from 1860. Therefore, it produces enormous researchers in the fields such as aerospace, scientific instruments as well as pharmaceuticals. In the area of electrical machinery, the country is highly competent. Moreover, Argentina produces professionals in the area of research and development (R&D) and has continued to touch the world with professionalism.


Argentina relates well to the US government. Officials from both states have since come together to fight against illegal activities. Argentina has acquired membership in the United Nations. It is indeed one of the nations actively involved in international peace building.

The national leader in Argentina is Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner – a member of the Justicialist Party. Argentina has its capital city in Buenos Aires. Its government adopts the model of a republic state. The country’s national holiday is the Revolution Day, 25 May 1810. The drawing of the constitution took place on 1st May 1853 but as from 1860, it has been amended several times.            The legal system that the state embraces is civil law with a base on west European legal systems. The efforts at civil code reform that began in the mid-1980 have since stagnated. For suffrage, the universal and compulsory ages range from 18-70. Optionally the age bracket is 16-17.

Economic policies

In the International Monetary Fund report (2001), between 1930 and 1976, the government of Argentina imposed a ban on imports. The idea was to encourage the locals to use substitute products that would help the country to be self-sufficient.

The government increased the value of the Argentina peso to equal that of the U.S. dollar as a way of fighting inflation. Moreover, most of the government-owned companies became privatized, and the income generated used to reduce the national debt. The government again devalued the peso when the recession sustained (Mussa 2002).


As Sheinin (2010) explains, Argentina is a member of Mercosur, an economic bloc. Other members include Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay that form the principal allies of this country politically and economically. Argentina relates well to the U.S. in counter-terrorism endeavors (Tulchin & Garland 1998).

Political policies

The Argentina government runs through a constitution. The president stands out as the head of state and is also head of government. The president, together with the two chambers of the Argentine National Congress, has legislative power. The executive and the legislature have no control over the judiciary that stands as independent. The country embraces the multiparty system and holds elections regularly (Lewis 2003).

Political Unrest

Currently, the country is politically stable. However, in the past, there have been tensions. 35% of the overall Argentina population lives below the poverty line which gives rise to occasional demonstrations, as well as social unrest. In some cases, the demonstrations turn violent. Mostly, these protests take place at the Plaza de Mayo and Congreso areas, both in the capital city (Tulchin et al. 1998)

Strategic Importance

As previously discussed, Argentina is second in population size after Brazil in South America.  Since the U.S. is so much developed in terms of industrialization, it requires labor. Argentina, therefore, poses as a potential provider of human labor to the U.S. on the same note, the country has the most qualified R&D professionals. The U.S. can thus rely on Argentina for more discoveries (Lewis 2003).

The Pampa region in Argentina has some of the best top soil in the world. It is a fertile ground to practice farming. If properly exploited, the area will improve the economic welfare of the country. The crops grown on this soil will provide food for consumption within the home country. The remainder is a source of income for the country on the U.S. export market. Therefore, the U.S. will have a potential supplier of the products that it does not produce. Moreover, there will be shared expertise in the course of conduct of the trade between the two nations.


Fearns, L. & Fearns, D. (2005). Countries of the world-Argentina. London: Evans Brothers Ltd.

Lewis, D.K. (2003). The history of Argentina. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan

Tulchin, J.S. & Garland, A.M. (1998). The challenges of modernization. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc.

Mussa, M. (2002). Argentina and the fund: From triumph to tragedy. Washington, DC: Peterson   Institute.

International monetary fund. (2001). Argentina: Second review under the stand-by arrangement.  Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Sheinin, D.M. (2010). Argentina and the United States: An alliance contained. Georgia:     University of Georgia Press.

Solingen, E. (1996). Industrial policy, technology and international bargaining. California:            Stanford University press.

Essay Writing Help on Self Assessment high school essay help

Self Assessment

A job is basically an activity carried out by an individual with the aim of earning money, while a career is a series of connected opportunities where individuals build up skills from earlier employment opportunities to improve their application. The major difference between them is the amount of education that one will need in order to obtain a position. In a career, there is probably need for some typical formal education, whether it’s an associate degree or a master’s degree, and on the other hand, a job may not need precise educational requirements or experience. A career can also be defined as an area of work that an individual chooses to focus on more regardless of how long they have worked. One can build his/her career over the time based on the jobs held.

Having lost some motivation in my career in the US Army, and considering the experience I have earned in my seven years of service, I intend to change my career for one in the Federal Government. In essence, having served that long in my current job, it has become a career regardless of the formal education I have had in the field. In other words, careers can generally be built through experience as well.

According to Donald Super’s self-concept theory, individual self concept transforms over a period of time and enlarges with experience gained through the period. In Super’s theory, Self-Concept refers to what we believe about ourselves, our personal attributes, and who and what we are. Operating in the US Army for seven years has granted me much exposure and significant experience in the Army operations, making me a professional in the field and thus making the army my career.  In this respect, my career level falls in the Establishment stage. I have a feeling that I have gained enough experience to earn recognition as a serviceman in the US Army; it is thus the best position to advance my career to higher levels. It is in this stage that Donald reiterates that individuals build their skills to consolidate careers and engage in professional membership to advance their careers. The most important values for my career satisfaction include genuineness, empathy, and unconditional positive regard. These would help to strengthen my relationships with others and build lasting rapports within the career. My MBTI Type is the Explorer ISFP; this is because I possess the zeal to learn more and explore more opportunities. It is my mainly appreciated strength through the career. My Holland type on the other hand, is enterprising, considering my persuasive nature and the urge for leadership.

My projected career requires a high sense of skill; thus, the experience and skills gained in my seven year operation will be very vital in developing a standard career achievement. I would employ magnificent technical skills that are intensively imparted on individuals in the Army; I would also apply clerical skills, and where possible, administrative skills. Through my career advancement, my greatest ambition is to attain high levels in the administration of the Federal government; hence, I would strive tirelessly to develop my administrative skills. Just like the skills gained in the US Army through experience and interaction with other professionals, I would gain these skills and develop them further by continual practice. The Technical and Social service areas of the world of work map seem to best suit my potential and interests in career development; however, the Administration and Sales, as well as the Science and Technology areas, are my most interesting skills marked for exploration and research. In summary, work and careers are essential parts of human life and they require continuous development. It is important for one to grow in various areas of operation and develop a wide range of potential in the jobs and careers field.

Research Paper Help on Switzerland free essay help online



Switzerland is a federal sate in Europe that borders Austria, Germany, and Italy. The country has a population of about 7 million people with about 6 million of this population being Swiss citizens. The others are major immigrant population in the country to work, tour or study under international scholarship programs. The country is a multilingual state with about four national languages, which include German, French, Italian, and Raetoroman. Economically, the industrial sector imports most of the raw materials considering that Switzerland does not possess any raw materials of great importance (OECD, 2012). However, the country imports the raw materials and exports them to different countries, and this makes the country an economic giant in the European continent (OECD, 2012). Other sectors that help in the development of the country’s economy include agriculture, banking sector, local, and international trade. The country’s climate and geographical factors contribute to its ambience and this is considered important to the tourism industry, which is also one of the most important aspects in the development of the country’s economy (OECD, 2012).

The main objective of this paper is to assess marketing and marketing techniques that are applicable in Switzerland. An understanding of these techniques will provide reasonable explanation on different factors that affect the growth of the country’s economy and businesses. This will include a study on the country’s competitive environment, the economic environment that is considered in terms of its ability to attract and retain local and foreign investors. In addition, the study will also focus on the technological environment of the country and the role of technology in enhancing marketing initiatives of different business entities within the country’s economy (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Q1. Social Environment

Meaning of the Swiss Flag

The Swiss national flag is a white cross on a red squared background. This is a generalization of the coat of arms of Schwyz one of three cantons who played a leading role in the battles, and was a founding member of the Swiss confederation in 1291. The red color in the flag is derived from a banner in the Holy Roman Empire hence a Christina meaning. Traditionally, the flag is represents trust, freedom, and honor (Hug & Kriesi, 2010).

Swiss population, growth rate

Switzerland is home to a population of 8.081 million people according to the latest populating statistics of the country. The country’s population growth rate is currently positioned at an estimated 0.78% as at 2014. This is as a result of surplus deficits of births over deaths and a balance in the population of immigrants coming in and leaving the country (Hug & Kriesi, 2010).

Meaning of colors and symbols in Switzerland

Colors in Switzerland also have meanings. Green and white are colors signifying revolution. Red is a symbol of confidence and beauty. Black in Switzerland means power and the ability of an individual to dress in black color is a symbol of their power of influence (Hug & Kriesi, 2010).  In terms of symbols, the court of arms and the national flag are the most important national symbols. They are driven by the motto of all for one and one for all, which requires everyone to be united towards a common course (Hug & Kriesi, 2010).  

Meaning of numbers in Switzerland

Numbers in Swiss culture derive meaning from the spiritual world. Number one, for instance, reflects new beginning while number two symbolizes the benefits of unity. Three is a time identifier considering that it is representative of the past, present, and future. Four represents stability while five means the unpredictable nature of life. Six is representative of the harmonious balance that nature provides. Seven represents the mysteries of life. Eight deals with success in business considering that it means continuation and cycles. Nine represents satisfaction with the successes in life. 

Meaning of Shapes in Switzerland

Shapes in Swiss culture also have meanings, for instance, circle means motion. The cross is a sacred symbol of honor. Spiral is a symbol of femininity while a square symbolizes masculinity. Triangle is a symbol of magic and creativity.

Structure and distribution of population by age, gender and income

The use of a population pyramid to illustrate the age and sex structure of Swiss population provides an insight on the political and social stability, including economic growth.

Figure 1.0: Population distribution

Special garments, food and beverages, celebrations and special occasions in Switzerland

Switzerland is characterized by the presence of a multicultural population. However, the most traditional Swiss clothing is characterized by embroidery, which is often stitched on hats, scarfs, and shirts. In terms of food and beverages, the country’s cuisine draws influences from France, Germany, and Italian cuisines. This means that the food varies from one region to another, and they include cheese fondue, raclette, and rosti. The beverages are largely tea but other drinks include wine, beer, and liquor. The country’s special occasion and celebrations include Christmas, which is considered important to Christians. Swiss national day, August 1st is celebrated in commemoration of the formation of the Swiss confederation in 1291 (Hug & Kriesi, 2010).

Art, folk shore, music and dances in Switzerland

Art and folk shore in Switzerland revolves around the mountainous landscape of the country. Another common form of artwork is chip carving, which is often used in the decoration of different objects, such as walking sticks and stools. In terms of music and dances, Switzerland is not commonly known as a musical country; however, a collective imagination of music in the country includes alphorn music, yodeling, and landler music. Switzerland is also home to celebrated songwriters from different regions, such as Ticino and choirs from western part of the country.

Religions, belief systems and superstitions in Switzerland

On the religious front and belief systems in the country, Christianity is the most dominant religious denomination in the country. There are also other religious groups such as Islam of the Sunni branch. It is important to note that the country has no official religion despite the fact that most of its laws have a relationship with Christianity.

197020002012Roman Catholic46.742.338.2Swiss Reformed48.833.926.9Unaffiliated1.211.421.4Other Christian2.04.35.7Islam0.23.64.9Jewish0.40.20.3Others0.10.71.3No answer0.43.61.3Total (100%, older than 15)4.575.4165.868.5726.662.333

Table 1.0 Religion by denomination (% population older than 15%)

The Swiss are highly superstitious especially on matters regarding New Year celebrations. These include kissing at the stroke of midnight as a sign of warmth and affection, settling old and unpaid debts on the New Year’s Eve to bury the foregone debts and begin afresh. Black-eyed peas are also a symbol of good luck and when combined with cabbages they symbolize the possibility of acquiring more financial resources.

Family structures in Switzerland

Switzerland like most European countries has a nuclear family structure. Most of the men and women in this society get into the family systems at a later age and the father mother and at most two children often characterize the families. The spouses are considered as equal contributors in the family although the father is often the head of a household. Switzerland also experiences relatively high divorce rates.

Educational system and structure

The education system in Switzerland is considered as one of the best in the world. The cantons are responsible for the provision of educational services and the techniques of providing these services may vary from one canton to another. In terms of the education structure, the system begins with elementary school and upon graduation; a student joins secondary schools and later graduates to join the University for higher learning.

Q2. Political environment

Political system in Switzerland

Switzerland, which is popularly identified as the Swiss Confederation operates as a federal parliamentary republic, which is comprised of 26 cantons. This confederation was created as a way of ensuring tha the country’s political system is governed by direct democracy where power is devolved to the grassroots level. The political bodies of the country are the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland, the Swiss Federal Council and two chambers of the legislative assembly, which include the Swiss Council of States and the National Council (Kresi & Trechsel, 2008).

The structures of government in Switzerland are in three levels. These include the federal levels, the cantonal level and the communal level. The country is considered to have a unique way of citizen participation in direct democracy considering that ordinary citizens have the constitutional right of proposing amendments to the constitution (Kresi & Trechsel, 2008).

Political parties in Switzerland and their view on MNCs

Switzerland is a multi-party democracy that allows tha active of engagement of citizens in different political aspects through formation and membership of political parties. The political parties in Switzerland include Social Democratic Party, Free Democratic Party and the Christian Democratic Party, which has its tenets on the Catholic religion (Kresi & Trechsel, 2008). 

            Switzerland is a state that lacks in numerous natural resources but it is also the best market for different products. Political parties have the responsibility of promoting business initiatives and creating a platform that attracts investors. Free Democratic Party and the Socal Democratic Party are considered as the most welcoming to MNCs since they consider these business entities as playing an essential role in the development of Swiss economy. The Christian democratic party is considered as the most conservative party in Switzerland. This is largely because of the belief that MNCs often come into the country for the exploitation of the available resources for their own benefits (Kresi & Trechsel, 2008).

Other influential political groups and organizations in Switzerland

ACT Responsible is one of the most influential non-governmental organizations in Switzerland. This is largely because its mandate revolves around the desire to protect the environment from all forms of pollution. While advocating for the interest of the public, the organization ensure that the MNC that are involved in industrialization adhere to the existing measures and standards that endeavor to protect the environment (Kresi & Trechsel, 2008). 

            Incomindios Switzerland is also an influential civil society groups whose mandate is to advocate for indigenous issues at the state and on the global platform. This organization has much of its focus on the North and South American countries. The influence of this organization lies in its ability to apply for Swiss Fund that are used in covering the expenses of delegates who attend conferences and meetings that endeavor to promote better governances (Kresi & Trechsel, 2008).

Q3. Legal environment

Commercial laws related to formation of companies, business taxes and other protection tools used

The establishment of public company or a private company in Switzerland, it is important that they abide by a popular legal structure as defined by the Swiss government. Any foreign company in Switzerland has the responsibility of abiding by the legal form through the establishment of a subsidiary. The incorporation of a limited company for instance is considered as an entity with a legal presence whose liabilities are entirely covered by the assets it possesses. The base capital for these corporations must be divided into shares that are distributed and owned by different individual in the public and private entities (Schanz & Schanz, 2010).

It is important to note that in Switzerland, the incorporation of companies as limited entities is not an ideal structure for the large organizations but it is also permitted for relatively smaller and medium sized business entities. The incorporation of limited entities is the most commonly used form for capitals and monetarist corporations (Schanz & Schanz, 2010).

In Switzerland the corporate tax rate is at 17.92% between 2006 and 2014, the corporate tax rate in the Swiss country was averaged 19.01% and this reached an average high of 21.23% in 2006 and a record low 17.92% in the year 2014. The Swiss Federal Tax Administration has the responsibility of reporting on the matters relating to Corporate Tax Rate (Schanz & Schanz, 2010).

Figure 2.0: Switzerland Corporate Tax Rate

The corporate income tax rate in Switzerland amounts the tax collected for different companies in the country. This amount is calculated on the basis of the net income that businesses obtain in the process of carrying out their business activities. Revenues that are collected from corporate tax rates form an important source of income to the Swiss government (Schanz & Schanz, 2010).

Q4. Competitive environment

According to the 2013 report by the World Economic Forum (WEF), Switzerland is considered as the most competitive country. This was largely based on the country’s innovation levels and the labor market, which were considered as some of the strengths that made the country develop an environment that encourages healthy competition among different businesses. The competitive nature of Switzerland is also based on the quality of its research institutions, which emphasize on effective collaboration between the academic sector and the business sector. In addition, the rate of products patenting also contributes to the ability of the country’s economy to be the most competitive in the world (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Other than collaborative efforts, Switzerland’s competitive environment is also enhanced by the training and education platforms within different sectors of the economy. Such initiatives create provide an equal platform for those engaging in different market initiatives. In addition, it also provides opportunities for wealth and job creation, which are fundamental to the development of the country’s economy (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). The strong co-relation between employee training and employee needs is an indication of the levels of transparency and accountability in supporting business confidence in probable and existing investors while at the same time supporting the country’s economic output. Despite the highly competitive environment in Switzerland, the country still faces challenges in regard to university enrollment compared to other countries in the economic platform (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). This explains the reason for an increase in the population of immigrant workers into the country. These workers are often outsourced with the intention of bridging the gap in shortage areas. In addition, the country is currently initiating strategies and developing structures that will ensure that it boosts enrollment levels in it universities as a way of not only maintaining but also improving on its competitive levels (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Type of competition

The market in Switzerland operates on pure competition. This means that the market is characterized by low barriers to entry, availability of numerous business opportunities and the absence of a single dominant body in any industry. This means that there are many companies in the country that are operating on an equal platform and that there is no entity that enjoys a significant advantage over other businesses. The Swiss government has been instrumental in advocating and instituting structures that are necessary in the development of pure competition (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). The Swiss Competition Commission (ComCo) through its secretariat has been charged with the mandate of regulating and promoting competition in Switzerland to ensure the existence of pure competition. It is important to note that this has been realized by maintain focus of key themes, which include market foreclosure and hard-core cartels (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

            ComCo believes that one way of preventing market foreclosures and maintaining high lees of pure competition through the opening of internal markets for notarial services, investigation on restraints on parallel important and introducing a system of watch markets considering its essence in the promotion of competition on the international platform. The prevention of market for closures is considered by ComCo is considered as a special feature considering its essence in ensuring that there is limited or no abuse by a dominant business entity(Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). In addition, through such preventive measures the Swiss government ensures that there are sufficient regulations such that no instances of dominance are reported. It is important to note that the Cartel Act for instance was used as a preventive measure essential in minimizing the harmful economic or social effects that are considered as restraints of pure competition. In addition, the Act was also a technique to ensure the promotion of competition in the interests of the liberal market in Switzerland (Hilty&Aebischer, 2014).

            The fight against hard-core cartels in the market has been characterized by investigation of sensitive areas that could limit pure competition such as bid rigging. This was evidenced in the decision by ComCo in 2013 to commence an investigation into bid rigging scandal that characterized the road construction industry (Hilty&Aebischer, 2014). In addition, addition, ComCo has also been instrumental in the investigation of numerous local and international businesses within the country by conducting numerous assessments in trade agreements and their influence on the competitive environment of the country (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). This was as evidenced in the March 2014 probe by the Swiss competition authorities concerning the alleged manipulation of foreign exchange rates against different investment banks within the country. These investigative bodies have been involved in numerous investigative procedures as ways of ensuring fair and pure competition in Swiss markets (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Degree of competition in the marketplace

Different factors play the role of determining the degree of competition in Swiss market. They include product and service differentiation, cost of start-ups, the number of competitors in the market and government regulations (OECD, 2012). Differentiation of products and services in the Swiss market is considered a special determinant in the degrees of competition since it is often used as a marketing strategy buy different firms to gain some level of competitive advantage. This is considered as an attempt of making a product or service provision unique in terms of quality, quantity and the price of the product. In the Swiss market there are different firms especially those in the manufacturing industry that apply the use of product as a way of ensuring that there is a substantive differences between a specific product or service in relation to the existing alternatives(OECD, 2012).

Cost of start-ups is also definitive of the degree of competition in any market in Switzerland; it is relatively cheaper to initiate a business in the country. This is largely because the country enjoys stable modern economy and it is one of the most capitalistic economies on the international platform. Its capitalistic nature allows it to be welcoming to any individual who is interested in setting up a business within the country (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). It is also important to note that the country has relatively high levels of competition and this explains why it is possible to establish a company in the form of a limited liability company without the need of acquiring a license to do business in the country (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). Licenses are however considered a necessity when an individual is interested in starting up a business that is subject to licensing requirements such as those in the mining and agriculture industries that are largely controlled by the government to minimize over exploitation (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Number of competing firms is also considered as an essential determinant of the degree of competition in any country. It is important to note that the relative unavailability of essential raw material in the country is an indication that the country is mostly dependent on importation of these materials (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). The country has a relatively small domestic market and this means that most businesses are focused on the maintenance of a very high export rate. This has made the economy more dependent on the foreign market as a technique of ensuring high levels of investment returns. This means that most of the firms in Switzerland are export films and this is considered as a highly competitive sector (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). Other than the agriculture sector that is heavily regulated by government operations, other sectors are the construction and manufacturing sectors that attract both domestic and international investors. Switzerland is also considered as the country with the lowest taxation rates among developed countries and this explains the presence of numerous competing firms in different entities of the country’s economy (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Government regulations determine the degree of competition in Switzerland sine it is through such regulations that the government is able to notify potential and actual investors of the requirements that every investor must fulfill prior to and after investing in the country (OECD, 2012). Inasmuch as the Swiss government may have developed general requirements that regulate conditions in the market, it is also important to note that the government also defines regulations that are specific to investing in different sectors. For instance, in Switzerland, the agricultural sector is considered as a highly restricted sector (OECD, 2012). This is largely because in Switzerland, a small percentage of land is arable and any agricultural investment must therefore be directed towards serving the agricultural needs of the country’s citizens. Switzerland has virtually no or limited amounts of raw materials. This means that the country heavily relies on the importation of raw materials for its industries (OECD, 2012). Despite this tendency, it is important to note that the government has instituted low import duties and a few important quotas. This is a strategy aimed at encouraging different investors to engage in import business and acquire more raw materials for the country. There are also regulations that are aimed at ensuring that importation is directed toward the most essential raw materials to minimize the possibility of dumping of surplus raw materials from different countries (OECD, 2012).

Q5. Economic environment

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

            GDP measures national income in relation to the output of a country’s economy. GDP is therefore considered to be equal to the total expenditure that a country incurs in the production of different goods and services within a defined period and the returns that the country acquires from the sale of different products and services through the ventures of local and international companies that operate within the country and in other countries (OECD, 2012). The differences between the income and expenditure of a country will determine the country’s GDP. GDP is definitive of any country’s potential or actual growth rate. Switzerland’s economy has over the years been experiencing expansion in different sectors considering its export culture. It is important to note that an increase in the country’s export rate has been helping the country’s economic growth compared to that of the neighboring countries such as Germany (OECD, 2012). In 2013, for instance the GDP of Switzerland rose by about 0.5% between September and December (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). This made the country’s GDP to stands at $ 650.70 billion in 20013. This is considered as a representation of about 1.05% of the global economy. Between 1960and 2013, the country has been experiencing an average of $205.16 billion and this was facilitated when the country hit its highest GDP in 2011 which was at $658.87 billion and a record low of $9.60 billion in 1960 (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Gross National Product (GNP)

            Gross National Product refers to the total value of all the final products and services that are produced within a country in a specific year. This is also inclusive of the income that the citizens of the said country earn. This means that GNP provides a platform of measuring the values of goods and services produced within a country by its citizens irrespective of their location within the country and on the international platform (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). This measure is often considered under the assumption that a higher measure of GNP is an indication of higher life standards. In Switzerland GNP also comprises of income from domestic unit such as households, enterprises and the government. GNP of Switzerland rose to$ 652.6 billion. This was an increase by $628.6 billion from the $662.1 billion in 1970.   The country’s GNP is ranked 6th in the world (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Distribution of income in Switzerland

            Switzerland enjoys a liberal market, which plays a decisive role in the definition of the distribution of income in the country. The country has a high flexibility in the setting of wages and the in the employment law (OECD, 2012). It is important to note that h the decision on the distribution of income is also influenced by the apprenticeship system, which is definitive of the social integrative function of the liberal market. The apprenticeship system ensures that the wages of fulltime employees are equally distributed. The country’s level of employment stand at 83% and unemployment level is at 3% (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). This is an indication that the distribution of income in Switzerland which is inclusive of income from ages and financial investments is relatively balanced compared to that of the other countries within Europe and in the international system(Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). It is however important to note that the labor market in Switzerland often favors the highly qualified while middle-income earners comprise those who have for years maintained their position in the income distribution table. This is largely because of an influx in the population of women in the labor market. This has also resulted into differences in disposable household income especially in primary income after tax, the payment of social security and transfer has not widened (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Major imports

            According to the reports on Switzerland imports in 2011, the imports stood at an annual expenditure of $12.9 billion. The country’ imports include machinery, chemicals, metals, agricultural products and textile (OECD, 2012). The country’s imports are largely raw materials since Switzerland lack in the availability of raw materials that are necessary to boost the country’s ability to effectively industrialize (OECD, 2012). Most of these imports are also procured based on agreements between Switzerland and the country exporting raw materials. Such agreements are definitive of the limits of the country in selling and processing different products (OECD, 2012).

Major exports

            In the export market, Switzerland is globally acknowledged as the country in charge of exporting chocolates and watches. In addition, the country is also dealing in the exportation of chemicals, electrical equipment and apparatus, and mechanical engineering products (OECD, 2012).

Balance of payment of payment status over the last five years

            Balance of payment is considered as a technique that different countries employ in monitoring al international monetary transactions within a specific period of time. This is often calculating annually or quarterly depending on the existing system. Through balance of payment, a country is often able to assess all trades that are conducted by the public and private sector as a way of determining the amount of money going out of the country and that, which is retained in the country (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Figure 3.0 Swiss balance of payment

Switzerland’s government budget position

            Since 2010, the Swiss government introduced the debt break extension whose application was on the focus of compensating for extraordinary expenditure. This means that the government was to exempt the undue use of the clause limiting the possibility of using the debt brake extension. The Swiss government in its budget has a fiscal position, which is often accompanied by limited need for fiscal consolidation in the short term (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). These requirements are considered possible through structurally balanced budgets by the government at the federal level. This includes consolidation efforts of 0.3% of GDP as part of the plan in the period of 2011- 2013(Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). Through it, budgets the government expects majority of its savings to come from spending restraints and this would result in the stabilization of the federal government expenditure relative to the Gross Domestic Product. This is considered as a technique of realizing a lasting consolidation effort. Budget deficits in the view of the Swiss government should not exceed 1% of the country’s GDP in the coming years considering that it is expected that the fiscal budget will be restored within the forecast horizon (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). The government has an expectation that its Gross debt will reduce by about 20% of the country’s GDP. It is important to note that the adjustment of the country’s budget ceiling is expected to lower the inflation levels while at the same time reducing the debt servicing cost. These are considered as techniques that will provide effective consolidation (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Research and development

            In terms of scientific research and development Switzerland is considered as one of the countries with the best scientific research institutions according to the world rankings. This is because of the existence of strong collaborative efforts between academic institutions and business organizations, which have sufficient budget allocations for research and development (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). It is important to note that much of the research initiatives are often translated into marketable products and the reinforcement of strong intellectual property protection by the Swiss government and other relevant institutions (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). In addition, the high standards that Switzerland demonstrated in research and development ids reinforced by the ability of the country to promote robust innovation among its population within the existing infrastructure. This is often encouraged by the high rate of patenting per capita considering that the country is ranked second on the global platform (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). Effective research and development in the country has been heightened by the ability of the country to put in place excellent techniques that can be used in improving various sectors of the economy and academic institutions (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

National spending

            Switzerland is considered as the only European country whose expenditure on national matters is below 20% of the national GDP. The ability of the country to spend about 19% of its GDP on national matters is an indication of the high standards of living and high technological developments, which give better ad high returns, compared to the amount of financial resources that the country spends in their acquisition, installation and implementation (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Figure 3.0 Total and Social Public Spending in US, Switzerland and Sweden

Average income

Average income in Switzerland is dependent on numerous aspects, which include the occupation and the level of expertise. It is important to note that such considerations are important in ensuring that individual earn according to their levels of professionalism and the kind of work that they perform (OECD, 2012).

Job CategoryAverage SalaryCleaning and Housekeeping2,792 CHFLaw Enforcement / Security / Fire3,083 CHFFood /Hospitality / Tourism / Catering3,546 CHFElectrical and Electronics Trades4,550 CHFHealth and Medical5,358 CHFReal Estate6,000 CHFFacilities / Maintenance / Repair6,000 CHFImport and Export6,167 CHFCourier / Delivery / Transport / Drivers6,249 CHFFashion and Apparel6,250 CHFMedia / Broadcasting / Arts / Entertainment6,264 CHFAdvertising / Graphic Design / Event Management6,289 CHFCustomer Service and Call Center6,344 CHFConstruction / Building / Installation6,433 CHFAdministration / Reception / Secretarial6,470 CHFArchitecture6,610 CHFFactory and Manufacturing6,805 CHFEngineering6,990 CHFTelecommunication7,556 CHFAirlines / Aviation / Aerospace / Defense7,750 CHFPublic Relations8,107 CHFScience and Technical Services8,109 CHFTeaching / Education8,131 CHFSales Retail and Wholesale8,427 CHFMarketing8,485 CHFEnvironmental8,729 CHFFitness / Hair / Beauty8,833 CHFInformation Technology8,905 CHFAccounting and Finance9,160 CHFPharmaceutical and Biotechnology9,683 CHFInsurance9,689 CHFBusiness Planning9,727 CHFBanking9,826 CHFQuality Control and Compliance10,179 CHFHuman Resources10,980 CHFPurchasing and Inventory11,368 CHFOil / Gas / Energy / Mining11,583 CHFExecutive and Management14,491 CHFLegal14,736 CHFAutomotive27,000 CHF

Price indexes

IndexConsumer Price Index (Excl.Rent)131.90Rent Index59.59Groceries Index133.54Restaurant index136.78Consumer price Plus rent index96.63Local Purchasing power145.45

Inflation rate

            The inflation rate in Syria according to recent studies was recorded at 0% as at October 2014. Between 1953 and 2014, the average inflation rate of the country is art 2.57%. This was facilitated by a high inflation rate of 11.92% in 1973 and a low of -1.37% in 1959. These studies were conducted by the Swiss federal statistics Office (Hilty&Aebischer, 2014).

Figure 4.0 Switzerland inflation rate


            There are differ types and levels of taxation in Switzerland. Despite of the presence of numerous taxation methodologies levied by the Swiss Confederation, the canton and the municipalities, Switzerland has a relatively low taxation rate and this explains the presence of various tax exemptions and low taxation levels on Swiss companies involved in businesses abroad(OECD, 2012). Federal taxes are direct taxes levied on the income of private individuals. There are also cantonal taxes which allow the cantons to decide on their tax systems and rates. There are communal taxes, which are regulated by the cantonal tax regulation Act. This legislation however permits communes to set individual tax rates (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Stage of the business cycle

            Switzerland is at the peak stage of the business cycle this is because the country enjoys relative stability in terms of politics and international association especially with the European Union. The ability of the country to negotiate as a single independent state on business tariffs is an indication that the country is an important player in international economics despite its small size and the small local market that the company operates (OECD, 2012). In addition, the country is considered to be lacking in raw materials. However, it is a leading exporter of most processed commodities in food and engineering sectors. The country’s GDP is relatively high and the national expenditure stands at 20% of its GDP. This is an indication that the country’s economy is operating efficiently (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014).

Figure 5.0 stages in a business cycle

Technological environment

State of technology in Switzerland

            Switzerland is considered a high-tech country on the international platform considering the country’s ability to acquire different aspects of technology and allocate more financial resources to research and development especially on innovative matters related to technological enhancement of the country (OECD, 2012). Numerous operations in Switzerland are computerized and this has improved the country’s productivity and efficiency. Technological innovation in Switzerland explains the development of Swissnex, a network developed in Switzerland that promotes science, education and art (OECD, 2012). The country is also one of the leading states in exportation of technology to different locations and this explains why the Swissnex is currently operational in about five locations around the world. Its success in automation of services related to science, education and art is an indication that technological level of Switzerland is relatively higher compared to those in other developed countries around the world (OECD, 2012). Students from technologically able countries such as the US have been able to travel to Switzerland to acquire knowledge and skills on matters related to the development of a state of the art technology that integrates different systems related to science, art and education (OECD, 2012).

