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Free Essay: International Human Resource Management


Over the past few years, companies have been struggling with prevalent complexities in the corporate environment. The forces that facilitate globalization compel companies to expand their diverse operations past the national and local boarders so that they can achieve and maintain a good competitive edge. Actually, oversea investments make it possible for global firms to achieve optimum benefits from their projects and to maintain consistent development and growth. To multinational entities, human resources no longer serve the supportive function only; they have also evolved into the asset of the organizations with great strategic importance.

As such, relative policies and practices are important mechanisms that help in the coordination and control of organizations’ international operations. The systems of human resource and values have influence on the general well being as well as the decisions that individuals make within organizations. It is certain that human resources now play a vital role of transferring the organizational culture abroad. Nevertheless, it should be noted that there are instances where these resources pose constraints when it comes to implementing vital operations abroad.

This paper presents a detailed concept evaluation in relation to the management of international human resource against the explained background with close reference to Dell Company. Dell Company is a multinational entity that has implemented different projects in different parts of the world successfully. It seems that its business strategy and culture are important because they affect its performance directly. The paper starts by discussing corporate and national culture of the company. This is followed by the analysis of the practices of the human resource as well as the business of this company and how they are affected by a country’s culture.

The strategy for international business of this firm is then evaluated. Strategic management practices for international HR are also highlighted. Additionally, the paper discusses the international rules and standards that are applicable to this company as well as its development and training needs. Finally, the paper evaluates the programs that this company has for global compensation while suggesting the ideal strategy for performance evaluation that can be used by the company in appraising managers.

Dell’s National and Corporate Culture

Dell has a complex corporate and national culture. Its culture comprises of ethical, social and behavioral norms which come from the attitudes, values, priorities and beliefs of its workers. In terms of the purpose and values of this company, Greiner (2004) notes that Dell aims an enhancing and sustaining positive growth. For this to be achieved, Dell focuses on the activities whose outcomes affect the whole community’s well being positively.

As such, it aims at ensuring that all populations enjoy maximum benefits from the technological products that it produces. Additionally, Dell encourages its workers to maintain optimism and openness. This makes it possible for the company to benefit from the broad knowledge base of its employees. Essentially, the company emphasizes on integrity. It ensures that all operations are morally and legally acceptable. Hill (2012) state that, it is possible to sustain such values and they support development and growth of multinational companies. When put in a different way, they are important because they make the operations of multinational businesses successful.

The program for managing career in this company is comprehensive. Its objective and aim is to establish and improve the capacities of employees (Hoffman, 2007). As such, the company recognizes that it can only achieve and sustain its desired development and growth by empowering its employees. Dell has succeeded in improving its competitive advantage and overall performance by developing the employees’ capacities. It attains its desirable status via on-job experience. The expertise and skills of employees are sharpened by relative exposure. It also exposes employees to various practical settings so that they can exercise their theoretical knowledge.

The company has also attained this by formulating and implementing talent groups. These groups form a program that recognizes employees who possess unique talents. The program employs practical measures that nurture such employees accordingly (Holzner, 2005). The program also gives respective employees a chance to learn from others as they perform their duties. The company undertakes sessions of periodic formal training to familiarize employees with the dynamics and trends that the modern industry presents. This promotes efficiency while contributing to the competitive advantage of the organization directly.

Effective communication is valued by this company. The organization recognizes that effective communication is important for the realization of the organizational objectives and goals. In terms of language, the company uses English for communication. Effective communication is used in resolving emergent issues as well as enhancing employees’ performance in various ways. According to Cone (200) in a review, the communication policy of Dell advocates for sharing and listening. Leaders at Dell are inspiring. They provide an appropriate environment for employees’ communication. Leaders use team environments in identifying anomalies which may lead to far-reaching implications in terms of external and internal relationships. The management gets vital feedbacks about different organizational concerns via open forums (Cone, 2000). Employees are able to respond to clients’ needs in a timely and effective manner due to their inherent openness.

The basis of Dell’s corporate responsibility activities is the idea that future generations are also important. As such, they should be allowed a chance enjoy the benefits of the current resources. In particular, Dell initiates different community projects with an aim of empowering the local people. This company builds communities’ capacities via social innovation. It also enables communities to easily address emergent concerns. In terms of concern for the environment, Holzner (2005) notes that Dell engages in green manufacturing, sustainable packaging and products recycling.

These are important practices in terms of environmental conservation and protection of human settlements. Additionally, the ethical code of this company is comprehensive. It underscores the values, practices and policies that must be upheld by employees. The code complies with various regulations and rules that govern the company’s operations at various levels (Mateyaschul, 1999).

In terms of performance’s management, this company uses meritocracy. According to Luthans and Doh (2011), this approach enhances the recognition of the efforts as well as the contribution of different employees towards the company’s well being. Additionally, the management has programs for rewarding the employees who depict exemplary performance. Apart from salary compensation, the company has a system for rewarding employees. This system recognizes employees’ efforts at varying levels. The system also allows exceptional development and growth opportunities for the employees (Palmer, 1999).

In evaluating employees’ performance, Dell reviews every employee’s contributions on the basis of quality and quantity. The company reward employees who come up with quality products as well as those who possess properties that are in line with team goals and corporate initiatives accordingly. The company has a participative leadership model that acknowledges the essence of good performance.

The Impact of Cultures on the Business and Human Resource Practices

As illustrated earlier, business expansion and practices of the human resource in different geographical regions have different implications on respective cultures and businesses. These have negative or positive aspects and they have different effects on business performance in certain locations. Various national populations’ facets depict varied cultures and they uphold varying cultures while exercising different types of management styles. As such, some factors are specific to countries that need managers to take specific approaches for effective implementation of organizational objectives. Apparently, different management practices should be applied in different cultures.

Although this company has succeeded in the internationalization process, the practices of its human resources as well as business operations are affected differently by cultures that different countries have. To ensure continued development and growth, the company assumes vital cultural aspects that are prevalent in these countries. Verbeke (2009) argues that the company takes a sustainable approach to ensure that it thrives and survives. Essentially, localizing some aspects of its practices enables it to conform to the national demands of different countries in order to survive within competitive environments.

For instance, within paternalistic environments, the expectations of the populations are that managers will assume vital roles that pertain to protection, nurturance, and employees’ guidance. Redsan and Wilkinson (2008) note that cultural groups in Asia assume this cultural aspect. This is also the case for cultural groups in India, China, Japan and Korea. This is different from the perception that western populations have. Their view is that paternalism is authoritarian and it is therefore undesirable.

There are direct impacts of paternalistic practices on organizational relations. Most importantly, the practices encourage the formation of structures and bureaucracy. Information flow in organizations that embrace it is usually top-down with distinct relational boundaries between the employees and the management. This has disadvantages because it compromises employees’ ability to build and maintain positive relations.

In some countries like Greece, studies indicate that a large percentage of companies are family owned. This means that family ties are valued by the employees of this region. It also means that advice from outsiders is not trusted. This has several implications on business’ ability to easily perform operations. It is no doubt that immense efforts are required to venture into a market. Significant resources have to be used in marketing products among the local populations (Hill, 2012).

