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Health Discussion Essay Essay Help Free

Did our discussion today make any changes in the way you think about health? In what way?

Human sexuality ethics and morality writing essay help: writing essay help

Must be at least 200 words

This week we are discussing the topic of ethics and morality when it comes to human sexuality.  With that in mind, please choose one of these two topics: Prostitution or Pornography  which many consider a moral issue.

Read the required reading: Ethical Decision Making and then apply the Ethical Problem Solving Model to your topic answering the 5 questions. Please see the model outlined below.

Ethical Problem Solving Model

Answer the five questions when trying to resolve a moral issue:

What benefits and what harms will each course of action produce, and which alternative will lead to the best overall consequences?
What moral rights do the affected parties have, and which course of action best respects those rights?
Which course of action treats everyone the same, except where there is a morally justifiable reason not to, and does not show favoritism or discrimination?
Which course of action advances the common good?
Which course of action develops moral virtues?

Remember that all situations are unique and not one set of rules applies in all cases. (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks, & Meyer, 2015)

Manuel Velasquez, Claire Andre, Thomas Shanks, S.J., and Michael J. Meyer .  (2015, Aug 1) Thinking Ethically. Santa Clara University-Markkula Center for Applied Ethics.


Group typology discussion compare and contrast essay help

As a clinical social worker it is important to understand group typology in order to choose the appropriate group method for a specific population or problem. Each type of group has its own approach and purpose. Two of the more frequently used types of groups are task groups and intervention groups.

For this Assignment, review the “Cortez Multimedia” case study, and identify a target behavior or issue that needs to be ameliorated, decreased, or increased. In a 2- to 4-page report, complete the following:

Program Design Discussion cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

There are many different collaborative practice models in healthcare. These include the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model and others. For your initial discussion post, identify one model and examine how it could be applied to improve the design of a healthcare program. The articles located in the module resources section will assist you in this discussion. Be sure to include concepts from the class in support of your initial post and provide evidence by way of peer-reviewed sources to support your post.

Module Resources:

Collaborative Practice Models

This module will introduce you to the concept of collaborative practice models and how those models relate to the development of healthcare programs. While it is easy to think of healthcare programs in silos (nursing, laboratory, physician, pharmacy), effective programs are rarely effective when delivered in silos. Scarce resources are best allocated and utilized by collaborative teams of practitioners when addressing healthcare transformation. You are introduced to a number of different collaborative models in this module. These resources will encourage you to integrate the idea of clapboard of practice into the design of your final project.

Health Disparities and Disparate Populations

Health disparities are often regarded as referring only to populations who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. In reality there are many types of health disparities in the U.S. and global health economies. As outlined by Healthy People 2020, the simple reality of a condition or disease occurrence being different in genders of the same socioeconomic group can create a significant disparity (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). Thus, when you think about how to design and play healthcare programs, the challenge has to do with thinking about diverse populations and the realities of differences in society. Factors that create disparities may be as broad as considerations related to geography and will access populations, gender, educational level, or sexual orientation. When leaders design healthcare programs aimed to assist disparate populations, they must keep in mind that the deployment of those programs must be done in as ethical a manner as possible.

Blending Programs Into Existing Workflows

It is challenging to develop programs for many disparate populations and incorporate those programs into the existing flow of healthcare organizations. When you look at practical matters such as the onslaught of volumes into the healthcare system as a result of the Affordable Care Act, you have to consider the tolerance of existing healthcare infrastructure (Medicaid, 2015). The number of primary care visits is expected to increase from 15 million visits per year to 24 million visits per year in the year 2019 from the onset of the Accountable Care Act alone (Hofer, Abraham, & Moscovice, 2011). This module addresses some of these types of issues related to the deployment of classic healthcare programs, such as vouchers and their effect on healthcare utilization and volumes. The reality is that the healthcare manager’s role is to create innovative ways to blend these programs into existing healthcare workflows, creating as efficient a new process as possible.

Challenging Old Paradigms

In this module, you are given the opportunity to think critically and evaluate current program models such as voucher programs. As you progress into increasingly stringent requirements around healthcare resources and accountability, it is imperative that you, as a program manager, are able to critically assess programs and their value. Some of the old paradigms that are held true do not necessarily apply to evolving healthcare models that are focused less on volume and more on outcomes. Therefore, as you look at a model as traditional as a voucher program that increases service utilization, you have to ask yourself whether the current systems can adequately address increased utilization. Are there ways in which you can leverage in different healthcare providers to more cost effectively and efficiently address some of the traditional program models? Can you shift some of the activities of administering a program to the patient/client as a collaborator?

This module challenges you to apply a collaborative care model to your program idea. You should ask yourself if the practice of collaboration between different healthcare providers improves the possible performance of your program idea? Are there nontraditional ways that elements of your program can be delivered to patients (such as using providers in an innovative manner)? What are the roles of providers, such as a pharmacist in the coordination of care? What is the role of the patient’s family member or caregiver in the collaborative practice model? All of these questions help you apply the ideas of collaborative practice to your evolving program and improve the creative elements of that program.


Hofer, A., Abraham, J., & Moscovice, I. ( 2011). Expansion of coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and primary care utilization. The Milbank Quarterly, 89(1), 69–89.

Medicaid. (2015). Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2015). Disparities. Retrieved from

Extramural Patient Care reflective essay write essay help

Assignment: Write a 2-page double-spaced font size:12 paper that addresses all the following themes: (pdf attached)

Due jan4 11:59pm

DS 307 Extramural Patient Care

Reflective Paper Instructions

A major goal of DS 307 is to provide didactic and rotation experiences to enhance student’s understanding of underserved populations and community-based systems for improving oral health. To this end, DS 307 hopes to give you the opportunity to experience oral health care outside the walls of the dental school, providing insight into the lives of patients you otherwise may not have encountered and dental delivery systems that are different from the one you experience in the school. These experiences are supplemented by online content. We want you to share insights gained through these experiences by preparing a reflective paper described in our pre-rotation lecture and below. Some of you have rotated in specific extramural clinics at this point, while some of you have not. In preparing this paper, you may also consider other experiences you have had outside of the dental school, whether in an official extramural clinic, in a SCOPE activity, a mission trip, etc.