People technological knowhow level

            Other than the ability of the Swiss to develop Swissnex as a methodology demonstration their technological knowhow, the country’s ability to integrate technology in different industries within the economy is an indication that technological literacy in Switzerland is are relatively higher level (Hilty & Aebischer, 2014). It is important to note that the Swiss government by financing research and development puts much focus on production of high quality technology this explains why the most essential export areas to Switzerland are micro-technology and biotechnology among other technologically related products and services (OECD, 2012).

Communication capabilities and the country’s infrastructure

            Switzerland’s communication and transport infrastructure is characterized by a relatively dense rail network. In addition, the country as a large and state of the art road networks which numerous tunnels that compensate the mountainous terrain characterize. It is important to note that the country’s transport infrastructure is reinforced by the presence of two large airports in Zurich and Geneva which are supported by a few smaller airports that also length country to the international world. Despite its landlocked nature, the country has a marine system, which operates abroad. It is important to note that Switzerland is strategically located on the crossroads that connect some of the fastest growing economies in the European Union such as France, Germany and Italy. The country’s infrastructure is also supported lager resources for the production of hydroelectric energy. The power generated from the Alpine rivers supply about 55 billion Kilowatt-hours. The energy sector is also reinforced by the availability of about five nuclear power plants, which supplement the hydroelectric power plants (OECD, 2012).

            The country also has a fully liberalized communication market. The market is relatively competitive considering the existence of numerous private companies is in charge of the telecommunication sector. These include Diaz and Sunrise. The presence of rival operators has led to the reduction of call rates both locally and internationally. Other than the telecom market, mobile phone operators such as Vodafone, Tele Denmark and Swisscom among others also flood the communication sector. The high-level competition in the communication sector prompted Swiss companies to produce telecom card to facilitate communication among Swiss scribers (Escalona, 2014).

Transportation modes and availability

            The local transport network in Switzerland comprises of three principles that are definitive of transportation modes and they include road, rail and air. The modes of transport are readily available for local and international travelers in the country or those interested in travelling into the country from other regions. The air mode of transport is operated by Swiss Airways. Domestic air travel is fast efficient but also expensive.

            The rail transport in Switzerland is considered as one of the most developed in the world. The most outstanding feature of this mode of transport is that it is relatively cheap compared to air transport and it is relatively fast compared to road transport. In addition, rail transport also provides a platform of local tourism especially for those interested in viewing the scenery.

            Road transport is also well developed in Switzerland. The country is relatively mountainous and this explains why many roads on mountains are narrow. One can use a bus or personal car. There are however traffic regulations and speed limits that regulate movement.

Advertising agencies and the media

            Technological innovations and high levels of technological knowhow in the county have attracted more businesses into Switzerland. Most of these businesses are directed towards the realization of better competitive advantages; this has created need for the development of advertising agencies in different sectors of the economy. These agencies are in charge of the development of brands and building of these brands in relation to public image (Escalona, 2014). Advertising agencies in Switzerland are however bound by the code of conduct, which define and limit their levels of advertisement in relation to public decency and that which is morally acceptable in the society. Advertising agencies in Switzerland include Advico Young and Rubicam AG, Alicom productions AG and tracknet holding among other advertising agencies (Escalona, 2014).

            The Swiss media is relatively liberal considering that the freedom of the media is entrenched in Switzerland constitution. The country operates government owned media, which are the Swiss radio broadcasting Corporation and the national television broadcaster. The country also has private broadcasters that have been considered as failures in their inability to establish themselves at the national level (Escalona, 2014). The print media is one of the most dominant forms of media in Switzerland. The national daily Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ) for instance enjoys a positive reputation due to its role in providing the necessary information to Swiss citizens (Escalona, 2014).


            Switzerland is one of the developed countries in the world that is ranked high in different aspects such as research and development, high living standards, high export rate, low inflation rates among other factors. This largely attributed to the strategic position of the country in Europe, which has enabled it to share borders with highly developed countries such as France, Germany and Italy. In addition, the country also has a relatively small population, which makes it relatively easier to ensure effective management and proper allocation of resources. The country’s infrastructure is highly developed enabling easier transportation and communication techniques.


Escalona, M. J., & International Conference on Information Systems Development. (2014).

            Information system development: Improving enterprise communication.

Hilty, L., & Aebischer, B. (2014). ICT innovations for sustainability.

Hug, S., & Kriesi, H. (2010). Value Change in Switzerland. Lexington Books

Kresi, H., & Trechsel, A. (2008). The Politics of Switzerland: Continuity and Change in a

            Consensus Democracy. Cambridge University Press

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2012). Switzerland 2012. Paris:


Schanz, D., & Schanz, S. (2010). Business Taxation and Financial Decision. Springer Science &

            Business  Media

Essay Writing Help on The Future of Law in Private Security law essay help: law essay help

In both cases of Zelinski and Buswell, I note the different merits from the case arguments. In State v. Buswell, it provides that the argument of exclusionary rules should be applied based on the application of the Fourth Amendment relating to unreasonable searches and seizures. During the cases, the jury sought to determine the nature of search conducted on the motor vehicles and the nature of its seizure by the private security personnel. The court argued that even though the evidence used in criminal prosecution was obtained by private individuals, there are strong motives and involvement of the police agencies making the application of the Fourth Amendment valid. Thus, the case is significant in explaining how sufficient government involvement could turn private search into governmental search. In such situations, the court of appeals has the power to suppress such evidence. Access to information has created a heated debate among the government agencies over the provisions of private security. Today, many network security cameras are used in gathering information. The case was relevant in explaining the admissibility of such information as evidence in courts (Nemeth, 2012). In State v. Zelinski, the defendant had been guilty of possessing heroin, which is an illegal dug. They filed for a proposition to repress the evidence, but it was denied. Penal code provisions given the store owners mandate to arrest and detain the appellants. The question of them acting with the power and legal capacity also remains. Therefore, the arguments of the case help to understand the nature of the limits of the authority of persons to search and confiscate information.

 In the future, I think the cases would be able to change the current legal precedents relating to the legality of searches and seizures. For instance, with the growing surveillance measures that are acceptable today, it would be very different to understand the legality of the information provided from the social media and internet. The growing technology has given people the power to examine the different aspects in the society posing great discrepancy on the legal frameworks. In both cases, the defendants question the admissibility and capacity of the evidence used for their convection. In future, such evidence would be likely admissible and acceptable in the law courts. This relates to the actions undertaken pursuant to the statutory regulations and obligations to promote state interests (Ross, 2012). Such efforts would establish the appropriate procedures of regulating private interests of the people in the society. It is also stated in the common law provisions on determining whether persons are guilty or not guilty in certain cases. Therefore, the extent of data and information use would transform in future making it easy to obtain strong and reliable evidence. 

 In summary, there are various conclusions in the cases that appear to be contrary to the law. In the cases, it can be seen that the private information was connected to governmental actions and thus, inadmissible in the court. I think the evidence was admissible in court as it was restricted under the Fourth Amendment. Also, the legal capacity of private individuals to detain persons also comprises a violation of the freedom and fundamental rights of the people. Every person has a right to free will and expression. Thus, the conclusions that the private individuals would be allowed to detain other free citizens was legally unacceptable. The impacts of technology should be major concern in future legal proceedings, as people can obtain increased evidence from the social media and internet.


Nemeth, P.C. (2012). Private security and the law, 4th edition. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Press.

Ross, L. D. (2012). Civil liability in criminal justice, 6th edition. London, UK: Routledge.

Assignment Writing Help on Responsibility of Morality custom essay help

Responsibility of Morality

With the clear separation of Church and State, the burden of developing a clear ethical, moral, and values basis fall heavily on the individual. What role, if any, do media, government, the corporations and the sciences, the community and indeed the church play in determining and sustaining society’s values.

The society has experienced a decline in moral and ethical values that are practiced by people. The question of where the responsibility of guiding and reinforcing ethical and moral values in the society remains an open question. Both the Church and the State are viewed as respected authorities that have some form of control and say over what people in the society do. For example; when terror attacks occur; religious groups and leaders always come out to condemn such events through the media. The government also condemns such attacks in public which signals the attitude and thoughts that these two authorities over terrorists and other form of attackers such as thieves and murderers.

Although individuals in the society have a goal of acting in a morally upright manner, they need guidance to steer them towards the right direction. Ideally, parents and other family members should be the first ones to guide their children on what is expected of them in terms of ethics and morals that are upright and befitting of societal values. However, there has been a breakdown of the family unit and structure, which has affected the “teachings” that are impacted on the young ones in the society (James, et al. 2010). There are many single parent households, and they do not get to spend sufficient time with their children because they have to spend most of their time working so as to sustain their families. The result is that the children are left to media devices such as television and media content on the internet to act as a guide on what the morals in the society are. The media in turn play significant role in formation of the various characters exhibited in the younger generation is the American Society. Children emulate the lives of the media personalities bringing in vices into the larger physical society (James, et al. 2010).

Studies reveal that media has extreme effects on the reasoning and personality of individuals. With the rising trends, the young generations is adversely affected. Changing fashion codes and ‘New Generation’ Lifestyle is overwhelming on the attempts of the government, parents and the general society in creating a morally just society (Obama, 2012). On the other hand, exposure to reasonable media could contribute to establishing of good morals. The church through the media and guidance from the parents could yield positive growth on the young children. Having the knowledge of the growing trends of societal injustice, it is prudent that most lessons in the life of the children be established earlier in their childhood (Gates, 1999). As Ivan Pavlov stipulates in his behavioral theory, children learn best from their immediate environment, it is therefore prudent to expose the children to productive kind of material (Lewis, 1957). Another scholar, Karl Marx’s Social Conflict theory, the society setting is generally befitting to just a few individuals at the expense of many others. This idea enlightens a reflection of the difficulty in the establishment of moral behavior in the lives of the many less privileged (Lewis 1957).

Most individuals do not attend Church and other religious houses of worship in comparison to older generations. This has contributed to the decline in the current societal values and morals. Many factors have been blamed on this decline such as current economic situation with limited jobs and high cost of living. People have to work in shifts; with some people complaining of always getting Sunday shifts, or being too tired from working many hours during the week and being too tired to attend Church on Sunday (Wald & Calhoun Brown, 2010).

According to James (2010), the government seems to be overwhelmed with crime control to act as a source of guidance on how individuals should act in the society. Crime levels are too high, especially insecurity related cases such as terrorist attacks. Government efforts are proving futile in curbing the fast growing menace. Certain humanitarian laws need adjustment to control the extent of inflow of illegal immigrants as well as the institution of more stringent measures in the correctional approaches towards these societal misconducts. The government, comprising politicians should streamline the extents of influence the y have on the growing community. There should also be regulation on the marriage laws to regulate the escalating level of the female led households which contribute vastly to high poverty rates in the American society. Poverty is a major contributing factor to crime and other irrational behaviors among the young generation (James, et al. 2010).

Finally, the government and the general society should embrace education with utmost concern. Education standards in the entire nation should be streamlined to be at par. Ideally, the less privileged Americans are confined in low class settlement with lower educational quality contributing to discouragement of parents from investing in education of their children hence numerous school drop outs. It is apparent that the various arms of the larger society, media, government, the corporations and the sciences, and indeed the church play major roles in the determination of societal values.


Gates Foundation and their philosophy to change public education:

James, J. et al. (2010). Foundations of Education: Perspective of Education in a Changing World. Michigan: Pearson Education Inc.

Lewis A. C. (1957). Social Conflict and the Theory of Social Change. The British Journal of Sociology, 8 (3), 197 -207

President Obama.

Wald, K. & Calhoun Brown, A. (2010). Religion and Politics in the United States.

Massachusetts: Rowmann & Littelfield.

Homework Writing Help on Motivational Problems in Ahmadi Telecom summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Motivational Problems in Ahmadi Telecom 

Ahmadi telecom is one of the leading companies in Kuwait. It mainly deals with providing mobile services to its customers. Ahmadi telecom is profit-making organization that is owned by two major businessmen in Kuwait.  Moreover, it has more than 20 branches located in different regions in Kuwait.  The company is headquartered in Kuwait city, with close to 1000 employees.  In each of its branches, the company has around 30 to 45 employees. The company has also rebranded its brand identity towards its long-term strategy in both domestic and international markets (Muster, 2011). In spite of financial success and performance, Ahmadi telecom has been facing various specific motivational problems towards motivating its employees.

Specific Motivational Problems

Ahmadi telecom is faced with various motivational problems, including lose of trust in management, loss of social group, low expectations, and fear of failure. Recently, the employees of Ahmadi telecom have lost their trust in the management due to various operations. The lack of trust in the management has been another major cause of demotivation of employees in the company. For example, Ahmadi telecom formed self-work teams responsible for its various tasks and duties. However, the management has been reluctant in providing the appropriate tools, support, and resources for the completion of the task. Even though the teams have made increased recommendations and efforts, the management does not seem supportive of the outcomes and decisions made by the teams (Sirota & Klein, 2013). This has led to the loss of motivation of the teams in the completion of the various projects in the company. The management is expected to have complete trust in the employees to enhance the motivation of the employees since the teams have expertise necessary to perform their duties.

In addition, the company offers little time for social interaction in the workplace settings, leading to the loss of social group. Many workers in the company usually work between 9 and 10 hours in a working day. In most instances, employees choose friends and form social groups in the workplace. However, when a company forms work teams, it splits the natural social groups that could be formed by the employees themselves. Some employees end up in different departments, divisions, and virtual teams that cause loss of motivation and commitment to teamwork (Nahavandi et al., 2014). As a result, the loss of social groups has caused motivational problems in the company.

Khan, Farooq and Ullah (2010) suggested that the set low expectations for success in the company limit employee motivation. If the company would set high expectations for the workers, the workers would be motivated to achieve the high targets. However, the employees possess low self-esteem that reduces their confidence and job performance. Increasing self-confidence promotes motivation among the employees and their willingness to accept challenges in the workplace. On the other hand, low expectations in the company are unmotivated and thus, they cannot perform, as the company would be expecting. In addition, the company has not provided appropriate tools and processes in the performance of different tasks in the company. This limits the motivation of the employees in the company.

The fear of failure also has been recorded among many employees in the company. The fear of failure includes the fear of success that causes the workers to avoid some work, depicting their lack of confidence. In most occasions, many employees denote lack of performance success as a failure. Close to 10 per cent of employees in the company fear failure, leading to less motivation in performing their duties (Robbins & Judge, 2012). Therefore, the fear of failure has been a detrimental in the motivation of employees in enhancing their productivity.

Solutions to the Motivational Problems

The conduct of a quantitative research study using surveys and questionnaires helps in understanding the nature of motivation and handling the motivational problems in the organizations. The study involved 50 workers who provided their views on the motivational challenges in Ahmadi telecom. The findings of the research study were appropriate in forming the conclusions and recommendations for resolving the motivational problems. First, 30 per cent of the responses argued that recognition was important in enhancing the confidence of the employees. The bank should develop different employee awards and promotional opportunities. This acts as ways of recognizing the efforts and performance of the employees (Cummings & Worley, 2014). The study revealed that employees who were promised promotion performed better than the employees who were not likely to be promoted. Thus, recognition would be a relevant aspect in reducing the level of motivational problems in the company.

In addition, 10 per cent of the respondents suggested that motivation of the employees was based on emotional connections. Thus, motivation includes the morale and attitude of the workers towards their good performance in the organization. The fear of failure and loss of social groups could be resolved by organizing regular trips, dinner parties, and games for the employees. The non-work activities are effective in bringing the employees together. This leads to a positive change and transformation in their feelings and attitudes towards work in the company. This tackles the motivational problems associated with loss of social groups and fear of failure. In most instances, it has been noted that some of the organizational and managerial practices hurts motivation of employees (Muster, 2011). In spite of all having some rewards and recognition performance, Ahmadi telecom does not have structured recognition and reward schemes. The study also found out that workers who were allowed to make their own work teams performed better than the mandated groups by Ahmadi telecom. This is because the self-created teams were based on skill compatibility and social interactions among the workers.

To resolve the issue of loss of trust in management, Ahmadi telecom should perform job enrichment to its workplace settings. This includes offering additional training and feedback to the work teams. This enhances the motivation of the employees to work effectively. A model by Bartlett and Ghoshal (2013) provides a comprehensive study and understanding of job enrichment in the companies. First, Ahmadi telecom could expand its job enrichment in order to increase the confidence of the employees. This can be done by offering a variety of skills, tasks, and feedback to the employees. These are some of ideas and ways that have been proposed by many social and personality psychologists. They act as elements of intrinsic motivation to the employees. In the study, Cadwallader et al. (2010) argued that workers would feel confident and competent when they are providing employees with different skills and feedback on their ongoing work.

In my own reflection, I think that it is important for the company to resolve its motivational problems since motivational problems hinder the performance and success of the company. A study on the nature of employee motivation by Reinholt, Pedersen and Foss (2011) provides that the use of the different motivational theories and approaches, including cross training and incentive systems was appropriate in enhancing motivation. The approaches are relevant in promoting the motivation of employees in the workplace. Further, the monitoring of results and giving feedback is appropriate in enhancing the effectiveness of the motivation strategies. First, I think the management of the bank should gain confidence and trust in its workers. Improved trust between the company and the employees creates a good environment for enhanced performance (Keller, 2010). Even though I appreciate the expansion of the bank operations to the Asia markets, it is crucial to motivate the employees for the success of the company. Job enrichment through providing a variety of skills, tasks, and feedback to the employees promotes employee motivation.

In summary, the management has a crucial role in promoting motivation of the employees. Motivation offers increased level of efficiency using financial and human assets to meet the organizational goals. When the employees are motivated, it leads to increased performance and reduction of cost of providing the financial services in the bank. In a performance point of view, motivation of employees enhances reputation of the company. Herzberg theory argues that without adequate training, employees are not able to achieve their full potential (Cummings & Worley, 2014). The implementation of performance appraisals is suitable in assessing the nature of job performance and productivity. Performance evaluations are a critical approach of performance appraisal, improving personal learning and development.


Bartlett, C., & Ghoshal, S. (2013). Building competitive advantage through people. Sloan Mgmt. Rev, 43(2).

Cadwallader, S., Jarvis, C. B., Bitner, M. J., & Ostrom, A. L. (2010). Frontline employee motivation to participate in service innovation implementation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(2), 219-239.

Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change.  Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Keller, J. M. (2010). What Is Motivational Design?. In Motivational Design for Learning and Performance (pp. 21-41).  New York, NY: Springer US.

Khan, K. U., Farooq, S. U., & Ullah, M. I. (2010). The relationship between rewards and employee motivation in commercial banks of Pakistan. Research Journal of international studies, 14, 37-52.

Muster, V. (2011). Companies promoting sustainable consumption of employees. Journal of consumer policy, 34(1), 161-174.

Nahavandi, A., Denhardt, R. B., Denhardt, J. V., & Aristigueta, M. P. (2014). Organizational behavior. London, UK: SAGE.

Reinholt, M., Pedersen, T., & Foss, N. J. (2011). Why a central network position isn’t enough: the role of motivation and ability for knowledge sharing in employee networks. Academy of Management Journal, 54(6), 1277-1297.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2012). Organizational Behavior 15th Edition. London, UK: Prentice Hall.

Sirota, D., & Klein, D. (2013). The enthusiastic employee: How companies profit by giving workers what they want.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press.

Assignment Writing Help on Marketing Management Concepts essay help online: essay help online

Marketing Management Concepts

Considering the developments in the larger global market it is prudent for organizations to develop innovative marketing management strategies that would enhance achievement of their goals of making profits. This entails employment of various theories, processes, concepts and/or practices of marketing management. In my view, the best practices in establishing a reliable marketing strategy for present and future competitive advantage of businesses include using theories such as The Game theory; this theory assumes that businesses are hyper intellectual utility maximizers in which rationality implies that, these organizations strive to achieve the most preferred of outcomes despite restraints of their rivals behaving in a similar fashion. A coherent organization would therefore conquer the uncertainties emanating from the behavior of their competitors by creation of competitor conjectures. In this respect, intellectual organizations would wear the shoes of their rivals and reason from their perspective. This would create a better understanding of the rivals and counter their strategies by going ahead of them. Other theories that would strengthen the game theory and provide present and future business advantage and employments in the organization include Signaling theory, Innovation, product quality, market share, and market pioneering as well as market orientation (Tadajewski, 198).

Although traditional value-added marketing processes still play a vital role in development of the marketing functions, marketing managers need to focus their attention on new processes and capabilities. Businesses ought to create efficient time to develop and master more advanced marketing processes by improving the efficiency of the marketing function and by repositioning resources, and aligning them in more strategic positions produce greater value. These processes need to be updated and customer centered in order to achieve higher returns on investment for present and future developments (Tadajewski, 198). Among the highest value marketing processes in the real world that would improve marketing functions include; Marketing Operations management to regulate on the complexities of the developments in the marketing functions such as media interactions, Marketing visibility, accountability and value measurement through the use of tactical bids as e-marketing activities and developing systems to enhance accountability in the larger globalized marketing function, Customer and Market insight generation and Customer-value-based network management to envision a competitive environment. Other most prominent and equally important marketing processes include formulation of business Mission, Conducting Situation Analyses, settling on Specific Objective and Strategy Evaluation before setting off. These help in streamlining business operations in systemic manner to save on time and operation costs and enhance development of reliable systems within the business development strategies (Wilkie & Moore, 288).

On top of the strategic approaches already mentioned, measure should be put in place to identify and satisfy customers as a model of achieving the business goals. These overtures are referred to as sales concepts and practices. These concepts majorly determine how products would perform in the entire industry. They include; Production concept which regulates the production cost in order not to market products with unacceptable prices to the customers, Product Concept in determining the quality of the goods and services to enhance acceptability by the society and increase sales as well as profit margins, the selling concept, marketing concept and societal marketing concepts which also play very crucial roles in improving product awareness and sales hence business growth. Managers should optimize their lead processes, Run and measure campaigns and develop reliable and practical business strategies (Wilkie & Moore, 288).

Works Cited

Tadajewski, M. (2009). Eventalizing the Marketing Concept. Journal of Marketing Management, 25(1–2): 191–217.

Wilkie, W.L. and Moore, E.S. (2006). Macromarketing As a Pillar of Marketing Thought. Journal of Macromarketing, 26(2): 224–321

Essay Writing Help on Team Debate college essay help service

Team Debate

            Due to the efforts made by nurses towards ensuring the betterment of the health statuses of patients in healthcare facilities, it is time that the society appreciates the nurses’hard work. In this case, administrative bodies have the responsibility of enhancing the safety of nurses during their service (Kelly&Tazbir, 2013). Such efforts will be beneficial towards improving the health care level in the society. The improvements can be accredited to the various nursing and healthcare bills introduced by the congress. For instance, the  staffing for patient safety and quality care act of 2011 was formulated for the purpose of improving the working environment of nurses in the United States of America(Kelly&Tazbir, 2013).

            The act was aimed at increasing the number of nurses serving in various healthcare facilities in the country. Thus, the requirements of the act were that each healthcare facility should have a threshold in terms of the nurse-patient ratio (Institute of Medicine, 2011). The importance of the act would be thatefficiency in the provision of nursing services would be improved owing to the idea that the effectiveness of the nurses would be enhanced. The requirements of the bill would also have the implication of the prevention of medication errors, which might arise due to lack of enough nursing personnel(Institute of Medicine, 2011).

            A number of stakeholders have involved themselves in the journey towards the achievement of the set goals of the nursing bill. For instance, the American Health Insurance Plans (AHIP) has taken part in selling insurance coverage plans tocitizens all over the American continent(Institute of Medicine, 2011). The trade association also advocates for the betterment of the nursing and healthcare standards within the society.

            In summary, it is prudent that having a larger and accomodatablenurse to patient ration improves the safety and effectiveness of the healthcare services in the healthcare sector. Thus, it is important to implement bills supporting the idea, such as the staffing for patient safety and quality care act of 2011.


Kelly, P., &Tazbir, J. (2013).Essentials of nursing leadership & management.,: Cengage Learning.

Institute of Medicine.(2011).The future of nursing:: Leading change, advancing health. ,: National Academies Press.

Homework Writing Help on The Drop in Oil Prices cbest essay help: cbest essay help

The Drop in Oil Prices

According to the views of most policy makers, the fall in the oil prices in Europe, USA, and Japan, and in other places will boost the economy of the world by bringing a good fortune to manufacturers and consumers. The FREC bank of the United States and the IMF officials expressed their less concern on the falling crude oil’s cost as a sign of the global slowdown. They instead hold the belief that cheap oil will boost the world economy, and mostly the countries distinguished with high energy. According to Stanley Fischer, the reduced oil prices will be of benefit to the United States of America as the prices are more likely to produce a positive effect on the GDP. The president of European Central Bank also saw the unexpected fall in the price of crude oil as positive to the economy.

There has been a 40% sudden drop in the prices of crude oil, which economists have viewed as a signal for a positive impact on the global economy. Historically, there are beliefs that sharp falls in the prices of oil are associated with recession because the demand of energy drops. It is for this reason that Japan is trying to recover from the sudden fall of crude oil. Many personalities are viewing this price drop as different, where most of them are of the opinion that the new prices will improve the global economy. Some economists and officials believe that the fall in the prices of crude oil has resulted from technological advancement, reducing the drilling costs. Others believe that the revival of the Libyan oil and the availability of other competitors have brought about the changes in prices of crude oil.

The fall in oil prices has greatly affected oil exporters e.g. Nigeria and Iraq as they mainly depend on oil revenues. Others countries such as Russia and Iran are already experiencing economic problems because of the fall in oil prices. In Japan, the economy is at low spirits, and the GDP has been estimated to have dropped by 1.9% between the months of July to September. According to the IMF managing director the overall price drop of crude oil will develop winners and losers, but it will bring positive effects to the general world economy.

The IMF and economists base the reduction in oil prices to the lower costs of manufacturing and transportation of oil by energy-intensive industries. The consumers will be the highest beneficiaries of the low prices, as they will pay less for petroleum products, thereby increasing their consumer spending. A U.S. research has shown that the U.S. consumers will save about 750 dollars each, over the next year, should the reduced prices hold. The new prices may also create a weakening demand, creating sluggishness in the global economy. This is a risk that policy makers should consider when looking at the whole issue of the fall in oil prices.

According to a managing director at Clearview Energy Partners, China has experienced slower growth, and for this reason, the growth in oil demand will be approximately 1.1 barrels a day in the next year. China’s weakness may foreshadow the weaknesses in other places, especially in European countries. China’s slowdown and the anemic growth in Europe have been agreed upon by economists as the causes of the current drop in oil prices. Through advanced drilling techniques, Canada and U.S. have furnished their production. Qatar and Saudi Arabia have tried to keep price competitors out of the market by ensuring the running of their wells. Fuel efficiency has also been boosted by the new technology and the US tightening regulations. Oil importing countries may cut their importation bills by around $500 billion, including around $90 billion for USA alone. The global bank estimates an addition of 0.2 point to global GDP in every $10 decline in oil prices.

Assignment Writing Help on Transportation Models essay help tips

Transportation Models

Transportation modeling involves finding the least-cost way of shipping supplies from their sources to various destinations. A linear programming model shows a constraint for supply at every source, as well as demand at each destination. Two types of transportation model include balanced transportation model and unbalanced transportation model. A balanced transportation model involves a condition where the amount supplied equals the amount demanded (Taylor, 2013). On the other hand, unbalanced transportation model creates a problem where the total supply exceeds, or falls below, the total demand. When the total demand surpasses the total supply, clients will not receive their required orders.

All constraints depict an equal sign in a balanced transportation model, as the number of supplies equals the number of demand. For instance, if the number of TV sets in each store is equal to the number of TV sets required by customers in different residential areas, then the constraints are equal.  It is quite possible to have multiple optimal solutions when solving transportation problems. This can occur when the opportunity costs result to no positive figures, and the results are one or more zeros.

According to Shenoy (2008), an assignment model is perceived as a special case of transportation model, where the number of sources is equal to the number of destinations. However, an assignment model is different from transportation model in that the quantity assigned from the origin and the demand assigned to each destination is limited to one unit (Taylor, 2013). The nature of managing problems in an assignment model is also different from that of transportation model, as it concerns allocating tasks to individuals, allocating machines to jobs, and dispersing salespersons to sales regions. Contrary, transportation model is usually applied in providing decision-makers with information necessary to balance costs and supply.


Shenoy, G. V. (2008). Linear programming: Methods and applications. New Dehi: New Age International.

Taylor, B. W. (2013). Introduction to management science. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Essay Writing Help on Congratulations! compare and contrast essay help


In life, we make some notable achievements that our loved ones feel cannot pass unmentioned. They plan events where they wish to convey their congratulatory messages as well as celebrate with us. Individuals looking forward to following the same path of success find an excellent platform where their hopes get a boost. They need to know how the end of their journey will look like – success itself. This speech entails a congratulation message to Grace Holmes, a young lady in her mid-twenties who has graduated with a Ph.D. in Anthropology. In addition, she has secured a position at Smithsonian National Museum of National History where she will head the Department of Anthropology. Her parent, Engineer Holmes, hopes to read the following congratulatory speech at her graduation’s evening party.

“Good evening everyone and you are most welcome to listen to my speech. It is indeed an opportunity to tell my daughter crucial information that I may never get a chance to communicate. The everyday hustles have created a gap between us parents and our children as we never get a chance to converse at length. Therefore, when we get the opportunity to pour out our hearts, like we have now, we exhaust the contents piled up in our memory banks. Everything that I have always wanted to comment on but never had the chance to, I do it now and here.

I wish to appreciate this gathering for creating time within your busy schedules to meet here today in celebration of our daughter’s success. It is a beauty to have all of you here as the spirit of togetherness has been evidently portrayed. To Grace, her joy knows no boundaries as she has eagerly waited for this day. At her age, attainment of a Ph.D. is an achievement beyond explanation. You earned it my daughter, bravo! For us, the only support we can give her this day is to share in her joy. As you all know, joy shared is joy doubled. Our core business today is to give thanks to our Maker for the far He has come with Grace. I know of many people of her age who are messed up. You have stood out my girl, and I am humbled by your uniqueness.

The journey has taken a couple of years, and sure, it was not plain sailing. Grace is the ideal person to explain the hardships involved. Some of us have been on that same road, but each person is unique, and so are their experiences. There were discouragements on the way since whenever you are willing to rise above the waters, someone will want to undermine you. It is always a challenging adventure, and unless your Maker has raised you up for the very success, you will be worn out by the opposition of men. My daughter, you have realized the secret to not let yourself be distracted and confused by insignificant issues. It takes a great mind like yours to understand that the secret lies in keeping your head up and your eyes on the goal.

You started with a desire to climb the mountains of education, and evidently enough, you went for the highest ones. I believe you have had significant dreams. The way I understand the concept of success, it was natural to see yourself in those more important dreams; sadly, walking into these dreams is not, and you have indeed put up a determined fight. I can testify that your greatest dream did not intimidate you. Your Maker came through as you pursued it. There are many people who are more gifted that are messed up, and the realization has humbled the star.

As a parent, I stand here today to recognize and appreciate my child’s efforts. I am fully aware that the deepest principle of Grace right now is the craving for appreciation. No more effective exercise exists for strengthening her heart than lifting her up. I will build you with compliments and always see you as an asset. It is the best way to make you realize your potential. The big man is the one who makes us take pride in his achievements when we are with him; today my daughter has done just that. I feel bigger to be the parent of a 26-year-old Ph.D. holder.

You have been a personal inspiration. Anytime I felt weary in financing your education and that of your siblings, your determination urged me to be strong as I would appreciate the outcome. I would have given up, but I did not. Today I can look at you and declare, “because of you, I never give up.”

Today is your day my child. With you, I know it does not stop here; your determination does not know any limits. Your siblings look up to you; I know they have made the right decision in following your footsteps.

Congratulations to Grace Holmes, you have made us all proud. As you leave for employment at Smithsonian National Museum of National History, we know that you shall be resourceful. Let them realize what a jewel they have in you. We wish you well.”