Additionally, the practices of the human resources are impacted on by this culture. In this regard, emphasis of the recruitment process is on the academic performance of the applicants. Instead, experiences and recommendations of the potential employees are recognized. Tension that might hinder effective performance is triggered by this kind of an environment. As such, managers find it hard to conduct open appraisals. This is because strained relations cause tension. Effective performance is undermined by the failure to disclose appraisal information and this can hinder development efforts.

Industrial relations form a vital aspect of a country’s culture. In this regard, Peng (2013) shows that in some countries, industrial relations are regulated by stringent provisions of the law and they uphold a collective bargaining. Additionally, these provisions give the state the power to intervene whenever this becomes necessary. In cases where state intervention is required, the government is allowed to ban any industrial activity or to implement an income policy.

If there is no effective governance of issues that pertain to any industrial activity, relationships will be strained and this will eventually make it hard for companies to run operation in different countries. It is therefore important to appreciate the instrumental role that is played by state governments in determining citizens’ income. As such, they compel the state to offer compensation packages that are aligned to the provisions of the state’s law. The company’s performance is undermined where these packaged are more than those of the home state.

Dell’s International Business Strategy

Dell and Fredman (2006) note that, the strategy of this company is of a cost-leadership nature. This can be noted from the cost proposition, excellent policy for delivery and unique customization which have a significant contribution to its international success. In responding to the business environment that is becoming increasingly competitive, Dell adopts a unique, dual-strategic approach. To satisfy the needs of its diverse clients, this company engages in product differentiation while using its skills in cost-leadership activities. Its inherent diversification plays a vital role when it comes to opening up new opportunities as well as strengthening company’s synergies. The company is able to achieve its competitive edge by adopting a dual approach. It also enables it to maintain optimal performance within the dynamic environment where it operates.

In terms of the business strategy of this company, Perkins and Shortland (2005) notes that, the global clients put specific emphasis on products quality and cost. With this knowledge, Dell focuses on differentiated and cheap products. This strategy’s main goal is to develop products that possess features that improve quality performance. As such, efficient production is aimed at the elimination of unnecessary costs as well differentiation that provides unique value to the products. This strategy plays a very important role of enabling Dell to operate effectively in an environment where technology keeps changing. It also makes it easier for the company to address changes that it faces within its industrial niche. Dell and Fredman (2006) observe that this approach also challenges the competencies of employees while encouraging flexibility.

Dell knows the essence of providing customized goods and services. Peng (2010) notes that this is very important because it enhances sales especially with consideration of the fact that this company targets a global market whose needs are diverse. For enhanced flexibility, the company implements measures that expand its network by linking its supply chain so that it can reach more customers. This enhances communication between all parties that are involved while allowing employees to identify management problems as well as address them properly. According to Briscoe and Schuler (2004), open communication strengthens relationships in an organization.

The global business strategy of Dell considers the essence of diversity and culture. Caligiuri, Lepak and Bonache (2000) in a consultative research indicated that employees are ideally drawn from varying cultural backgrounds in an international business. This is due to the fact that the projects that are initiated by the organization cover different regions geographically. These regions have varied cultures. With employees from different cultures, the company is able to implement and improve acceptance of its projects in different communities.

Apart from embracing cultural diversity, this company appreciates women for their contributions as well as the minority populations and their well being (Greiner, 2004). As such, apart from offering employment opportunities to these groups in the organization, Dell extends assistance to them vial social corporate initiatives. For instance, in China, relative programs enable women to take up managerial positions in the organization. These groups are empowered by community projects which also address poverty whose impact is felt by the entire society.

Complete quality management is highly emphasized by Dell’s leadership (Greiner, 2004). With this principle in place, employees are responsible for ensuring that the needs of clients are satisfied properly. The principle encourages continued enhancement of products, services and processes of this company. As such, Dell depends on problem solving and data driven strategies. This has impacted on its organizational performance positively. It enables the company to cut costs, reduce the overall time that is taken while introducing new products as well as to enhance clients’ satisfaction.

Additionally, relative systems improve creative abilities. This ensures that the quality of the company’s products go beyond the expectations of the respective clients. The assertion of Dell and Fredman (2006) is that Dell is distinguished from competitors by its unique differentiation. Essentially, it lowers cost while eliminating inefficiencies. This enables the company to provide products whose performance is better due to their features at reasonable prices. Additionally, the company is more flexible due to this strategy. According to Cavisgil, Knight and Riesenberger (2008), flexibility enables Dell to identity new opportunities with ease. It also uses it in enhancing products’ performance.

According to cone (2000), apart from producing desktop computers, Dell offers other products that include printers, mobile devices, software, consumer electronics and storage facilities. As such, the firm generates about 40% of the overall revenue from its secondary products. This company is able to capture a large electronic market by offering quality products at reasonable prices. For successful operations, Hoffman (2007) notes that Dell monitors clients’ reaction to its products before it continue producing them. Constant clients’ feedback enable this company to identify its mistakes and to respond to the needs of customers properly. This enables it to embrace streamlined processes and technologies as well as to ensure that its final products meet high value standards.

Strategic International Human Resource Management in Dell

For effective implementation of business strategy, Dell pursues the practices of international HR management. Simply put, it aligns the practices of human resources with business strategy. The company depends on multi-cultural teams’ work efforts. These teams possess multiple competencies as well as different levels of experience. Additionally, they have different cultural background. The teams have individuals who can speak different languages. Usually, their cultural attributes reflect geographical areas where they come from. As such, although the company uses English as its formal language, there are specific languages that are used by employees to communicate with local people. For instance, in China, the employees communicate with local people using the Chinese language while performing their duties.

To ensure continued innovation and effective performance of employees, Dell engages in international development and training. This is based on regional conditions which can be synergistic, centralized and/or local. Holzner (2007) in a review indicates that during training, the company imparts important competencies and skills in the employees so that they can perform effectively. These employees undergo cross-cultural and leadership training as well. Through this training, the employees are equipped with relevant capacities for addressing emerging challenges. As illustrated earlier, creativity is created through this activity and this places Dell ahead of competitors. Indirectly, this encourages development and growth in various ways.

Additionally, Dell conducts employees’ performance appraisals within host countries. National standards in these countries are used in devising these appraisals’ benchmarks. Essentially, Dell and Fredman (2006) give an explanation of performance appraisals and how they enhance employee competencies’ review by the company, their motivation level and behavior. Appraisals are insightful and informative during decision making in regards to intervention measures that should be taken by the company in order to align performance of the employees with the company’s strategy as well as to reconcile differences.

For instance, in Asian states, employee appraisals highlighted performance deficiencies. In addressing this, the company intensified training of the employees in this region as a way of improving their capacities as well as boosting growth (Hill, 2012). On the other hand, employee appraisals in China indicated that the inability of the employees to sell products of high quality was the main challenge faced by the marketing personnel. Dell opted to supply products of low quality to this part of its market.