Assignment: Write a 2-page paper that addresses the following themes:

1. What are the major forces that are leading to change in the dental industry and dental practice in the U.S.? How do you see these forces impacting your dental career?

2. What are the opportunities that you see for the dental industry in general and your career in particular which may be available by serving traditionally underserved populations and partnering with community organizations?

3. Describe challenges people face getting access to dental care in traditional office, or clinic settings (i.e. financial, social, cultural, language, knowledge, medical, mental). Describe a system that may be better able to reach people who face these barriers?

4. Assume you have a contract to improve the oral health of an underserved group that does not traditionally receive dental care in dental offices or clinics (i.e. low income children in pre- schools or elementary schools, people with disabilities living in residential facilities, older adults living in nursing homes, low income children and adults who regularly visit a community center that does not have a dental clinic). You can choose to organize how you serve this population in any way you want. However, you will be paid based on your ability to demonstrate improvement in oral health outcomes for this population. What strategies, (practice design, locations, care team, interventions, partnerships) would you use to maximize your income by producing the best health outcomes at the lowest cost?

Chi-square test of hypothesis assignment college application essay help online

After implementation of the computerized system, a random sample of 500 invoices showed 479 invoices with 0 errors, 10 invoices with 1 error, 8 invoices with 2 errors, 2 invoices with 3 errors, and 1 invoice with more than 3 errors.


Create appropriate null and alternative hypotheses.

Justify the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the error percentages for the computerized system differ from the normal system.

Power point presentation to the governing board of a hospital computer science essay help: computer science essay help

Assignment Content

Resources: Strategic Plan Presentation Grading Criteria

Now that you have completed your review of the Stevens District Hospital Strategic Planning Scenario, you have been asked to provide a presentation to the governing board of the hospital. This board is comprised of the president of the hospital, four business leaders from the community, and three leaders of the medical staff.

Create a 10- to 12-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation that summarizes your analysis and goals created. Your presentation should:

Provide an overview of the market.
State the mission and vision for Stevens District Hospital.
Provide the SWOT analysis.
Summarize the goals created for Stevens District Hospital.
Explain the rationale for goals created.
Describe itemized resources that may be needed.
Explain how the strategic plan provides focus and direction for Stevens District Hospital.
Format your assignment according to APA guidelines. Include a title page, detailed speaker notes, and a references page.

If you use resources outside of the information provided in the assignment, be sure to cite your references using correct APA formatting.

Submit your assignment.

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Health issues affecting both Non governmental organizations and governmental organizations grad school essay help

Application Assignment: Cooperate. Collaborate. Connect.

NGOs and other governmental organizations often work side by side on the same problem.

To prepare:

Explore the web pages of the organizations provided in your Learning Resources this week to learn about the work they are doing. Look for one health issue that you can see in both the NGOs and other governmental organizations for this Assignment.

By Day 7

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that both summarizes and compares the roles and functions of one governmental and one non-governmental health organization, public or global, for a specific health issue of your choice. Be sure that your summary includes information about the following:

Where are the organizations’ headquarters located?
What is the mission or purpose of these organizations?
What populations do they serve and what do they do?
How are the organizations funded? Are they part of a larger public health infrastructure?
Do these organizations mention collaboration with any other agencies or organizations?
Are there any major public health issues these organizations are currently focusing on?
What might be some ethical issues that are related to the mission of these organizations? (If the organizations have a code of conduct or ethics statement, provide a brief summary in your description).
Summarize what you learned in researching these organizations: What were the most interesting things you learned in this application? How are the organizations you selected similar or different?

School of medicine Internship application professional essay help: professional essay help

1. describe your laboratory lab experience, and identify if lab/PI, etc. (150 words)

– ” I took general chemistry1,2, and 3 with lab, if you didn’t take chemistry lab before, please search in google what does chemistry lab is and then describe as your laboratory lab experience.)

2. List your field(s) of interest for scientific research

– write 150 words!

3. Please elaborate on the adversity that you experienced, as indicated above. Please have the response be between 300-500 words.

Please respond to the following essay question. The response should be double spaced and a maximum of 500 words.

Please describe your career goals and explain how this internship would further those goals. Briefly describe how previous life experiences, coursework, and obstacles have influenced your interest in a health science career. If germane to your career plans, discuss relevant patient groups, diseases or conditions, communities, and/or geographic areas. Please also discuss any previous research experience, and specify particular areas of interest for your summer research project. (The more specific you are with your research interest the better we can match you with a mentor.)

4.  Please respond to the following essay question. The response should max 300 words and double spaced.

Short Essay: “Diversity, it turns out, goes to the heart of how to do research and innovation effectively. In the scientific literature, it is clear that diversity speaks directly to the quality and effectiveness of teams. As Katherine W. Phillips tells us when we have to work with people who are not like ourselves, we tend to prepare more thoroughly and work harder to marshal our arguments, and we do better work as a result. Diversity is beneficial for teams precisely because we react differently to people who are different from us. If the end goal is excellence, diversity is an essential ingredient.” – Scientific American

One of the goals at OHSU and the Center for Diversity and Inclusion is to develop a diverse workforce. Discuss why you believe diversity is important to the scientific and health work-force.

Great Day Fitness Tracking Final Plan instant essay help: instant essay help

Assignment Content

During your last week working with Great Day Fitness Tracking, you will create a 9- to 12-page final plan in Microsoft® Word.