Homework Writing Help on Ideal Parenting Style personal essay help: personal essay help

Ideal Parenting Style


Parenting is a very crucial part of life. It is the joy of every parent to see the best in their children. However, depending on various factors, each parent offers a different type of parenting, as best as they know how. The paper seeks to elaborate the ideal type of parenting style as put forth by Baumrind parenting. It will as well explain the implications of being raised by both parents who engaged in this sort of parenting. Further, it will provide examples of this kind of style that also includes the implications on later development.

According to Diana Baumrind, there are two sides to parenting; responsiveness and demandingness. In her literature, she argues that, the way the needs of the children are responded to by their parents is the responsiveness. Demandingness, on the other hand, refers to what the parents expect from their children. The expectations are not constant, rather; they change with the child’s age. A parent may not assume responsibility for the child at an early age, but with growth and development, they are expected to be mature and act responsibly. Her three parenting styles depend on the two factors; the level of the factors is what differentiates the three forms (Martin & Fabes 2008).

To Diana Baumrind, a perfect balance of both factors, responsiveness, and demandingness, is the ideal parenting. The style is referred to as authoritative parenting. Here, the parents are at the call and beck of their children’s needs. To compensate for their responsiveness, they provide the children with guidelines on how to carry themselves out. They give themselves to the children as examples of what proper behavior entails. They are always available to correct wrong actions of their children.

Children raised in this form of parenting are likely to defy the guidance of their parents. Since the parent appears as a more dominant party, there is the probability of change of rules in cases of disagreements (Martin, et al. 2008). The change is for maintenance of their dominance in the relationship. Such a situation leaves the child with bitterness and in confusion, and they begin to drift from their unpredictable parents. The child that had always seen a friend in their parents sees it as a mistaken identity. They believe the parents are authority figures after all.

Academically, the children perform well compared to those from other parenting styles. They fit in any school climate unlike those from non-authoritative parenting who perform best in authoritative school environments. The success in school is firmly credited to the emotional support given to these children that furnish them with a sense of comfort and independence. Once they approach adolescence and adulthood, they portray signs of social positivity. They relate well to peers and the relationships with siblings and adults are healthy. The disappointments from the unpredictable parents provide them with an opportunity to learn moral identity. They can offer self-judgment. The ability comes from the empowerment of their parents to think out a remedy for their wrongs pointed out to them. The child has already conformed to a particular behavioral manner and do not yield to peer influence. They are positive thinkers. It is likely that the influence such parents have on their children is greater compared to the influence of their peers. The children are not carried away by mutual behaviors evident in school and social setups (Martin et al. 2008). The following link is a video of authoritative parenting2.33 minutes long


Martin, C.L., & Fabes, R. (2008). Discovering child development. Boston: Houghton Mifflin       Company.

Assignment Writing Help on Epic in American culture: Settlement to reconstruction essay help app

The question I have chosen concerns the cultural trajectory of the Americans before European contact. Under this topic, I will discuss the exchange in the New World of the American-European contact. Further, the paper will explain my thoughts on how the exchange of ideas, people, and artifacts affected the culture of the Americans. It will explore the limitations to this exchange as well. It is also significant to point out the paper’s examination whether there is the continuation of pre-Hispanic New World cultural influences today. Finally, the ways in which today’s exchange is similar or different from trade in the past will be addressed.

Cultural Context

Food. Before the European settlement in America, the Americans lived a very simple and humble life. They had all their energy directed to acquiring the basic needs. Their occupation was hunting and gathering, and therefore, meat, fruits, and vegetables characterized their diet. For supplementation of their diets, they took nuts and berries.

According to West (98), “They moved from one locality to another to search for these necessities. Once their targets became scarce, they migrated to other areas that promised much better.” They mostly hunted for deer and buffaloes. They practiced a bit of farming and grew crops such as potatoes, beans, and corn. However, hunting and gathering was the primary activity.

Clothing. The Americans wore animal skins. As Philips (2012:119) explains, “They became creative and could make any covering for their bodies from whatever material they landed.” Their creativity extended to making shoes that they called moccasins from deerskin. As Phillips (2012: 132) feels, “It is surprising to hear how they could chew the skins of buffalo to make it softer for making shirts and pants.”

Shelter. The Americans, especially from the northern part, shared houses among many families. The houses, made of wood, were long to accommodate several families. The plain Indians used long poles that they tied together at the top. Animal skins were then stretched over the poles to keep warmth and protect them from harsh weather conditions. The structures were popularly referred to as wigwams or teepees. The clans in the Southwest lived in huts of sun-dried bricks. Optionally, they made homes inside caves.

Possession of the land: The Americans believed that the earth was not personal property. The study of West (68) reveals, “Everyone had the right to use whichever part of it they wished at any given time.”There was no personalization of the hunting grounds as well, and one could move to a different location freely.

Transportation. The Americans walked from one point to the next. They curved out logs to make vessels that they called canoes and used them on the rivers and lakes for transport purposes. Phillips (2012: 127) reveals, “It is amazing how instead of using at least cows or horses as a means of transport, the fellows used dogs!” They designed a harness that they placed around the neck and body of the animal. They would then fasten it on two poles linked with animal skins in the middle. The skin acted as the as the area for placing the luggage, and the dog would drag it to the destination.

Exchange Between The Americans And Europeans

The Europeans were in desperate need of fur and leather, and North America was the only source of these items. They also needed a new plant in the name of tobacco that they could use for smoking and; it was unavailable in Europe. West (56) points out, “There developed trading posts where the exchange took place. On delivering the furs from beaver, deer, antelope and buffalo, together with the famous tobacco plant, the Americans received products they had not used before such as Wheat flour, cloth, and rifles.” The Americans used the wheat for baking, material for making clothes and rifles for hunting purposes.

Effects of Exchange on The American Culture

The Americans started weaving and learned the art of cotton-growing. They also learned how to produce colored thread through dyeing the cotton with other plant variants. From the colored thread, they wove clothes and blankets. They could no longer rely on animal skins for clothing.

The Americans started to use cattle and horses in transportation. They could now cover more distances during travel. According to West (2011: 93), “Hunting became quite vast as they would use these animals to travel long distances in the look-out for animals to kill.”

The Europeans introduced grain alcohol to the Americans that hurt their culture. Since the Europeans had used the liquor for many years, they were used to it, and it did not affect them negatively. The study of Phillip (2012:145) indicates that, “For the Americans, it was indeed an insult to their culture as they had never before involved themselves in alcohol-taking.”

The Europeans had developed immunity to diseases such as smallpox. Once in America, the germs of the disease spread to the Americans and spread like bushfire killing 2/3 of the tribes.

The Americans lost the right to use the universal land. Since the Europeans believed the land belonged to them, and each landowner was the only one entitled to its use, the Americans found themselves occupying the westward. Much to their shock and disbelief, they ended up in the areas considered as wasteland since no one had any interest in it.

Limitations Of The Exchange

Language: As West (38) portrays, “The greatest weakness of the trade was the language barrier. It took time for the trading parties to understand each other, and it sometimes required the services of middlemen to act as interpreters.

Quantity: The second item in the limitations list was the scale of measurability. It was hard to determine how much the item for the exchange equaled.

Performance warranty: There was no guarantee that the items exchanged would work to benefit the trading parties.

Continuation of Pre-Hispanic Cultural Influence

Extension of pre-Hispanic cultural influence is evident today. Smoking is the vice that has its roots in the pre-Hispanic age. The current mode of dressing is heavily influenced by the west. The modern society has embraced consumption of junk food, which is one of the borrowed concepts. Most of the modern music has developed from the pre-Hispanic age, not forgetting the language modifications on the rise in the modern age.

Modern Exchange

Exchange in contemporary times is quite different from the past. Whereas there are still communities that rely on the barter scheme of trade, the standard exchange medium is money.

Class Format

The class size has a good organization that gives each student a chance to belong, interact, and most importantly, provide the learners with an environment conducive to learning. Given the opportunity to be in this class again, I would not wish for any changes; everything is perfect as it is.

Works cited

Phillips, Christopher, N. Epic in American culture: Settlement to reconstruction. Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012. Print.

West, Elizabeth, J. African spirituality in black women’s fiction: Threaded visions of memory, community, nature, and being. Maryland: Lexington Books, 2011. Print.

Essay Writing Help on The Impact of Workers on Quality Management homework essay help: homework essay help

The impact of workers on quality management


Ensuring that management in organizations is quality could lead successful transformation in the organization. To show the logic of this statement, a case study will be conducted in Indian Railways. The study will be aiming at addressing the problem whether quality management could be used to bring some transformation in an organization. The researcher will go through the Indian bureaucracy to determine whether quality management will suit it. More specifically, the researcher will use Indian Railways. The study will also aim at developing a better understanding about ISO 9000:2000 model. In understanding the model, the researcher will be able to know if the framework used by the model could create an accommodation some transition that a firm can undergo provided quality management is maintained.

The study will be conducted due to various reasons. To begin with, in most countries in the western region of the globe, quality management has been ignored and thus the rate of implantation in the region is low. Though most organizations have been operating for more than 30 years, they have not implemented quality management effectively (Kumar, 2005). These organizations are aware of the necessary platforms to implement quality management but they face the challenge of creating an atmosphere that would put the factors into reality. They lack the knowledge that they would use in creating an ample environment to implement the factors due to little studies that have been conducted concerning the issue. Many organizations have also failed to incorporate employees in the low levels. The study will be of significant because it will provide some informing knowledge to the private sector, which has been the most affected by inadequate information concerning quality management. Implementing bureaucracies has been based on those whose foundation is based on little research.

Research methodology

The study will incorporate a qualitative research that will help in obtaining relevant information to solve the problem stated. The study will be conducted on Indian Railways, specifically on a level that is doctoral. The concept that will paid attention to is of an internal consumer as it will be easy for the researcher to focus on intra-improvement level improvement. The operations of the organization and the culture valued by Indian people will be obtained through going through the literature review. Some questionnaires will be issued to respondents, who will be the parties that have had a close relationship with the organization. Some of the respondents will include directors, employees, supervisors and customers. Surveys will be conducted on different divisions and sectors found in the organization. This will help in getting information about the impact that ISO 9000 model has had on the units.

Information that will be obtained from the surveys as well as the responses given by respondents will help in determining the steps to take to improve quality management in organizations. To begin with the study will use the responses to give an explanation about the process that the frameworks of the ISO 9000 model develops to describe culture in the organization as well as in India. Understanding the organizational culture of Indian Railways will help in creation of an atmosphere that will propel quality management implementation. Any changes that will be identified, that need to be changed will have to be passed through a process of three stages; the input stage, processing stage and the output stage.

Data analysis

One of the advantages on the study is that it will be conducted using models that have already been developed and those developed them approved them to be effective. Though implementing quality management will require a framework that will be designed to meet the expectations in the private sector also, the researcher will incorporate in the study the public sector. To create a better understanding visually, statistical data will be represented in tables and other graphical illustrations. After comparing the implementation techniques in both the private and the public sectors, the study will then apply argumentative approaches to discuss aspects that differ between the two sectors. This will be easy because the methodology that will be used to conduct the research is appropriate.  The literature review will provide information about the private unit while the study will help in obtaining information about those units in the public sector.

 The study does not only maintain appropriateness, but it uses only one center for its study, thus it is specificity has been maintained also. It will be assumed that information obtained for Indian Railways will apply to all other public firms in other regions in the western region of the globe. The only similarity that will be required is that the firms will have to be facing the problem of implementing quality management in their operations. Specifically the firms will be required to be facing a challenge in employees resisting changes during the process of transformation. Other challenges that organization will be required to be facing include maintenance of good quality products. Form the response, the researcher will then make an n evaluation of the value that is created to employees and the customers when quality management is improved.


Kumar, M. (2005). Total Quality Management as the stasis for Organizational Transformation of            Indian Railways: A Study in Action Research. Boston, Mass : Southern Cross University.

Essay Homework Help on Impact of African American Literature college application essay help: college application essay help

Impact of African American Literature


African American literature can be described as a legendary creation that constitutes numerous different ways by which the African American writers explore what Africa is and what it signifies to the world. This tradition appears in numerous forms in poetry and prose, and is reinforced from one generation to the next. African American literature has a prominent place in the American history. The account of literature that describes the African Americans from the era of slavery to the present is extraordinary. Messages of freedom and equality became forms of art that was expressed from the hearts of the African Americans in order to make a difference in the world where they were treated unfairly (Gates 6). The African American culture was built based on the oral folktales and spiritual themes that later produced rhythmic poetry, music and oral traditional artistic inspirations. Although African American were creative in literature, they were not recognized because literature had to be viewed by the white society. In the late eighteenth century when African Americans were still enslaved, a few of them wanted to express and demonstrate that they could create literature that was just as good as that of the white communities (Legacy 5). This was to prove that the African Americans could be equal to the white in society. There was a resistance in America, which made it difficult for African Americans to ascend on to the literary scene, but the passion and persistence of some of them through time resulted in the recognition of the African American culture. Different African Americans from the early eighteenth century to present reflect hope and dreams as speakers, novelist, play writers and poets that are responsible for creating a historical journey despite the struggles, which had a major impact on American Literature and history.  This research discusses the impact of the African American literature (Wideman 10).

Impact of African American Literature

The formation, theme and vision of the African American folktales contribute much to the African American literature. In the later 1800’s the key subjects of the period were slavery, liberty, rights, education and the future. Writers provided the harsh realities of slavery and the desire of it coming to an end ( 1). The visions of the unforgiving conditions the slaves worked and lived provide a picture of the struggles in which African American derived from. Women’s rights and the abolition movement intersect with this period because the African American and women did not have equal rights as human beings. There was a change coming in America with the fight to end slavery and the rise of equal opportunity for women ( 2).

 Sojourner Truth whose parents were slaves, advocated for women’s rights because it was not just slaves that were not treated as equal. It was more about civil liberties than just African Americans. A woman with no education took her beliefs and made a difference with strong faith and dedication. She was denied education, because during this time a slave relied on an oral tradition and passed down songs, stories, spirituals and folktales from generation to generation. This is important because literature can be passed down without a word ever being written. African customs appear in the segment of African American literature referred to as slave narratives. Through trials and troubles, Sojourner Truth was able to attain strong faith in Christianity and become a part of a movement where she was able to speak as feminist and for the freedom of the black Americans. As a woman, she echoed that she was able to carry out any task that a man could. She quoted, “I have as much muscle as any man, and can do as much work as any man” (Gates 178). These words expressed her passion for equality. She was so insistent about her feminist views through providing her own personal experience for the purpose of proving that a woman has equal rights just as a man. Sojourner Truth’s Christian views laid the source of her fight for the African Americans and the women. She achieved her preaching skills through her good listening skills. She learnt a lot from the Bible, which validated her faith in women and human rights. In her speech about the significance of women’s rights and human rights, Sojourner stressed that the word “Intellect” had nothing to do with woman or African American rights (Gates 178).

Sojourner Truth was a special woman in African American History. Her speech was recited all over the world because of the significance it played in American history. The themes of her speech were powerful in stressing on the empowerment of women. The most amazing thing about her speech is that it was never rehearsed. She recited the speech from the pure knowledge of her life experience as an African American woman. The speech was personal to her. The question that she kept asking was, “aren’t I a woman?” which directly questions the equality of women. One of the most important themes of her speech is that as a woman she shares the same strengths as men. Sojourner truth stated that, “Nobody eber help me into carriages, or orber puddles, or gives me any best place” (Gates 178). This statement explains that she cannot be afforded since the courtesies and whatever a man may offer a woman, she has survived without them so far. This speech acknowledges that a woman has as much right as man. The point was made clear that a woman is as prominent as a man when she asks the question of where does Christ come from;” God and a woman (Gates 178). Therefore experienced much both as a woman and as an African American during the time when she was treated unfairly and as African American she has fought through slavery. She seamlessly ties the two issues together not showing that one is more important than the other.  Her speech is solely drawn from experience. Even with her lack of education, she provided a clear message with emotion behind a strong Christian faith. She had the faith that a woman could make the world better.  Truth advocated for the women’s right because, apart from slaves she wanted all human kind to be treated equal. She was a brave and very powerful woman, though without education. However, with her faith and beliefs, she impacted in the lives of many. What is truly extraordinary was that she chose to fight for the freedom of others after she attained hers. She was among the first African Americans to make impact though speaking.

Booker T. Washington is another famous writer of the African American literature. Booker provided a well-constructed image of the fight for freedom and the strength of a visionary who wanted more for himself and his people (Anon 1). There is nothing more telling than a slave who escapes from an environment that is made to belittle and set not to let a human being to evolve. His kind determination was not expected from an African American during that time. During the Reconstruction era, freedom became another problem because African Americans did not know how to act in order to be free (Booker 3).  They did not know what was next in their lives. The questions they kept asking themselves. We’re such as, How are we going to survive? How do we educate ourselves? Where do we live? How do we react to discrimination? This imposed so much stress on some, whilst others managed to continue pushing for better rights. Washington stated that, “The great responsibly of being free, of having charge of themselves, of having to think and plan for themselves and their children to take possession of them” (Gates 557). In the beginning, freedom was a burden, but they found a way they could survive. Poetry was a good way of expressing feeling, inspiration and an outlet. Inside poetry and song were messages deeply rooted and would stand the test of time. Washington provided a good example that justified what songs did for the African Americans. He quoted, “Now that they gradually threw off the mask, and were not afraid to let it be known that the “freedom” in their songs meant freedom of the body in this world” (Gates 556). For instance, the poem by Paul Lawrence Dunbar “We Wear the Mask” signified the period in which African American were at pause on what was next in their lives and how they handled this without freedom. The poem, “We Wear the Mask” is a very crafty poem and exemplified what Booker T Washington spoke of. The question is what does it mean to wear the mask? The initial observation is the mask is a persona placed on one ’s self to stay alive ( 1).

During the Reconstruction era, African Americans wanted to survive after slavery was abolished. This is clearly demonstrated in Paul Dunbar’s verse. In the first line of the poem the mask’s descriptions provides a view of what is portrayed from the mask: “We wear the mask that grins and lies” ( 1). The mask is for hiding the true sentiment of their feeling. The writer is not talking about just himself, he uses “we” to symbolize a group; the African Americans.  A mask that grins signified a grin so that they could not appear to be angry because being angry had its own consequences. Thus, the grin represented the lie. Lines two through five represent the same type of descriptions: “We wear the mask that grins and lies/It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes/This debt we pay to human guile/With torn and bleeding hearts we smile/And mouth with myriad subtleties”( 2-5). The sign of mask was used for protection purposes. During that time, the slaves were set free, though their status was yet to be determined. The consequences and effects of a mask was that even if they masked their fears, it did not make anything better. Masking their true feeling and accepting the discrimination against them was only making things worse, fighting for change meant life or death. Therefore, the consequence ended up being another one hundred years of discrimination. 

The Harlem Renaissance brought about the era of African Americans producing an artistic and literary lobby group.  The African American novelists took advantage of this period to change their way of life (Kallen 15). This period displayed cultural expressions and artistic creation that crossed over to whites and African American. Some artists enjoyed the movement and their place among American politics. Some writers like Zora Neal Hurston brought about the metaphoric rhythmic descriptions in her writing ( 1). During this point in time, musicians, poets and novelists explored their talents about the African American experience ( 1).  Zora Hurston used the description, “I dance wildly inside myself; I yell within, I whoop; I shake my assegai above my head, I hurl it true to the mark yeeeeooww! I am in the jungle and living in the jungle way. My face is painted red and yellow and my body is painted blue, My pulse is throbbing like a war drum” (Gates 1042), to express how she felt about music. She wanted to view the world as a place of one color, but after a comment from a white friend, she noticed that she did not feel the music the same. She was trying to find fairness in the world, but there was a difference in the arts. This was more important to African American because it was their platform. In the quote “How it Feels to be Colored me,” She, emphasizes that it was time to move on in America. Meaning, she understood her initial life experiences and was not going to hang on it. When she was young, Zora did not see the difference between whites and African Americans because she was guarded from what racism really was (Fremon 10). When she relocated from her little town, she was exposed to the world, where her identity changed. She found herself in a foreign country which she was had never been to. As she started to experience the real world, she wished to be viewed as an ordinary person and not a black woman. For this reason, she celebrated who she was as a person and not because of color. She never imagined that her ancestors being slaves was going to hold her back from becoming what she wanted to be. She stated that, “Slavery is the price I paid for civilization, and the choice was not with me. It is a bully adventure and worth all that I have paid through my ancestors for it” (Gates 1041). Zora, appeared to be a strong black woman that she did not understand the reason why she would be discriminated for her color. However, she accepted her status of being an American citizen and not just being African American or white.  She stated, “Sometimes I feel discriminated against but it does not bother me angry. It merely astonishes me” (Gates 1042). Throughout her life, she never felt bad for herself about being who she was.

            Another African American literature writer is Langston Hughes. In his short story, “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain” Langston, points out one of the key points that Zora stressed on, which is, to accept who you are and be overconfident of being an African American. Langston stated that, “We younger Negro artists who create now intend to express our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame. If white people are pleased we are glad. If they are not, it doesn’t matter. We know we are beautiful. And ugly too” (Gates 1324 ). It is meaningless wanting to be something else. The African Americans are just as beautiful as any other race. Langston Hughes was an African American poet who could capture the African American experience and project its beauty. He was not just a poet but also a civil rights leader who believed in his people ( 1). Langton could deliver history, ancestry and passion of the African American culture through his poetry. After high school He went to live with his father in Mexico, around this time his poem” A Negro Speaks of Rivers” was published in The Crisis magazine, and this was actually the start of something special. The poem extends to the origins of the African Americans. The poem seems to resonate with the young poet viewing the history of the slaves that paved the way for him. Lines 1-3 in “A Negro Speaks of the River” speaks of ancestry: “I’ve known rivers/I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins/My soul has grown deep like the rivers ( 1-3). This poem showed how wise and savvy Langston would become. This was just the beginning of a young man with anticipation. Three other poems really stand out and show the spirit of Langston Hughes. The first poem “ Me And The Mule” is a poem where Langston wanted people to understand the stereotypes of being African American. Thinking about the African Americans during the era of Harlem Renaissance, they work for many other people. They were illiterate, and had to work very hard to survive.

During that time, they experienced so much social problems (Lewis 13). One might ask why he used a mule. A mule is the animal that signifies hardships. In the first stanza of the poem, the mule is used to signify someone who has accepted who he/she is and is not much concerned about his/her race; “My old mule/He’s gota grin on his face/He’s been a mule so long/He’s forgotten about his race”( Hughes 1-4). In that second stanza he compares himself to that mule, insisting that he wants everyone to know that he is black and he does not give a damn; “I’m like that old mule/Black and don’t give a damn/You got to take me/Like I am”( Hughes 5-8). Langston was very comfortable being an African American man. The other poem is referred to as “Acceptance”. This poem emphasizes that everyone should be accepted for who they are and not for their race. In addition, everyone is equal under God’s eyes; “God in His infinite wisdom/Did not make me very wise/So when my actions are stupid/They hardly take God by surprise” (PoemHunter 1-4). The first two lines explain that God created everyone and He is the wisest of all. If God created every individual in a certain way, then everyone should accept who he or she is. Line three and four explains that God is not surprised when mistakes are made, and humans should not be either. Langston met several different people in his lifetime that accepted him and provided him with help to make him the well-known poet that he became. The last poem is referred to as “My People”. In this poem, the poet aimed at displaying the beauty of his people. During the Harlem Renaissance, he experienced a movement of African Americans wanting to be treated better. The poem also explains how the African American begun celebrating their beauty: “The night is beautiful/So the faces of my people/The stars are beautiful, So the eyes of my people/Beautiful, also, is the sun/Beautiful, also, are the souls of my people”( PoemHunter 1-6). Langston was not just a great poet, he took pride in being an African American and he wanted them to have pride too. He was so successful in writing music lyrics, which enabled him to make sufficient cash to buy his own apartment in Harlem. He was also a lecturer of creative writing at Atlanta University and at one time, he was an invited lecturer at the university in Chicago. Between the 1950s and 1960s, he printed so much work. He passed away in 1967 due to complications of prostate cancer. His life was a success; he left a great body of poetry, plays and numerous works of texts. These three poems expressed how Langston felt about his culture and era. He expressed himself through his poetry.

            At the era of the Harlem Renaissance African pride was at a high. This period displayed cultural appearances and creative creations. This is the time when the African American writers began challenging racism stereotypes (Fremon 19). Hurston and Langston are among the many African Americans that influenced their culture through their writing. This is the cultural movement where African American started to assert in society (Lewis 17). The African Americans began establishing their own magazines, institutions, journals, and publishing their own work for the purpose of stopping  the oppression of African American Literature. Hoyt Fuller stated that, “the movement would be reviled as “racism-in-reverse,” and its writers would be labeled as “racists,” opprobrious terms which are flung lightly at black people now that the piper is being paid for all the long years of rejection and abuse which black people have experienced at the hands of white people—with few voices raised in objection” (Towards a Black Aesthetic). The African American were no longer going to sit around being criticized about their art form by people who did not understand or did not want to see how good it was, compared to the white artist. This era inspired more African Americans to write.

            Another prominent writer during the time of Harlem Renaissance was Larry Neal. Larry Neal placed his focus on the Black Arts movement. When speaking of Black aesthetic, he made it clear to the thoughts of the black empowering their own culture. African American creativity should be determined, judged and critiqued by African Americans, not the biased white men. According to Larry, African American should be the voice of their scripts. He quoted, “When we speak of a “Black aesthetic” several things are meant. First, we presume there is by now in existence the base for this kind of artist. Fundamentally, it is comprised of an African-American literary custom. However this artistic is mainly, by insinuation, broader than that custom. It includes most of the meaningful aspects of the 3rd World society. The reason behind the African artistic is the obliteration of the white obsession. This included the obliteration of white thoughts, and white ways of viewing the world” (Gates 785).

Toni Morrison is another great African American female author.  In 1993, Toni became the foremost African American to be the victor of the Nobel Prize in Literature. She displayed an unfair society for women and the state of being African American. She was a novelist with a very creative brain. She directly and deliberately employed some of the major characteristic of Black art like providing a feel of Black preacher speaking to a congregation bringing about the connection of the audience (Gates 1086). She had a unique way of blending the supernatural into her magnifying stories. She also draws from the history of African Americans and their struggle along the way. Toni wrote about the slavery and how the African American endured the violence. The “Song of Solomon” incorporated some of Toni Morrison best work creating a novel an African American subject implanting imagination, with traditions and history along with concept that will not only touch African Americans, but every human.

Alice Walker another African American female writer is received with a worldwide recognition for her literature. She has written novels, poems and short stories that deal with as many things as racism, violence and difficult relationships (Fremon 19).  Her Pulitzer Prize winning novel “The Color Purple” portrays the battered and oppressed women, African American culture and racism. Alice Walker provided a light for the African American woman. She showed their struggle of the sex and the perception of poverty, as well as the strength spirituality and family.  She is a feminist and her writing impacted the world by opening an eye to the negativity of African American Woman. Alice Walker launched the phrase “womanist” into feminist phrasing in her novel, “In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens: Womanist Prose”. In her novel, she used the phrase “acting womanish,” which was used to refer to a girl who acted brave, daring and as a mature woman and girlish (Napikoski 2014). The majority women of color in the 1970s had opted to enlarge the feminism of the Women’s Liberation Movement further than its apprehension for the predicaments of the American middle-class women. The acceptance of “womanist” was a symbol of an inclusion of racism and class problems in feminism. Alice Walker also utilized “womanist” to signify woman who loved other fellow women, whether platonically or sexually. The expression “womanist” is therefore both a substitute to and an extension of the expression “feminist” (Napikoski 2014). Alice Walker’s “In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens” explains about the worthlessness and the savagery that the women were exposed to in their lives as African American who lived in the southern part of the United States. She highly valued motherhood and the mother and child relation. Alice’s expression of women: “The agony of the lives of women who might have been Poets, Novelist, Essayist, and Short-Story Writers (over a period of centuries), who died with their real gifts stifled within them” (1183). Walker believed in the strength of all the women as depicted in her writing. She valued the sacrifice of the woman from the beginning. Alice Walker’s “In Search of Our Mother’s Gardens” displays an article that reaches out to an African American women’s custom. She depicts historical occurrences where women did not attain artistic skills or other talents because they were to bear children and take care of the household. In her short essay, “Everyday Use” she provides a view of a family that is built on heritage and supported by a single African American woman. In “Everyday Use” the main character, Ms Johnson, is viewed as a hard working, traditional and uneducated mother of two. She is the strength of the family and the mother and father of her two girls. Alice thought her mother as that: “During the “working” day, she labored beside-not behind-my father in the fields. Her day began before sunup, and did not end until late night” (1185). One of the key significance of the short story is the quit. In “Everyday Use” the quit was a symbol of unity between generations of women in their folks: “One was in the Lone Star pattern, and the other was Walk Around the Mountain. In both of them were scraps of dresses worn by Grandma Dee fifty and more years ago as well as Bits and pieces of Grandpa Jarrell’s paisley shirts. And one teeny faded blue piece, about the size of a penny matchbox, that was from Great Grandpa Ezra’s uniform that he wore in the Civil War”(1193). 

            Alice Walker uses her short story to identify and establish an understanding of the African American women history and heritage. She provides the accounts from her personal experience, portraying how women were held back from achievements because of their hardships. Education was secondary and hard work was a must. In the end, the reflection is the sacrifice of African American women for the future.


It can be said that Gifted and talented African Americans impacted American Literature and history in different ways. Their main objective was to make a difference in a world where Africans can be treated better and given equal rights. Their Inspiration came from African American who wanted a better world for all so they used the platform as speakers, novelist, play writers and poets. Despite the struggles, African American found their voice in American Literature and linage.

Work Cited

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Gates, Henry Louis. “Paul Lawrence Dunbar, “We Wear the Mask.” The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996. Print.

Gates, Henry Louis. “Sojourner Truth (ca. 1799-1883).” The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996. Print.

Gates, Henry Louis. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996. Print.

Hughes, L. Langston Hughes – Me and the Mule. [online] Genius. (2015). Available at: [Accessed 8 Jan. 2015].

Kallen, Stuart A. The Harlem Renaissance. Edina, Minn.: Lucent, 2009. Print. Internet History Sourcebooks. [online]. (2015).  Available at: [Accessed 8 Jan. 2015].

Lewis, David L. The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader. New York: Viking, 1994. Print.

Napikoski, L. Womanist – Alice Walker’s Term Including Race Into Feminism. [online]. (2014).  Available at: [Accessed 13 Oct. 2014]. Education & Resources – National Women’s History Museum – NWHM. [online]. (2015). Available at: [Accessed 8 Jan. 2015]. Acceptance. [online].  (2014). Available at: [Accessed 8 Jan. 2015]. My People. [online]. (2008). Available at: [Accessed 8 Jan. 2015]. The Negro Speaks of Rivers by Langston Hughes : The Poetry Foundation. [online]. (2015).  Available at: [Accessed 8 Jan. 2015]. Wear the Mask by Paul Laurence Dunbar : The Poetry Foundation. [online]. (2015).  Available at: [Accessed 8 Jan. 2015].

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Assignment Writing Help on Bahrain’s Human Rights Violation college essay help online

Bahrain’s Human Rights Violation


Bahrain Authorities have failed to address serious violations of human rights in the most appropriate manners as deemed by the standard laid down by United Nations (International Business, 2012). There are many accusations leveled against the government on the issues concerning human rights, which the country has failed to address adequately. The authorities in the country have failed to address the recommendations that were brought out by the commission (BICI – Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry) that was formed to address these concerns. On the other hand, the government has been suppressing pro-democracy protests through inconsequential detention of person involved in them. There are politically motivated imprisonment, excessive use of force, detainee’s torture, denial of vital freedoms of assembly and association (Bassiouni, 2012). Since 2011 when the protectors confidently took to the streets making necessary demands on economical and political reforms, the government of King Hamad responded with measures that violated major human rights.