In terms of recruitment and selection, Dell considers the role and importance of the local populations. As such, it depends on expatriates’ managerial services in its initial steps of establishing new subsidiaries. Lowther (2006) notes that, expatriates have played a vital role in this company because they have instilled corporate culture of the Americans in the other employees. After achieving this, they go back to home countries where they continue offering the company’s services. Through this strategy, Dell has been able to reduce cost that is associated with increased compensation packages.

While managing international rewards, this company acquaints with systems of national employment as well as the employment law of certain countries. Specifically, Dell explores fluctuations of currency in relation to upfront benefits. This guides the company in making sound decisions on the basis of informed thoughts. It also facilitates making accurate predictions on its performance.

International Rules and Standards applicable to China’s Dell

There are different regulations and rules that govern the development and manufacture of technology products in different parts of the globe. Relative standards are applied to guarantee high quality for the manufactured products and to meet the needs of clients. Through the regulation of vital decisions made by companies about product valuing, these rules prevent clients’ exploitation cases which can greatly affect the holistic customers’ well being.

Additionally, these regulations offer protection to innovators’ patent rights while ensuring rightful compensation for their work. Hoffman (2007) in his study ascertained that Dell’s products’ quality meets the global standards in terms of product safety and electromagnetic compatibility. Additionally, this company adheres to the controls of the national regulatory board in China. In addition to this, the products that this subsidiary sells are affected by other international standards and rules.

For instance, the Ecma standards affect design considerations which should be followed by this company in order to make its products environmental friendly (Greiner, 2004). There are clear guidelines of this provision in relation to energy efficiency, product packaging, hazardous substances, material effectiveness, chemical and noise emissions, consumables and batteries among others. Mateyaschuk (1999) observes that these provisions limit the set standards to the product’s environmental performance only. They promote environmental sustainability by minimizing the effects that these products have on any environment.

The Occupational Health and Safety (OHSAS 180001) is a standard that provides specifications for safety and health requirements that should be met by electronic products. Dell uses these guidelines to minimize risks that relate to occupational health as well as performance of employees. The company safeguards the welfare of employees while reducing costs that come from the harmful effects of its products. It is vital to mention that the standards of ISO 9001 apply to this subsidiary. Briscoe and Schuler (2004) argue that, this company is able to mitigate varying types of risks using this regulation. Additionally, the regulation supports lean production while guiding the firm by eliminating complex processes in its business system. It is clear that this company drives costs that relate to sale and production of electronic products out.

In terms of production safety, Lowther (2006) shows that the standards of product safety offer vital benchmarks which products are supposed to meet. It is important to conform to these standards in order to prevent hazards that can be caused by mechanical, thermal, electrical, as well as radiation conditions. These standards apply during the processes of testing products and designing different equipment that are usually non-informational. Products have specific safety requirements and they include vital standards that should be met by every product. Dell adheres to these standards while ensuring that it produces safe products for its consumers.

Training and Development

As illustrated earlier, contemporary organizations have several complex challenges to overcome. These require comprehensive interventions. According to emergent research, the contemporary turbulent environment requires companies to use the expertise and competencies of the employees in order to survive (Luthans & Doh, 2011). As such, global firms invest in building employees’ capacity. This enhances innovation and creativity which enables respective companies to easily address different challenges. When a company educates employees, it enhances efficiency in performance which improves productivity in the organization. Dell employees have different development and training needs all over the world so that they can sustain development and growth of this global company.

According to Hoffman (2007), Dell acknowledges the importance of education in ensuring successful operation. The company emphasizes on education, training as well as employees’ career development. Indirectly, developing employees’ capacities assists the company in cushioning itself against side effects that globalization can have on it. Additionally, this company shares expertise and resources with communities in the countries where it operates. As such, apart from empowering the employees, the company addresses various development needs that the locals might have. Nevertheless, some specific development and learning needs might be vital in equipping the company’s employees with adequate skills and knowledge. When these are addressed properly, they enhance the organization’s overall productivity.

Within Europe, the focus of this company should be on improving the employees’ management capacities. This is very important because it enhances leadership competencies. Specifically, the United States employees should also be offered adequate leadership competencies. Being the expatriates, they need these skills because they make executing duties easy for them. As such, employees from the United States are worth appreciating since they offer vital expatriate services in all places where this company starts subsidiaries. Therefore, it is vital for this company to improve their management skills. With this in mind, the focus of education programs should be on equipping the expatriates with vital leadership skills as well as enhancing individual effectiveness and instilling business sense in them. Additionally, in this region most operations are based on management. Therefore, the output of employees is improved when they are equipped with important or relevant skills.

Regarding the eastern region states, the company ought to establish performance competencies. The emphasis should be on training and education in order to improve the employees’ innovative skills so that their efficiency can improve. Relative capacities should also be improved in order to diversify the operations of the company in the region. As such, instead of focusing on the business operations only, the company should establish manufacturing plants in this region.

In addition, the company’s employees in places like Asia and China need information about services and products’ customization. According to Korzenowski (1999), products’ customization plays a very instrumental role of ensuring quality. Studies have shown that clients within this region have diverse needs. Putting more emphasis on the quality of the products will enable the employees to address the unique clients’ needs while improving organizational performance.

Every employee who enters the organization ought to be allowed an induction training opportunity. This is very important for the host country because it has a culture that is different from the American culture. According to Peng (2013), the aim of induction training is to familiarize the employee with organizational expectations. Via this training, the employer also identifies the employees’ needs after which they are addressed accordingly. This ensures that employees maintain high performance once they start executing their duties officially.

During induction training, new employees are supervised closely by experienced staffs. They are literally, taught how to perform their duties. They also get a chance to practice doing their work. The aim of the coaches at this time ought to be to enhance a sense of belonging to the Dell team among the new employees. This way, their loyalty can be earned and they direct attention towards realizing the objectives and goals of the organization.

Essentially, information about Dell products should be availed to the new employees including software applications. This makes employees conversant with different properties of the products of the company. With this knowledge, the employees can face clients with confidence and address different concerns effectively. Additionally, employees can also make informed decisions after this training. This is very important because it enhances efficiency while enabling the company to minimize complaints. Additionally, it makes employees accountable for the decisions that they make (Luthans & Doh, 2011).

In terms of staff development, this company’s employee base undergoes classroom training and online training. As such, the company ought to inform new employees about the orientation kits. There are alternatives for DD ROM delivery as well as the use of web-based applications and other issues. Employees get essential skills via these sessions which make applying new knowledge while executing duties possible. Pursuing these courses equip employees with different competencies.

Similarly, the organization ought to explore the relative opportunities that are available so that it can build staffs’ capacities. Hill (2012) observes that, these courses enable the employees to perform bigger responsibilities as well as to address challenging tasks. It is worth noting that this approach is past the normal development of employees. This is because the organization has a flexible environment which allows employees to attend these sessions and learn new skills.

In the remote places such as Africa, the firm ought to consider establishing onsite institutions. As such, it ought to be noted that educational institutions in remote regions lack the capacity to offer adequate knowledge which can make employees competitive. Online training institutions will greatly enhance employees’ expertise in such regions. It will also ease education access for the employees. For instance, employees can choose when to attend training. This is due to the fact that course times can be designed on the basis of the work pattern and schedules of the employees.