Your final plan should:

Explain the relationship between processes and information systems, including a flowchart and a discussion of security ethical concerns. (Week 1)
Describe the plan to select the appropriate hardware and software and the different approaches for managing data. (Week 2)
Explain the benefits of using transaction processing systems, customer relationship systems, and supply chain management. (Week 2)
Describe the potential benefits of using business intelligence. (Week 3)
Describe the information systems plan and potential methodologies. (Week 4)
Describe the used utility and cloud computing services and how these services might replace or augment the initial system design. (Week 6)
Describe a high-level, 3-year strategic plan for your information solution. (Week 6)
Note: You may include graphs, tables, and diagrams in addition to your summaries for each week’s content.

Collaborative practice models project paper english essay help online

In your response posts, evaluate your peers’ application of a particular model of collaborative practice. Do you agree with their initial post?

Post #1

Michael Kruzinski

Hello Class,

One collaborative practice model used in healthcare is the chronic care model (CCM) which has been successful in addressing preventative care and disease management. Within the CCM model, there is an emphasis on three elements impacting chronic care consisting of the community with its rich resources, policies and payment structures associated with the healthcare system, and the provider practice/organization (Fisher & Dickinson, 2014). The CCM model focuses on patients taking an active role in self-management and taking a hands-on approach to chronic care execution. The CCM is useful and effective because it can be applied to a variety of chronic illnesses, healthcare settings and target populations which leads to healthier patients, greater efficiencies/resource utilization and greater care deliveries (Group Health Research Institute, 2020). Additionally, under this model healthcare professionals across the board can share pertinent information, lessons learned, experiences and ensure cross-flow of this information to help address targeted populations which drives improved care overall. For instance, under the CCM model it enables psychologists the ability to make contributions with respect to clinical services, preventative and behavioral programs, and psychosocial programs to help with managing chronic disease in patient population groups (Fisher & Dickinson, 2014). CCM models have created partnerships with healthcare systems and the communities and have been helpful in providing care for people with diabetes as another example. Evidence supported by 16 studies showed CCM approaches were effective in addressing diabetes in the primary care settings within the US  which enabled healthcare leaders to initiate system-level reorganizations, generate disease registries and utilize electronic medical records to create patient-centered goals, track progress, and point out any lapses in care (Stellefson et al., 2013).  Lastly, the CCM model helps primary care physicians to deliver effective care backed by evidence and helps provide education to patients in order to improve health outcomes. In conclusion, all of the elements within the CCM model help to create a more effective provider-patient relationship; ultimately creating a healthier outcome for patients.


Fisher, L., & Dickinson, W. P. (2014). Psychology and primary care: New collaborations for providing effective care for adults with chronic health conditions. American Psychologist, 69(4), 355–363.

Group Health Research Institute. (2020). The chronic care model. Retrieved December 20, 2020, from

Stellefson M, Dipnarine K, Stopka, C. (2013, March 4). The Chronic Care Model and Diabetes Management in US Primary Care Settings: A Systematic Review. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:120180. DOI:

Post #2

Nicole Napier

The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model focuses on improving how primary care is delivered (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, n.d.).  There are five functions of a PCMH:

Comprehensive care-ensuring that the care is all encompassing and offers a multidisciplinary approach to providing physical and mental health care
Patient centered-this is the crux of the model. It ensures patients are seen as one whole entity and their unique needs are factored into their care. In addition, the wishes of the patient and family are incorporated into the care plan.
Coordinated care-there are many moving parts in a patient’s care and this must all be coordinated so that a smooth outcome is reached. Coordinating care across sites, from hospital to home, hospital to hospital, etc., requires time and attention to help the patient receive quality care and good outcomes.
Accessible services-care that is inaccessible is nonexistent. If a patient does not have access to timely care, poor outcomes can occur. Also, if patients are not educated on how to access care, it can be detrimental. This may be in the form of same day visits, urgent care, telephone triage, portal access, etc. Educating patients on how and when to seek care as well as having available access is an important component of this model.
Quality and safety-by using tools to measure and ensure quality, care can consistently be improved. Utilization of evidence based medicine, including patients/families in decision making, assessing patient satisfaction and using models to improve care are all important.

When I was a director of nursing back in 2001, there was a national campaign to “redesign” health care. It consisted of many of the PCMH components and I have no doubt that it was the predecessor for the PCMH model as that term did not yet exist. Community health centers (CHCs) all over the country attended seminars and trainings to improve how they delivered care and put the patient at the center of it all. At my CHC (which was the first CHC in the nation), we began with the ‘huddle’ concept (which was new back then) and we all met the morning of each clinic. We also, created “teams” that consisted of the physician/NP, RN and medical assistant.  Corso and Gage (2016) find that teams are essential for patient management.  We reviewed all patient charts for the following day. We made sure radiology reports were available for the visit, had the front desk be proactive with any insurance coverage issues, made sure we had a paper chart for each patient (as that was a huge deal before the EMR), became proactive with prior authorizations, etc.  It was our first multidisciplinary approach as it included nurses, medical assistants, front desk staff, clinical providers, medical records, laboratory staff, etc. At the end of the project, all CHCs who participated went to Philadelphia and used poster boards to display their program and how it contributed to improved quality outcomes for the patient.  It was a great opportunity to share ideas, learn a completely new way of doing things and commend each other for the hard work.  It was a pleasure just to be in the presence of others who understood what it meant to provide care in a community setting (most of which were under served).

Again, I was able to link this week’s discussion to my father, as he admitted to MGH last week. They had planned to discharge him home the day of the storm but I was adamant that it did not happen.  The social worker said they could have “The Ride” bring him home. However, the issue was not about him just getting home. It was about me as his daughter (and a nurse) understanding that the biggest hurdle is not just getting him from point A to point B. There is much that goes into the discharge process; new medications that need to be picked up from the neighborhood pharmacy, making sure he knows what pills to take that night, getting him settled back into a home that he has not been in for 1 week and being sure he has food since he has not been able to shop while admitted. Roux (2019, p. 1) confirms that medication management “can become particularly tricky in the context involving a return home after a hospital stay and changes in the usual prescription, especially for older adults undergoing polypharmacy.”When I talked to the nurse, she totally got it. She said there was no sense in having him leave that day if there was no one who could follow up on these things. She reached out to his PCP, the ID specialist and his cardiac team.   Because of this collaboration, they postponed the discharge to the following day. And even with that (which we were grateful for) there were so many bumps in getting his medication, but as I was there, I was able to help the hospital get him what he needed.  There is just no way my father would have been able to navigate any of that on his own.  That is why it is important for the care team to have open communication with the patient and family members so that everyone is on board.


Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.) Defining the PCMH.

Corso, K. A., & Gage, D. (2016). Nurses and Psychologists Advancing the Patient-Centered Medical Home Model. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 40(3), 192–201.

Roux, P., Verloo, H., Santiago-Delefosse, M., & Pereira, F. (2019). The spatial dimensions of medication management by home-dwelling older adults after hospital discharge. Health and Place, 60.

Kant’s Categorical imperative research paper my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

Watch this Crash Course Philosophy video on Kant’s categorical imperative.

Then, demonstrate your understanding of Kant’s categorical imperative by considering the following scenarios. In your post, do the following:

State the maxim that would be created in each situation (*see note below!)
Explain how you believe a good Kantian would respond based on the maxim. Include reasons for your answers; in other words, instead of simply saying ‘a Kantian would respond thusly’ explain WHY you think a Kantian would respond that way.

Scenario 1: You are experiencing symptoms that could indicate you have Covid-19, but you go to a friend’s birthday party regardless.

Scenario 2: You want to lie to a friend about your dislike for her romantic partner to avoid hurting her feelings.

*Pgs. 549-551 of our text specifically discuss how a maxim would be reached in 4 example scenarios. A maxim is a general principle derived from a specific situation, and it is expressed as a complete sentence. As an example, were I late to a meeting and wondering if it would be ethical for me to speed from a Kantian perspective, the maxim I would derive from this specific scenario, my speeding to get to a meeting, would be a general, universal statement: everyone should speed, or, it would be morally right for everyone to speed. Then, I would reason about this general, universal statement to decide whether it would be moral for me to speed. Formulate a maxim for each of the above scenarios as a complete statement expressing a universal action.

Copy the below link in youtube to complete the discussion board.

Gender and moral thinking ccusa autobiographical essay help

Gender and Moral Thinking

Watch the below in which Carol Gilligan discusses differences in moral thinking between men and women. Then answer the following questions: What differences does she describe? How do they relate to what you have learned about the ethics and gender in Section J of Chapter 8? In your response, include specific references to the Virginia Held reading in our text.

Paste the below link to get the answer up to the point please 

Works Linked/Cited:

“Carol Gilligan on Women and Moral Development.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 23 Apr. 2012, Accessed 15 Aug. 2019.

The value of Philosophy discussion essay help site:edu

At the beginning of the course, you read two pieces about the value of studying, or doing, philosophy (Bertrand Russell’s essay “The Value of Philosophy” and Rebecca Newberger Goldstein’s article “Why Study Philosophy? To Challenge Your Own Point of View’”). Now that you are finishing a course in philosophy, read the article “Why We Should Require All Students to Take 2 Philosophy Courses” and answer the following: What reasons does Howard Gardner, the author of the article, offer for his argument that everyone should be required to take philosophy courses? Do you agree with his argument? Why or why not? And regardless of whether you agree that philosophy should be required, what have you gained/learned from taking a course in philosophy?

Use the below link to answer the question…

Works Linked/Cited:

Gardner, Howard. “Why We Should Require All Students to Take 2 Philosophy Courses.” Chronicle Vitae. Accessed 23 August 2018.

Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life essay help us: essay help us

The text for this class is:

Title: Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life


Read the assigned reading from the chapter. Then choose ONE of the questions below to answer. Answer the question you chose in a response that is a minimum of 1-2 paragraphs.

Be sure to explain your answers and give reasons for your views. You should cite the textbook and use brief quotations and summaries from the textbook in your response. Do NOT use any other sources besides the textbook.

If we reject the religious view of meaning in life, are we forced to conclude that life is meaningless?
According to Bagini, how is God’s creating us for his purposes supposed to denigrate human life? Do you agree?
Do you agree with Edwards that the length of one’s life does not by itself determine whether life is meaningful?

Edition: Third (3rd)

Author: Lewis Vaughn

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Copyright: 2018

ISBN: 978-0-19-085234-4


Title: Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life (eText)

Edition: Third (3rd)

Author: Lewis Vaughn

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Format Social Reading at

Open-answer exercise persuasive essay help

For this week’s discussion forum you will need to do two things. First, you must post a substantive response to any one (or more) of the open-answer questions provided below 

150 words


(1) Why is there something rather than nothing?

(2) Does the very concept of God imply that He must exist?

(3) What is the problem of evil, and how compelling is it as an argument for God’s non-existence?

(4) What is the difference between believing that God exists and having faith in God?

(5) Is it ever rational to have faith in God?


q  Questions about the nature of God have been part of philosophy since its inception (as with philosophy of science, this is applied philosophy). Even if you aren’t religious, these questions can nonetheless be interesting, since they raise philosophical concerns that are timeless.

q  Moreover, God and religion have often been thought (historically, anyway) to be a central component of the good life of human flourishing, which makes the topic particularly philosophically important.

q  We will be exploring three topics: what is God like?; is belief that God exists reasonable?; and is faith in God reasonable?


q  Note that this question is philosophically interesting even if you think that God doesn’t exist.

q  For the purposes of this course, by ‘God’ we will have in mind the theistic conception (as features in, for example, Christianity, Judaism and Islam).

q  This is a conception of God as distinct from the natural world that He created (in contrast to pantheism).

q  Although theism is strictly speaking compatible with polytheism (many Gods), we will focus on monotheism (one God).


q  According to classical theism, God has the following nine properties: (i) He is personal (one can have a relationship with Him);