The Level of Bahrain’s Human Rights Violation

According to the report released by United Nations in 2014, the number people estimated to have been detained on claims of expressing their opinion and thought wrongly is 4,000 (Salisbury, 2012). United Nations report revealed that thirteen people who included; politicians, human right activist, members of intelligentsia and innocent civilians were imprisoned on claims that lacked basis on human law. There were six life sentences, one person, Mohammad Habib al-Maqdad, serving a sentence of sixty years, four serving imprisonment of fifty years and two people serving imprisonment of five years. According to Stork (2014), the UNHRC (United Nations Human Rights Committee), which has the right reviews state conformity with the ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), made a conclusion in relation to article 19, about freedom of expression, that:

The mere fact that forms of expression are considered to be insulting to a public figure is not sufficient to justify the imposition of penalties, albeit public figures may also benefit from the provisions of the Covenant. Moreover, all public figures, including those exercising the highest political authority such as heads of state and government, are legitimately subject to criticism and political opposition pg.1

There are several human rights that the government of Bahrain has failed to respect and honor and therefore imposing a lot of pain to its innocent citizens. According to the report released by BIRD (Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy) there were several human rights that were negated by the government authorities. This includes rights and freedoms that are assured under the ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights): the prohibition of torture under article 7; freedom of religion under article 18; freedom of association under article 22; right to fair trial under article 14; freedom of expression under article19; right to liberty under article 9; freedom of assembly under article 21 and the rights of prisoners under article 10. The report revealed that every respect, the circumstances in Bahrain had deteriorated to worrying levels (Salisbury, 2012).

However, there are efforts by the Bahraini authorities to check the human violation (Sprusansky, 2012). This included the formation of independent body to make thorough assessment of government’s violations. Creation of SIU (Special Investigation Unit) and also a commission created to oversee the Rights of Detainees and Prisoners. BICI established some ground on ending violence against humanity by exposing BDF (Bahrain Defend Force), National Security Agency and Ministry of Interior as the main bodies violating the human rights through innocent killing and detentions (McGeehan, 2014). However, little was done to sustain the intensions of the commission to end the malicious impunity in the country.

The situation of human rights violation in Bahraini has trigger global concern, with countries like Norway, United States of America, France, Ireland and United Kingdom demanding proper responsibility from the Bahraini government (Bassiouni, 2012). International bodies like the European Union and United Nations have demanded proper measures to be put in place by the government in order to end human suffering due to violations of human rights. One of the cases of human rights violation that has prompted the attention of great nations is the arrest of prominent human activist Abdlhadi al-Khawaja on the claims of destabilizing the government when he called political reforms in the country (McGeehan, 2014). Abdulhadi al-Khawaja is one of the prominent dissidents who were unfairly convicted and imprisoned for life since 2011. There are many human activists who faced unfair justice from the legal authorities and were imprisoned on such basis. Human activist like Nabeel Rajab and Zainab al-Khawaja are in jail serving their sentence on charges that they offended the national institution and insulted the mighty King of Bahrain (McGeehan, 2014). Such charges are baseless and are only manipulated to ensure that their voices are silenced by imprisonment.


Despite the activists’ efforts to send their voices to the authorities in peaceful demonstrations, the government has continually used the police force to intimidate the protestors. This has seen many protestors spend many years in prison in the most unjustified situations. Effort by international bodies and powerful countries seems to bear very little effect as human suffering continues to dominate the country. However, the efforts by external forces have compelled the government top form necessary bodies that could help bring healing to the country.


Bassiouni, M.C., (2012, November 22). Bahrain: Promises Unkept, Rights Still Violated. Human Rights Watch.  Retrieved from:

International Business, T. (2012, September 14). Human Rights Activist Maryam Al-Khawaja: ‘Diplomacy is Over’ with Bahrain [VIDEO INTERVIEW]. International Business Times.

McGeehan, N., (2014, April 25). Dispatches: Bahrain Shooting the Messenger on Torture. Human Rights Watch.  Retrieved from:

Salisbury, P. (2012). Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry. MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, 56(2), 26-29.

Sprusansky, D. (2012). Discontent, Unrest Continue in Bahrain. Washington Report On Middle East Affairs, 31(5), 49.

Stork, J., (2014, October 26). Bahrain: Free Activists Facing Free-Speech Charges. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from:

Homework Writing Help on Leadership and Success essay help: essay help

Leadership and Success

The success of any business depends on the kind of leadership that an organization chooses to embrace. The capacity to lead and communicate appropriately is the deciding factor in the contemporary business world. Successful leadership involves interacting with others through proper communication. Interpersonal skills are fundamental in coordinating employees and customers, in an attempt to enhance organization’s productivity. Companies such as Apple, Yum!, and Microsoft, are capable of sustaining their productivity due to their leaders’ capacity to employ interpersonal skills. This implies that leadership success in organizations emanate from interpersonal skills. It is the responsibility of organizational leaders to ensure that they enjoy good relationship with their fellow employees, customers, as well as clients through acquiring wide range of skills, which include interpersonal skills.

Importance of Interpersonal Skills

Leadership skills are increasingly important because they assist the organization maintain its course for expansion. Effective leaders should possess interpersonal skills to assist them in dealing with diverse workforce. According to Lussier and Achua (2015), interpersonal skills involves acquiring ability to appreciate, communicate and interact well with individuals, as well as groups, by developing effective relationship. Interpersonal skills are normally associated with individual’s emotional intelligence, which assist individuals to understand, empathize, and bargain with other people effectively. Facilitating and mentoring skills are also part of interpersonal skills, as competent leaders are expected to ensure teams are working toward their goals. Interpersonal skills create a disparity between a good employee and a great employee, as the latter are always motivated to work hard. Effective communication is paramount for great leaders, as they must be capable of adjusting to communication style depending on the circumstances (Wheeler, 2005). Thus, leaders who possess technical skills need to portray extra skills, such as effective communication, decision-making, and encouraging employees through motivation, which enable them to fit in the organizational culture.

The real world examples enable leaders in organizations to learn on how to utilize interpersonal skills for the success of their organizations. Motivation is one of the interpersonal skills that many leaders employ to influence their employees perform their task appropriately. David Novak, the former CEO of Yum, had an excellent relationship with his employees, who knew him as a compassionate and caring person (Griffin and Moorhead, 2010). Novak’s relationship with his workers motivated them to work hard, resulting to high profitability for the company. Motivation works well where there is effective communication. The reason why Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple, became successful in his technology business was that he managed to motivate his employees, in addition to encouraging their loyalty to conform to his vision (Pride, Hughes and Kapoor, 2012). Although Jobs was not involved in the invention of Apple computer, he used his interpersonal skills to convince Steve Wozniak, his business partner, to initiate the technology business. 


Organizational leaders have a responsibility to make sure that they maintain good relationship with their workers, customers, as well as clients through acquiring wide range of skills, which include interpersonal skills. Technical skills are not enough to guarantee success in organization. Instead, effective leaders should possess interpersonal skills, which enable them to interact amicably with their employees. In addition, interpersonal skills allow leaders to maintain control, recognize other people’s interests, and communicate properly. Employees require motivation to enhance their productivity, which, consequently, results to organization success.  Several organizations have managed to maintain high profitability due to their leaders’ ability to interact effectively with employees, in addition to motivating them through promotions and attractive remunerations. Emotional intelligence is a segment of interpersonal skills, which assist leaders to understand, empathize, and bargain with employees and clients effectively. This illustrates that interpersonal skills are vital for the success of any business operation.


Griffin, R. W., & Moorhead, G. (2010). Organizational behavior: Managing people and organizations. Australia: South-Western/Cengage Learning.

Lussier, R. N., & Achua, C. F. (2013). Leadership: Theory, application & skill development. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Pride, W. M., Hughes, R. J., & Kapoor, J. R. (2012). Business. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Wheeler, P. A. (2005). The importance of interpersonal skills. Healthcare Executive, 20(1), 44-45. Retrieved from

Law Essay Sample on The Articles of Confederation vs. the Constitution buy essay help

The Articles of Confederation vs. the Constitution

            Essentially, to set up the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution demanded that a country be democratic. That is, no autocratic country could make either of the documents and uphold its provisions due to the nature of an autocracy. All these documents clearly affirmed that the national government ought to be fully in charge of foreign affairs. The Articles and the Constitution provide that the all the foreign affairs are in the hands of the national government. Both documents forbid the creation and awarding of the title of nobility. Besides, each document asserted that every state ought to treat other state’s citizens as they do to their own citizens without discrimination. Finally, in both documents there was a Congress.

            However, there are more differences than similarities. For instance, under the articles, there is no system of federal courts while under the U.S. Constitution; there exists a system of federal courts solely to deal with the relationship between citizens as well as between states. Another difference is manifested in the amendment of each document whereby while 13/13 were needed to amend the articles, it was a requisite that 2/3 of both houses of Congress and 3/4 of state legislature to be present for amendment of the U.S. Constitution. In addition, the article does not provide any regulation of interstate trade while the constitution gives jurisdiction to the Congress to regulate trade between states.

            While the sovereignty resides in states as provided in the article, the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the state. Besides, the Constitution gives power to the Congress to levy taxes on citizens, which is limited in the articles as the Congress have to seek for permission in a bid to levy taxes.


Callahan, K. P. (2003). The Articles of Confederation: A Primary Source Investigation Into the Document That Preceded the U.S. Constitution. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group.

Cantu, D. A. (2002). American History Class Openers: Reflective and Critical Thinking Activities: Grades 5-8. New York: Teacher Created Resources.

Dautrich, K., & Yalof, D. (2011). American Government: Historical, Popular, and Global Perspectives, Brief Version. New York: Cengage Learning.

Dautrich, K., & Yalof, D. (2015). The Enduring Democracy. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Scaros, C. E. (2011). Understanding the Constitution. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Stobaugh, J. P. (2012). American History: Observations & Assessments from Early Settlement to Today, High School Level. New York: New Leaf Publishing Group.

Vile, J. R. (2012). The Writing and Ratification of the U.S. Constitution: Practical Virtue in Action. Chicago: Rowman & Littlefield.

Essay Writing Help on Unethical Behaviors in Organizations compare and contrast essay help

Unethical Behaviors in Organizations

The News article “American Apparel Posted its new ethics code – and it, dense” by Hillary Burns (2015), the company has highlighted a number of codes of ethics that are geared towards the protection of the individual employees rights. As explained, these new codes of the apparel company are supposed to clarify, update and enhance the descriptions of the standards of conduct expected by all directors, officers and employees (Hillary, 2015). In relation to the weekly reading, “Business Ethics: How to Design and Manage Ethical Organizations” the company has established practical and theoretical instructions on the creation of a high integrity and superior performance organization (Collins, 2012).

The key term, ethics in this case, is used to define the standard of quality in line with the organization performances. Ali (2015), in the Daily Independent; Professional Ethics and Discipline of Lawyer describes how for public personalities such lawyer, ethical practices and discipline are inevitable. He reiterates that lawyers are officers in the temple of justice and before instilling discipline on other individuals they should lead by example (Yusuf, 2015). As Collins explains in the daily reading, ethics and discipline are interconnected and to some extent one would never be enough without the other. Ethical developments instill discipline in individuals just like it is most likely that a well mannered person would follow into the appropriate codes of ethics (Collins, 2012).

Conclusively, business, professionalism and ethics work hand in hand. Codes of ethics are guiding factors in every business or organizational activities and in essence, organizations and companies should formulate realistic frameworks that take into account techniques that develop working environments that reinforce ethical behaviors among employees, students and all the professionals in every field of operations.


Collins, D. (2012). Business Ethics: How to Design and Manage Ethical Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Hillary, B. (2015). American Apparel Posted its new ethics code – and it, dense. Bizwomen Daily.

Yusuf, A. (2015). Nigeria: Professional Ethics and Discipline of Lawyers. Daily Independent.

Homework Writing Help on Purchasing Manager college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Purchasing Manager

Company Background

Company’s Goal

The company aims at establishing efficient delivery processes, improving the response of customers through purchases, as well as maintaining a stable delivery process.

Company’s Mission

The company is motivated towards providing high quality customer services with a personal touch and ensuring that such services give customers the highest level of satisfaction according to the customer’s changing tastes and preferences.

Company’s Vision

The company’s vision statement adds to the needs for efficient and effective deliveries in different markets. Through installation of technologies, the company will be able to facilitate its ordering and payment processes.

Operational strategies

The desires to make delivery safer ends with immediate investment in product packaging. Through good product packaging, the company is sure that the security of the product during transit is guaranteed.The company aims at using an automated delivery system with intentions of facilitating its tracking processes while ensuring that items in transit reach their destinations on time.The company aims at improving its deliveries by using hybrid vehicles, which are less in weight but have an outline of the most cost effective routs. Other than making the deliveries more efficient and effective, the purchase of hybrid vehicles will help the company to cut down the costs associated with deliveries, hence a reduction in the entire cost of production.

Company service management

The company has the position of Customer Service Manager who is responsible for maintaining good customer relations with the company, developing an interactive marketing plan to improve the company’s performance among its competitors, and also managing the company’s sales force automation. The company also has the position of Logistics and Transportation manager whose key responsibilities include resource planning, execution systems, process control, employee management, processing of company’s orders, control of inventories, and tracking the company’s deliveries, as well as making sure that the packaging process is secure. Also important in this course is the position of Purchasing Manager, whose areas of involvement include compensation analysis, employee skills inventory, and personnel requirements forecasting. 

The Company purchase options

The desire to have an effective, efficient, and secure means of service delivery prompted the need to consider other delivery processes before proceeding to purchase hybrid vehicles. This means that the Purchasing Manager must give a careful thought on modes of transportation because of the various trade-offs observed when choosing the different modes like air, rail, and road.  The company’s selling point is the speed of product and service delivery, which the manager must improve to ensure better performance and final value. Even though air transportation is considered the most expensive mode of delivery, and would add to the cost of operation, it will help the company to deliver its services within the shortest time possible and meet the needs of customers who need a delivery immediately (Reddy & Hutton, 2013).      Therefore, the company’s choice of helicopters in the delivery process adds to the performance values attached to customers’ needs of faster and safer service deliveries. The company will also utilize a point-to-point transportation network, which is faster than the hub and spoke network used by competitors like FedEx Express and UPS (Collier & Evans, 2012).  The use of two helicopters to support the point-to-point network will also allow the company to link its customers with its facilities located in Boston and New York; our two initial locations will be Boston and New York. We will have two facilities located in Manhattan and Downtown Boston.  Apart from the two helicopters, the company will have six vans in each of the two cities to assist improve the delivery process. The company believes that the two helicopters and six delivery vans shall help to improve performance efficiency in addition to meeting the company’s delivery policy of “GET IT THERE”.

The company’s service delivery plan

The company’s air fleet will consist of two used Airbus/American Eurocopter AS350 B3e.  The cargo configurations or the aircraft will allow for one pilot, and cargo measuring up to 106 cubic feet with a maximum cargo swing load of 2,557 pounds (Airbus Helicopters, n.d.).

This aircraft operates at a high speed of 178 miles for every one hour and a recommended cruise speed of 140 miles for every one hour (Corporate Helicopters, n.d.).  The flight distance between Boston and New York sort facilities is 190 miles. This puts the company’s flight duration at 1 hour 21 minutes and a round trip at 2 hours 42 minutes. After an estimated 30 minutes at each stop for loading and fueling, this makes a total round trip after all aircraft servicing and loading to last 3 hours and 42 minutes. If the company had one helicopter flying nonstop around the clock, then 20, 456 pounds of freight could be delivered between the two locations daily.

The company’s ground fleet will also consist of 12 hybrid Prius Vehicles (6 per city).  Each Prius vehicle will be fitted with an onboard computer that will communicate with the hub’s dispatch. The company’s hybrid vehicle fleet will be one of the order winners that differentiate the company’s delivery from other delivery services (Collier & Evans, 2012).  The company will not only be an ultra-express delivery service but also environmentally conscious. 

The company will also use delivery and pick-ups, which are to be coordinated through a central dispatch in each respective city. Dispatch will work directly with our customer service to plan pick-ups and deliveries. Central dispatch will utilize C2 Logix Route Optimization Solutions software; this software will allow the company to plan routes using the fewest resources possible, find fastest routes based on scheduled pick-ups and deliveries, optimize route capacity, increase fuel efficiency, and also match any unique requirements with customer needs (i.e., special HAZMAT requirements and refrigeration/iced shipments), automatically locate customers, insert new customers into after initial routes have been planned, as well as tracking the company’s vehicles in real time of purchase (C2 Logix, n.d.). 

The labor force will consist of 42 delivery drivers, 14 helicopter pilots, 8 dispatchers, 8 customer service representatives, and 42 personnel working in the sort facilities. This labor force will be used to support both cities to improve their response to customers’ demand through improved performance and better service deliveries.

The company will compensate its employees based on the number of successful deliveries, sales generated and total revenues collected. The compensation process will incorporate a fixed salary for all the employees plus a commission for the best performing sellers. The company will operate on a moving salary range, which is set to respond to changes in external market and company’s sales returns. Making employees’ salaries flexible will improve their efficiencies when dealing with customers in order to increase the amount of sales for improved earnings.  

Before recruiting workers, the company expects its employees to have a good record of skill inventory. Employee skill inventory is an exercise that the company will be conducting to help employees identify and understand their strengths and weaknesses, as well as noting the areas they need to improve during process delivery. The company’s skill rating will be developed on a scale of 1 to three, where a scale of 3 represents strong ability, a scale of 2 represents some ability and a scale of 1 depicts enough ability to get things going while seeking for the help other employees.

The company’s personnel forecasting addresses cases of future personnel requirement for the planned delivery processes. The company works on a platform of adding value to its operations by retaining current employees and hiring new employees to meet the outlaid production standards of the company.


Airbus Helicopters. (n.d.). Proven, Flexible, and Spacious.

Collier, D. A., & Evans, J. R. (2012). Operations Management (4th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

Corporate Helicopters. (n.d.).

Reddy, L., & Hutton, R. (2013). Chapter 7. In Certified Logistics Technician, Supply Chain Logistics, Mid Level Technical Knowledge (3rd ed., pp. 87-88). Alexandria, VA: Manufacturing Standards Skills Council

Aviation Research Paper on Rolls-Royce Engine Company extended essay help biology

Rolls-Royce Engine Company


Rolls-Royce Engine Company is one of the largest engine manufacturers in the world. The company operates in the global engines industry, which has few players with General Electric, Rolls-Royce and Pratt & Whitney being the major players. General Electric is the market leader of the industry, with Rolls-Royce following as a close second. The three are the major industry players, the rest being small companies or joint company ventures. The purpose of this essay is to give a brief background of Rolls-Royce, perform an analysis of the global engines industry as well as the company’s SWOT analysis. Among the company’s strengths include a strong market presence and research and development. Further, the essay will delve into an analysis of the company based on Porter’s five forces, Royce’s key competencies, and a PESTLE analysis of the engines manufacturer. From the analysis, it is apparent that the company needs to diversify its revenue sources, given that its major revenue source is currently its wide body civil division. Global defense budgets and energy consumption are currently on the increase, all of which are considerable revenue sources.

Rolls-Royce Engine Company


Rolls-Royce Engine Company is one of the largest engine manufacturers in the world, based in the City of Westminster, London. The Royce began in 1884 as an electrical and mechanical enterprise, having been established by Henry Royce (Rolls-Royce, 2014). The first of the company’s car was built in 1904, the very year of Royce and Charles Rolls meeting (Rolls-Royce, 2014). Rolls-Royce as a company was however founded in 1906 following an agreement for a joint venture between Rolls and Royce, which also saw the company launching the six-cylinder Silver Ghost in the same year, a car that was rated as the best in the world then (Rolls-Royce, 2014). At its establishment, the company was a luxury car manufacturer, and later diversified into aircraft engine manufacturer. While the production of luxury cars remained its major activity, the company spun off its car division in 1973. Due to financial problems, however, the engine manufacturer (now known as Roll-Royce Limited) was placed under administrative receivership and later nationalized; later, in 1987, it was privatized as Rolls-Royce plc, later changing to Rolls-Royce Holdings (Rolls-Royce, 2014). According to, the company’s mission statement is part of the vision statement; “provide better power for a changing world” (Rolls-Royce, 2014).  On the other hand, the company’s vision statement expands on the mission statement indicating that the company is “committed to innovation and continuous pursuit of improvement” (Rolls-Royce, 2014). It is perhaps the mission and vision statements that have helped the company to remain relevant and successful in the competitive engine and power systems manufacturing industry. The company also competes in the civil aerospace market, where competitors include Pratt & Whitney and General Electric (The Times 100, 2000). It is one of the oldest and the largest engine manufacturers in the world. This essay will look at the global engine manufacturing industry. With focus on Rolls-Royce, the essay will conduct a SWOT analysis, analysis based on Porter’s five forces analysis, core competencies, as well as the company’s PESTLE analysis, with a summary at the end of the key issues and recommendations for the company’s success.

Global Engine Industry

The global engine industry, particularly in large civil aircrafts has few players, with General Electric, Rolls-Royce and Pratt & Whitney being the major players (Ganston, 2006). These three are often referred to as the big three, owing to their dominance in the aviation engine manufacture business (Forbes, 2014). With a 22.5 percent of the global engine market share, General Electric is the market leader in the aviation engine industry, with Roll-Royce and Pratt & Whitney accounting for 13.7 and 10.2 percent of the market share (Kingsley-Jones, 2014). Joint ventures formed by smaller and other large companies hold the rest of the market share. Among the joint ventures are The Engine Alliance, CFM, International Aero Engines and PowerJet.

GE Aviation and Pratt & Whitney are 50/50 owners of The Engine Alliance. On the other hand, CFM is a joint venture between GE Aviation and SnecmaMoteurs a 50/50 venture, while International Aero Engines has Rolls-Royce with a 32.5 percent share, Pratt & Whitney (32.5%), Japanese Aero Engines Corporation (23%) and MTU Aero Engines (12%). For PowerJet, both NPO Saturn JSC and SnecmaMoteurs hold 50 percent of the joint venture (Rudd, 2012). Of the dominant players in the industry (General Electric, Rolls-Royce and Pratt & Whitney), only Rolls-Royce is a non-American company; both GE and Pratt & Whitney are subsidiaries of large American conglomerates. The aviation industry largely falls within three categories of regional, narrow-body and wide body. Of these, GE competes in all the three categories, while Pratt &Whitney has presence in the regional and narrow body segments. Rolls-Royce, on the other hand, largely operates in the wide-body category (Forbes, 2014).

SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis is among the most important management tools. It involves the evaluation of an organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as the organization’s growth and development opportunities and threats posed by the external environment. The strengths and weaknesses are largely in-house, while opportunities and threats come from the external environment within which the organization operates (TFME, 2013). Part of the tool’s popularity stems from its simplicity and flexibility, the ease in understanding it, as well as the fact that it does not require intricate knowledge for its implementation.

While it is simple to construct, SWOT analysis has far greater importance than its construction simplicity to a company. The analysis particularly condenses many situational factors in such a way that they are manageable to the company (TFME, 2013). This way, it is possible to conduct in-depth analysis of these factors and therefore execute remedial actions. Additionally, the analysis provides a company with an unbiased view of its internal and external situations; this way, the company can begin working on matching and converting both the external and internal situations to its advantage. Matching in this case looks at converging organizational strengths and opportunities to gain competitive advantages, as well as converting either the threats or weaknesses into opportunities or strengths (TFME, 2013).

Rolls-Royce SWOT Analysis

InternalStrengthsWeaknessesResearch and developmentStrong market presence Strong order backlogOver-reliance on the civil aerospace sectorInadequate awareness of new market entrantsLawsuitsExternalOpportunitiesThreatsRising demand for nuclear and civil aerospace equipmentAn expanding marine businessStrategic contractsGrowing global defense expenditure  Government spending in the industry is reducingThreat from rival companiesConstant delays in delivering aircraft engines to customers, causing complaints from clientsPerceived high price of the Rolls-Royce brandAircraft engine raw materials are rising in priceConstant fluctuations in the exchange rates of foreign currency


Rolls-Royce has a great focus on research and development. This enables the company to gain competitive advantages over its competitors given that it is capable of developing high performance and technologically advanced products (Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014). Through the company’s engineering and technology division, and with more than 12,000 engineers, the company is capable of conducting extensive research on its products. Moreover, the company spent GBP908 million in R&D, which helped in developing advanced products (Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014).

Royce has a robust market presence with a strong control in all its operating markets. This has enabled the company to not only attract new customers, but also retain its loyal customer base (Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014). Even more is that the company has greatly diversified its business operations to include civil aerospace, defense, marine and energy. With a strong 34 percent of the market share, the company is currently the market leader in civil aerospace (Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014).  The company specifically has a strong presence in the European market holding the number one position, while at the same time having a 64 percent market share between the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 XWB family of civil aircrafts.

Royce’s future revenue is currently secure due to the company’s strong order backlog. According to the Strategic Defense Intelligence (2014), the company’s order backlog as of 2011 stood at GBP62.20 billion. The bulk of the order backlog is from civil aerospace (GPB51.90 billion), while defense, marine and energy segments accounted for GBP6 billion, GBP2.7 billion and GBP1.5 billion respectively (Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014). These backlogs ensure a constant stream of revenue as well as enable investment in R&D, innovation in new technologies and business operations’ expansion.


            According to the companies’ revenues and order backlogs, the civil aerospace segment is the major revenue earner for the company (Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014).  Overreliance on this segment may however be a weakness as any slump in the segment may mean reduced revenues for the company. Moreover, the civil segment is vulnerable to economic changes, which can easily affect orders and revenue streams from customers.

            The aerospace industry is presently experiencing new entrants. Engine Alliance, PowerJet and CFM are among the new entrants; these are joint venture between small companies and the dominant players, which Royce is currently unaware. Such ventures can easily eat into the company’s market share and revenue streams, especially if they offer better quality at cheaper prices.

            Lawsuits against the company can easily impact on the company’s bottom line in addition to damaging the company’s strong brand name. Currently, Royce is facing a multi-million lawsuit filed by Qantas over the company’s (Royce) engine woes for the A380 aircraft (Malone, 2010; Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014). The lawsuit for the A380 engines also includes a whistleblower’s suit claiming the company’s awareness of the engine even before delivery. Such lawsuits can have damaging effects on the company’s business and reputation.


The International Energy Agency has forecast a global demand for energy in gas, oil and power generation at 20%, 35% and 60% respectively (Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014). This forecast will increase the demand for aero derivative gas turbines, which the company produces. Additionally, the company has expertise and experience in nuclear processing and machinery, which may increase its revenues, as countries look into nuclear for part of the 60% increase in power generation. Even more is that the company is a major supplier of power systems for onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration equipment, all of which offer growth opportunities for Rolls-Royce as the demand for these equipment increases. Additionally, although the global financial crisis greatly impacted the airline industry, the industry has been showing improvement with a stabilizing global economy (Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014).  More airline companies are making orders for new planes, which translate to more engine supplies to plane manufacturers such as Boeing and Airbus.

The marine business, like the airline industry is also showing signs of increased activity. With an improving economy, more people are considering vacations on cruise ships, production in industries, and therefore transportation via the sea, is increasing. Freight and cruise companies are therefore placing orders for ships, which increase the demand for marine gas turbines that the company (Rolls-Royce) manufactures (Rolls-Royce, 2014).

Opportunities for growth, market share boosting and revenue also lie in strategic contracts with companies and governments. Rolls-Royce has received such contracts with Fiji’s Pacific Air for the airline’s Trent 700 engines, which power the Airbus A330 aircraft. The contract is worth US$210 (Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014). Moreover, the company has also signed a contract on management of fuel with Royal Australian Air Force, expected to bring fuel efficiency for the Air Force’s C-130 transport fleet. Such a contract holds the opportunity to expand the contract, as well as to receive similar contracts from other airlines and air forces.

Further, there has been a global increase in defense expenditure globally, which is a potential for growth for Rolls-Royce. The defense expenditures for China, Russia and India are all expected to grow by 9.9%, 17.7% and 6.60% respectively (Strategic Defense Intelligence, 2014). Moreover, the marine power and propulsion systems industry has an estimated $200 billion in value according to Rolls-Royce focus, all of which are potential markets for growth for the company.


After the 2008-2009 global economic crunch, most government gave funds to many manufacturing companies as part of the economic stimulus plan. Boeing was among the recipients of the funds, and one of Rolls-Royce customers. However, governments have since reduced their spending in the industry due to budgetary constraints and financial uncertainties especially in Europe and the US (Rolls-Royce, 2010).

With the recovering economy, there are constant fluctuations in the exchange rates of foreign currency. Such fluctuations affect pricing, particularly of raw materials, which have been on the rise, as well as of the finished products, which then make the company’s products more expensive.  Moreover, there is constant pressure from the company’s rivals who apart from investing more in R&D, are also forming conglomerate and strategic alliances as cost-cutting measures (Rudd, 2012). These developments are a threat to Rolls-Royce business.

Rolls-Royce has built a reputation of quality goods. However, this has come with its threat as most customers consider the company’s products as highly priced, and therefore opt for other fairly priced products. This is a threat as the company can easily lose its customers. Besides, there have been complaints of constant delays in delivering aircraft engines to customers, causing complaints from clients. The company’s reputation and business are all at stake following such complaints.

Porter’s Five Forces

Porter’s Five Forces are a set of competitive forces that mold an industry, helping in the determination of the industry’s weaknesses and strengths. Formulated by Michael Porter, he indicated that industry configurations differ, making each industry unique in its own way (Porter, 2008). The five forces include competition, new entrants, suppliers and customers power and substitute products in the particular industry (Porter, 2008).

Competitive Rivalry

The aero-engine industry has three dominant players: General Electric, Rolls-Royce and Pratt & Whitney. These three operate in an oligopolistic industry that is capital intensive and requires colossal investment in the advancement of technology and for R&D (Times 100, 2000). With none of the players dominating the industry, the competitive rivalry is therefore intensified.

The competition also intensifies as the players battle for increased sales volume and market share (Pugh, 2001). Moreover, each of the players currently has gas turbine engines, which have become a standard and mature product. This therefore intensifies rivalry, as each looks into technological advancement as a differentiating factor and for competitive advantage (Times 100, 2000).

Threat of New Entrant

This threat is remarkably low given the difficulty in entry into the aero-engine industry. This is largely due to the intensity in capital investment and R&D, as well as the specialized and advanced nature of the designs of the engines (Times 100, 2000). Moreover, the current dominant players have established customer loyalty, which any new entrant will need to deal with. Even more is the need for intensive and extensive testing of the engine before approval from authorities, which presents a hurdle to any new entrant (Times 100, 2000).

Power of Buyer

The power of the engine buyers is high given that the buyers largely set the prices for the engines. Moreover, aero-engine buyers are considerably few, which leaves the engine manufacturers with no choice but to have the buyers set the price (Times 100, 2000). Even more is that the decision to purchase an engine takes long, which translates to a long dry spell if a manufacturer fails to get orders for engines.

Power of Suppliers

Most engine manufacturers have more than one source of suppliers for raw materials. Therefore, the power of suppliers is considerably low given the number of suppliers operating in the industry (Times 100, 2000). Only suppliers of high specification equipment have considerable power, although even these have several rivals, thus reducing their power.

Threat of Substitute

Currently there are no substitutes for aero engines, and demand for air travel has been on the increase in the recent past (Times 100, 2000). Therefore, although video conferencing and high-speed train travel may influence travel decisions, they are less of threats especially given that trains do not go overseas and not all countries have high-speed internet access to support video conferencing, in addition to difference in time.

Core Competencies

Core competencies are the key expertise, traits and assets brought by an organization to the marketplace. These competencies are as a result of extensive and intensive knowledge of the skills appropriated by years of experience in the field of operation (Gorman & Corbitt, 2002). For an organization, the achievement of the core competencies follows a synergistic blending of the skills and knowledge brought by individual employees to the workplace on a daily basis. An organization’s portfolio of competencies is far more important than the business portfolio, since with a core competencies portfolio an organization can not only reinvent itself, but also become a leader in innovation and evolution of markets (Prahalad & Hamel, 1990).