In China and Vietnam, employees ought to be given financial resources in order to enroll for higher education programs and to further their careers. Financial resources can enable employees’ access to quality education. This empowerment will enable them to pursue their studies from internationally recognized learning institutions. This way, they will get vital skills and these will boost the organization’s international competitiveness. Additionally, the organization ought to consider entering partnerships with international and national learning institutions in order to enhance employees’ competencies.

Verbeke (2009) observes that Indian populations struggle to deal with the negative effects of poverty. This problem affects mostly the youth. The rising unemployment rate has not been addressed by the regional nation states. As such, this company can offer computer donations in the region or partner with non-profit organizations and schools to implement ICT projects in the region. For instance, Dell can offer basic training after donating computers. This will equip people with vital knowledge that can be used to generate income. According to the current trends, e-learning is a cost-effective option via which the youth can learn vital skills. This is a sustainable and viable alternative when compared to the other options.

Apart from collaborations with the Indian learning institutions, Dell ought to consider starting projects in the communities. These ought to be participative as well as capable of using resources that are available within the community. This will promote ownership sense among the locals. The company should provide a chance for the local people to contribute knowledge to these projects as well as to provide different types of support. Education ought to address vital factors that entail empowerment, development and leadership. Addressing the minority populations’ concerns empowers them while ensuring that they are equipped with adequate capacities that are necessary for addressing different problems (Verbeke, 2009).

Dell’s Global Compensation Programs

Proper compensation is very important in improving employees’ performance. Apart from boosting employees’ morale and motivating them, good packages help the company in preventing turnover which can affect the organization negatively. The international compensation plans for Dell address employees’ needs accordingly. They reflect the employees’ efforts and their contribution towards the growth of this organization. Lowther (2006) observes that, this company has a program that provides a complete compensation package. As such, the employees’ base package at various levels is determined by the compensation committee.

Top managers usually get better salaries than their subordinates and junior employees. Apart from the basic salary, employees also get insurance cover benefits as well as other rewards. Additionally, Dell has annual bonus packages. The company rewards employees on the basis of their contributions and efforts throughout the year. When combined with yearly salary increments, the bonuses show the employees that their efforts are appreciated by the company’s management (Luthans & Doh, 2011).

Evaluation of the Performance of Dell’s Subsidiary Managers

Employees’ performance assessment is very important because it ensures that they meet their objectives and goals. Through this process, problems that might be interfering with employees’ performance are identified on time. As such, it gives the employer an opportunity to formulate or devise appropriate interventions for addressing these inefficiencies. According to Rosset (2009), conventional employee evaluation methods require the collaboration of immediate supervisors with employees combined with performance monitoring. Managers should report the progress of employees and also suggest appropriate means of improving this progress. Regarding Dell Company, the most ideal strategy for reviewing managers’ performance in the subsidiary branches is three-hundred-and-sixty strategy for evaluation.

Brisco and Schuler (2004) observe that this assessment procedure is ideal because it evaluates employees’ performance from various viewpoints. Apart from including immediate supervisors, the superiors, employees, peers, clients and subordinates are also actively involved. As such, individuals in the environment of the client rate the employee’s performance. The employee is given the feedbacks. Compared to the other rating methods, this rating is comprehensive and ideal for Dell employees’ evaluation. The basis of this evaluation method is the knowledge that accurate details of the performance of an employee can only be supplied by individuals within the employee’s work environment. As such, the evaluation process generates reliable and objective information which can be used to make credible decisions. Essentially, this information is a reflection of decisions and perceptions of different individuals in these environments.

This evaluation approach is ideal because it enables individuals who understand managers’ performance better from different dimensions to evaluate them. According to Hill (2012), this makes the whole process credible and fair. It also enhances making of sound decisions on the basis of the given response. This enhances performance since actual problems are addressed by the implemented interventions. Thus, this presents a viable means of avoiding wastage of resources. Ultimately, efficiency is improved as well as sustainability and this promotes organizational development and growth.

This evaluation system encourages all stakeholders to participate in employees’ appraisal research before they contribute to this process. According to Palmer (1999), this is an informed research with credible evidence which enhances findings’ validation. The approach generates factual information and this makes findings accurate and consistent. The argument of Hill (2012) is that, there is a bias against disabled persons, the elderly and women in single source, conventional systems in most cases. Depending on different information sources enables the system to prove that it acknowledges the essence of diversity while reducing the possibility of bias and discrimination. As such, it fosters diversity management. Since the environment in which Dell managers operate is culturally diverse, their performance is enhanced by relative skills (Holzner, 2005; Robert, 2009).

When the contributions and inputs from different sources are used, this evaluation approach broadens managers’ accountability. Rossett (2009) notes that this has several benefits because it enhances understanding of responsibilities among managers as well as other stakeholders apart from immediate supervisors. When various perceptions are compared, managers are able to identify specific places that should be improved.

Organizational performance is improved by this system when it incorporates different information sources (Perkins & Shotland, 2005). Ideally, managers’ activities affect different environments and individuals. As such, accurate performance evaluation cannot be done by immediate managers only. Additionally, they might be unable to review all performance dimensions of the employee. This system takes a holistic approach which ensures that the respective manager’s concerns are addressed. This contributes to the development of the employee as well as organizational growth. It is apparent that this is the most suitable evaluation method for all Dell managers.


Globalization trends affect organizational performance directly throughout the world. Notably, organizations are compelled by these changes to expand operations past their national boundaries. For better performance in these environments, organizations implement strategic approaches in order to acquire competitive advantages. Organizations also come up with desirable strategies in order to explore varying niches. While trying to improve and sustain growth in the international arena, Dell employs a unique business and corporate strategy. As illustrated by the preceding study, national and organizational cultures treasure communication analysis, social responsibility, and performance analysis as well as career advancement among others.

Additionally, the organization acknowledges the essence of the minority populations in its growth. International standards are recognized by the practices of human resource management and they are aligned with different cultural environments. Different standards which include safety standards and ISO 9001 influence Dell’s performance and practices in China. In terms of development and training, the company addresses different employees’ needs. Apart from empowering its employees, the company ought to focus on empowering communities. Finally, the most ideal employees’ appraisal program is the three-hundred-and-sixty program. This can be used effectively in analyzing managers’ performance in the subsidiaries.


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Free Essay: Environmental Ethics academic essay help: academic essay help

Free Essay: Environmental Ethics


Man was given authority over the environment and all found within it since the time of his creation. Man therefore has power over the seas, oceans, rivers and land among other natural resources. For their livelihood, human beings depend on the environment. It is from the environment that they acquire natural resources for their survival (Williams, 1992).

The trend has led to harmonious relationships between man and his ecosystem. Human beings for example have cultivated land from the start to get food as well as other resources for their sustenance. This trend had continued to the 19th century when many socialists designed laws that tried to restrict man from fully exploiting the environment for resources and food for their survival. Many theorists have also for a long time designed propositions that prevent man from getting maintainable assets from the environment and prodded humanity instead for environmental conservation.