(ii) He is incorporeal (/transcendent) (He doesn’t have a body); (iii) He is omnipresent (/immanent) (He is everywhere, or at least never absent);

(iv) He is omnipotent (He is all-powerful);

(v) He is omniscient (He is all-knowing); (vi) He is eternal (either that He is everlasting, or else that He is outside of time);

(vii) He is perfectly free (there are no limitations on His freedom); (viii) He is perfectly good (there are no limitations on His goodness);

(ix) He is necessary (there is nothing contingent about His existence).


q  We said that God was all-powerful (omnipotent), but can there be limits on his power?

q  For example, can God do the impossible, such as create something which is both a circle and a square? One might argue that God’s inability to do the impossible is not a limitation on the extent of his power, since power is only a power to do what is possible.

q  Related to this question, a puzzle from the middle ages asks whether God can create a stone so heavy that he cannot lift it. Either way, it seems that his powers are limited (either there is something that he cannot create, or something that he cannot lift).

q  One way to resolve these issues is to say that omnipotence means something like ‘as powerful as one can be’.


q  Notice how closely related these attributes of God are. q  That God is all-knowing and all-powerful obviously has

a bearing on the claim that He is perfectly free (since a deficit in either of the former would undermine His freedom). And so on.

q  This observation has led some to argue for the Doctrine of Divine Simplicity.

q  This is the thesis that God really has a single property, that of being the most perfect person possible, where the nine attributes listed above are essentially just attributes of this single property.


q  Classically, this question was asked by considering the question whether there are any good proofs of God’s existence. The thought was that there must be a way of establishing, by reason alone (and hence in a manner that all reasonable people can accept), that God exists.

q  More recently, the focus in philosophy of religion in this regard has been less on offering proofs, and more on putting forward arguments why belief in God’s existence is no less reasonable than lots of our other beliefs (such as our perceptual or scientific beliefs).


q  Here, very roughly, is the ontological argument for God’s existence, as first proposed by St. Anselm (1033-1109). The general idea behind the argument is to show that it follows from the very idea of God that He must exist.

q  (Ontology, by the way, is the branch of metaphysics concerned with being or existence).

q  God is by definition perfect. An existent being is more perfect than a non-existent being. So, God must exist.

q  There’s clearly something problematic about this argument, but opinions vary about just what is wrong with it.

Ethical implications of prenatal testing college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Most parents intend the best for their children. But do parents have a duty to avoid harming their children by passing on genetic or other diseases to them? What are the ethical implications of prenatal testing? Is it an ethical requirement or ethically problematic? Asch discusses how the attitude of trying to give a child the best chances in having a good life can be also seen as discriminatory against a group, namely, those with disabilities. Is that right?  How do the ethical questions change when the method of prenatal testing is no longer amniocentesis, but PGD?  We’ll especially consider that question with respect to sibling donors.

Reconstruction and critical evaluation of an argument persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

Reconstruct and critically evaluate an argument

Paper Instructions and Guidelines PHL 154

Dr. Michael Kates

Requirements. The aim of the paper is to reconstruct and critically evaluate an argument. (An explanation of these terms is provided below, under “Tips for Writing A Philosophy Paper.”)

To that end, please choose one of the following three articles (located on Canvas) and write a paper that conforms to the instructions set out below:

-Jeff McMahan, “Why Gun Control Is Not Enough” -Peter Singer, “Equality for Animals” -Louis P. Pojman, “The Case Against Affirmative Action”

Please read the instructions carefully, and familiarize yourself with the grading criteria before you plan and write your paper.

Length and Format. Your paper should be typed, with 1 inch margins, in 12 point font. It should be approximately 1250-1500 words, double-spaced. Papers should not exceed 1500 words. Papers that are significantly shorter than 1250 words are unlikely to meet the basic requirements of the assignment. Please provide a word count at the end of the paper.

Deadline. The deadline for the paper is Tuesday November 24.

Evaluation Criteria. Papers will be evaluated according to the following criteria.

1. Logic, precision, clarity, rigor. Is the argument of the paper free of logical errors? Throughout the paper, is the argument stated precisely? Is the argument stated clearly? Does the paper adequately explain key terms? Is the argument of the paper vulnerable to obvious counterarguments?

2. Originality, creativity, insight. Does the paper show evidence of independent, critical thinking? Does the paper reveal an understanding of the issue(s) at stake? Does the paper contain original or subtle insight?

3. Essay mechanics. Is the paper clearly organized and structured in a logical manner? Does the paper have a clearly stated thesis? Does the paper transition clearly between sections or ideas?

4. Sentence mechanics. Are the tone and style of prose appropriate, given the purpose of the paper? Are there errors of grammar, punctuation, spelling, word choice, etc.?

5. Scholarship. Does the paper use primary texts appropriately? When the paper cites another author’s views, does it represent these views accurately?

6. Miscellaneous. Does the paper cite its sources using a single, consistent system? Does the paper meet the purposes of the assignment? Etc.


Tips for Writing a Philosophy Paper

1. Know the difference between a thesis, an argument, and the premises of an argument. A thesis is a claim that you wish to defend. An argument is what you say in order to defend it. Premises are claims that are used in your argument.

For example, in his Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, Jeremy Bentham makes the following argument:

1. The law should be designed to increase the community’s happiness. 2. Letting everyone speak his or her opinion would increase the community’s happiness. 3. Therefore, the law should let everyone speak his or her opinion.

Steps 1 through 3 constitute an argument for the conclusion in step 3. The conclusion is a thesis that Bentham defends by means of this argument. Steps 1 and 2 are the premises of this argument.

2. Know what it means to reconstruct an argument. If arguments were always laid out as above, with premises set off clearly from the conclusion, it would be easy to spot any argument and to distinguish the premises from the conclusion. But usually arguments are harder to identify and disentangle. Consider the following passage from chapter 3 of John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty:

“[I]t is important to give the freest scope possible to uncustomary things, in order that it may in time appear which of these things are fit to be converted into customs.”