Roll-Royce’s key competencies lie in its technologies, product and people. As such, the company has invested in the development of the people in the organization. Specifically, the company has a dedication to its human resource, securing and training key personnel in the company from an early age. This ensures that these key personnel not only grow with the company, but also understand the workings of the company and share in the vision the company tries to create (Rolls-Royce, 2009). Additionally, the company put the same dedication to its products, leading in innovation of technologies employed in designing its products such as the energy systems. Products such as nuclear reactors have enabled the company to stand out, having designed and built a nuclear reactor from scratch. The company’s array of gas turbines, diesel engines and marine engines with intricate technology and performance as well as fuel efficiency are among its core competencies (Rolls-Royce, 2014).

Yet another of the company’s core competency is its brand reputation, particularly in quality and performance. The Rolls-Royce brand is synonymous to quality around the world, attested by the backlog of orders in both defense and civil contracts. This reputation enables the company to stand out from its competitors as well as enjoy unparalleled customer loyalty.

R&D perhaps is Rolls Royce’s major competency. The company has the Rolls-Royce University Technology Centers where it conducts its R&D and employee personal development. Additionally, the company has research and development facilities spread across the world in Japan, US, Germany and UK among other countries. These R&D facilities constitute the company’s think tank, which invents, innovates and works on ways of improving the company’s technologies, products and services, as well as testing any of the company’s products to ensure that the products are market ready and fault free (Rolls-Royce, 2014).  R&D for the company involves three categories of people, research and technology and University Technology Centers. The company has been increasing its R&D investment from £864 million in 2009 to £1,118 million in 2013 (Rolls-Royce, 2013).

Rolls-Royce PESTLE Analysis

Political Factors

Current political environment is both favorable and in other instances unfavorable to the company. Most EU plane manufacturers support Rolls-Royce, which is good for business. However, terrorism and war particularly in the Middle East is a cause of worry for many travelers, who opt out of travelling, reducing the demand for aircrafts. Even more is that both the EU and US governments have favorable political will (Wiseall, Kelly & Kelly, 2001). The EU government has provided subsidies to manufacturers, while the US government has tax breaks for manufacturers, all of which are favorable for Rolls-Royce business. The Open Skies package of 2008 is additionally favorable for the airline industry as it allows airlines to launch services between US and the EU; this is bound to increase the number of flights, airline operators and demand for aircrafts, which is welcome by Rolls-Royce and other engine manufacturers.

Economic Factors

Current interest and inflation rates are low (Oxlade, 2015). At the moment, the low interest rates are driving Rolls-Royce stock prices, which are high. Additionally, the low interest rates are favorable for borrowing and expansion of Rolls-Royce as banks currently charge 0.5% on loans (Oxlade, 2015). However, with the long low interest rates most banks are reluctant to give loans, as they would only experience losses on the loans given.  The current low inflation rate on the other hand, is good for the company, as the company can continue in its savings. With the current inflation rate at 1.6% in the UK (Burn-Callander, 2014), the company can continue to experience higher exports as the cost of goods are relatively low. However, this affects imports, as suppliers have to pay more for getting raw material into the UK. 

 As of 2010, there has been a change in the global economic growth pattern, where new firms are entering the export market. However, established firms have also increased their export volumes (Department for Business Innovation & Skills, 2010). With engines as the major export product, Rolls-Royce is losing on opportunity to export other products. Prospects are however present in countries establishing their own plane manufacture companies such as Japan and China. 

Social Factors

            Many developed countries are experiencing decline in population, as well as less travel as most of the population is aging. With the baby boomers retiring, there is a significant amount of business travel that is cut from the population. However, emerging economies such as China, Brazil, India and Russia are experiencing a growth in the middle class, who want to travel more, boosting air travel. Moreover, many cities in these emerging economies are experiencing congestion, which increases demand for larger aircraft, which is a specialty of Roll-Royce (Forbes, 2014).

            With globalization comes the need for cultural interactions. This may be a challenge especially with the need to deal with a cross-cultural clientele in both the consumer and industry markets. With cross-cultural interaction additionally comes a change in cultural trends. The company has to deal with these cultural trends, particularly dealing with different age groups in the same company.

Technological Factors

Companies in the aero-engines industry are constantly involved in R&D. To remain relevant, Rolls-Royce must also invest more in R&D. moreover, the company should also be aware of changes in technology such as improved fuel efficiency, produce and service as well as within the manufacture of the engines and its parts. As companies move towards automation and with incremental technological complexity in the engines, Rolls-Royce should consider training for its global clientele for the use of the engines to ensure safety (Department for Business Innovation & Skills, 2010).

Legal Factors

International safety standards require compliance with the regulations. Qantas has filed a suit against the Rolls-Royce over the engine woes for the A380 aircraft designed by Rolls-Royce (Malone, 2010). Such suits have the potential of damaging the company’s reputation. Further, changes in consumer and labor laws have a huge impact on the operations of the company, where labor laws protect the company’s employees from dismissal, health and safety, while consumer laws dictate that the safety of consumers must be guaranteed with the use of the company’s products.

Environmental Factors

The world is becoming more concerned of the climate. Many international treaties have been signed as means of addressing climate change, which put pressure on companies to use environmentally friendly processes and materials, some of which are expensive. Changes in weather patterns additionally affect flight patterns, some of which must be considered during the design of the engines. This is in addition to geographical locations of airports all of which need consideration during the design and manufacture process of the engines.


Rolls-Royce has strong competitors in the aero-engines industry. These competitors constantly invest in R&D to produce innovative products. The battle within the industry is largely over market share and sales volume. Royce has a strong reputation of quality and innovative products, as well as an advanced R&D division. However, it faces challenges with lawsuits, which may taint its strong reputation. The company relies heavily on its civil and wide body engine manufacture divisions. The narrow and regional body aircraft divisions show a lot of promise especially in emerging economies, into which the company should consider venturing. Additionally, with projected increase in defense budgets, the company should consider acquiring defense contracts to boost its revenue.


Burn-Callander, R. (2014). How low inflation costs SMEs. The Telegraph. Retrieved from

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Malone, S. (2010). Analysis: Rolls Royce woes could boost GE, Pratt & Whitney. Reuters. Retrieved from

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Pugh, P. (2001). The Magic of a Name: The Rolls-Royce Story, Part 2, The Power Behind the        Jets. London: Icon Books.

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Rolls-Royce. (2014). Rolls-Royce combines businesses to bring new benefits to engine life management. Retrieved from  http://www.rolls  

Rudd, K. (2012). Large Civil Aircraft Engines. Retrieved from

Strategic Defence Intelligence (2014). Rolls-royce plc : Defense – company profile, SWOT & financial report. London: Progressive Digital Media. Retrieved from

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Wiseall, S., S., Kelly, J., C. & Kelly, T. P. (2001).  Transferring Design Research into Rolls-Royce. International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED Glasgow. Retrieved from

Assignment Writing Help on Secularization in the Middle East write essay help: write essay help

Secularization in the Middle East

The concept of secularism has sparked numerous debates with mixed opinions among various nations. In various non-secularized nations, many discriminating practices, especially to members of different religious inclination are eminent, which have led to major debates. Within the Muslim governance setups, religion and governant are in most cases too compatible to be separated. Thus, the pertinent subject of discussion would be; what are the effects of secularism on the non Muslim Society in the Middle East?

The main objective of such a study would be to establish the positive and negative effects of secularism in the Middle East, and the possible solutions to the discriminative effects that come with it. Middle East is largely Muslim oriented and comprises numerous Muslim regulations that would largely be overwhelming to the non-Muslim society in the region. Through such a study, it would be possible to establish the detailed factors surrounding secularism in the Middle East and develop the benefits and limitations of the practice in this region. In addition, it would help establish the most reliable and effective approaches to end any malpractices such as discrimination that may develop because of the Secularism practice.

The discriminating practice is likely to affect religious formations in the country of study. The authors found out that the religious decline is notable in Catholic-dominated European countries, implying that the Middle East is more religious. The religion in the Middle East is likely to decline in the future due to lack of secularization at the onset. The negative effects of discriminative secularism indicate that there is a need for a more advanced study of the secularism practice in the future ,especially in extremely religious dominated nations such as middle east. Most importantly, the future studies should focus on the shifts in the religious decline rates rather than on the direction of religious dynamics while focusing on other aspects of secularization other than social causes.

Homework Writing Help on Psychology argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online


 Psychology is the study of the mind. It is a vital subject as it focuses on the center of all the activities that take place in our lives. It is our minds that guide us in making decisions and in finding out and pursuing the types of relationships and experiences that we involve in (, 2015). Psychology is also significant in the daily lives of individuals because it enables them to understand the behaviors of each individual.

The psychological theory that will be discussed is the attachment theory. This theory was developed by John Bowlby in 1958. The experience that he had while treating emotionally disturbed children made him to put into consideration the significance of the interrelationship between the mother and the child in terms of their cognitive, social, and emotional development (McLeod, 2015). According to Bowbly, attachment refers to an enduring psychological interrelationship between individuals. This theory states that the source of attachment is on provision of food; for instance, an infant will have a strong attachment to the person who gives him/her food. They learn how to interact with their care-giver, who, in most cases, is usually the mother.

 They also learn that some behaviors, for instance smiling and crying, can facilitate desirable responses such as comfort; the process of operant conditioning enables them to do these things so that they can obtain things the way they want (McLeod, 2015). I think this theory is accurate based on the fact that it tries to explain what takes place in the daily lives of human beings. Its accuracy is depicted in the fact of infants’ attachment towards individuals who feed them. A good example of this theory was when I was a child; I had an attachment to our house help because I spent most of the time with him than I did with my parents.


McLeod, S. (2015). Attachment Theory | Simply Psychology. Retrieved 7 January 2015, from (2015). The importance of psychology. Retrieved 7 January 2015, from

Assignment Writing Help on Senior Seminar in Child and Family Development CHFD498 admission essay help

NCFR Content Areas Literature Review Project

Senior Seminar in Child and Family Development CHFD498

Research Article 1:  Parenting Values, Attitudes, Behaviors, and Goals of African American Mothers from a Low-Income Population in Relation to Social and Societal Contexts. Journal of Family Issues.

            Family usually comprises of a unit made up of members who happen to share the same blood line and are considered to be relatives. In most cases, there usually exist nuclear families made up of the mother, father, and the children. On the other hand, there is also an extended family, which is made up of the nuclear family unit and other relatives who could also be living together. Families are supposed to be supportive of one another and should always be there for one another in case of any problem. The nuclear family unit is the most common one in most homes around the world. However, extended families other than meeting from time to time also happen to live together.

            Families have the family members playing very crucial roles with most and each one of them being assigned certain tasks and responsibilities to be able to function together as a unit. Harmony and understanding is a very important element of every family and it helps it to prosper and succeed in life (Abell et al., 1996).

            For instance, the father is usually the head of the family and is supposed to be the sole provider and also responsible for taking care of his family. The mother who is the wife of the father is supposed to support her spouse by also providing for the family and ensuring that she takes care of her kids and husband. The kids are usually given the task of getting good education and whenever they are not in school, they can contribute by performing some household chores in order to learn to be responsible in future. The extended family has each and every member also playing a vital role in supporting each other, which is what happens in most cultures.

            The family life education can be used to educate people about the right choices involving relationships and dating. Most of the time, a man and a woman show interest in one another through courtship. Courtship involves aspects such as dating, doing things together and also going on trips with the aim of getting to know each other much better. In the process, the two individuals are able to gain each other’s trusts, understanding and get to know each other in a better way (Huschek, Valk, & Liefbroer, 2011).

            In many cultures, after a period of dating, the two individuals are usually engaged and after a while, they meet each other’s parents and family members. This eventually leads to marriage after which a family is started based on love and trust. Afterwards, they get to raise their children together while offering each other their full support.

In the current modern society, a lot has changed as it has come to be that both spouses go to work to be able to support their family. Sometimes, they usually hire nannies to look after the kids whenever they are not available because of job duties and responsibilities. In the older cultures, the man is the one who used to work while the woman took care of the kids and fed them while performing other household duties.

A lot has changed over the time concerning even the gender roles; nowadays, any or both of the spouses go to work so as to ensure that the family is well catered for and provided for. However, the two parents try as much as possible to ensure that they create time for their kids and each other so that the family bond can remain strong and relevant. This is important because constant communication with each other helps to ease matters between them and maintain the trust, which preserves the relationship between them.

Research Article 2: Race Differences in Family Experience and Early Sexual Initiation: Dynamic Models of Family Structure and Family Change. Journal of Marriage and The Family.

This involves the processes and activities that usually occur within a family and how the family operates. Family members relate to each other through different ways but the key principles that are involved in any family relationship would mostly involve love and trust. The above mentioned principles are what are responsible for families being intact and being harmonious. Each family member believes that the other family members will always be there for them as they all care for one another and have learnt to trust each other in making the right decisions (Wu & Thompson, 2001).

Family members have developed a good communication procedure and protocol, which can be used to ensure that they get to understand each other properly and show concern and affection towards each other. Good communication techniques can greatly ensure that the family members support each other and prove to each other that they support, trust and care for them. This is very important as it helps to build harmony within a family and strengthen the family relationship and bond all together.

Conflict resolution techniques help to solve any problems that may arise between the family members. They also help to repair any broken bonds and reignite the love and affection that the family members share towards each other. Good memories within a family can only be created and occur if there is trust and love within it. A family that loves one other ends up creating good memories; in addition, at the end of the day, they will have something to laugh about and cherish if they happen to be far from each other.

Sometimes families have their own strengths and weaknesses depending on their backgrounds as well as the circumstances that they might have undergone. For instance, a family could be undergoing some stresses where by one, two or more family members are chronically sick and disabled. This can be more of a challenge to a family and they may be forced to undergo some difficult times dealing with this situation (Alexander & Robbins, 2000). However, it is usually a good thing to show support for such family members by always being there for them and including them in all family activities in order to make them feel wanted and appreciated despite their conditions.

 A loving family should always be ready to treat each other equally and fairly so as to cultivate trust and improve the relationships within the family. Families that stick together during crisis and other calamities end up becoming stronger and more confident in each other as their spirits are usually strengthened. They are also in a position to trust and believe in each other.

People who require special needs in a family should always be supported and given the special attention that they require. This can greatly help in uniting the family as they are bound to show support for each other during difficult times; such a family will rarely split or collapse. They should make it a habit to support each other through thick and thin. Each family- other than having weaknesses- also has strengths such as being committed to each other, spending enough time together in order to strengthen the family bond, open communication between each other, and sharing responsibilities.

Families that function and operate using the above mentioned principles and virtues end up emerging much stronger and always prospering as it proves and shows that they are united. A harmonious and united family is like a strong team that will always succeed in achieving its goals and always committed to helping each other and the society. 

Research Article 3: Human development across the lifespan as identity model for biracial males. Journal of African American Studies.

Human growth and development involves a number of stages from when one was conceived until they are old adults in their old ages. It starts with the conception period from which the embryo is developed and formed. This is when the fetus is still in the mother’s womb, a stage that is commonly referred to as the prenatal stage. This is because it is the period just before the child leaves the mother’s womb.

Later on- after nine months since conception- the child is usually born and comes out as a young infant commonly referred to as a baby. This young being requires a lot of attention from the mother, father, and other family members. The infant relies a lot on the mother, as it cannot be able to do a lot on its own. At this stage of development, the baby requires a lot of help and attention from the other adult members of the family.

Sooner or later, the child grows into early childhood whereby they will start crawling as a means of movement. Thus is also the process of discovery and realizing new things. Early childhood comprises of toddlers and children from the age of one to five years, who are usually eager and curious to discover new things. Children who are at this age require guidance and protection for the sake of their own safety and wellbeing.

Later on, middle childhood sets in and the children are usually in a position to go to school and learn more new things under the guidance and supervision of their teachers and other mentors (Hall, 1997). They start to develop and learn new skills such as writing and reading, which aids in mental development as well as social development which is very important. School is usually an important part of human growth and development.

After middle childhood, adolescence sets in and is commonly referred to as puberty. During this stage, the human body starts experiencing further changes both physically and mentally. New body features such as beards begin to appear in boys and expanded hips will appear in girls. The girls and boys are at a capacity to learn much more and willing to experiment a lot of things and aspects in life.

After adolescence- at the age of eighteen- the body of the human being enters into adulthood and by now the body is fully developed and formed. A young adult is usually ready to enter into the real world and start working and fending for themselves while others are in the process of finishing their education.

Most of the adults in these stage and age are usually ready to move out of their parent’s homes and look and establish their own homes. After sometime, they develop relationships and start to date the members of their opposite sex and end up getting engaged and married thus starting their own families. With these turn of events, the family ends up growing in size and advancing. Thus, the family values will continue to spread amongst the new family members that have come into the picture (Steinberg, 2007).

Eventually, old age sets in which is when such family members retire from their jobs and venture into other businesses and activities that can still provide a source of income for them and their families. During the old age, physical features become frail and weak and the hair starts turning grey. Old age is usually a very sensitive part of the human development; sometimes the old people will require the support of their younger counterparts in doing some things. Old people should always be treated with a lot of respect and should be shown love and affection in order to feel that they are still part of the family and still matter as much as they used to when they were young.

Research Article 4: The Evolution of Human Sexuality

Human sexuality is a very remarkable and fascinating thing. This is because it is responsible for the reproduction process and just like other animal species human beings have the male and female sex. It is through human sexuality that the human race has managed to survive for such a long time due to the ability to reproduce and ensure that bloodlines and family ties continue to exist and become stronger (Symons, 1989).

Human sexuality supports and facilitates its understanding and comprehension in terms of physiological features, psychological and social aspects. When a study is made concerning the physiological aspect, a description of the human sexual reproductive organs and cycle is made based on how they are involved in this whole process as well as the roles that they play.

This study will help in emphasizing on the role of sex in helping to preserve humanity and the role that sex plays in a marriage and family. Sex is an important part of every marriage and romantic relationship, which helps in maintaining and preserving intimacy. It is also used to reproduce children in a marriage thus helps to expand the family and ensure that blood lines are maintained. It has always been termed as a sacred gift from God and should not be misused.

The biological cycle is determinant in the sexual development of the human body and owing to the biological hormones involved, the human body is developed and ready to reproduce based on the conditions and situations. The female body is given a brief time period- every month- when it is considered ready for conception, which plays a vital role when it comes to reproduction and reproductive physiology.

Good sexual values should be maintained in all relationships, which is why sex outside marriage is highly discouraged as it goes against marriage and relationship values. This can be emphasized further by stating that married couples should be faithful to one another as it helps to cultivate and create trust in a marriage. Unfaithfulness and infidelity is considered to be a very serious betrayal in any marriage or romantic relationship as it leads to mistrust and breakup of marriages and families in general.

Infidelity goes against all the sacred family values and sets a bad example which can negatively influence the younger family members and corrupt their minds and souls. Education concerning the appropriate sexual behaviors is done when people are at a younger age such as puberty. This helps to instill a sense of good morality and discourages any form of sexual deviancy that is likely to occur in future.

Family educators should educate people- especially the younger generation- about the dangers of sexual deviation in society and the consequences that are brought about by this. Sex should always be considered as a sacred element and should be treated like one. Families should be properly planned and prepared for in advance to prevent later straining on the limited family resources. Family planning methods should be adopted and followed in order to prevent unwanted pregnancies, which could lead to future problems. Family is a very important thing and element in the society and so good families should always be planned for and properly catered for to avoid any form of suffering and future problems (Gagnon & Simon, 1973). People and families should ensure that they always follow good family morals in order to prosper and prevent future problems based on defiant sexual tendencies.

Research Article 5: The Relationship Closeness Inventory: Assessing the closeness of interpersonal relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.   

Family involves members having and forming relationships with each other. With these in mind, it can be stated that different kinds of relationships exist within families. For instance, a man and his wife have a romantic relationship existing between them and are supposed to be intimate with each other in order to maintain their marriage and their relationship (Altman & Taylor, 1973).

Another kind of relationship that exists in a family is the relationship between the parents and their children. This kind of relationship involves maternal and paternal love and is the kind that exists between parents and their offspring. It is comprised of a lot of love as parents are very affectionate about their children and would almost do anything for them.

Another relationship exists between brothers and sisters and is called the brotherly or sisterly love. This is cultivated from the fact that both of them have grown up under the same roof and care about each other. Siblings should learn to relate to each other positively and learn to stand by one another as it is very important and helps to strengthen the family ties.

Family members should learn to communicate properly with each other in order to improve their relationship and ensure that they cultivate trust amongst themselves. Communication is usually considered to be a way of conveying one’s feelings and views concerning a certain subject and once it is done accurately and properly, people within the family unit and society will be able to understand each other.

A marriage should always have a lot of intimacy between the married partners, as this is important in ensuring that there is still some romantic love in the relationship. Intimacy is usually achieved and maintained in such a relationship by ensuring that the two parties do intimate stuff together. Such intimate activities include things such as going to the movies together, having a romantic dinner, going for picnics and even renewing the marriage vows in order to show affection and commitment (Berscheid, Snyder, & Omoto, 1989).

The way that people relate to others affects a lot of things. For instance, if one brother is annoyed with the other, they probably may not co-exist in peace in the same home, which might lead to a very tense and conflicting situation. Peace is very important in every home and so family members should learn to respect and love one another for the sake of maintaining peace and harmony at home and within the family ties. Relationships are built upon trust, commitment, love, and being emotionally connected and fully capable to understand each other.

Family Resource Management

Research article 1: Consumer Economics and Family Resources: Internet Delivery of Consumer Economics and Family Resource Management Courses. Journal of Family Consumer Sciences Education

The production and effective management of family resources is integral in ensuring that families live a comfortable and dignified life, able to afford the necessities that make life tolerable. However, there exists evidence that Americans are poor financial managers because of the negative national savings rate as well as a consumer debt that is over a trillion dollars (Pickard & Reichelt, 2008). The ignorance of the vast majority of Americans on the basics of family resource management is worrying and needs to be expeditiously addressed if Americans are to be saved from the mire of debt. Acquisition of knowledge requires that there should be a sufficient number of tutors, conversant in the science and art of family resource management, who will teach the subject. There is a need to introduce family resource management to the learning syllabus early enough since research shows that the average high school graduate does not possess the requisite skill needed to manage his financial affairs (Pickard & Reichelt, 2008).

            In a bid to standardize the training of family and consumer sciences tutors, the National Association of Teacher Educators for Family and Consumer Sciences (NATEFACS) has described a set of competencies that tutors need (Pickard & Reichelt, 2008). Currently, there is an acute shortage of qualified and fully certified family and consumer sciences teachers across the country. The shortage is detrimental to efforts aimed at increasing financial literacy, hence the need for a proactive solution to the shortage. The usual approach involves the use of face-to-face courses, where prospective candidates spend time in classes and are taught using traditional pedagogical approaches. However, the traditional approach to training is cumbersome and time-consuming, constrained by class limits on the number of tutors that can be produced. To overcome this problem, states are increasingly using alternative certification means that are mainly based on the internet. Tutors taught via online courses show similar competency to those taught through face-to-face classes, making online teaching as good as the traditional method (Pickard & Reichelt, 2008). The new approach to teaching and certification is advantageous because it allows for the swift training of tutors in large numbers, hence can significantly contribute to the reduction in the shortage of certified tutors.

Research article 2: Improving family communications at the end of life: implications for length of stay in the intensive care unit and resource use. American Journal of Critical Care

Families are always faced with decisions on how to utilize the resources that are available, with a need to prioritize spending depending on necessity. At any given time, there are competing needs on which a family’s resources can be spent. Sickness is one of the most difficult events that a family can face, an event that has serious implications in the use of family resources. This is because sickness can be a serious drain on the family resources, especially if the sickness is terminal (Ahrens, Yancey, & Kollef, 2003). In addition, sickness usually takes precedence over all other spending needs, and all a family’s resources are often diverted towards addressing the sickness. Terminal diseases cause families to experience high levels of stress especially when the information on the disease is complex or insufficient, in addition to the expenses involved, owing to costly nature of the specialized care that is needed for their management. Although patients who use ICU facilities are typically less than 10% of all patients that are admitted to hospitals, they account for over 40% of all the hospitals’ costs, making their treatment disproportionately expensive.

Consequently, it is important that a family with a terminal patient be privy to all the facts relating to a family member’s terminal illness. Terminally ill patients have a very high probability of dying, and are kept alive by the use of machines. The quality of life of terminally ill patients is very low, with the powerful drugs used often making them unaware of their surroundings. Families use ICU facilities with the hope that they can forestall death and help family members to heal from their sickness. In addition, families hope that the ICU facilities can substantially improve the end-of-life care for their loved ones. Therefore, it is difficult to countenance death considering the effort expended in treating the sick person. However, the issue of cost in end-of-life care cannot be ignored since the procedures needed to keep a person alive can be prohibitive. In addition, modern medical advances have made it possible to keep a person marginally alive for sustained periods, even though that person will medically never recover. Ahrens, Yancey, & Kollef (2003) posit that it is necessary to furnish the family of a patient with all the information that is available about a patient’s condition, since open communication channels between health care providers and the families of patients are essential in helping families to make informed and necessary, albeit painful decisions. Terminating the life of a family member who has no chance of survival may be a more prudent step to help save precious family resources that can be used productively somewhere else.

Parent Education and Guidance

Research article 1: Fatherhood in the twenty-first century. Child Development

The role of the parent in providing for, nurturing and molding the children into useful members of the society cannot be gainsaid. The industrial revolution led to the movement of men from small towns to look for business opportunities and employment in big cities, leaving their families behind. The consequence of this migration is the historical view that the business of rearing children is largely of mothers, with fathers having minimal impact on the devilment of the child (Cabrera et al., 2000). However, the image of the father has undergone an evolution and rehabilitation from the colonial father to the distant and disengaged breadwinner to the current image of the involved father. The changing image of the father has been accompanied by changes in the social structure as more women join the work force and society becomes more culturally diverse. The rising numbers of women in the workforce has led to an increase in the number of children who are in non-parental care because their mothers are working. Both the mother and father are now missing from the home due to work commitments, and hence paternal influence on the development of the child is now of great interest to developmental scholars.

When examining the effect of father involvement in the development of a child, it is necessary to distinguish between accessibility, which refers to the father’s availability or presence, engagement, which is the father’s direct contact or shared interactions with the child, and responsibility, which refers to the participation of the father in the decision-making process on matters affecting the child’s well-being (Cabrera et al., 2000). Each of the three factors has a different effect on the development of the child, with responsibility perhaps being the most important component of father involvement. Father involvement is usually associated with positive child outcomes in school as well as in social development because when fathers invest emotionally in their children, the children have good social competence and cognitive development. Paternal involvement enhances children’s academic achievement, and in teenagers, it leads to desirable behavioral, emotional and academic outcomes. Despite the importance of paternal involvement in the development of children, it is not clear how fathers influence development positively. The pathways of influence are vague, although the fact that engagement leads to positive development in children is not in dispute. In addition the process by which individuals become fathers, constructing the roles of fathers is also not very clear (Cabrera et al., 2000)

Research article 2: The roles that parents play in the lives of their young adult children. Australian Institute of Family Studies

As a child grows within the homestead and matures into an adult, the role of the parent changes progressively to reflect the level of development and maturity of the child. The parental obligation to provide for the child changes gradually with increasing maturity of the child, and ideally should stop when the child matures into an adult, able to take care of himself. There has been a considerable amount of research that has focused on the relationship between parents and young children, and the effect of parental involvement on the development of the child. Previously, most research had been focused on the mother-child relationship, although there has been an upsurge in research on the father-child relationship (Cabrera et al., 2000). However, the relationship between parents and their young adult children is yet to receive serious academic examination (Vassallo, Smart, Price-Robertson, 2009), because traditionally, it was the norm for adult children to leave their parents home and begin their own life as independent adults, taking care of themselves and maintaining minimal contact with their parents. However, this trend is changing with an increasing number of adult children staying with their parents. This phenomenon is due to a number of reasons that are peculiar to the modern world. Young adults chose to stay with their parents for longer compare to previous times due to unemployment, study commitments and financial pressures.

When adult children move out of the home, parents do not feel obliged to provide financial assistance to these children because they feel they can be able to stand on their own feet. However, there are a number of differences when adult children co-reside with their parents. Parents feel that it is their responsibility to provide material and financial support to adult children who are residing with them. The parents provide for the children, giving them food and financial support (Vassallo, Smart, Price-Robertson, 2009), in addition to providing emotional support to the residing children whenever the need arises. Parents have the responsibility of imparting their values and philosophies to their children, teaching them the socially acceptable norms. This parental function is crucial in the formative stage of child development where the parent is actively involved in the molding of the child’s behavior. As the child matures, parents cease to be the primary source of values and life philosophy although for co-residing children, parents still feel obligated to pass on their values and philosophies despite the maturity of the children (Vassallo, Smart, Price-Robertson, 2009). Modernity has considerably changed the parent-child relationship, and parents are increasingly involved in the lives’ of their adult children with the traditional roles of the parent in the life cycle of their children having radically changed over the years. In addition, the nature of parental involvement, maternal and paternal, has also considerably changed, with paternal involvement children’s lives in increasing while maternal involvement has been decreasing due to mothers’ work commitments.

Family Law and Public Policy

Research article 1: Introduction to the special section on religion and spirituality in family life: pathways between relational spirituality, family relationships and personal well-being. Journal of Family Psychology

The family is the primary source of socialization for the child, where the child’s older relatives teach it the acceptable values, norms and philosophies within the cultural context of the family. The religious beliefs and practices of the family have an effect on the development of the child, considering that an individual’s religious beliefs are first shaped by the interactions that he has at the family level. Religious and spiritual beliefs contribute to an adolescent’s and adult’s psychological well-being (Mahoney, & Cano, 2014). The impact of religion on the development of individuals is varied and, can be either positive or negative, depending on the religious experiences that an individual goes through. As children pass through the teenage years, they experience many developmental and behavioral challenges, a phase during which they may develop deviant behavior and start abusing drugs. However, when adolescents have access to religious resources, it helps to mitigate bad influence in the teenager’s life (Mahoney, & Cano, 2014). When teenagers are actively involved in organized religion, they tend to have greater personal spiritual resources and receive emotional support from fellow believers. The support received as well as the greater scope of personal spiritual resources equips religious adolescents with the ability to maintain socially acceptable behavior considering that religion can even moderate the effects of harsh parenting on adolescents (Mahoney, & Cano 2014),. Adolescents with low levels of religiousness have a higher tendency to abuse drugs when exposed to harsh parenting compared to teens with higher levels of religiousness.

The importance of religion to individuals cannot be ignored considering that a majority of the country’s population intimate that religion is important to them (Mahoney, & Cano, 2014). Religion is especially important for families from poor backgrounds because it imbues family members with a sense of meaning and purpose in life, helping them to have an overall positive outlook in life. Religious and spiritual resources also have an impact on the parenting approach of parents within the family. Religious parents tend to have a positive parenting approach especially in low income homes where the norm for non-religious parents tends to be negative parenting (Mahoney, & Cano, 2014). Most religions organizations emphasize the importance of the family in the well-being of society, the need for family stability, and encourage members to form and maintain religiously acceptable family structures, hence considerably affecting the type of family structures that are prevalent in a place. For example, in regions where Islam is the dominant religion, it is common for polygamous families to exist unlike in largely Christian dominated areas.

Research article 2: Family businesses’ contribution to the U.S. economy: a closer look. Family Business Review

The family is the basic building unit of a community and a nation because an aggregation of families builds the bigger whole, which is the nation. An economy is built from the production and consumption of goods and services, and the family plays a crucial and primary role in production. The family provides labor, unskilled and skilled, which is crucial in the production process to the economy. In addition, the family also serves as a consumer of the goods and services that are produced in the economy, hence giving it the dual role of producer and consumer. The US economy has a substantial number of family businesses involved in the production of various gods and services, which contribute to the growth of the US economy (Astrachan, & Shanker, 2003). Owing to the private nature of most family businesses, it is challenging to give an effective definition of a family business. However, generally, a family business will at least have the family having control of the business’ strategic direction with the purely family business having the owner or family member(s) of the owner having full management responsibility. Where the family has full management responsibility, often the business is small and may be a sole proprietorship with family influence diluting as the business grows.