Discussions on environmental conservations cannot be done without focusing on issues of the effects of how humans utilize the environment to realize their daily needs. It is clear that the environment has needs and it is essential noting that the needs are not as significant as the needs of humans. This paper further discusses the fact that the needs of humans are more important than environmental needs.

The paper also proceeds by focusing on different environmental ethics and other utilitarian theories, Kant and neoclassical among other theories. Some of these philosophies support the role of human beings in the environment for survival while others oppose it.


According to Howell (2010) the affiliation between human beings as well as their ecological system is vital because they rely on the connection for food and health. Natural resources include rivers, seas, rivers, lakes and land. These environmental resources also have sub resources that are utilized by man for survival. The Lockean right to property argues that there are no environmental rights that guarantee human rights to life, health, property or freedom (Williams 1992).

Therefore, the environment cannot make any rules but man can make rules for living in the environment. The rules should not be personalized but communalized. Locke argues accordingly that current ethics does not give human life many rights but it tends to focus more on the environment.

Locke is therefore of the opinion that human beings as well as the ecosystem can comfortably coexist. Other principles consider this to be primitive and if it goes on, humans will not be in a position to survive because of many restrictions to their rights to property and life.

Studies also reveal that many theories passed across by theorists including Kant and Aristotle mainly focus on human to human affiliations (Brenan & Lo 2008). There is no provision for human to earth relationship and this is very important for survival of humans. Based on his thinking, Kant is of the idea of duty. Therefore, individuals work for each other in order to achieve resources and a good livelihood.

On the other hand, Aristotle utilized ideas that are coordinated by eudemonia. Locke however advocates for the right to ownership of property. These rights give room to humanity for access to all that pertains to the environment or nature. The Lockean theory unlike many other theories proposes that man must have the right to utilize natural resources. He also argues that the environment and man co-exist to sustain and grow each other.

Through globalization, business ethics has tried to challenge the significance of human needs over that of the environment. Many companies have been put into place and only tend to care about the ecology and the needs of stakeholders (DesJardin, 2012). Such needs are built on capitalism. What’s more, they are only beneficial to those who work for the company leaving aside those who do not do the same.

Business ethics should also employ an action method of utilitarianism. The law of utilitarianism deals the duty of companies to others. Therefore, the companies should be sensitive of their actions and how they affect other human beings in the ecology they operate in (Crane & Mattern 2007). Additionally, they should consider how business operations affect the environment occupied by humans.

The companies must also consider how business operations affect natural resources that humans rely on for survival and health. Many of the existing global corporations own large manufacturing and production plants. During the manufacturing and production processes, a lot of waste is released from the plants. Most of the waste finds way to the environment and end up destroying natural resources that are designed for consumption by humans.

Some countries for example western territories have also signed a number of agreements allowing for private ownership of seas and oceans. According to Howell (2009), private ownership of such water masses limits the access of humans to natural resources that can be achieved from the habitats. Restricting access to the resources in such environments also means a reduction in their sustainability on daily basis for health and food. This also means that humans will suffer greatly and may end up dying because of starvation.

Such agreements ignore common laws of existence and they violate the theory of justice that aims at treating every person fairly. The theory of justice also aims at ensuring every person receives equal treatment and can access resources equally. It also recommends reduction of fairness between losers and winners.

Environmental laws and ethics also expect humans to take care of the environment. The ethics recommend that man should be responsible for prevention of environmental degradation (Bunin & Tsui- James 2003). It is additionally believed that man can realize sustainable environmental usage easily and ensure it is well attended to at the same time.

Man and the ecosystem as such can coexist easily. However, there are people who believe that man and the environment cannot coexist. Their theories claim that the environment only survives at the expense of human beings (De Steguire 1995). They also expect man to survive sustainably and be in a position to meet their needs without necessarily fully utilizing natural resources.

Environmental ethics are regulates that must be used for peaceful co-existence between man and the environment. Every person aiming at conserving the environment at the expense of human should understand that if man is given an opportunity to live without restrictions on the ecosystem, man is still in a position to protect the environment because it is a place that offers his daily existence.

Every ecosystem has food web and this is narrowed to a food chain. Taking a close look at the food web, it is clear that everything in the ecosystem has a symbiotic relationship. This means, one source relies on the other for survival (Lobina & Hall 2004). Elimination of one item from the food web can easily lead extinction of the other because of lack of food.

Human beings may also starve to death if they design laws that limit their right to use environmental resources. These theories based on the argument above have to uphold the virtue of ethics. Virtue ethics focuses on ensuring individuals maintain moral character when dealing with others. Therefore, they have to examine their actions carefully and decide whether they are acting with honor.

In anything that people do, they have to be descent and honest about their actions towards fellow humans. Actions with integrity helps to ensure humans utilize what is rightfully theirs in the ecosystem. Honesty is additionally expected in the event of making such decisions as they prevent man from utilizing natural resources (UNEP 2006).

All existing regulations should also allow humans to utilize natural resources fully for their health and sustenance. Man on the other hand must ensure they constantly renew renewable resources and economically utilize non-renewable assets.


Many regulations, rules and philosophies as earlier discussed have been put in place to control the relationship between the environment and man. This means that there are regulations, rules and philosophies that also define how humans use natural resources to satisfy their needs. Such theories and proposals need to understand that the ecosystem and man have symbiotic relationship. This means man depends on the environment for health and survival and the environment needs man for continuity and maintenance.

No law can therefore challenge the fact that human needs are more significant than environmental needs. It is also imperative for the proposers to understand that man is not in a position to meet his needs without exploring natural resources. Additionally, it is worth noting that man is indeed a reasonable being and can maintain the environment from massive destruction to ensure his constant supply.


Brenan, A & Lo, Y S 2008, Environmental ethics, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, viewed 17 October 2013 <>.

Bunin, S & Tsui – James, E 2003, Environmental ethics, The Blackwell Companion for Philosophy, 2nd edn, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, viewed 17 October 2013 <>.

Crane, A & Matten, D 2007, Understanding business ethics: Managing Corporate Citizenship and Sustainability in the Age of Globalization, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

DesJardin, J 2012, Environmental Ethics, 5th ed, An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy, Cengage Learning, California.

De Steiguer, J 1995, Three theories from economics about the environment. Journal of bioscience, Vol 45. No. 8.

Howell, R 2009, Ecological ethics for sustainable world and some implications for investment, International journal of transdisciplinary research, 4,1, 1- 15.

Howell, R 2010, Choosing ethical theories and principles and applying them to the question: “should the sea be owned?” international journal of transdisciplinary research 4,1, 1- 15.

Lobina, E & Hall, D 2004, Private and public interests in water and energy, Natural Resources Forum, vol. 28, 268-277.

United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) 2006, Environmental education, ethics and action, viewed 17 October 2013 <>.

Williams, B 1992, Must a concern for the environment be centered on human beings? Reprinted in his Making Sense of Humanity and Other Philosophical Papers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Free Essay: Advertising Directed at Children; Parents or Government’s Responsibility? custom essay help

Free Essay: Advertising Directed at Children; Parents or Government’s Responsibility?