Notice that Mill begins the sentence with the thesis or conclusion he seeks to defend: “it is important to give the freest scope possible to uncustomary things.” He then says that it’s important to give free scope to uncustomary things “in order that it may in time appear which of these things are fit to be converted into customs.” With this phrase, Mill provides one reason why it’s important to give free scope to uncustomary things. So he appears to be making an argument, even though he doesn’t actually state all of its premises.

To reconstruct Mill’s argument in this passage would be to (a) state its conclusion and (b) state its key premises, explicit or implicit. One way to do so it to lay it out like this:

1. It is important to adopt as customs only those things that are fit to be adopted as customs. 2. Giving free scope to uncustomary things will reveal what is fit to be adopted as a custom. 3. Therefore, it is important to give free scope to uncustomary things.

Or you could say “Mill claims that it is important to…. His argument for this claim has the following two premises….” Or even more simply, you could say “Mill argues that it is important to … because [premise 1] and [premise 2].” There are many ways to reconstruct an argument. However, whichever way you do it, you must identify and state clearly (a) the conclusion of the argument and (b) the argument’s key premises.

As you can see, it often takes some work to reconstruct an author’s argument. Not all premises and conclusions are stated explicitly. And even when they are stated explicitly, they can be buried in the middle of a lot of supporting text. To identify an author’s argument, you have to read carefully. Ask yourself the following questions as you read:


-What is the author’s point in this passage? What does he or she want me to conclude? -What are the author’s reasons for this conclusion? What claims support this conclusion?

Note: you cannot focus on everything the author discusses. Choose to focus on what you regard as essential.

3. Know what it means to critically evaluate an argument. Suppose that you have accurately reconstructed an author’s argument. Should you accept the argument? Should you “buy it?” To make up your mind, you’ll want to critically evaluate the argument.

To critically evaluate an argument is to (a) determine whether the premises of the argument are true, or at least plausible, and (b) determine whether the conclusion follows logically from the premises. To illustrate, consider the following argument.

1. Bentham is a philosopher. 2. All philosophers are monkeys. 3. Therefore, Bentham is a man.

This is an “invalid” argument: the conclusion does not follow logically from the premises. If 1 and 2 were true, then Bentham would be a monkey, not a man. Even if the conclusion in 3 is true, this is not a good argument for it. Someone who was critically evaluating the argument could say “The argument is illogical.”

Now consider a different argument for the thesis that Bentham is a man.

1. Bentham is a philosopher. 2. All philosophers are men. 3. Therefore, Bentham is a man.

This is a logically valid argument. If 1 and 2 are true, then 3 must be true as well. But someone critically evaluating this argument could now dispute the truth of its premises. Someone might say, for example, that premise 2 is false, because some philosophers are women. If premise 2 is false, then the argument for the conclusion/thesis is not a good one: it is not “sound”. Of course, the thesis may still be true—but it has not been adequately defended.

In general, then, if you want to critically evaluate an argument for a thesis, you must state the thesis, state the argument, and then ask two questions: (a) does the conclusion follow logically from the premises? and (b) are the premises true, or reasonable?

4. Be generous and thorough when critically evaluating arguments. Critically evaluating someone else’s argument can be trickier than it sounds. To illustrate, recall Bentham’s argument:

1. The law should be designed to increase the community’s happiness. 2. Letting everyone speak his or her opinion would increase the community’s happiness. 3. Therefore, the law should let everyone speak his or her opinion.

This argument is logically valid (the conclusion follows logically from the premises), so to determine whether there is a problem with it, you would need to assess the plausibility of its premises. Suppose you fix on premise 2, and object to it in the following way:


“Some people—including racists, sexists, and bigots—are hateful. Letting them express their hateful opinions would decrease the happiness of the community by causing significant pain and anguish. So premise 2 is false: letting everyone speak his opinion would not increase the community’s happiness. Therefore, Bentham’s argument for freedom of expression is not sound.”

This is a plausible objection to premise 2. It presents an argument for the conclusion that premise 2 is false. But if you were asked to evaluate Bentham’s argument, it would not be wise to leave it there. After all, Bentham has his own argument for premise 2, and it conflicts with yours. In his book, he argues that premise is 2 is true because punishing people for speaking their mind would usually cause even more suffering than allowing people to express their hurtful opinions. If that is right, then perhaps Bentham’s argument is sound after all.

So the ball is back in your court. You have anticipated Bentham’s reply. Now you have to decide what to think about this potential reply. Is it adequate? Or is there (still) a problem with the argument? Anticipating relevant responses will allow you evaluate Bentham’s view more thoroughly.

This process of considering potential responses to your own claims and arguments is very important. The authors we are studying are not dummies. Their views are the product of a great deal of thought. They are not necessarily right, but most of the time the authors we are studying have reasons for the claims they make. If you wish to undermine—or to defend—one of their claims, you’ll need to figure out their reasons and assess them.

So be thorough and generous when you’re critically evaluating an argument. When an author makes a claim, ask yourself why he or she affirms this claim. If the claim is unsupported, ask yourself why the claim might be true, and imagine the strongest possible argument for it on his or her behalf. If you disagree with the author’s claim, play devil’s advocate against yourself. This will help you decide whether to accept or to reject the author’s view, and why.

5. Construct a thesis statement. Once you have a sense of what you think about an author’s argument, you’ll need to express your position in a clearly stated thesis.

Sometimes, your thesis will be easy to state: “Mill claims that X. My thesis is that Mill’s argument for this claim is not sound.”

Other times, your thesis will be more complicated. For example: “Mill claims that X. Mill’s argument for this claim is open to two serious objections, Y and Z. My thesis is that Mill’s argument can be defended successfully against both.”

Whatever your thesis, state it clearly. Remember: your thesis is a claim you wish to defend. “This paper explores issues related to…” is not a thesis.