Family businesses consist of around 89% of all the tax returns in the US (Astrachan, & Shanker, 2003), making them have a significant impact on the US GDP. Family businesses range from small individual proprietorship operations to those that have matured into corporations, depending on the life stage of the business. Family businesses have been the drivers of the US economy for a long time, because the country encourages private enterprise where small innovative businesses have the opportunity to grow into multinationals. The friendly legal framework in the country encourages individuals to venture into business and to participate in the formal economy. The family is also essential to the stability of the economy as a consumer of the goods and services produced, since unlike most countries, the internal market is the most important for most US firms as it accounts for most of the revenues that the firms realize. All of this success is due to the effectiveness of the family as an able consumer of the high value goods and services produced. However, it is necessary to note that the US consumer public is also one of the most indebted in the world, with consumption being fuelled mostly by credit, something that does not bode well for the long-term stability of the US economy.

Professional Ethics and Practice

Research article 1: The role of television in cultivating the values of pluralism and cultural diversity in children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

The United States is one of the most culturally diverse nations on earth, with most of the population being immigrants or the children of immigrants. The country has an official diversity visa lottery, where each year, there are a number of people who are welcomed to the country from different places in the world. The relatively open immigration policy has led to the entry of nearly all the world’s ethnic groups and cultures into the US. In addition, the country has adherents of nearly all of the major and minor religious movements freely practicing their faith and beliefs. The diverse cultures present in the US are a boon and a bane, depending on how the plurality of values and beliefs of each of the cultures is handled. In a rapidly globalizing world, the ideals of pluralism and cultural diversity are now basic values that have to be  taken into consideration in public communication (Gladkova, 2013). The world has opened up and it is not possible for people to cosset themselves in familiar cultural patterns while ignoring ‘alien’ cultures. Now the alien cultures are not on the other side of the world but are next door, thanks to immigration, meaning that people need to develop a multicultural awareness, tolerance and adopt appropriate behaviors, which are devoid of cultural biases. Multicultural awareness is important in shaping the political and cultural life of a country because attitudes and behaviors that encourage cultural exclusion are unlikely to engender social cohesion.

Communication is the primary means through which persons from different cultures interact and it is imperative that in public communication, individuals should be cognizant of the differences in cultural backgrounds of their audience and communicate in ways that do not offend. The mass media in the modern world is omnipresent and individuals are exposed to the ubiquitous presence of media, both the traditional like television, and modern, like social media (Gladkova, 2013). Since individual’s senses are surrounded by media, the role of the mass media in enhancing multicultural awareness and debunking cultural biases is important in the modern age. The media has a critical role in helping to shape the attitudes and perceptions of the viewers because the images and information obtained from the media are used by individuals to build a complex picture of the world, shaping the individuals attitudes and values. Although the media is one of the components that individuals use to build reality, its impact on the value system of individuals, especially young children is significant. Therefore, careful use of the mass media can help individuals to overcome their prejudices by providing factual unbiased information that can help individuals to rationally appreciate the bigger picture. Our society is likely to increase in diversity in the future hence the need to increase multicultural awareness within the general  population as a means of increasing societal cohesion. Respect and tolerance of other people’s values and beliefs, even when they do not conform to our world view, is essential in the current pluralistic world.

Research article 2: Professionalization of family life education: Defining the field. Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies

 There is an acute shortage of qualified and fully certified family life educators across the country (Pickard & Reichelt, 2008), mainly because the field is relatively new compared to other professions (Darling, Fleming, & Cassidy, 2009). The need for family life educators means that there are an increasing number of institutions currently providing training for family life educators, with the number likely to increase in the near future. The spread of the internet has opened the possibility of offering family life education over the internet, obviating the need for face-to-face training. Traditionally, a family life educator will be certified by providing a portfolio detailing his academic training and professional development in each of the 10 content areas covered under the family life education curriculum (Darling, Fleming, & Cassidy, 2009). The portfolio was then reviewed by a certification review committee made of veteran family life educators who provided their assessment of the candidate’s competency, and if satisfied that the candidate possessed the requisite qualification and experience will then certify the candidate. There was no specific family life education training program and family life educators merely covered the 10 content areas in an ad hoc fashion before presenting evidence of their competency in each of the areas to the independent review committee. This process of certification was rather subjective and did not provide a straight forward path through which an individual wishing to be a family life educator could follow. The certification process also robbed the profession of the aspect of professionalism because if an individual picked his qualifications from different academic institutions, the quality of the academic credentials could not be assured.

To address this problem, the National Council on Family Relations (NCFR) decided to standardize the process through which individuals could achieve qualification and certification as family life educators. The NCFR introduced a standard curriculum for family life education to be used by all of the universities and colleges offering family life education as well as establishing the minimum requirements for Certification of Family Life Educators (CFLE). To professionalize the fledgling profession of family life educators, NCFR identified core competencies needed by family life educators, covered under 10 content areas as well as acceptable standards of practice in the profession (Darling, Fleming, & Cassidy, 2009). The standardization of the NCFR has been largely successful with a majority of family life educators feeling that the ten content areas identified by the council are relevant to actual practice in the field. The standardization has also helped to improve the base qualifications of family life educators with over 78% of practitioners having a graduate degree and a further 37% possessing post-graduate qualifications (Darling, Fleming, & Cassidy, 2009). Although all the content areas are useful for family life educators, Darling, Fleming, & Cassidy (2009) found that family law and public policy had the lowest rankings among educators, implying that there is need to focus on the area to equip educators with the necessary nous to tackle the legal aspect of their job. Although family life education is now a mainstream profession, there is need for family educators to educate the public on what the profession entails.


Research article 1: Using empirically-based teaching methodologies to teach family life education topics effectively. Journal of Teaching in Marriage and Family

Family life education is now a comprehensive field with a well-defined syllabus containing a number of content areas that students have to be taught and master before they can be certified as family life educators. However, despite the need to teach students, there is no well defined pedagogical approach to teaching family life educators (Harris, & Lee, 2006). Family science lacks a specific teaching methodology that can be used to teach family life educators effectively and often relies on methodologies from other fields. The family life educator has multiple roles within the teaching environment that she is required to fill effectively. The educator is an expert, providing new information and techniques to the students as well as being conversant with all the aspects of her field. The educator is also a facilitator, providing an environment that allows his students to learn in a non-threatening environment. Finally, the educator is a consultant, available to his students to offer guidance to the students whenever necessary. The educator should be able to discriminate on which of the roles she should assume in the learning environment, depending on the learners she is teaching. A family life educator comes into contact with students who have different levels of intelligence and who have different learning styles, requiring that the educator be cognizant of the student differences and institute appropriate intervention measures (Harris & Lee, 2006). However, for the educator to be effective, she must also be well trained to have the necessary competency to teach effectively.

Harris & Lee (2006) propose a teaching model that can be used to teach family life educators so that they in turn can be effective teachers. Their Attention, Interact, Apply, Invite (AIAI) and Fact, Think, Feel, Do (FTFD) teaching methodology integrate different methodological and theoretical frameworks to form three main principles for teaching family life educators. The first principle AIAI (Attention, Interact, Apply, and Invite) requires that a teacher first catches the students’ attention so that they are psychologically prepared to learn. The educator should then use interaction with the students to introduce new information before applying the new information to real life situations, enabling the student to link theory to practice. Lastly, the educator should invite the students to choose some information from each class and then add it to their own repertoire of knowledge and skills. The second [principle is for the teacher to use variety in his presentation to avoid monotony and pace the rate at which new information is presented to the learners to avoid overloading. The third principle, FTFD, involves encouraging the students to question the facts presented, thinking critically about them before deciding if they can apply them to their lives.

Research article 2: Collaborative Inquiry at a Children’s Museum: Benefits for Student Learning, Museum Outcomes, and Faculty Scholarship. Journal of Public Scholarship in Higher Education

There is a need to teach family life education in all levels of education and the earlier that American young people are taught family life education the better because the skills learned from family life education are widely applicable to their daily lives. However, teaching young children family life education can be challenging because they do not have the necessary awareness to fully focus on the task of learning family life education (Williams, & Spars, 2011). The family life educator must therefore be innovative and use approaches that will arrest the attention of the students to help them learn principles of family life education. In addition, the educator should make learning fun and engaging so that learners can learn while having fun and enjoying themselves. One of the ways to engage the interest of students in family life education is to have them work on a current issue or trend among families, encouraging then to research and write comprehensively about the issue (Williams, & Spars, 2011). Students can then present their findings to their peers and facilitate a discussion on the findings to determine its effect on their peers’ learning outcomes.

The use of a hands-on approach can be an effective tool in helping students to learn family life education effectively considering that it affords learners with the opportunity to directly link and apply theory to practice (Williams, & Spars, 2011). Students can be given a field trip to go and visit a workplace and perform a needs evaluation of the workplace. Students can be sent, for example, to a museum to perform a program evaluation of the museum and determine the needs of the museum. In this way, students not only learn a practical aspect of family life education but also have fun by spending time in the museum (Williams, & Spars, 2011). Family life educators must be innovative and think outside the box in designing pedagogical approaches and activities for teaching family life education to young people.


The profession of family life education is now maturing and is becoming well defined in its scope and in the core competencies that are requires for its professionals. The drive to professionalize family life education training and practice has been a boon for the public perception of the profession and the public is increasingly having confidence in family life education as well as appreciating the need for family life educators. However, despite the strides that have been made in professionalizing and popularizing family life education, a considerable amount of work still needs to be done. The image of family life education remains vague to the public eye and much is needed to clarify the aims and purposes of family life education to the public. The scarcity of family life educators across the country provides both an opportunity and a challenge to the profession. There is need to quickly produce sufficient numbers of family life educators to cater to the demand that exists in the marketplace. However, the drive to produce more family life educators should not be at the cost of lowering the standards within the profession, which have taken a long time to be established.

Family life education is a very young profession compared to some of the other professions and hence it still has many gaps in theory and practice. The amount of research in family life education is much lower compared to other fields. There is need to conduct more research so that an empirical basis can be established for some of the profession’s theories and practices. Research can also help to develop new theoretical frameworks on which the teaching and practice of family life education can be anchored. A vast majority of young Americans graduating from high school have very poor personal financial management skills, which is worrying for mot only their own futures but also to the future of the nation. Therefore, there is need to make concerted efforts to introduce family life education to young people as early as possible to increase their competency in tackling life’s various situations.


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Health Care Essay Help on Creativity and Innovation from a Physician’s Perspective admission college essay help: admission college essay help

Creativity and Innovation from a Physician Perspective


Creativity and innovation are two ambiguous concepts that have no clear distinction; confusion arises when people attempt to distinguish between the two concepts. However, in the dynamic environment in which medical organizations operate, it is important for administrators to point out and comprehend the difference between creativity and innovation. The major difference between creativity and innovation lies in the focus (Napier & Nilsson, 2008). Precisely, creativity deals with unleashing mind potential with the aim of conceiving new ideas. It manifests itself in numerous ways, but in most cases it can be seen, heard, tasted, or touched. Measuring creativity is a relatively hard task because of its subjective nature. On the other hand, innovation has to do with the introduction of change in stable environments and systems. It pertains to the work needed to turn ideas viable. Arguably, innovation is measurable and is concerned with identifying unfulfilled needs in the organization. To attain competitiveness in the market, organizations utilize creative resources in designing solutions to certain problems, consequently reaping the return on investment (Sloane, 2006). What organizations are lacking today is innovation, not creativity; most organizations have sufficient creative ideas but turning the creative ideas into viable action is the biggest problem.

Creativity vis-a-vis Innovation

Creativity and innovation are two inseparable concepts; innovation cannot occur without creativity because where no new ideas are generated, the organization has nothing to showcase in the market. A creative environment fosters innovation and where the environment is unfavorable valuable ideas die at initial stages. Creativity and innovation are imperative in the pharmaceutical industry, more than other industries (Durie, 1991).  Motivations, sharing of information, developing learning culture, and building networks facilitate creativity and innovation. A creative environment is useful as it helps employees to perceive their assignments as a significant challenge therefore paying more attention. It gives the organizational members the freedom to interact with others, give suggestions, and collect information both within and without the organization. Since they are not limited by internal regulations of the organization, change and new ideas are born. A creative environment fosters trust and understanding since people universally endorse new proposals with a common ground. Employees perform their duties without the fear of failure or victimization. Uncertainty drives the organizational members to take the risk by experimenting new things and chasing new opportunities. Healthy debates take place in non-authorization and democratic manner without hate or conflicts. Change initiatives become the order of the day giving the organization progressive growth and competitiveness.

Strategic advantages

Introducing a common language for creativity and innovation is paramount in managing the two concepts in the organization. It allows the management to measure the company’s innovative efforts and milestones objectively. Organizational members have to understand that creativity and innovation is a system of overlapping spaces instead of a systematic process. The identifiable overlapping spaces include the following; inspiration, ideation and implementation. The inspiration stage involves identifying the problem that triggers the search for the solution. Ideation is the stage whereby ideas are generated and then developed (Napier & Nilsson, 2008). Implementation is the stage where the new ideas are moved to the market from the drawing board. All creative projects have to undergo the three systematic spaces before they are turned into workable solutions. The design thinking approach enables organizations in the pharmaceutical industry to focus on the ideas once they are developed so that they lead to innovation. Good leadership is a recipe for the success of innovation strategies. It is the role of the administrators to ensure there is consistency in pursuing creativity and innovation. They have to set the tone to be followed by other organizational members through their actions.

Sources of Creativity and Innovation

Creativity broadly stems from motivation, creative thinking, and knowledge. Knowledge refers to the relevant information that an individual holds, that can handle a particular problem. In-depth experience in a certain area allows organizational members to build expertise that acts as the backbone for creativity and innovation (De & Nauwelaerts, 2013). Knowledge and experience in a certain field is a great source of creativity and innovation as it enables individuals to combine elements and utilize their abilities in generating ideas to be converted into a solution. Creative thinking is also a major source of creativity and innovation in organizations. Aspects such as disagreement with other people’s ideas, combining knowledge from different people and the ability to safeguard discarded ideas to return with more fresh perspective are the basic sources of creativity and innovation. Creative thinking involves synthetic, practical and analytical thinking that fosters a creative environment in the organization. Motivation has been described by most theorists as a source of creativity and innovation in many ways. Intrinsic motivators such as job satisfaction, challenging assignments and interest play a critical role in fostering creativity and innovation as opposed to the extrinsic motivators. Intrinsically motivated people explore numerous alternatives to the problem at hand and enjoy the process (Napier & Nilsson, 2008).  The process of exploring new initiatives leads to a novel solution that most often turns out successful and appropriate to the organization. Motivated people dedicate all their time and effort in generating creative ideas to solve problems facing the organization. At times, they neglect their social lives as well as their families for weeks or months to gain professional attainment.


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Napier, N. K., & Nilsson, M. (2008). The creative discipline: Mastering the art and science of innovation. Westport, Conn: Praeger Publishers.

Sloane, P. (2006). The leader’s guide to skills: Unlocking the creativity and innovation in you and your team. London: Kogan Page.



There are numerous techniques used to collect data when conducting a research. The type of technique to be used in collecting data when conducting a research will depend on the type of data required by that particular researcher. The data collected can either be primary data or secondary data. Primary data are the raw data that are obtained from the population directly and for the first time, whereas the secondary data is the data from sources that had already been collected by other researchers and stored in different storage materials (Ackroyd, Stephen & Hughes, 1981). In this report, the focus will be on techniques used to collect primary data and we will narrow down to two types and that is structured observation and face to face interview.

Both structured observation and face to face interviews are techniques used to obtain data directly from the population that research is being conducted on. Observation is a technique mostly used when the behavior of the population needs to be known by the researcher in order to make a reliable conclusion (Thody & Angela, 2006). Under this technique, the researcher does not involve any kind of respondents instead he or she studies the population behavior himself and makes a conclusion from his own observations. Observation can either be structured or unstructured. In this case we  are dealing with the structured observation which is mostly used in descriptive studies and it is characterized by standardized ways of observing subjects and the subject to be observed is clearly defined (Gillham & Bill, 2008).

When using structured observation as a technique for collecting data, the researcher should ensure that he understands and knows what is to be observed. The researcher should also take into consideration how what is observed will be recorded or measured if there is need to measure (Mallison & Christine, 2013). The third thing that the researcher must consider is the accuracy of the observed data. The researcher should ensure that he knows how he will ensure accuracy of the data observed before embarking on the observation exercise.

Structured observation can either be participatory, non-participatory or a disguised observation. Participatory observation is where the researcher becomes part and parcel of the population under study in order to be able to acquire information he or she needs to help him make informed conclusion. Non-participatory on the other does not require the researcher to be part of the population under study; instead he just observes from a distance and is able to get the information he needs (Guthrie & Gerard, 2010). While with the two types of structured observation mentioned above the population are aware that they are being studied, but with disguised observation, whoever is being observed have no idea that they are being observed because the researcher has disguised himself.

A structured observation like any other method of collecting primary data has a number of strengths and limitations. The main advantages of this method include:

Bias due to lack of objectivity is eliminated. This is mainly so if the researcher makes the observation correctly and accurately and hence does not make subjective conclusion.The data collected is not post-dated data, but current data. This is because the observation was done at the time the event is happening and therefore it is not affected by a complication caused by past and future event.In the case of participatory observation, the researcher is able to collect information on the natural behavior of the population accurately and therefore the behavioral error is limited.Structured observation as a method of collecting data does not depend on the respondent’s willingness to answer the researcher’s question and hence it is less demanding as the researcher does not have to go through the hustle of trying to convince the respondent to be as honest as possible or even to at least agree to answer his questions.The fact that the willingness of the respondents is not a mandatory requirement for this method, then it is a suitable technique to use for collecting data where the respondents are not able to respond to the questions given to them either verbally or written.Where the researcher is part and parcel of the population, he can be able to verify the information that was given by the respondents in questionnaires or interviews. Therefore structured observation assists in ensuring accuracy of the information collected through questionnaires and interviews.

As much as this method has got numerous advantages, it also has a number of limitations. These include:

It is a very costly method. This is because the researcher has to travel to the destination of the population being studied in order to observe their behavior (Olsen & Kay, 2012). Therefore the researcher has to consider the cost of relocating and resettling and these costs add to the cost of the researcher making this method a very expensive technique of collecting data.Some individuals in the population under the observation are not directly observable and therefore observing such people creates an obstacle for the researcher when they are doing their work.The data collected using this method may not be subjective, but it is very limited. This because the researcher can only observe the subject behavior, but cannot probe for additional information and the information collected is limited.It is also a very risky method as unforeseen events may interfere with the observation exercise.

Apart from structured observation, there are a number of techniques one can use to collect primary data. Another method this report is going to focus on is face to face interviews. Face to face interviews is a technique that requires the researcher to be at the exact spot as the respondent (Miller & Gerald, 1999). The researcher has to be physically present in order to collect the required information by directly asking the respondent the interview questions and in return he receives direct responses.

However, in some cases, the researcher may not be able to directly reach the direct person involved. In such cases he may decide to conduct someone that is indirectly related to the situation or individual under investigation or knows adequate information about the subject under investigation.

Face to face interviews just like observation can be structured or unstructured. Structured face to face interview involves the interviewer asking questions as written on the questionnaire using standardized rules of asking such questions (Gillham & Bill, 2008). Under structured interviews, the researcher does not add anything or eliminate any question while interviewing the respondents. Unstructured face to face interview on the other hand is not a rigid form of interview as the interviewer may decide to ask additional questions if he deemed such questions necessary or if he needs a clearer understanding of the respondent responses (Gillham & Bill, 2008). When conducting unstructured face to face interviews, the researcher can also decide to abandon some questions if  he realizes that some questions are making the respondent uncomfortable and that the respondent are not likely to be honest. The researcher may therefore decide to change such questions and instead ask such questions tactfully.

When doing a face to face interview, the researcher should be guided by certain principles. One of the principles the researcher should adhere to is that he must be able to create a friendly environment that enables the respondent to be comfortable and hence answer the questions honestly (Vogt & Paul, 2010). The interviewer should also assure the respondent that the information they give will be treated with absolute confidentiality. The interviewer should also ensure that the responses received from the respondent are recorded accurately and that when asking questions the interviewer demonstrates friendliness and does not show his opinion on the respondent response openly in front of the respondent.

Using face to face interviews has a number of advantages and these include:

Face to face interviews enables the researcher to get more information as he is able to probe the respondent for more information. This ensures that the information collected by the researcher is not limited only to the answers given by the respondent.It is a flexible method especially when unstructured questions are used because the interviewer can always change the questions to suit the respondent attitude.While using this method the researcher can decide which individual answers the question unlike in other methods like use of questionnaires that are mailed.The use of this method enables the researcher to get spontaneous responses from the respondents. This is because the researcher at times can find the respondent unaware of the interview and hence the respondent is likely to be honest because he would not have time to prepare answers that he considered right which in most cases are not as honest as the spontaneous responses.The method ensures that the respondent does not misinterpret the questions. This is because whenever the respondent does not understand the questions then the researcher is always there to clarify the question to the respondent. This ensures that the researcher gets information without error of misinterpretation.Because the interview is face to face, any resistance by the respondent can be overcome by the researcher. The researcher can use his own skill and convince the respondent to be more cooperating.The method also enables the researcher to obtain supplementary information that relate to the respondent. Such information can be very useful when the researcher is interpreting the results he has obtained from the face to face interview.

Despite the several advantages, face to face interview as a method of collecting data also has a number of disadvantages. These include:           

The method is subjected to biasness of the respondent and hence this may lead to inaccurate conclusion as a result of inaccurate information.It is also a very expensive approach especially where the individual to be interviewed are geographically dispersed.Using this method to collect data takes a lot of time because the researcher has to interview each respondent at time and he will consume a lot of time in data collection. This can lead to the researcher spending less time on other phases of the research or even a longer period in the research period than earlier estimated.The researcher is also faced with the challenge of respondents who are not easily approachable. This can be individuals who are powerful in the society or people who are generally hostile.Most interviewers are usually faced with the problem of creating a rapport with the respondent yet this is a requirement that is necessary when interviewing someone. The difficulty is usually brought about by the fact that trusting someone the first time you meet them is something not very many people can do and therefore creating a rapport with respondents usually proves very difficult for most interviewers.

The two techniques discussed above share some characteristics and at the same time vary in some areas. Both structured observation and face to face interview are methods of collecting primary data. That is they are techniques used to collect fresh data directly from the population under study. Also the two methods are very costly way of collecting data as they both require the researcher to be physically present.

Face to face interview and structured observation also have a series of difference. One of the main differences is that when using face to face to collect data, a respondent is required. Structured observation on the other hand does not require any respondent as the researcher obtains the information he requires by studying his subjects by himself. The two methods also differ in term of the suitability of their use. Structured observation is suitable where the researcher requires explanatory information whereas the use of face to face interview is suitable where the research is more investigative rather than informative. When using the face to face interview there are questions involved whereas the structured observation does not involve any questions as there is no individuals to be asked questions. Instead, the researcher just observes the behaviour of the population under study. Face to face interview and structured observation also differ in terms of the amount of information collected by the researcher. When using face to face interview, the researcher can always probe for more information if he feels that the respondent is holding back. When using structured observation on the other hand, the researcher cannot probe for additional information because he only observes their behaviour and sometimes even disguise himself meaning his presence should not be known.

After critically studying both techniques, my recommendation for any researcher who wishes to use any of the two techniques is that they consider a number of factors affecting each of the methods and the research in general. If the study is about studying the behaviours of the population, then one should use structured observation because under this situation the method will provide more objective results. On the hand, if the study is more investigative then one should use face to face interview in order to allow for probing and to enable the interviewer gauge the reliability of the responses he receives. One should also consider the cost incurred and the result obtained that is the method chosen should be cost effective. For instance where the individuals to be personally interviewed are geographically far apart, then the researcher should think of an alternative method. Another element that one should consider on deciding which method to use between the two should be the availability and willingness of the respondent. My recommendation is that where the respondents are unable or not willing to answer questions then structured observation should be used. This is because if face to face is used in such a situation, the result obtained may not be reliable. This can be as a result of dishonest answers given by those who answered the question. It can also be as a result of only a small percentage of the sample selected actually being interviewed leading to a reduction in the sample size. When conducting a study, the sample size should be reasonable that is the sample size should not be too small or too big. A small sample size if used usually result into unreliable results when the data is finally analysed. Therefore one cannot always rely on one specific method to collect the data. Each of the two methods is suitable for different events hence the decision on what method to use depends on the event that is being studied.

In a nutshell, both techniques have their own strength and weaknesses and therefore the decision to use either of the technique will depend on a number of factors such as the suitability of the method. One should consider whether the research being conducted is a descriptive study or an investigative one. One should consider the cost of using a method and whether the information required in making reliable conclusion should be more or just enough. This will ensure that one does not spend a huge sum of money collected lots of information, most of which will be rendered useless when compiling results. Therefore when making a decision on whether to use face to face interview or structured observation to collect primary data, there is no good or bad technique. The decision on what method to use entirely depends on the factors mentioned above.


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Gillham & Bill. (2008). Observation Techniques: Structured to Unstructured. London: Continuum International Pub.

Guthrie & Gerard. (2010). Basic Research Methods an Entry to Social Science Research. New Delhi, India: SAGE Publications.

Mallinson & Christine. (2013) Data Collection in Sociolinguistics: Methods and Applications. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Miller & Gerald. (1999). Handbook of Research Methods in Public Administration. New York: M. Dekker.

Olsen & Kay W. (2012). Data Collection: Key Debates and Methods in Social Research. London: SAGE.

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Weller, Susan C. & Romney A. K. (1988). Systematic Data Collection. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Homework Writing Help on Case Analysis: Leadership and Management of Changes history essay help

Case Analysis: Leadership and Management of Changes


Organizational changes may happen any time; they can be planned or unplanned. The main reasons for changes maybe internal or external. The external factors may include technology, work force diversity, ethical behavior, and globalization (Hellriegel, & Slocum, 2011). The internal factors include forces of internal crisis, shifts in expectations of employees and low financial performance, among others. The management may therefore be forced to implement changes to enable a business to stay focused on accomplishing its objectives. For the managers to implement changes in an organization successfully, they would have to consider many aspects of leadership. This paper uses a case study to discuss some factors in leadership that are vital when implementing organizational changes that touch on the deep-rooted cultures of an organization.

Background of the Case Study

The case study is of a pathology department in a healthcare institution. The department provides laboratory services to patients as well as outreach services for patients from outside. Employees in the department investigate the causes of various conditions and their associated changes in the cell of a human being. They use the laboratory to offer diagnosis and guide physicians with their clinical practice. It is the responsibility of the department to identify changes in the morphology of tissues and the cell, as well as any biological alterations on human body fluids. They also employ various immunologic, morphologic, and micro-logic techniques to establish the changes in the structure, functional, and biochemical changes on a cell. The department has unspecified number of employees and was situated in the same compound as the departments of the healthcare institutions. Its target population is mainly the physicians working within the facility and their patients.

The environment of pathology is mainly the laboratory where pathology services are carried out. The department introduced changes to its night shift before carrying out research on how it would affect the employees and the employer. Getting rid of the on-call and replacing it with a full night shift has caused discomfort among the employees who feel that they come to the office to waste time during night shift. The feeling of time wastage is mainly due to the small number of work available during night shifts leading to time and resources being wastage with these new changes. When employees feel wasted, their productivity and motivation levels reduce, leading to reduced profitability.

Aspects of organizational culture are portrayed by use of day shifts and on call during the night. Organizational culture are time tested and have been found to be valid and reliable. The culture of any organization describes how things are done; it is the unwritten rule of how things should be done in the organization. The pathology department has an established culture of day shifts and on-calls during the night. Culture of any organization can show a lot about the leadership of that organization. Strong cultures are responsible for rewarding and holding people in any given organization.


The leadership of the organization weakens the culture of the pathology by failing to involve employees in the decision making process (Schein, 2010). Not everyone agrees with the decision to scrap on-calls and replace them with full time night shifts. By providing very little guidance to the employees, none of the worker knows why the decision was not brought up for discussion. The weak organization structure affects how employees of pathology work and interact with each other. The change in the nightshift is a change to the organization culture. Changing the culture of the organization is a challenge because employees are already accustomed to the previous culture. The environment of the department is of collaboration and the culture requires that people work together to find solutions to the problems faced.

Leadership quality are portrayed mostly when situations like in the case study arises. The leaders must realize that there is no perfect style of leadership and style of leadership depends on the situation. Leader should not use one style in all the situations that arises; he or she must assess the situation then decide on type of leadership style to apply (Kotter, 2008). This approach is referred to as the contingency approach, which states that no style is the most appropriate but situation determine the style to use. Assessing situations should take into consideration the origin of the organizational conflict and what should have been done better to avoid the conflict

It is easy to identify the origin of any conflict in the organization functions of leadership and management are not separated but goes hand in hand toward achieving the set objectives. The managers should have taken both roles so that they not only set standards to be achieved but also work closely with the employees guiding them on what is supposed to be done. They should help their employees achieve what is expected of them. Emotional intelligence should be as important as the privileges that the power gives to the managers. The managers should have bridged the gap between them and the employees so that they realize when things are not working out or when employees need some pushing to get the work done.

Perceptions, Attitude and Motivation

The decision to replace on-calls went against organization spirituality. It failed to recognize the workers as people with inner feelings that need to be nourished by the work they do. The managers failed to see their employees as people with spirit and mind and therefore should be made to find purpose and meaning in whatever work they do. The employees are definitely not seeing the meaning of coming for the night shifts and they see it as a total waste of time (Carroll, & Quijada, 2004). Failing to address the problems presented by the changes in night shifts and on-call, the managers have proved that they are not concerned with spirituality

The managers of pathology have a role to play in promoting ethical culture within the organization. They are expected to be role models for their employees and set standards, which are accessible, followed and promoted by themselves and the employees. This responsibility also means that the managers should remove barriers that might make employees not to behave ethically. The introduction of nightshift in the organization has made employees to behave in ways that are not ethical and may portray bad image of the organization. It would be advisable for the mangers to drop the issue of night shift if it is causing the employees to behave unethically.

Changing back to on-call does not mean that the managers have lost and employees won, but they should understand that being ethical is more crucial than winning. Every leader understands that changing culture of an organization is one of the most challenging leadership tasks. No change can succeed with recognizing that organizational culture has interlocking factors that must all be incorporated during the change process. The factors of goals, values, roles, practice, assumptions, and communication must all be factored in when introducing any change to the organization culture. The managers should ensure that next time they intend to introduce any change to the organization structure then they must put into play all elements for changing minds.

The managers are therefore expected to have high emotional intelligence so that they can be able to identify positive and negative behaviors form the employees. When managers of pathology realized that the change in organization culture did not work as expected, they should be in position to establish the next step to take. It might be important to assess the situation to find out if it is true that the changes cannot work or negative political forces within the organization who wish to see the process fail may influence the employees. There are forces within organization who might want it to fail and then point fingers at the managers for lacking leadership skills.

When the managers are certain that the complaints and negative energy exhibited by the employees are due to negative political forces, they should use the power of their position and office to push on with the changes (Buchanan, & Badham, 2008). This is while letting employees know the benefits of accepting changes and the demerits of joining forces with people who wish for failure of the organization. By power it means that they use their ability to influence to make employees see things from their own point of view and not to control their employees because of their high positions. The political skills to influence, connect, earn trust, and be concerned with the workers would work miracles in such situations. These skills are same ones that the leaders need in order to understand, influence, and motivate their employees .It might that the changes implemented are the strategies for achieving individual, team, and organizational goals. When used well, the power to influence would be very valuable to any leader in any level.

When it is clear that the changes intended are meant to improve efficiency then the leaders should use their power to ensure that the changes are a success (Luthans, 2002). One way to help employees accept the changes is by motivating them. Motivation deals with finding out the reason why a behavior is exhibited. The reason is what is called motivations. Managers of pathology should find out the reason why employees are not positively accepting the new changes. If their reason is valid and makes sense then the changes must be not implemented at the moment. When the employees have no genuine as why they are refusing the changes then they can be motivated to see the advantage of accepting the changes in the organization. In the above case study, all the factors considered under need- based motivation remain the same even after the change of nightshift from on-call. Cognitive-based motivation would be needed to ensure that the employees value their night shift the same way they attach value day shift work, regardless of the workload. The motivation must begin from individuals before attending to organization motivation.