Advertising is a promotion method that supports the economy of many countries via campaign and trading of products and services to clients including children and adults. Product and marketing directed to children has in the past years increased tremendously and is an increasing interest on child clients. The flexibility of children’s income is one of the reasons behind the trend and how they influence the acquisition of their parents.

Additionally, there is an increase in the number of television networks, a fact that has led to reduced viewership of every channel. Social network platform as well as other digital networking facilities have also in the recent past offered new avenues effectively advertise to kids therefore, promoting a media space that flourishes for children, their facilities, products and services (Advertising Association).

The question as to who is responsible for regulation of advertisement content directed at children is the basis of this paper. Through thorough analysis of different books and articles, the paper will seek to prove that it is the parent’s responsibility to regulate what their children are exposed to as well as minimizing the amount of time children spend on TV and other electronic devices.

The role accountability and business limits, specifically when it comes to products adverts that are not ideal for children, will also be the focus of this paper.

Background Information on the Issue

Marketing is vital because of its role in driving the innovation of a product, brand competition and in ensuring economic growth. It also finances pluralistic and various media form that entertain adults and children. There are many delicate providers of media content and a lot of content for the kids. Such enterprises employ a substantial number of individuals who can benefit from the freedom to advertise to kids responsibly.

In the event where there is reduction in the form of new restriction on programming as well as editorial, the subscription charges becomes more detrimental to competition thus, putting the economy of the United States at a disadvantaged position compared to other evolving economies (Advertising Association 8).

The engagement of the US government in child advertisement regulation can be traced back to the times of Hebert Hoover in 1929, when he facilitated a White House Conference on Child Health and Protection. By the end of the conferences, it was acknowledged that children were self-regulating and has individual concerns which are also unique to them (Calvert 207). This report also counseled parents to allow their children to possess toys and personal equipment. This means that every kid should have a sleeping room.

The report also recommends that kids should go shopping and pick products of their own choice. Such experiences were aimed at creating a sense of personal dependency among the children and teaching the child that his or her character can be developed through things. The conference clearly altered the place of children in the American society. Kids became and are still leaders of the consumer market with the cost power that surpass that of adults.

The purchasing power of kids is intense directly and indirectly because they have ability to influence and to manipulate their guardians in their favor. Advertising directed at children is additionally not just concerned the kids’ products purchases but they affect other products in the market as well. The planned and unplanned outcome of advertisement is also currently a concern of many parents because of the impact they have on a child’s socialization (Calvert 208).

Supporting Evidence or Facts

The disapproval directed at parents for the nature of their irresponsibility on issues relating to their young ones is ideally rightly founded. Many kids display less or no effects of harmful advertisements. Such kids have good values instilled to them by their guardians. Even so, there is still competition among parents on a wide range of commercial entities that employ experts in psychology as well as sales and marketing fields to keep up with their marketing trends (Advertising Association 7).

This also means that parents have issues in influencing their children positively and advice to their kids in many cases of socialization that generate conflicting influence from the outside. The kids deserved and with freedom to wants is indeed a major contributor to the challenges that many parents experience with their kids.

Despite the challenges, parents still have a crucial role to play in content regulation in promotions directed at children and what the kids consume. The concerns of parents on issues and matters surrounding their kids are also a focus on the issues that would affect their future negatively.

Many of the concerns originate from advertisement and marketing. They also direct their attention on pragmatic business ensuring that their kids grow up to be reasonable individuals who are also healthier and fit (Advertisement Association 13). All these are additionally achievable via consumption of correct details and products during early growth and development stages.

The role of content regulation in advertisement cannot be left to the government entirely because they stand to lose revenues that are collected from companies targeting children as their prime clients. in as much as the government has a duty to protect its citizens from harm originating from other sectors, it is also true that there are advertisement aspects that the government exempts and can have a lasting impact in the minds of kids especially if they do not understand the intended message.

This also means that it is the parent’s sole responsibility to ensure kids are protected from any inappropriate content. They should also clarify and interpret the content their kids obtain from different forms of media (Calvert 213). Manipulation of the point of views of young people is also a major objective for many advertisements that target young children. These include image manipulation and fake news.

The situation is further heightened with endless bombarding images that define what perfection and beauty is supposed to be. In the end, many health related complications arising from stress and anxiety have increased among the children. Tobacco industry for example advertises its products in different media channels.

Despite the fact that many of the advertisements are directed at adults who intend to smoke, they also intentionally or unintentionally address children who are potential clients. Kids are known as the future of business and thus, such companies start exposing them to smoking at a tender age (Calvert 217).

The inability of a child to understand images or messages passed in advertisement could have a negative impact especially if literally taken. The government in such cases may not offer effective solutions and hence, it becomes the duty of a guardian to demonstrate to the kids how tobacco images and adverts are designed to manipulate them. This also involves dissemination of information with inappropriate concepts of adulthood, charm, freshness and loveliness.

The discussions may also include the objectives of tobacco businesses in child recruitment as future cigarette smokers (Calvert 218).

Research from the American Psychological Association (APA) discloses that kids below 8 years did not have ability to clearly understand televised promotion messages. For this reason, they are more likely to accept the adverts as precise, honest and impartial. Additionally, the studies reveal that kids have the ability to remember advertisement content that they have been repeatedly exposed to.

The particularities of the products affect the consumption desires of kids and it pressures their guardians as they decide what should be bought. This generates parent-child fights especially when the kid’s wishes are not met. The end result of such beliefs could be evident in harmful eating habits are reflected in obesity epidemic among the youth in America.

APA also argues that the efforts to reduce such occurrences are achievable through restriction of promotions targeted at children (Schor 112).

There is also increased concern in regard to adverts that target adults and pose risks to kids. Beer advertisements in football programs especially those of Guinness and Heineken are good examples of such promotions because they are showcased in programs that are widely viewed by kids across the globe. The promotions create brand familiarity among the kids therefore, encouraging positive attitudes towards alcohol consumption among the children of as early as 10 years (Ramsey 374).

Commercial promotions with content that showcase violent scenes for example video games and movies also promote the creation of a violent culture. This increases the possibility of children displaying destructive behaviors. Organizations are also creating product awareness progressively and dependability via video games. A game that is successful translates to successful product as the consumer who is mainly kids are involved, absorbed and entangled on the product (Calvert 212-213).

Research studies by the American Medical Association journal also revealed that children between the ages of 2 and 17 years spend up to 15, 000 and 18, 000 hours on television compared to 12, 000 hours the spend annually in their studies in schools (Advertising Association 14). This makes children the ideal targets for television advertisements whose effect surpass that of any other media platform because there is reduced influence by those of older generations.

This also calls for parent’s immediate response because the government via its machinery for example the Committee on Communication of the American Academy can only make endorsements to be implemented by parents. According to a report released by the committee, children below the age of two should watch TV at any time because it interferes with their brain development that relies on relations of humans for successful growth.

Parents also have the responsibility to reduce the amount of time spent on TV by their children if they are to grow normally and develop their cognitive aspects are required (Calvert & Barbara 424). Different companies have also generated ways of ensuring that their products reach the children. The methods include new children markets exploration via wireless and online media. Such promoters employ stealth strategies in which clients are immersed in new environments, most often without their knowledge on the type of promotions they are viewing.