6. Make an outline. The aim of the paper is to reconstruct critically evaluate an author’s argument. So the first thing you’ll need to do is to reconstruct the author’s argument. How will you do this? In what order will you present the premises of the author’s argument? What will you say to explain the various terms that figure in this argument? Before you start writing, you should construct an outline.

Next, you’ll want to defend your own position. What will you say to convince your reader to accept your thesis? Again, you should start by constructing an outline. Your outline should list the main


points you will make, and the order in which you will make them. It’s hard to know exactly what you will say at each stage in your argument before you actually write it all out. Nonetheless, an outline is critical because it allows you to begin to imagine objections to each of the steps in your argument.

7. Consider objections to your argument. To do this, you should take each premise in your argument and imagine someone who disagrees with it. How would they attack this premise? What would they say to convince your reader that the premise is false or implausible? Would they be wrong? Why?

If you can imagine and respond persuasively to some interesting objections to your argument, then great! This means you have a strong argument. Include the objections and your responses in a logical place in your outline.

What if you come up with an objection to which you can’t find a persuasive response? Then there is a problem with your argument and you should change it. If you can’t find another argument that overcomes the objection, then you should change your thesis to a thesis that you can defend successfully against objections.

8. Write a complete draft of your paper. State your thesis right up front in a short introductory paragraph. Then move directly to your argument. If there is an obvious objection to any of the steps in your argument, then mention the objection and explain why the objection does not undermine your argument. Imagining and responding to objections is critical in a philosophy paper. This is how you will show your reader that your argument is sound.

Of course, there is a page limit for your paper. This means that you will not be able to respond to every conceivable objection to every step of your argument. So you will need to make some choices. The first thing to keep in mind is that you should always aim for an argument with premises that are relatively uncontroversial. If you need to employ a premise that others may find controversial, then you may want to defend the premise too—that is, provide an argument for it. But at some point you have to stop defending yourself and hope that the premises you use will carry your reader. There is no formula here; you have to exercise your own judgment.

9. Use your limited space wisely. Since you have limited space to state your thesis, develop your argument, and consider objections to your argument, you can’t waste any words. Don’t say anything that is not absolutely necessary to clarify or defend your thesis.

For example, don’t start your essay with grand pronouncements about how important the question is or how many great thinkers have for centuries or millennia thought about it. This is not a history paper, so it’s very unlikely that such claims would matter one way or the other to your thesis. Every sentence counts: with each paragraph, and with each sentence in each paragraph, ask yourself “why am I telling my reader this?” If you can honestly say “because saying this is necessary for defending my thesis,” leave it in. If not, think again.

What about a “conclusion” or concluding paragraph? In a philosophy paper, there is often no need to write a separate conclusion. Once you have stated your thesis and defended your argument, you’re done. You may add further reflections if you have room, but this is not required.

10. Use the key concepts in your paper in a clear, precise, and consistent fashion. When you use a fancy word, make sure its meaning is clear to you and to your reader. For every word you use


in your essay, be sure that you can define it. If you can’t, either figure out what it means, or don’t use it. If the meaning of the word is clear to you, but it’s a word used in different ways by different people, then define it for your reader so that it’s clear what you mean by it.

11. Make the structure of your paper easy to follow. Don’t make your reader work hard to understand the structure of your paper. Beat him or her over the head with it. For example, near the beginning of the paper, you can give your reader a “road map” of your entire argument. Or you can say things like this throughout the paper:

I will begin by… We should reject this claim, for two reasons… I will now defend the claim that… Further support for this claim comes from…

Using sign-post sentences like this makes a big difference. Consider this paper fragment:

I will argue for the claim that X. There are three reasons to believe that X. First, … Second, … Third, … The strongest objection to my argument says that… However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason…

Isn’t it easy to see the structure of this paper?

12. Use simple language and strive for clarity. Avoid fancy prose that obscures the content of your argument. If you can say something equally well with a shorter sentence, then choose the shorter sentence. If you can say something equally well with a less fancy word, then choose the less fancy word. Write in a way that is easy to follow when read aloud. As far as possible, try to write so clearly that any intelligent person could understand you—even a person without any background in philosophy.

Finally, don’t hesitate to use “I”. In a philosophy paper, it is perfectly acceptable to say “I will argue that….” Indeed, using “I” is often preferable. “In this paper, it will be argued that…” sounds terrible.

13. Support attributions, but quote only when necessary. When you attribute a view to an author, you should indicate the evidence that the author held this view by noting the location of the relevant passage(s). However, you do not need to provide a quotation for every view that you attribute to an author. As a general rule, you should quote a passage only if (a) the passage plays an important role in your paper (for example, you will refer back to it often), (b) if you think there might be controversy about whether the author actually held the view that you are attributing to him or her, or (c) if there are several plausible interpretations of the passage, in which case you should quote the passage and explain what you understand the passage to mean.

14. Check your grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

15. Finally, if you are unsure about how to proceed, please don’t hesitate to come see me. I am always happy to talk—about your argument, about essay mechanics, about whatever. In fact, I encourage you to come see me with an outline of your paper before you begin writing.


The Traditional Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams for the traditional standpoint narrative essay help

Section 4.5 is on The traditional square of opposition.  And 4.6 is on the Venn Diagrams of the propositions that take the traditional standpoint.  Like I said in the intro, I’m going to do sec 4.6 first, and 4.5 second.  Here are some questions.

1.  What is the difference in notation between the Venn Diagrams that adopt the Boolean standpoint and the Venn Diagrams that adopt the traditional standpoint?  There’s only one small difference.  Just draw it, or explain what it looks like, and explain what the new notation means.

2. Explain the logical relation between the ‘A’ and the ‘I’ propositions on: a) the Boolean standpoint (look at the modern square) and b) the traditional standpoint (look at the traditional square).  Why are they different?

3. On the Traditional Square, the relation between the ‘A’ proposition and the ‘E’ proposition is said to be ‘contrary.’  Describe the contrary relation, and explain why it is different than the ‘logically undetermined’ relation on the modern square.