Work Groups and Teams

The managers can also apply the aspect of work teams and groups. People who have serious and genuine reasons for resisting night shifts should have a placed on one group where they would work during the night shift only, while those who have no have problem with the night shift allowed to do the work at night. All employees cannot resist night shift, in fact some love night shift more than day shifts so it would be a matter of asking to find out the people interested in joining any of the teams. Teams can also allow employees to help their teammates with issues or problems with the night shift. Some of these problems can be solved when people work as a team or when team members agree to help their fellow teammate to overcome the problems (Rather, & Fleming, 2008). Forming groups would help managers build the stability and competence of the organization. In groups, the employees are also able to focus on the goals and objectives of the organization as well as holding each other accountable for their actions.

Communication, Collaborations and Conflict Management

The use of groups and good communication between managers and employees, teams or departments helps in promoting collaborations in an organization and managing conflicts such as the changes done on the night shift. The managers should ensure that before any change is done; all the people are going to affected by the changes are properly informed earlier enough so that they can be prepared (Antras, Garicano, & Rossi-Hansberg, 2006).. The management should therefore remove existing barriers to effective communication and look for ways of improving communication in the organization.

The teams can also help in identifying ways to implement effectively the change into the organization. When employees work as a team, they are able to generate ideas that promote creativity at the workplace. Allowing the employees to discuss the problem at hand in groups may make them find solutions which might not be achieved working alone due to limitations of working as an individual. The group work can even make members who are afraid or against night shift to take risk and come for the night shift.

It is also possible to re-shuffle the work done at the office. The kind of work that can wait till night time should be re-schedule to night shift so that those who report to work don’t feel wasted. Tasks such store inventory housekeeping among others can be done at night to take away some of the days job. A good leader should work together with the employees in order to identify the kind of tasks they would be able to accomplish at night without interfering with the normal office operations


Before leaders decide to make changes, they must first consider the organizational culture because some cultures cannot accommodate change. The employees are not ready for change and most certainly, they might resist it. The change could even unnecessary, ill conceived or not well thought about, or simply the organization may lack the resources needed for the change to be implemented. It therefore means that a leader consult with various stakeholders, including employees to establish the need for the change.

For any organizational change to succeed, the leaders must provide employees with plenty of information, which are relevant and genuine regarding the reason and the need for changes in the organization (Fernandez, & Rainey, 2006). Secondly, the leader must motivate the employees by ensuring that even after the changes; the working environment would remain conducive. The leader would have to answer all the questions of the employees regarding the intended changes. Thirdly, the leaders should team work in departments, as groups or even as committees where leaders are given roles to ensure effective changes take place.

Lastly, leaders should act like coaches to their employees. This means that they have to work very closely with their employees to ensure that they improve on their abilities and their strengths are maximized. They should be mentors, counselors, trainers, and providers of feedback to their employees


Antras, P., Garicano, L., & Rossi-Hansberg, E. (2006). Organizing off shoring: middle managers and communication costs (No. w12196). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Buchanan, D., & Badham, R. (2008). Power, politics, and organizational change: Winning the turf game. Sage.

Carroll, J. S., & Quijada, M. A. (2004). Redirecting traditional professional values to support safety: changing organizational culture in health care. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 13(suppl 2), ii16-ii21.

Fernandez, S., & Rainey, H. G. (2006). Managing successful organizational change in the public sector. Public administration review, 66(2), 168-176.

Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J. W. (2011). Organizational behavior. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning

Kotter, J. P. (2008). Force for change: How leadership differs from management. Simon and Schuster.

Luthans, F. (2002).Motivation: Needs, Contents and process. Organizational behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill

Rather, C., & Fleming, D. A. (2008). Hospital ethical climate and teamwork in acute care: the moderating role of leaders. Health Care Management Review, 33(4), 323-331.

Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2). John Wiley & Sons.

Assignment Writing Help on Public Relations Campaign Plan personal essay help: personal essay help

Public Relations Campaign Plan

Executive summary

This plan has been developed in response to a brief from LifeSavers Systems and it proposes a public relations strategy for the international promotion of the company’s safe and sterile water equipment.

This plan sets out the marketing position of Lifesaver Systems and the potential impact of its products on the humanitarian market. This is made possible by the provision of context in which PR plans and budgets. It also analyses the external and internal factors affecting the operations of the company’s products.

The recommended strategy has its basis on a 10-month plan with three strands of activities on five international locations: pre-campaign awareness building to the campaign, the campaign itself, and maintenance of the momentum.

The report concludes with outlining the necessary resources, the potential budget, and the evaluation criteria.

The campaign theme, “Everyone Deserves Clean and Safe Drinking Water”, acts as an effective technique for drawing the attention of stakeholders on the product features.

Background of the company

Lifesaver Systems is a British company that was founded in 2007 by Michael Pritchard following the 2004 tsunami and the 2005 hurricane Katrina disasters on the Indian Ocean and in Louisiana, USA. This inspiration arose because of the tragic loss of life and devastating situation caused by lack of safe drinking water. Pritchard unveiled the solution to this problem by developing bottles, tanks and jerry cans with cartridges which filter out bacteria, viruses, cyst, and other waterborne diseases. Through these apparatus, Lifesaver Systems has been able to provide long terms goals in the delivery of safe drinking water.

Lifesaver Systems primarily focuses on their markets which include leisure, military and the humanitarian market. Under the leisure market, the company serves those who engage in exploration activities such as mountain climbing, among other leisure activities where safe drinking water is often regarded as a scarce commodity. The company has since 2008 been serving the British military with bottles and tanks for purification of the available water in battlefields. Through their initiative, the British government has cut its cost of transporting water to the military. On the humanitarian platform, the company’s customers range from canoeist paddling in the Amazon forest to the earthquake stricken families in different parts of the world. In addition, there are also customers from developing countries who are in need of safe, sterile drinking water.

            The company operates on the philosophy of everyone deserves safe drinking water. This philosophy was informed by the fact that about 1 billion people in the globe are experiencing safe drinking water shortage. Lifesaver provides the best solution to these individuals by ensuring the availability of low cost water purifying resources. It is a global requirement for countries to build sufficient water infrastructure. However, it is not possible for every country to ensure the development of such structures due to limited financial resources. It is therefore the responsibility of companies such as the Lifesaver Systems to not only develop the infrastructure but also devise a perfect way of storing clean drinking water.

Situation analysis

Proper understanding of the external environment of Lifesaver Systems can only be realized through the EPISTLE analysis which reviews seven areas of interest: political, information, social, technological, legal and environmental. This analysis is founded on secondary information on the activities of the company’s competitors, other industrial bodies, media coverage and the government.

EconomicCreation of employment for those interested in the innovation of better ways to secure clean drinking water Provision of better and cheaper alternatives of acquiring safe drinking waterPoliticalBridging the poverty gap between developed and developing countries in the area of developing infrastructure for safe drinking water Development of an open platform to engage in the best ways that governments can contribute to the availability of safe drinking water to all citizens.InformationAvailability of information of the products of Lifesaver Systems on the internet and other publications. Speedy access and diversity of resources Access to information on the success and shortcomings of lifesaver products in different parts of the worldSocialBetter collaboration across geographical boundaries Researcher eager for more information on the use and innovative ways of improving the lifesaver products Building of better cohesion among communities in developing countries that were previously engaged in drinking water related conflicts.TechnologicalThe development of larger material such as tanks for safe drinking water targeting larger populations. The use of the internet as a medium of research and collaboration An increase in the level of competition among between lifesaver systems and its competitors on the development of better products for the production of safe drinking waterLegalThe acquisition of health license as a guarantee tha the products by Lifesaver Systems help in the production of safe and sterile drinking water.EnvironmentPotential environmental conservation considering that Lifesaver products are chemical free therefore waste products resulting from the used cartridges does not pose any harm to the environment. Uses the available resources such as unsafe drinking water to produce safe and sterile drinking water

The internal factors that affect the operations of the company especially on matters of the humanitarian sector have also been summarized through SWOT analysis, developed by critical review of Lifesaver System’s strategic plan and a discussion with company specialists.

StrengthsProduction of effective and efficient lifesaver bottles and tanks that have been subjected to scientific tests. Availability of large market for the company’s products. Proper management of the company ensuring constant innovation and improvement of existing products in the marketWeaknessesCommunication breakdown among different stakeholders Insufficient economics incitements among locals in the developing countries to invest in the product. Lack of maintenance of water related infrastructure. Lack of sufficient knowledge among locals in some developing countries on the benefits of the company’s product in the production of safe and sterile drinking water. Cultural factors on matter related to water conservation in developing countries.OpportunitiesWorking with various stakeholders indifferent countries to ensure the availability of proper awareness on matter related to water conservation and safe drinking water Erase the association between water consumption and economic situation of a country. The development of larger vessels to target larger populations especially in  developing countries Create an understanding with stakeholders of in the humanitarian sector on the benefits of the company’s products over traditional means of water conservation and purification. Educate populations on the health benefits associated with the use of the company’s products in the production of safe sterile drinking water. Improve the ability of water cartridges used in filtering out bacteria, viruses and other pathogens to ensure thither are long lasting and easily affordable. Engage different stakeholders in understanding the way these company’s products operate o increase their awareness on the product and increase the possibility tha they will embrace the product in their operations in areas experiencing shortage of safe drinking water.ThreatsConflicts of interest among different humanitarian organizations on the best possible product to use in production and conservation of safe drinking water. The possibility that locals depending on alternative systems of producing safe drinking water may be reluctant to embrace change. Low usage of the company’s product among an ill-informed population for the preference of quantity rather than quality. Government legislation could be considered as a threat to the approaches used in the production of safe drinking water especially in areas where there is relative shortage of the resource. Availability of more products in the market may lead to confusion among an uninformed population on the best products tha can be used in the production of safe and sterile drinking water. Low demand of the company’s product in developing countries due to insufficient knowledge on the benefits of the products.

Key issues originate from the aspects below.

The humanitarian community to which the product was originally intended does not seem to understand the benefits of the product, arguing that it is relatively expensive compared to other scientifically approved means of conserving and producing water targeting large masses.The preference of chlorinated water over the bottles, tanks and portable jerry cans produced by Lifesaver Systems seems to create a divide among aid organizations on the best possible approach to use in the promotion of safe drinking water especially in the developing countries.There seems to be lack of awareness concerning the long term role that Lifesaver Systems plays in the delivery resilient technology that works in uplifting developing countries out of their poverty.Economic and political issues largely arising from the competitors of lifesaver systems especially those involved in the production of chlorine tabled for water purification seems to be exacerbating the existing divide among different humanitarian organizations in the developing countries.Inability among humanitarian organizations to embrace change which requires them to shift from a chemically oriented system of purifying drinking water to a safe and environmentally friendly technique as introduced by Lifesaver Systems. This can be viewed as an intention by these organizations to prefer cheaper but relatively unhealthy techniques of purifying water considering that chlorinated water introduces some chemical composition into drinking water hence relatively unsafe compared to the lifesaver systems which is a natural and chemical free process of purifying water.

Key stakeholders and publics

      The market for Lifesaver Systems is mainly divided into the military, leisure and humanitarian organizations. It is important to note that the original target market for this company was the humanitarian sector due to their involvement in operations in countries and communities with water shortage related problems. In the process of executing the campaign it will be important to identify stakeholders on a geographical basis. This will be in terms of the UK and Europe, USA, Canada, Africa, Australia, New Zealand. In Asia the stakeholders will be identified in terms of Japan and China.

Enabling Stakeholders:Lifesaver Systems shareholders, analysts and stockbrokers Humanitarian departments and agencies in target countries Research Councils UK (RCUK)  Functional Stakeholders:Employees Existing and potential service- Researchers submitting papers Clinical, professional and industrial researchers/users National/International research bodiesNormative Stakeholders:  CompetitorsDiffused Stakeholders:Research foundations Funding bodies/Trusts Trade unions

The mapping of stakeholders is considered as an essential process considering that it allows for the identification of the public’s groups/members, especially those who are active or have some form of awareness on life issues.

The following comprise of a group of the public identified as critical to the success of the campaign plan. It is important to note that there are groups and individuals who will belong to more than public domain.

Primary public:

ResearchersEmployeesShareholdersCompetitorsFunding BodiesHumanitarian organizations

Secondary Public:

Government bodiesThe European commissionResearch councils.

Aims and Objectives

The campaign is propelled by four essential aims:

To ensure the generation of substantial interest in the scope from the company employees as a way of supporting sales and positioning the company as the best in the market and essential in the generation of innovative products for the promotion of safe and sterile drinking water.To generate support and understanding for Lifesaver Systems product among influential forces in the industry and humanitarian organizations.To strengthen the position of Lifesaver Systems as a brand leader on the international platform on matters regarding the production so safe drinking water.To manage communication of contentious issues regarding the company’s products among humanitarian organizations

The objectives of this campaign underpin the business objectives and they include:

To develop long term sustainable and resilient technology that not only works but also lifts the target audience out of water poverty.To help the humanitarian sector in using limited resources in the generation of long term solutions to water crisis in the developing countries.Demonstrate the development of products which are evidence of the company’s competitive advantage of the company’s products over other products in the market.Ensure that the employees and the shareholders of Lifesaver Systems are involved in the production of products and information that promote the understanding of the operations and the mandate of the organization and as a people who have been empowered to act as ambassadors for the company products during the campaign launch.Counteract potential criticism on the sect of the products through the communication of wider values of Lifesaver Systems to opinion leaders, the promotion of the products’ efficiency and widening the depth of available information on the potential and actual innovations of the company.Provide reassurance to all the shareholder of the company on the success of the company’s investments in the development of efficient products and the role of these products as market leaders by providing a link between the essence of the campaign and investor relations.To help families in developing countries with alternative and better methods of water conservation and purification and allowing them to channel more financial resources to other areas of need.

Key messages

The messages for the campaign have been developed in line with the objectives of the business which strongly underpins the values, mission and vision statements of the company

Lifesaver products which include Jerry cans, bottles, and disaster packs are a representation of a new generation of innovative research. The company is the most innovative company in matters related to the production of safe and sterile drinking water.Lifesaver System’s products will provideLong term solutions to the problem of clean drinking waterSustainable technology in the production of waterEnvironmentally friendly techniques of storing and purifying water for consumptionCost efficiency in terms of competitive annual cost and one off- charge for the acquisition of safe drinking waterNew skills on water conservationLifesaver will provide major advantages to humanitarian organizations:Provision of safer and more effective methodologies of water conservation and production do f safe drinking water.Provision of ready to use equipment which do not need elaborate training to use except following of instructionsPotential reduction of waterborne disease due to the ability of Lifesaver Systems apparatus to filter out disease causing microorganisms from drinking water.Lifesaver Systems’ products illustrates its commitment to its customers:Through justifying its marketing statement which affirms the rights of every individual in the world, irrespective of the prevailing circumstances, to access safe and clean drinking waterExpanding into new marketsImproving on the efficiency of its products through constant innovation of the quality of the cartridges and the capacity of water that the products can hold in relation to the target customers.

Strategic approach, Campaign tactics and timescale

The ten-month campaign has four distinct elements:

A pre- campaign activity, March to June 2015, building awareness and expectation in anticipation of the campaign.Intensive integrated communication in June and July 2015 focusing on the launch of the promotional campaign of the products in five international locations.Follow-up activity, July to December 2015 in different humanitarian organization in the five international locations.Proper management planning to ensure tha the stakeholders put more focus on the product and limited focus on tangible industrial issues.

Integrated activities will be inclusive of:

Internal communication to employees as a way of equipping employees with the information needed to become the company’s ambassadors.Proactive, two-way facing communication as a way of creating products interest and demand among the target customers. It also helps n building awareness among humanitarian organizations.Lobbying activity as a way of reinforcing the reputation of Lifesaver Systems as a responsible organization. This will help in building an understanding among influential policy makers in humanitarian organizations.Issues management planning as a way of preparing for contentious issues which may interfere with the success of the company’s products

 March 15April15May 15June 15July 15Aug 15Sept 15Oct 15Nov 15Dec 15  Testing    Final focus groups: creative proposals/messages  Continue to monitor feedback from stakeholders in order to adjust messages             Set-up  Create Communication Team Team Intranet/ Toolkit in place Employee training                Internal CommunicationsBriefings Newsletter    Briefings Newsletter  Briefings Newsletter    Briefings Newsletter Competition  Briefings Newsletter Intranet Update Produce DVD    Dedicated Briefing Merchandise Newsletter Intranet Update DVDBriefings Newsletter Competition follow upBriefings Newsletter    Briefings Newsletter  Briefings Newsletter               Customer-Facing Communications  Communication on target humanitarian organizations and expected feedbackCommunication on target humanitarian organizations and expected feedbackCommunication on target humanitarian organizations and expected feedbackCommunication on target humanitarian organizations and expected feedbackCommunication on target humanitarian organizations and expected feedbackCommunication on target humanitarian organizations and addressing feedbackCommunication on target humanitarian organizations and addressing feedbackCommunication on target humanitarian organizations and addressing feedbackCommunication on target humanitarian organizations and addressing feedback. Improving on shortcomings of the campaignCommunication on target humanitarian organizations and addressing feedback. Improving on shortcomings of the campaign           Lobbying  Lifesaver systems messages in all target customer activityRCUK briefingLifesaver systems messages in all target customer activityHouse of Commons Reception Consul briefingsLifesaver systems messages in all target customer activity          Issues Management  Plan developed and in placeReady to implement plan at all times: adjust in relation to target customers, competitor and public opinion.           Evaluation    Feedback from surveys and campaignFeedback from surveys and campaignFeedback from surveys and campaignFeedback from surveys and campaignProduct sales and target customer requestsProduct sales and target customer requestsProduct sales and target customer requestsProduct sales and target customer requests           


Most of the activities outlined comprise the responsibilities of the employees in the marketing and public relations teams with the support of the finance, human resources, technical team and the customer care departments. This campaign also demands the creation of an international public relations team, the introduction of appropriate protocols, procedures and reporting methodologies. The team responsible for this campaign will be answerable to the director of Lifesaver Systems. The compilation of the budget covers the input of the public relations team in terms of their role in strategic advice and events management.


The budget outlines the potential costs that are likely to be incurred by the company along with other contributors from current marketing and HR budgets. The budget also outlines the potential consultancy fee to support the ten months campaign across five countries. The budget of about £2.1 million equates to a national budget of £300, 000 per target country and it is compatible with Lifesavers Systems expenditure of wider PR products.

Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation process will be founded on a four-step process of reviewing the success of the procedures

Inputs- these include background information, research initiatives; pretesting; briefing; and planned activity. The inputs that will be considered in the process of monitoring and evaluating the campaign will also include the number of personnel in relation to the tasks that are to be accomplished. In addition, the finances, and equipment such as machinery will also be assessed on their ability to deliver the expected results.Activities: for this campaign to be successful, it will be important for the managing team to use the inputs in the development of actions that are associated with the delivery of campaign aims and objectives. In order for the company to succeed in reaching out to humanitarian organizations, the monitoring and evaluation process will consider the availability of activities that would include holding of meetings and focus group discussions, collection of data to monitor the progress of the campaign in relation to the company’s aims and objectives.Outputs- these will comprise the messages, exposure and the audience that the campaign targets. Outputs are often considered as final level results associated with the delivery of the aims and objectives of a campaign. This will be measured in relation to the achievements of the project in the short term. For this campaign it will also include the quantification of campaign activities that are directly associated to the aims and objectives of the campaign. It will also deliberate on the milestones achieved, the attendance of the promotional campaigns, customer panel and focus groups. The number of target audience reached by the campaign will form an integral part of the output. This will be in relation to the available individual humanitarian organizations in the selected areas.Out-takes. This will focus on the level of awareness, the understanding developed and the response. It will include responses to communication by the company to humanitarian organizations; and the request that the company receives from target customers on the efficiency of the productsOutcomes-these will largely focus on change in awareness, opinion and behavior of target audience. This will be measured through the percentage improvement in the company’s sales, customer feedback from focus groups and the response from the surveys conducted by the company’s employees. Outcomes will be considered as the second level of the findings that are associated with the campaign. It will comprise the percentage of humanitarian organizations identified and reached out to. Another outcome will be the percentage of humanitarian organizations that are using the company’s products against those which are yet to use these products. Impact: this is the third levels of the findings associated with the campaign. It is associated with the long term consequences of the campaign. The process will measure the percentage increase in the sales of the company’s products, the percentage increase of the humanitarian organizations that have embraced the use of Lifesaver System’s products to distribute to developing countries as safer means of accessing drinking water.



The foundation of Lifesaver Systems PR campaign plan is largely defined by the appreciation of the theory of public relations. This is in relation to management of systems and the international dialectics of global public relations. Public relations (PR) can be said to be the planned and sustained efforts by an organization to establish and ensure the maintenance of a goodwill relationship with the public which is largely defined by stakeholders such as customers (CIPR, 2008). In the view of Gregory (2002), the practitioners of public relations often consider the design of programs from the beginning, structuring of the way it benefits both the organization and to the public which the said organization frequents interactions. This means that PR is a form of planning that focuses on effort, improvement of effectiveness, long-term thinking, demonstration of values and the reconciliation of conflicts including the facilitation of pro-activity.

International dimensions

Globalization has had a major impact on public relations (L’Etang, 2008). However, inasmuch as PR is considered to be present in every sector of the economy, there is an increasingly popular notion that PR may be inappropriate in most western countries.

The theory of national culture cities difference as defined by Hostfede (2001), documents the differences in cultural relationships constructs. According to this theory the demonstration of these cultural differences as a set of norms which have to be negotiated as in the case of the Chinese society. Culture in the view of PR practitioners can have an impact on basic tactics of public relations ((International Communications Consultancy Organisation 2004, cited in Curtin and Gaither 2007).

It is important to note that the potential nature of Anglophone dominance (L’Etang, 2008) and the cultural aspects defining different societies pose great challenges to the success of PR on the international platform. This in the view of Taylor (2008) is illustrative of inadequacy of a centralized approach to the development and management of a PR campaign plan. The creation of PR teams is often viewed as an alternative to the dual responsibility of organization in understanding the relationship between the organization and the publics. This is realizable through the inclusion of national representatives from the company and the consultancy agencies. This according to Curtin and Gaither (2007) supports the increase in the trends towards glocalization which includes the process of tailoring of markets to be in agreement with the prevailing local circumstances. Effective global PR can only be realized through an explicit conversation about different cultural and regional disparities (Hirch & Shaukat, 2008).

The dedication of vital resources such as the extranet to the team in charge of planning and executing the implementation of PR campaign are endorsed by among other scholars Morley (2002) who identifies the basic requirements for PR practitioners including detailed understanding of the prevailing cultural practices of different countries and target audience as this is essential in the development of practical solutions (Morley, 2002).

Systems theory

This school of thought holds the assumption that it is possible to recognize an effective organizations through the way it interacts with the environment (Tench & Yeomans, 2006). This can lead to the definition of an organization as operating on the basis of closed or open systems. The later systems have boundaries and wide platforms of exchange while the former are defined by closed boundaries which are characterized by minimal exchange (Gregory, 2002).

The assumptions made with regard to the open systems approach were relatively realistic on the basis of approaches to communication as documented by current market leaders. The reports puts forth a recommendation of an international public relations team despite the existing suggestion that the uptake of the approach in a closed system may fail in its endeavours to succeed as a planning tool in public relations.

An open system approach in PR provides a link between the structure of the organization and the process of planning. This can be best understood through a four step approach, which according to Tench and Yeomans (2006) includes the definition of the problem, planning process, taking action and communication, and then the evaluation process. The explanation of this approach is derived from Gregory’s planning model (Gregory, 2000) which begins with an analysis and the setting of objectives. These objectives are perceived as a reflection of the organization’s objectives, message creation, and the development of strategic approach and tactics. This receives support from the defined timescales, available and required resources, and the evaluation process.

According to Wilson (2001), the planning matrix must also be considered as a useful source of reference in the assessment of the critical core of difficulty prior to the identification of the public, the definition of campaign goals and objectives.


The typologies of press publicity, the two way asymmetric and the two way symmetric form essential PR models which  in the view of Tench and Yeomans (2006) provides an ideal approach to the planning and understanding of PR campaign plans. However, it is important for PR team to consider the development of mutual understanding with the public especially when the understanding of the prevailing condition id based on an open system approach which endeavours to establish symmetrical PR (Fawkes, 2002). Critics have argued that this approach may fail due to its idealistic nature (Grunig et al, 2002). In addition, global research is considered a challenge to the applicability of generic models. This in the view of Diaz et al (2008) can only be resolved though the development of culturally patient alternatives as the most suitable approach.

Excellence in PR involves symmetry, strategic management and direct involvement of the executive management of the organization. The recommendation that the PR team be led by the company’s director enables the management of contentious issues to remain the mandate of senior management. The development of a link between the existing roles and those of the PR team enables the team to play an influential role in the management of issues financial reporting and financial communication. 

The authority of the PR team charged with the management of the campaign visualized PR and marketing as separate but overlapping entities (Moss, 1995). The dominant nature of PR in a company like Lifesaver Systems is relatively unlikely but its presence is considered as an alternative marketing technique to enhance the proposed level of public relations planning and control.

Situation analysis

Internal and external environmental analysis that was brought about by an understanding of systems theory led to the use of the EPISTLE technique followed by SWOT analysis. Such environmental investigations in the view of Grunig et al (2002) play the role of identifying environmental actions which may generate reactions from the organization while ate same time allowing strategic adjustments.

Environmental analysis in the view of Simcic Bronn (2001) is an indispensable management tool and an essential PR tool especially when applied on a continuous basis. Through situation analysis it was easy for the organization to not only identify essential stakeholders but also highlight important issues affecting the progress of the organization.

Gregory (2002) and Cutlip et al (2000) argue that it is important to conduct a situation analysis prior to the definition of the public and the objectives of the organization. This will ensure scrutiny of organizational performance on matters of effectiveness and efficiency.

Situation analysis was followed by the identification and mapping of stakeholders, which according to Welch (2006) provides a description of these stakeholders as intuitive scientists who hold information and attitudes prior to the establishment of any form of relationship with the organization. It is the role of PR to altering and neutralizing hostile opinions into view that support the endeavors of the organization (Gregory 2002).

Identifying the audience

Kantian perspective of stakeholder theory demands that the management consider the interests of the stakeholders because they form part of the affected groups which must play a role in the development of organizational policy (Somerville, 2001).

Unlike the stakeholders the public are considered active rather than passive. This is largely because they comprise a group of individuals that develop their own identities and are a representation of their interests in relation to those of the system (Leitch & Neilson, 2001). The involvement of stakeholder in the development of campaign aims and objectives is an indication of a better perceived program and organizational growth (L’Etang, 2008). This approach is helpful in the management of issues and the acquisition of feedback concerning the plan (Deegan, 2001).

Setting objectives

Organizations are considered effective when their goals are essential to the management and the stakeholders (Grunig, 2001). Through the development of effective aims and objectives, organizations are able to channel the road towards the realization of organizational goals through a careful selection of preferred outcomes with the perspective that minor changes to organizational operations can result in positive development (Tench and Yeomans, 2006).

Through this report it is possible to notice the view that objectives can be derived through cognitive deliberations that are achievable through PR practices that are based on defined budgets, definite timescales and priorities. It is important for objectives to be specific, measurable, achievable, and realistic and time- bound (SMART).


Messages in the view of Somerville (2002) provide support to the objectives of the campaign and the organization’s strategy. This can only be realized through the use of formative research in directing message components that enhance the multiple and varied images developed by the audience regarding the organization.

Messages play a critical role in PR considering that they assist in the creation of awareness and formation of attitudes that demonstrate the formation of attitudes that are a demonstration of the success of communication tools. The content of messages is determined by a consideration of the existing perceptions. This is essential in the definition of realistic shifts and the consideration of realistic elements (PR Academy, 2008).

Strategy and Tactics

Strategy according to Smith (2005) is descriptive of the organization’s plan that helps in the determination of organizational goals and how they are to be achieved. In addition, an organization’s strategy also offers direction, theme, content and tone of organizational goals. Tactics according to Smith (2005) are vehicle for communication that helps in the implementation of organizational strategy.

The report presents a series of activities that are founded on an integrated approach to internal communication between the management and the employees; communication with other stakeholders such as customers; financial PR, lobbying initiatives and the management of organizational issues. The activities for realizing the organizational strategy is defined in the 10 month campaign of pre-campaign, campaign and follow-up activity. The tactics of the organization are closely related to the situational analysis, objectives and organizational strategy. This approach makes the objectives more important than the techniques applied (Gregory, 2002).

Timescale resources

The campaign plan outlines and specifies monthly activities which include pre-campaign and post campaign phases. Most of these activities require the PR team to prepare action plans. The skills of the PR team are critical for the success of the campaign according to the defined timescales. The development of a detailed budget outlines potential implementation costs while providing the necessary support to the program (Tench and Yeomans, 2006).


Failure to allocate realistic budgets to the processes of monitoring and evaluating PR campaigns affect the ability of PR team to measure progress and impact of the campaign (Watson, 2001). Evaluation must be conducted from the inputs, outputs, outcomes and impacts as a way of assessing the level by which the campaign has realized the intended objectives. Through the setting of a definite budget, the campaign team can engage in constant monitoring and evaluation throughout the campaign (Tench & Yeomans, 2006).


Planning according to Cropp and Pincus (2008) is an essential procedure in business especially when considering the development of solutions through an integrated business process. In PR planning is considered as a way through which an organization is able to demonstrate to different stakeholders and competitors that PR campaigns can make a difference in matters related to the improvement of business operations. It is important to note that planning does not make poorly conceived business programs successful. It is a tool that when used in PR can help in the determination of the success of a campaign from the onset (Tench & Yeomans, 2006).


CIPR. (2009). Chartered Institute of Public Relations 2009. Factfile [online]. Available from [accessed 28.3.09]

 Cropp F. & Pincus J.D. (2001). The Mystery of Public Relations: unravelling its past,

unmasking its future. In Heath, R.L. (ed). Handbook of Public Relations. London. Sage Publications pp 189-204.

Curtin, P.A. & Gaither, K.T. (2007). International Public Relations. Negotiating Culture,

Identity and Power. Thousand Oaks, California. Sage Publications.

Cutlip, S. M.,Center, A.H. & Broom, G.M. (2000). Effective Public Relations. (Seventh Edition).

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Prentice Hall.

Diaz V., Abratt., D., Clarke R & Bendixen M. (2009). PR Practitioners in International

Assignments: an assessment of success and the influence of organisational and national cultures. Corporate Communications: An International Journal Vol 14 (1). pp 78-100.

Fawkes, J. (2002). What is Public Relations? In Theaker (ed). The Public Relations Handbook.

London. Routledge. pp 3-12.

Gregory, A. (2002). Planning and Managing Public Relations Campaigns (Second Edition).

London. Kogan Page.

Grunig, J.E. (2001). The Role of Public Relations in Management and its Contribution to

Organisational and Societal Effectiveness. Speech delivered in Taipei, Taiwan. 12 May [online]. Available from

Hirsch P. & Shaukat, N. (2008). My Country is Different: defining drivers of excellence in the

global communications organisations of large multinationals. Journal of Corporate Communications: An International Journal. Vol 13 (1) pp 11-17.

Hofsted, G.H. (2001). Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions and

Organisations.(Second edition). Sage. Thousand Oaks, California.

L’Etang. (2008). Public Relations Concepts, Practice and Critique. London. Sage Publications.

Leitch S. & Neilson, D. (2001). Bringing Publics Into Public Relations: new theoretical

frameworks for practice. In Heath, R.L. (ed) Handbook of Public Relations. London. Sage Publications pp127-138.

Morley, M. (2002). How to Manage Your Global Reputation. A Guide to the Dynamics of

International Public Relations. Basingstoke, Hampshire. Palgrave.

Simcic Brønn, P. (2001). Communication Managers as Strategists? Can They Make the Grade?

Journal of Communication Management. Vol 5 (4). Pp313-326.

Somerville, I. (2002). Public Relations, Politics and the Media. In Theaker, A. (ed). The Public

Relations Handbook. London. Routledge, pp.24-34.