Advertisers through their expertise also analyze the interests of children patterns carefully focusing on games and communication software for teens. Government restrictions on TV can also be the major cause of a change in marketing strategies for different companies (Calvert 212-213). Products such as tobacco can also be advertised on TV only because of specific terms and conditions.

The modern world however that is less restricted also displays smoking as a hip action. As a result, promoters use virtual bartenders in alcohol related websites to build cordial relationships between the children and the product. This is implemented by use of comedy, sporty and stylish language to entice kids. Additionally, many advertisements on TV and online platforms reveal intense marketing of products especially junk foods and they focus more on harmful advertisements to kids such as alcohol and tobacco (Calvert 214).

One of the most significant areas of concern on the impact of advertisement on children is the analysis of changes that are based on the ability of a child to comprehend commercial messages and their objective specifically. A child below the age of eight years believes the purpose of commercial promotions is to enable them make the right purchasing resolutions. They are not aware that such commercials aim at enticing them to buy specific products.

To achieve this objective, organizations design marketing campaigns that are directed at getting the kid to focus on the communication, aspiration and to distinguish as well as reminisce the product. The level by which kids understand the intention of an advertisement also touches on the realization of the commercial. Organizations will as a result, utilize any strategy to embed their adverts into fascinating content to help create an attitude that is favorable about a merchandise without the user’s knowledge (Calvert & Barbara 424- 425).

A Discussion of the Issue

In the United States, the role of the government in children protection against deceitful marketing campaigns is limited to burden of restriction by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The commission has a duty to ensure the Children’s Television Act is implemented, limiting the duration taken by adverts targeted on children in different commercial television stations.

Additionally, the administration limits the kind of content on commercials. Even so, the government may not decide entirely on what viewers watch because there are many medial channels especially online services that are mainly utilized marketers to promote their products and services (Wilcox, et al 8).

When promoting products that are directed to kids, it is essential for a business to disseminate information that is relevant to target audience. This kind of information should be easy to understand and candid. This is also applicable when product advertisements are not directed at children for instance cigarette and beer adverts.

Observation of the business code of ethics is essential in design as well as execution of a marketing strategy. Businesses must therefore identify their target clients, the intention of an advert and the unplanned results that might have effect on the entire population especially if the product is known to be harmful to the kids (Calvert & Barbara 426).

Additionally, the government regulates content and it institutes business limits that are to be respected and strictly followed. The entities do not decide on the audience to watch or purchase any of the advertised products. This is usually the role of guardians and parents. Parents are aware that their kids are exposed to many adverts as they carry out their day to day activities (Ramsey 373).

While kids get exposed to many adverts, a very small percentage is targeted at them. The content of advert and intent of kids directed ads should be of great concern to parents based on the fact that they impact the thinking and kids’ product preference or choice. As primary socialization agents, parents have a duty to shape the lives of their kids as far as making of crucial life decisions is concerned.

The manner in which a child perceives an advertisement is directly related to the type of products they will end up purchasing (Wilcox et al 12).

It is also clear that kids in the United States spend most of their leisure on media channels including the internet, television or playing video games. With availability of the channels, different organizations make the most of the opportunities to promote their products. Research also has revealed that many guardians accompany their children and watch with them different programs on different medial channels; parents’ comments online on the content of promotions enable kids to achieve a better understanding of what they watch.

Regulation of the time that kids spend on media channels and more specifically TV and online is also imperative in limiting exposure of kids to unauthorized content (Schor 110).


Advertisement is a significant strategy by which organizations and other institutions promote their products and services. It is the government’s responsibility to ensure marketers abide by existing regulations in the implementation and planning of their strategies. Restrictions while advertising to children is of distress to parents as well as the government.

Even so, it is a major concern for guardians bearing in mind that they are the primary socialization agents who shape and finance their kids’ purchases. Parents also have a duty to ensure that they impart the right measures for instance explanation of advertisement content to their kids thus, limiting the amount of time they spend on media platforms (Schor 112).

Works Cited

Advertising Association (AA). Parents, Children and the Commercial World: Facts Issues and

Solutions. SW1P 1RT, London. 2011. Retrieved on October 16, 2013 from

Calvert, Sandra L, and Barbara J. Wilson. The Handbook of Children, Media, and Development.

Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 424- 426. 2011.

Calvert, l. S. Children as Consumers: Advertising and Marketing. The future of children. 2008.

Retrieved on October 16, 2013 from

Ramsey, W. Rethinking Regulation of Advertisement Aimed at Children. Ramsey Final, 373-375.

2006 Retrieved on October 16, 2013 from

Schor, J. Regulation, Awareness, Empowerment. Young People and Harmful Media Content in

the digital Age. Nordicom. P. 110- 112. 2006

Wilcox, B, Kunkel, D, Cantor, J, Dowrick P, Linn, S & Palmer, E. Report of the APA Taskforce

on Advertising and Children. American Psychology Association. 2004. Retrieved on October 16, 2013 from

Free Essay: Quality Management in Health Care college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Free Essay: Quality Management in Health Care

Six Sigma Approach

The operation and face of business has been changed by the concept of Six Sigma. The concept is a process that makes it possible for businesses not only to deliver services but goods as well. It can also be defined as the strategy that a company uses in order to identify flaws that occur in its operations and processes and which establishes the means of correcting such failures. The term Sigma is borrowed from statistical concept and it usually defines how small or big a deviation is from delivery of ideal works and goods towards elimination of such deviations the concept as well triggers the thinking process and quality on all phases of business operation across the globe. A product is said to have Six Sigma quality once it delivers a maximum 3.4 defects in one million chance (Sollecito & Johnson, 2010).

At the heart of operation, Six Sigma rotates around some key concepts. First, there is quality significance, which is crucial to a consumer. Secondly, there is deficiency in supply of consumer needs, thirdly, there is system process capability and differentiation, which assess the feelings of consumers and product view. Lastly, it is the predictability and consistency of the system which seeks to improve the view and feelings of consumers regarding a product and its design as well as ability to satisfy process ability and consumer utility. The observation is that consumes attach a lot of value in the predictability and consistency of enterprise process in delivery of high quality levels. As such, the concept of Six Sigma seeks to accomplish this consumer need. Companies that adopt the concept realize fairly prized, improved services and products for clients without making compromises on quality (LA, 2010).

Six Sigma Greenbelt

The process of six sigma entails a couple of levels which include green belt, black belt and master black belt. Each of these levels demands several pre-qualification tests to be carried out which can be done by personnel who are professionally trained and expose practically to the program for purposes of getting sure judgment and results. Additionally, the awards are granted to professionals for completion of different levels in the course. The first level, the green belt is achieved when an individual completes a 2 weeks training and pass qualifying exam. The curriculum is comprised of features like define, measure, analyze, improve and control (DMAIC), which make up integration of related phases. Under such integration, there is a definition of the consumers, stipulation of their needs and bringing forward of the necessary recommendations (Solberg, 1993).