4. Draw (if you can) the picture of the Traditional square of opposition.  Label all the parts.  Familiarize yourself with the meanings of all the relations.

i will provide log in information for the online textbook for necesssry reference.

Operations on Categorical Propositions essay help free: essay help free

This week, our topic is operations that can be performed on categorical propositions.  Remember that there are four standard form categorical propositions, and that was because there are four ways to relate one category to another.  (Total inclusion, total exclusion, partial inclusion, partial exclusion.)  But this relation is not symmetrical.  There are four ways a subject can relate to a predicate, but how the predicate relates back to the subject is somewhat undetermined.  To be precise about all the possible ways that two categories can relate, the propositions have to be manipulated a little bit.  And that is done with the operations we will talk about.

There are three operations: Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition.  They all involve subjecting a proposition to a specific set of rules, which yields a new proposition.  There are only one or two rules each, so it’s not complicated.  But the rules do involve remembering the definitions of quality and quantity that we looked at earlier.

The new proposition–which again is obtained by applying the rules of whatever operation you’re performing–has a specific logical relation to its original.  As a result, we can understand all conceivable ways one category can relate to another.  And, it is also possible to know whether arguments that contain different permutations of propositions are valid or invalid.

So, here are the operations.

1. CONVERSION:  It’s simple, one rule.  Reverse the order of the subject and the predicate.  (You might have expected that.)  All A are B becomes All B are A.  The same for the rest.  This second proposition is said to be the ‘converse.’   You will note that in the textbook, pg. 222, Venn diagrams are given to illustrate the logical relations between each proposition and its converse.

2. OBVERSION:  A little less simple, two rules:  1. Change the quality, without changing the quantity.  It’s easier than it sounds, and by the way, it’s good mental practice correctly applying rules to situations.   Rule 2. Replace the predicate term with its ‘term compliment.’ Ugh.  What is a ‘term compliment?’  A term compliment is the term that denotes all things in the world that are not denoted by the term in the original proposition.  If I have a category, houses (H), then its term compliment is all things that are not houses (non-H).  Why is this important?  Off the top of my head, I’m not sure.  If I think of something, I’ll let you know.  Or, maybe you can think of a reason.  In any case, when you perform the obversion operation on a proposition, you form what is called the ‘obverse.’  To see what the obverse of the four categorical propositions look like, see page 224.  Here is the first one, though.

1. All A are B.  Obverse:  No A are non-B.  Look, I changed the quality from affirmative to negative, but I kept the quantity as universal.  And then I replaced the predicate with its term compliment.  Ok, one more.

2. No A are B.  Obverse:  All A are non-B.   I did the same thing again.  An interesting thing about the obverse of a proposition.  Look at the Venn Diagrams.  The obverse of each proposition is logically equivalent to the original proposition.  That’s good to know.

3. CONTRAPOSITION:  Again, two rules.  1. Reverse the order of the subject and predicate terms.  (That is, form the converse.)  But then 2.  Replace both subject and predicate terms with their term compliments.  So All A are B becomes All non-B are non-A.  No A are B becomes No non-B are non-A.  And so on.   Look at the Venn Diagrams for the logical relations between these propositions.  They look a little strange.  In our Zoom meeting, I will explain these diagrams.

We now have all conceivable ways two categories can relate to each other, as well are their logical relations.   In the assignment window, I will put up some study questions, which, if you answer them, you should understand the material.

Discrimination within the political system college essay help online

I have an argumentative essay due Dec 2nd. The topic I chose to write about is discrimination within the political system. I have came up with my thesis statement which is ” The American political system seems to be prejudice against women, religions other then Christianity, and minorities. ” With those also being the main topics of my paper.

PHIL/RLST 207 – Final Paper Prompt and Rubric

Prompt: Students will write an argumentative essay on religious, ethical, and/or political topics of current public interest and discussion. Students will present a thesis statement and they will use evidence to support their argument. Evidence will be in the form of books, academic journals, and peer-reviewed internet sources. The paper needs to be 1750-2000 words, 12-point, Times New Roman, double-spaced, and have 1-inch margins. The paper needs to be in MLA format (this includes all citations and works cited). Please connect with the instructor if you have questions about MLA formatting. Due Date: The research paper is due by 11:59p PST on Monday, December 14, 2020. Paper Rubric: Score Thesis Analysis Formatting References 90-100 Thesis is clear,

concise, and strong. It explicitly states what you are arguing in the rest of your paper.

The paper uses great references to support the thesis argument. The analysis of the thesis is clear and well reasoned.

The paper is properly formatted using MLA style. There are no errors in punctuation and syntax.

References are from reputable sources such as books and journal articles. They are properly cited both in-text and works cited page.

80-89 Thesis is good but not as clear as an A paper. There are some generalizations in the thesis that keep it from being strong.

The analysis does a good job trying to argue the thesis using evidence from references. However, the analysis is lacking and not as developed as an A paper.

The paper is properly formatted using MLA style. There are a few errors in the punctuation, syntax, and spelling.

References are from good sources but are not properly cited or referenced at different points in the paper.

70-79 Thesis is present but is generic and general. Thesis is general and does not provide a clear statement of what is going to be argued in the paper.

The analysis is general and generic. It looks more like reporting and summarization rather than supporting the thesis statement.

The paper is not properly formatted using MLA style. There are errors in punctuation, syntax, and spelling that distract from the argument.

References do not demonstrate adequate research and/or are not properly cited or referenced at different points in the paper.

60-69 Paper is lacking an original thesis and is more of a summary or report.

Paper is lacking supporting evidence and analysis is poor.

Improper formatting of MLA with lots of formatting errors.

Inadequate references such as blogs and websites only.

59 and below

Paper has no evidence of a thesis.

Analysis of the thesis is missing.

Improper formatting.

No adequate references used in the paper.

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