Taylor, M. (2001). International Public Relations: opportunities and challenges for the 21st

century. In Heath, R.L. (ed) Handbook of Public Relations. London. Sage Publications.

Tench, R. & Yeomans, L. (2006). Exploring Public Relations. Harlow, Essex. Pearson


Wilson, L.J. (2001). Extending Communication Planning to Communication Tactics. In Heath,

R.L. (ed) Handbook of Public Relations. London. Sage Publications. pp 215-222.

Essay Writing Help on Bottling Company Case Study my assignment essay help

The Bottling Company Case Study

Due to the complains raised by customers concerning the amount of ounces contained in a bottle of soda, the following analysis has been done to investigate whether it is true that a bottle of soda contains less than 16 ounces as claimed by most customers. The probable reasons that could have caused this defect are also discussed together with strategies to improve the current situation.

Bottle NumberOunces (x)(x-mean) squared114.50.1369214.60.0729314.70.0289414.80.0049514.90.0009615.30.1849714.90.0009815.50.3969914.80.00491015.20.108911150.01691215.10.052913150.01691414.40.22091515.80.864916140.756917161.27691816.11.51291915.80.86492014.50.13692114.10.59292214.20.448923140.75692414.90.00092514.70.02892614.50.13692714.60.07292814.80.00492914.80.00493014.60.0729N= 30Summation =446.1Summation=8.7781

Question 1

Let ounces be x and the sample size be n therefore: Mean =summation of x/n

                                                                                                           =446.1/30 = 14.87

Median is the number that appears in the middle when the set of data is arranged in ascending or descending order.

14, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.4, 14.5, 14.5, 14.5, 14.6, 14.6, 14.6, 14.7, 14.7, 14.8, 14.8, 14.9, 14.9, 14.9, 15, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.5, 15.8, 15.8, 16, 16.1

Median=[14.8+14.8]/2 = 14.8

Standard deviation is the square root of variance and variance =summation of [x-mean] squared/n

Therefore standard deviation = square root of [8.7781/30] = 0.5409.

Question 2

If the confidence level is 95% then the significance level is 0.05.To construct a confidence level, the margin error should be calculated, and to get margin error, the critical value should be calculated using the t-distribution table.

The degree of freedom = n-k, k being the number of variables, hence degree of freedom =29.Using the significance level we compute the cumulative probability which is= 1-[0.05/2]=0.975 obtaining a critical value of 2.045 using the t-distribution table.

Therefore margin error = critical value *standard error [standard deviation/sample size]

                                         =2.045*[0.5409/30] = 0.0369

Therefore the confidence interval = 14.87 +/- 0.0369

Question 3: Hypothesis testing

Hypothesis testing is used to test whether calculations results can be trusted. As in this case, the calculations are about ounces contained in a bottle. The test will be used to test whether it is true that the ounces in a bottle are less than the company claims it contain. Hypothesis testing can be grouped into two types; null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. Null hypothesis, which is denoted by Ho, is the hypothesis of interest. Alternative hypothesis on the other hand is the hypothesis that is tested against the null hypothesis. Alternative hypothesis is denoted by HA.


The null and alternative hypothesis is first stated, which is:Ho=16 and HA <16. Using the confidence interval approach, the decision rule for the hypothesis testing states that if the estimator, which in this case is 16 ounces falls within the confidence interval, then we do not reject the null hypothesis but if the estimator falls outside the confidence level, then we reject the null hypothesis

From previous calculation, the confidence interval is 14.87 +/- 0.0369 meaning the acceptance area is between the ranges of 14.83 to 14.91.Since our estimator, which is 16 ounces do not fall within the confidence interval, and then we reject the null hypothesis.


Based on the hypothesis testing performed above, it is therefore in order to conclude that the ounces contained in a bottle of soda is less than 16 ounces. This is because we have rejected the null hypothesis meaning that ounces contained in a bottle of soda is not equal to 16 ounces and that the customers are right.

A number of reasons can cause this defect. The main ones being failure of equipment, lack of inspection of bottles before distributing them, and marketing failure. Equipment failure can interfere with the measurement, especially if the equipment that has failed is one that is used for measuring the ounces contained in a bottle of soda. In addition, marketing failure causes defects when the labels on the bottle are misleading. That is the label written on the bottle is not what is really obtained inside. The defect in the soda bottle content could also be as a result of senior management not inspecting the bottles before they are distributed in order to ensure that the content in the bottle are correct and agrees with the labels on the bottle.

Elimination of these defects will require very good strategies that are long term. The most convenient strategy that this report recommends is quality management practices. This will ensure that the management system is continuously improved. This strategy is characterized by putting in place quality standards and management control that are to be followed in identifying and controlling unforeseen errors to avoid failures of the systems.


Ashley, R. (2012). Fundamentals of applied econometrics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Assignment Writing Help on How does the author describe futile treatment narrative essay help: narrative essay help

Topic 2 D Q 2

How does the author describe futile treatment?

The author in the article portrays the dilemma that projects from futile treatment from various perspectives where different people are involved. The ethical perspective and concerns seems to differ as observed from different parties involved. These parties include the trained clinicians, the family of the sick persons, and general public. Technology seems to offer many advantages to the health care fraternity; however, in the matters of futile treatment it lack significance. Technology has played significant role in sustaining life among the patient subjected to critical conditions by diseases such as cancer. Practically, there are conditions in which treatment offers little impact to the patients. In situations where chances of survival are considered to be less than 10%, futile treatment can be applied (Li, 2012). However, the dilemma of necessity of futile treatment in such cases is evident from professional and public perspective.

 What ethical dilemmas are faced by health care providers who must address human suffering?

There is a great ethical dilemma in identifying a case as futile treatment. Normally, the healthcare providers use four principles that guide them in tackling issues that poses ethical concerns. These principles are based on autonomy, non-maleficience, justice and beneficence (Li, 2012). The dilemma arises because much emphasis is placed on beneficence when it comes to public. In most cases, the family of the sick persons considers continuing treatment as the best option despite the helplessness of the situation. It appears quite inhuman to halt necessary treatment to a person who is in critical condition by simply labeling the case as a futile treatment. Many people would consider treatment to prolong life as a necessary aspect of humanity (Beauchamp & Childress, 2001).

How can ethical principles be used to identify the most appropriate decision when conflict arises?

It is important to have proper principles in places to help in solving ethical dilemmas that are inevitable in healthcare fraternity. Medical school and healthcare institutions should provide a guide line on necessary principle that may be vital in handling ethical dilemma. Educating the public on such principles would reduce unnecessary misunderstandings that arise in cases like futile treatment. The stake holders involved including the patients should harmonize their view on issues that pose ethical concerns. This can be done by creating platform where all the stake holders can participate in giving out their view (Keskin, 2013).


Beauchamp, T. L., & Childress, J. F. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics. Oxford university press.

Keskin, M. O. (2013). “What should i do?” Making ethical decision in certain hypothetical cases. International Journal Of Academic Research, 5(6), 87-98. doi:10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-6/B.16

Li, M. (2012). Dealing with futile treatment: A medical student’s perspective. Australian Medical Student Journal, 3(2), 58-60.

Homework Writing Help on Drip Feed Technology in Arid and Semi Arid Areas english essay help: english essay help

Drip Feed Technology in Arid and Semi Arid Areas

Executive Summary

Considering the literature assessments and analyses of the Queensland agricultural expansion into arid and semi arid areas, various key aspects have been developed to establish the viability of the project. Due to its efficiency in water conservation and high agricultural yield, the prospective project would be of great significance as a means of boosting the economy of the Queensland. In this segment of the write up, various strategic approaches and interventions are established as models for reinforcing the acceptability, viability as well as the economic impact of the project. Water conservation is regarded among the most important means of alleviating the adverse effects of the changes in climate. Hence, many countries are rapidly moving in to tap the agricultural potentials that lie in the underutilized arid and semi arid areas (Keller & Bliesner 1990, 501).

Strategic Response

This strategic response emphasizes the need for enhanced implementation of the drip feed technology in promoting improved agricultural productivity in the Arid and Semi Arid areas in Queensland. From the business case, the drip-feed technology has tremendous benefits on solution of water needs in the rapidly growing population of Queensland (Sousa 1999, 346). Ideally, it is a smart focus in addressing water concerns within the significantly environment. Climatic changes alongside other negative factors exerting pressure on the environment contributes enormously on the water scarcity. As reiterated by Marasani et al (2012) modern technologies of water conserving irrigation methods are fundamental models in efficiently using the limited water resource while increasing on the productivity of agricultural outputs. In farming, drip feed irrigation allows a timely preparation for land/ soil, decrease tillage requirements, fertilize and herbicide application efficiency, increase crop yields, product quality and decreases pest infestation and stresses. Australia has lived to be quite rigid in terms of maintaining the environment (Agrawal & Perrin 2008, 83).

Drip feed technology is a resultant factor of favorable soil water content due to the slow and frequent penetration of water into the soil. This way it promotes yield in agricultural productions and significantly boost the economy (Allen 1990, 27). Adoption of this technology clearly favors the regional economic output. Essentially, studies have revealed escalated benefits in the net annual benefits in the economy with a turnover of U.S. $13.1 per dollar spent in the advancement of the technology and very high levels of water saving. This technology has led to a 52% decrease in the water consumption per hectare. This reflects a substantial cost recovery and excellent returns on investments. There is need for the realignment of regulations as well as incentives in this program within the agricultural sector (Sousa 1999, 346). In respect there is a cognizable consideration to the Queensland government efforts in investing intensely in water security strategies by establishing water bases including the South East Queensland Water Grid, Provincial Water Supply techniques, Water protection measures, Water collection and Water reuse and desalination plants. These are clear indications of the validity of the project having received significant attention from the public and the government of Queensland. Drip feed technology is a justified venture in this development of Australia’s agricultural sector in Arid and Semi Arid areas as well as other areas across the globe. With these considerations, it is assumed that the project has the full support of the Queensland government. Hence, development of the strategic response would incorporate the use of various models (Adger, et al., 2005, 79).

Strategic Interventions

In order to improve the implementation and productivity of the drip feed technology various strategic interventions need to be taken into consideration. Relevant resources ought to be established and set strategically for the execution of the said strategic interventions. These interventions include;

Improving on regulations

Licensing and other irrigation installation regulatory policies need to be adjusted to accommodate a wider scope of provisions that restrict on extensive irrigation technologies but encourage drip feed. This would promote access to farming in the arid and semi arid lands as well as enhance water conservation. Due to the efficiency in productivity and water conservation, drip feed technology would be the most appropriate model to employ for a wider area of farming. The yield from drip feed in this case would significantly reflect on the economy’s GDP through the high returns on investment from the farms (Watson, et al., 1998).

Promoting trade, Investment and Competition

The Queensland government through introduction of incentives and subsidies for this form of irrigation activities should enhance the individual and corporate access to the arid areas of this region to indulge in the irrigation farming activities. In addition, the government should solicit for donations and partnerships from Non Governmental Organizations as well as other interested stakeholders. This would enhance development of infrastructure in the arid and semi arid areas with banks, schools, and even settlement schemes moving into these areas. In turn, it would promote increase in the national per capita income and equitable regional development of the Queensland (Lamm, et al., 2012, 486)

Fostering Innovation

Introduction of innovative approaches in this program would promote a more advanced and methods of crop production process, introduction of a wider range of the crops produced in the farms and thus improve significantly to the levels of income from these innovative ideas. Through fostering innovation, the use of technological models of marketing would be introduced in the production, processing and marketing process. This would improve on the quality and quantity of production as well as enhance widening of the market scope to capture the potential global market. Innovation would introduce advanced methods of growth and development of the agricultural sector in the arid and semi arid areas (Tilley, et al., 2008).

Promoting employment and Social inclusion

The Queensland government should promote job creation in these farms by introducing of government-based fund for the youth and women from various social backgrounds and classes to build an all-inclusive project that benefits every member of the larger Queensland community. These funds should be issued in form of facilities and equipment for use in the farming processes. This will ensure that funds allocated to the project are utilized in this project efficiently. Unutilized pieces of land should be categorically allocated to the social organizations such as community based projects to use as income generating projects for the sustainability of their respective projects as well as promote tax contribution in the national development. This initiative would help create more employment opportunities and help alleviate the creeping levels of unemployment and poverty across the entire population in Queensland.

Providing adequate education

Educating the society on the benefits of the drip feed technology as a model for income generation would play a major role in mobilizing participation in faming of these areas. Mobilization and civic education strategies such as the use of media, posters, brochures and discussion forums among other modes of imparting the knowledge among members of the Queensland society are effective methods of creating more awareness over the programs hence promoting the level of participation in the same. Effective education would improve on individual and collective participation thus increase the rate of development of this strategic approach towards development of the region (FAO, Eds, 1997).

Developing Policies for Sustainable Growth

Laid down policies should be well defined to the future prospects, scopes of development, and strategic plans among other development definitions. These policies should enlighten investors on the strategies in place to take care of risks, manage levels of growth and regulate entry and exit in the sector to create a balance in the market structure. These policies would be helpful in determining the most appropriate methods to use in these projects providing room for the adjustments, hedging and subsequent establishment of larger investments. In this respect, the economy of Queensland as well as the food security within the nation would be greatly improved (Verge, X. P. et al., 2007, 256).

Strategic Options

In this segment, the use of creative alternatives that are action oriented and account for the threats, opportunities, strengths and weaknesses within the external and internal business environment of the prospective project.

The identified strategic options in this respect can be summarized using the Strategic Options Matrix as follows;

Strategic InterventionsStrategic OptionsOption 1Option 2Option 3Option 4Option 5Option 6Promote access to farming in the arid and semi arid lands as well as enhance water conservationEnhance development of infrastructure in the arid and semi arid areas with banks, schools and even settlement schemes moving into these areasImprove on the quality and quantity of production as well as enhance widening of the market scope to capture the potential global market.Create more employment opportunities and help alleviate the creeping levels of unemployment and poverty across the entire QueenslandImprove on individual and collective participation thus increase the rate of development of this strategic approach towards development of the region.  Help in determining the most appropriate methods to use in these projects providing room for the adjustments, hedging and subsequent establishment of larger investment. (Sousa 1999, 346).Improving on regulations      Promoting trade, Investment and Competition      Fostering Innovation      Promoting employment and Social inclusion      Providing adequate education      Developing Policies for Sustainable Growth             

Ranking of Strategic Options

These strategic interventions comprise various intensities of benefit and success in this development model. In order of appreciation, providing adequate education would be ranked the number one priority in the establishment of the project. Information would build appreciation of the project and create the urge of involvement by a wider group of individuals (Stoorvogel et al., 2004, 53). Through increased information, the government can move with ease of formulating acceptable policies regarding the said project in consideration with the response of the larger society on the information disseminated. Cost wise, information dissemination is relatively cheaper as compared to the rest of the implementation strategies. Operational costs are quite manageable and there are minimal risks involved. Information compounds into significant benefits, as the information is the groundbreaker for the planning and eventual implementation of the actual project. This would address one of the identified strengths of the Australian economy of a wider uninformed, potential investment opportunity in the region (Stoorvogel et al., 2004, 53).

Promoting trade, investment, and competition would follow in order of prioritizing the interventions. It involves government involvements in provision of incentives and subsidies to promote individual and corporate investments in the project (Sousa 1999, 346). This intervention is quite objective since it is project-specific and focuses on an ideal approach appreciable by the larger population. This however, could involve relatively higher costs of acquisition of the equipment, provision of the incentive and the subsidies mostly at the initial stages of the project initiation. On the other hand, upon successful launch of the projects through this model, a larger number of participant would indulge in the drip feed irrigation farming thus widen the agricultural sector in the arid and semi arid lands of the Queensland. Essentially, these interventions are the larger players of these development projects at the initial stages. The government strategy would promote tapping of these idle lands and transform them into large enterprises of income generating activities (Stoorvogel et al., 2004, 53).

Another supporting strategy is fostering innovation. Project participants should explore and implement innovative ways of utilizing idle land resources and maximize returns. With rapidly growing online platform and other innovative technologies, most economies around the world are moving swiftly to align their investment programs with the trends. In the actual sense, innovation introduces a wide range of skills in the production and business environment creating more developments, improved quality, and quantity of productions within a shorter span of time. By tapping the globalized business front, the project would serve a large population, using modernized modes of production and marketing and promote increments in the economic benefits of the country. Innovations build skills and standardization of the products hence invigorates products acceptability across the larger universal society. However, costs involved in tapping these innovative approaches are quite high and their development could take much longer time to be effective. Innovative initiatives once started, are implemented on continuous basis, and regularly updated to match the trending forms of technological advancements across the globalized market (United Nations, 2000).

Developing policies, adjustment of the existing regulations and promotion of employment and societal involvement are other continuous procedures implemented in the process. These cost much less but contribute enormously to the growth of the agricultural sector especially under irrigation in the arid and semi arid areas. Their cost and benefits are quite significant regardless of the intangible display of effects on the growth that they exhibit within the process (Bandaru, & Stewart, et al., 2006, 1011).

Recommended Strategic option

The most preferable is the improvement of infrastructure in the arid and semi arid lands. These are the most attractive facilities in the economy that many individuals regard of the most relevance in economic development. By developing the infrastructure, many individuals would prefer moving into the regions for development purposes (Stoorvogel et al., 2004, 53). Agricultural produce would have ease of movement in and out of these lands creating viability of the projects on economic development. Such developments can only be achieved by government interventions prioritizing on the areas for development. This option, however expensive it may be, has long term cost benefits since the developments would remain for a long period and would create room for building other forms of infrastructure as well. Essentially, with adequate resources and infrastructure, risks involved in development projects such as the extension of farming into the remote areas are well taken care of and their management strategies formulated effectively (Stoorvogel et al., 2004, 53).

Project Option Analysis

Project options are identified based on their eventual outcome, acceptability to the society and the cost incurred in the implementation of the same. The balance between cost of implementation and cost benefits in this sense are of crucial importance in consideration of the most appropriate project options. In this respect, the strategic interventions are categorized into separate segments (Sousa 1999, 346). As discussed earlier, these interventions have varied cost benefits and contribution levels to the establishment of the project of study (Sousa, 1999, 346). As listed above, these interventions would require different resource allocations and output options or even both. Improving on regulations would require government based approach to evaluate the laid don policies and establish the most appropriate models of improving. This might incorporate formulation of committees or tribunals to evaluate adjust and constitute the best policies. Market trends and prices would be relevant in this regard to establish the pros and the cons attached t any adjustments made on the policy. Constraints in this intervention are in most cased financial inclined. Inadequate resources may be a hindering factor in the implementation process of this intervention (Eakin & Luers 2006, 57).

Just like in the improving of regulations, Fostering Innovation, Promoting trade, Investment and Competition, Promoting employment and Social inclusion, providing adequate education and Developing Policies for Sustainable Growth, as discussed in the strategic interventions above are all relatively involving intervention processes, their scope of implementation are profound and require extensive studies,  other resources and time. The only constraints that are likely to be exhibited in these interventions are societal concerns apart from the financial point of view (Sousa 1999, 346). Stakeholders in every segment of these strategic interventions are identified with regard to their contributions in line with the specific strategic option. These stakeholders in most cases will comprise financial aid agencies, other government agencies, and individual contributors playing vital roles in the establishment of project especially in financing various sections of the projects (Sousa 1999, 346).

Success of this project would influence positively the society through creation of population units of diverse background, employment opportunities, and foster peace and stability of the entire region. Apart from the government-based interventions such as the policy formulations, the other interventions would have direct impact on the society. For instance, innovation would improve on the skills of several individuals within the society thus create novel waves of ideologies and other forms of intervention in the larger business environment. Creation of a diversified population within the areas of operation, through the government promotions, may lead to increased intermarriages, increased population growth, and growth of households among other socioeconomic effects of the development project (Adger, et al., 2005, 79).

Environmentally, such developments would improve on environmental conservation, retention of a majority of water resources and preservation of the indigenous plantations in other areas. By having irrigated plantations in the arid and semi arid areas, there would be a more diverse and increased environmental regeneration in the midst of the climate change effects (Sousa 1999, 346). The government and all environmental stakeholders would need to intensify environmental based education and policy formulation to promote the legislative regulations regarding the environment (McGuckian 2002). In this respect, the project would result into extremely high economic output. The significantly high return on investment established would double or even triple with effect to the regulations as well as the interventions. Apart from the high return on investments, the project would result in increased employment rate hence improved workforce participation, high level of productivity and value added productivity from the improved quality of the products due to innovative interventions (McGuckian 2002).

The most prominent challenge in the structuring of risk management instruments either through the private sector or within the government is the aspect defined by economic experts as information irregularity. In simpler terms, despite the farmers having full information and better positions of assessing their risk factors, the government and the private sectors do not get the same class of information (McGuckian 2002 ).

Risks involved in the drip feed technology and the general development of the project can be categorized as follows;

RiskRisk Management StrategySupply Chain risks; these are risks largely concerned with the flow of the commodities finances and information across the entire market structure from the production process to the consumption. In a poorly developed supply chain, numerous losses can be incurred especially with the perishable goods.Efficient risk management
commonly entails interconnection among various fundamental factors of the supply chain as well as high level of flexibility.The financial risks that farmers experience are as a result of rates and accessibility of capital to finance arrears and expand businesses. The capital insufficiency is due to unstable financial institutions and weak connections to the capital markets as well as the globalized financiersGovernment interventions including provision of incentive and subsidies would help alleviate the extents of the risks. The project would require close supervision of the government and other authorities to monitor on progress thus manage any possible shortfalls before occurrence.


Agriculture in the arid and semi arid areas is a viable project of great agricultural production. The only means possible for exploring the full potential of the economic benefits derived from these regions is through the drip feed technology irrigation. It conserves a substantial amount of water utilized for irrigation and in turn enhances high agricultural yields. There are more economic benefits of this project than the risks involved. However, there is need to conduct thorough studies on several other issues surrounding this venture to demonstrate the relevant strategies, interventions and options for the sustainability, growth and development. In the actual sense, agricultural expansions into these regions are of great economic value creating higher production levels, increased job opportunities, and value added productions resulting from the innovative, time bound and large-scale productions. The government’s support plays a major role in the implementation, success, and sustainability of this project. However, it is prudent to note that in spite of the government performance and contributions in this venture, the entire population should take part in developing systems that will contribute enormously in this development. Societal acceptance and appreciation play such a vital role in the implementation and success of the said project.


Adger, W. et al., 2005. Successful Adaptation to Climate Change across Scales. Global Environmental Change. pp. 15, 77-86.

Agrawal, A., Perrin, N. 2008. Climate Adaptation, Local Institutions, and Rural Livelihoods. IFRI Working Paper. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Pp. 8I-6.

Allen, L.H., 1990. Plant responses to rising carbon dioxide and potential interactions with air pollutants. Environmental Journal. Qual. 19, 1990, pp. 15–34.

Bandaru, V. & Stewart, B. et al.,  2006. Growing dryland grain sorghum in clumps to reduce vegetative growth and increase yield. Agron. J. 98:1109–1120.

FAO, Eds,1997. Small-scale Irrigation for Arid Zones. Principles and Options. Rom: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO).

McGuckian, R., 2002, Irrigation Risk Management Permanent Horticulture Kit. Scope for Water Use Efficiency. Savings As A Source Of Water To Meet Increased Environmental Flows – Independent review: ACIL Tasman.

Keller, J. & Bliesner R.D., 1990. Sprinkler and Trickle Irrigation, AVI Book , New York.

Lamm, F. R. et al., 2012. Subsurface Drip Irrigation: Status of the Technology in 2010. Transactions of the ASABE, Vol. 55(2): pp.483–491.

Sousa, P.L., 1999, Comparative Analysis of Main on Farm Irrigation Systems In Portugal. Agricultural Water Management 40(2/3), 1999, 341 –351.

Stoorvogel, J. et al., 2004. The Trade-Off Analysis Model: Integrated Biophysical And Economic Modeling Of Agricultural Production Systems. Agricultural Systems 80, 43–66.

 Skewes, M and Meissner, T 1997, Irrigation benchmarks and best management practices for citrus. Technical Report No. 258, Primary Industries and Resources, Adelaide SA.

Tilley, E. et al., 2008. Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf and Geneva: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG).

United Nations. (2000). Millennium Development Goals. United Nations. New York. USA.—dgreports/stat/documents/publication/wcms_087882.pdf

Verge, X. P. et al., 2007, Agricultural Production, Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Mitigation Potential. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142. pp.255–269.

Watson R.T. et al., 1998. The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. A Special Report of IPCC Working Group II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. file:///C:/Users/RobertGilbert/Desktop/EMERGINGRESPONSESTOCLIMATECHANGEADAPTATIONSTRATEGIESINARID.pdf

Sample Essay on College Transfer essay help 123

College Transfer

I hereby apply for a college transfer to your institution. I am originally from Texas and initially, I went to a public school but later moved to a private school at the age of seven. This is because my parents desired the best for us and I was admitted at the Incarnate Word Academy. Moving to a private school in Texas was a big challenge for me because I was uncertain of what the future had for me, and especially of how hard the classes were going to be. However, I looked forward to the time when we could serve the community. This is the reason why I would prefer a college within America that offers opportunities for community service.

We used to have service hours after every fortnight. Every student had at least 12 hours per fortnight. However, I used to do extra service hours because I liked to serve the less privileged. I spent most of these hours in mass services and food banks. At times, I used to join the nurses in hospitals in attending to the elderly by reading stories to them and playing with them. I cultivated discipline when I was in a private high school. All through my high school period, I had to work twice as hard. I also got involved in community service in helping the needy as required. In addition to this, I helped in building new ramps in the hospital. This was part of the community service for the elderly. My desire is to be the best in my choice field of computer science. A transfer to your institution will grant me a perfect opportunity to achieve my dreams.

Assignment Writing Help on Working mothers do not wreck their families history essay help: history essay help

Working mothers do not wreck their families

Do working mothers really wreck families? How? What research evidence proves this? Does this term refer to the contemporary setting or the traditional style where women were regarded as housewives and men slaves? In large context, this statement is usually supported by irrational minds/thinkers who still do not value the rights and values of women. Consider Brazils President Ellen, Former US secretary of state, single mothers, and many other successful women in the business world. Are they home wreckers or good examples to the society? Working mothers do not wreck families, but rather enhance, boost and create a golden foundation for the families.

In the contemporary society where many parents are single, or the income is meager should we not encourage the husband and wife to support the family? Should single women not work to support their families? The family plays a vital role in raising the children and working women provide good examples to the girl child as well as demonstrating responsibility traits to the society.

Some writers argue that working mothers brings child-rearing burden to the family since the children are left in day cares and others with house helps who may not be trusted. This statement is true to a certain extent, but it should not be taken that all house helps or daycares are bad. In fact, house helps are protected by the labor laws and have codes of professional conduct. Many of them nurture good behavior in children whom they take care of.

At the same time, the salary earned by the husbands may be too little to cater for all the family requirements. This being the case, it would be illogical not to allow women to work to support the family. The contribution of both parents would go a long way in bringing up children.

All in all, working doesn’t mean leaving the children and the husband alone, but rather it is an investment and tradeoff that the spouses make if they want a better life for their children and for themselves in future.  Women should try to inform their children of the need to work and the life complexities. Non-working women may face more challenges in bringing up family than the working women.

Essay Writing Help: Respect, military bearing, and professionalism essay help site:edu

Essay: Respect, military bearing, and professionalism

This is a corrective essay based on respect, military bearing and professionalism for disrespecting a Non Commissioned Officer otherwise known as Sergeant. The essay relates to the military principles defined by the US Army and Exemplary Conduct, and how these principles build a strong foundation for better operations.

According to the US Field Manual, the term military bearing refers to a well-established commanding presence and a projected professional image of military authority. The US Field Manual outlines key operational terms as holding the commanding presence and professional image of authority, which determine the ability of an army officer to respond to specific values and principles like military bearing, discipline among regular officers and sergeants as well as respect within the entire operational unit.

In all the military operations, the Field Manual holdings subject Field Commandants and Non Commissioned Officers to a projected decision based on military bearing. The main concern in this case in for a military leader to remain disciplined, courteous, confident and bearing the skills of persuading or providing motivation, good directions and purpose to their respective subordinates with an objective of completing an assigned mission. In all these circumstance, the American Soldier Creed provides guidelines on how military subordinates should conduct themselves on daily basis, on or off duty without defaming the position of other officials.

In other words, the principles mentioned above represent what most military organizations in USA believe in, and governs the most important customs and courtesies. All members of the military must therefore abide by these principles or may face legal repercussion and punishment that may lead to ultimate split in ideas and process execution. A military officer according to the Field Manual 6-22 should be proactive and not reactive, and should always observe a sense of composure and not discomposure as well as remaining calm during the most stressful or annoying situations. As already mention, military leaders must demonstrate their composure even in chaotic situations or in cases where civilians respond in panic and discomposure.

In a battlefield, both non-commissioned officers and officer in duty must respond by making tough and swift decisions even if such decisions will affect the lives of their fellow soldiers. This is because during chaos, the subordinate are completely depending on the right decisions of their sergeants believing that such decisions provide the best alternative solution to end the chaos. The level of discipline and ability to make quick decisions offer the best opportunity for troubleshooting, and any given situation, whether life threatening or not, must be handled with the highest level of professionalism, but according to the military operational standards. The military operational standards require that an officer or subordinate must act in ways specific to codes of conduct. Following the needs to make decisions that improve performances within and outside military bases, the attributes of obedience, integrity and professionalism still remains core as already stated. Under these three premises, the Non-Commissioned Officers, the Field Officers, and the military subordinate must show obedience to duty calls and disciplined performance in all their assignments. It is the jurisdictional mandate to understand that Non-Commissioned Officers assign tasks just like the Officers in duty, which soldiers with the right sense of duty must respond to accomplish without complains or showing disrespected. This means that military subordinates or soldiers should seize any rising opportunity that enhances self-improvement as well as accept responsibility from their supervisors with a flexible mind. In the course of duty, soldiers, leaders and those who are led must show genuine concern and work as a team in order to accomplish the mission. With a flexible operational mind, respect to the call of duty and commitment to service, the soldiers are able to fulfill the desires of the army organization rather than feeding self-interests.

In the event of accomplishing the mission, the soldiers must also remain clipped to the fact that integrity is the only way to achieve in life. The Non-Commissioned Officers, the Field Officers and the Army Subordinates must take responsibility of their actions and ensure that their actions are dependable and consistent to information relayed within the military camps. Integrity in all aspects of life ensures that the process of decision-making corresponds to the position held by an army officer or a soldier, and therefore the delegation process becomes easy to manage. The personal attributes of a soldier or an army subordinate must always give Non-Commissioned Officers and Field Officers the easiest time ever while looking at the best strategies to apply in a battle.

The situations arising in battle fields require prompt decisions and actions of professionally competent military leader. Without respect and competencies, a military leader may not be able to delegate duties in a way that meets the required standards. However, a leader who is competent and respectful gains the command over other soldiers, and by authoritatively delegating his position to people with diverse skills and experiences, the military leader or a Non-Commissioned Officer develops, maintains and uses the full range of human potentials to develop strong defense base. Like in any other organization, the military base must ensure full control of its potentials, which is critical towards mission accomplishment. A leader who shows respect to his subordinates obtains respect from the same members of subordinate, and always serves by giving his troops constructive information, which serves the purpose of maintaining military disciple. The kind of respect demonstrated by soldiers in their execution processes show the level of concern the soldiers have, and that they are fully aware of the controls and responsibilities given to them by virtue of their military service. This goes in line with proper training for soldiers in readiness to take control of chaos as well as protecting the interests of the society they serve.

In general, showing disrespect to a Non-Commissioned Officer or any other military leader for that matter is a pure show of lack of commitment to the State Military. When a military subordinate decides to disrespect those above him or her in terms of rank, there are higher possibilities that any duty assigned will not be performed under such a command, and therefore it is the jurisdictional right of the leader to sue the solider for disobedience and neglect to duties. Therefore, the Exemplary Conduct requires all commanding officers and those below them to show good examples of virtue, subordination, and honor before demanding the same virtues from their fellows. The conduct also requires military officers to take an active course in respecting the conduct of every subordinate, guard against dissolute and immoral practices, and to correct suggestively according to the principles of the Army.

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