Limitations of present operations are highlighted and processes for improvement suggested on the same. The efficiency of a company is measured through data analysis and data collection with every identified error enlisted. The phase of analysis aims at bridging the gap between targeted outcomes and current methods while improvement stage seeks to actualize stipulated measures that boost company operations. Lastly, the control stage enlightened how to keep pace with policies that are newly introduced as well as strategies in maintenance and improvement of quality according to the goals of companies (LA, 2010).

Six Sigma Black Belts

The six sigma black belt is awarded upon completion of intense period of training of 4 weeks which are inclusive of six sigma green belt curriculum. The personnel awarded with the black belt certification have the ability of training six sigma candidates and they are able to sharpen individual skills while at it. This level facilitates understanding of six sigma roadmap, cross-functional course advancements and the comprehensive arithmetic methodologies. This is a popular level and it takes the authority as Six Sigma group lead (Kelly, 2007).

Master Black Belt

This level will take into consideration the personnel able to complete black belt level like the Master Black Belt which is awarded upon completion of 4 weeks training with implementation of learned concepts as Six Sigma project manager within an organization. Individuals in this case are obligated to share knowledge with view of assisting candidates on green and black belt levels to improvise their individual proposals. Additionally, they train other employees in the business to achieve green belt and black belt certification without the company having to pay extra tuition for the same. This helps save the company money and it also boosts the level of productivity by having staff who are well trained. In the long run, the result is that the company is able to reduce costs since it maximizes on profits (LA, 2010).

The Impact of the Six Sigma on the TQM/CQI Process

Total Quality Management (TQM) is the executive approach established by William Edwards Deming and its goal is enhancing quality through adhering to internal expectations. This can be achieved through enhancing customer utility, modernizing the company’s equipment, minimizing production flaws and extensive expertise training among others. Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) on the other hand is a concept that aims at establishing and building a firm’s processes and organization instead of individuals. The approach places a check on both external and internal consumers.

Common wealth fund report indicates that the United States health care facilities are ranked as the most expensive globally yet, the quality is way below the cost. For example, it cites quality of care delivered varies greatly with chances of curbing diseases, deaths, disabilities and hospitalization being frequently missed. The US ranks as 65 in count of 100 studies of nations that have best performing facilities for healthcare. The report further indicates the US healthcare has not improved since the first rating scorecard was carried out in 2006. The report suggests the US would reduce the number of people who die prematurely by as high as 101,000 people if it sought to pursue quality assurance its health care services. This is a clear indication various regions in the US would improve health care service facilities once the concept of six sigma is adopted as well as the TQM and CQI quality assurance approach (CMWF, 2008).

Upon adoption of these approaches, the US is going to reduce flaws that occur in its processes, it would as well seek to identify consumer needs and meet them through world class quality at fair costs. In the end, this will reduce the high mortality premature rates and get rid of opportunities that are missed in eradication diseases and disabilities conception as well as hospitalization and other challenges. What is more, Six Sigma process will facilitate the training of additional personnel at costs that are cheaper as such, maximizing on productivity (CMWF, 2008).


Kelly, D. L. (2007). Applying Quality Management in Healthcare: A systems Approach (2). Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Legacy Analytics (LA). (2010). TQM, SIX SIGMA, CQI AND CIP. Retrieved on 19th October, 2013 from:

Solberg, L. (1993). Improving Disease Prevention in Primary Care. Washington, DC: AHCPR Working Paper.

Sollecito W., & Johnson, K. (2010). Factors Influencing the Application and Diffusion of CQI in Health Care. New York: NY, Routlegde

The Commonwealth Fund Commission on a High Performance Health System (CMWF). (2008). Why Not the Best? Results from the National Scorecard on U.S. Health system Perfomance. New York: NY, Routlegde

The Role of IT Service Providers in IT Service Management and IT financial Matters popular mba argumentative essay help

The Role of IT Service Providers in IT Service Management and IT financial Matters

What is The Role of IT Service Providers in IT Service Management and IT financial Matters?

Since personal computers were introduced in the 1980’s, organizations have invested tremendously in information technology. They have done this as a means of improving their delivery of service as well as products quality. Some have also been able to improve their quality of gods and services, while others have failed to do so. For purposes of helping in management of IT challenges among these organizations, service providers of IT are among the major players in the sector. It is this aspect that makes it mandatory for potential IT service providers to study information technology service management. This topic on The Role of IT Service Providers in IT Service Management and IT financial Matters addresses the improvement, initiation, management and organization of IT services which are developed for organizations.

It also seeks to address the provision, support and design of these IT services. This subject comes with variety of topics which range from service lifecycle to the standards of quality. Among these topics, is the one related to financial matters. The topic concerns itself with charging, cost structuring and budgeting matters of IT services (Van and Annemiek 8). Particularly IT financial management concerns itself with the amount, funding control and utilization of money organizations invest in IT. The purpose of this report is to evaluate IT financial matter as one of the topics that IT service providers and management need to study.


Financial IT management broadly deals with the responsibilities and activities that are related to IT and in doing so, covers the financial matters that are related to IT. The topic of IT financial, essentially matters as it deals with the processes of marketing, accounting and charging requirements of IT service provider. The aim of this topic to an IT service provider is ensuring the service provider manages and wisely spends money. This is in line with the purpose of financial management as is the case in other fields of study. Additionally, the topic also ensures the financial resources available align with the organizations business plan. As such, this topic attempts to ensure providers of IT service make investment decisions that are sound and relevant to the organizations objectives. The topic is one that identifies financial risks an IT service provider faces not only now but in the future. In doing so, the topic attempts to ensure IT organizations are able to comply with relevant regulation obligations in terms of financial management.

The fact is a large percentage of organizations have been investing in IT yet, research indicates that most of them have not benefited from the investment. In 2000, a research was conducted by Brynjolfsson which indicated that computerization of majority of organizations does not in any way, improve productivity. The research lead to a productivity paradox (Sottini and Jan 1). However, further analysis into the paradox carried out later indicated that some of these organizations achieved success in boosting operations through IT investment while others did not. This is an indication that though organizations continue to make investment in IT technology, most of them are yet to enjoy the benefits of such investment. As such, for IT organizations that are in the process of maximizing value for services, they are supposed to understand IT financial management. It is through understanding this concept that they can be in the position to provide services that are cost effective to customers.

To understand IT financial management, providers of IT service are supposed to understand the 3 fundamental activities of financial management. First, they need to understand budgeting since it predicts the manner in which an organization is supposed to spend money. In doing so, IT service providers will be in a position to match their business plans with the money available for their services. This can occur within a specified duration which can be 1 year in which case, the organization matches its expected income with the expected expenditure. Nevertheless, a budget is supposed to reflect what the organization could achieve and not what it hopes to achieve. Precisely because of this, it should be a reflection of the proposed projects, service to deliver, investment as well as other premeditated changes (Brewster et al. 52).

Secondly, providers of IT service are supposed to understand the process of accounting. This helps them account for expenditure and income since they are in a position to breakdown their income in accordance to the customers, activities and services. Additionally, it acts as a cost analysis that makes it possible for the service providers to make decisions which are sound. From a general standpoint, accounting aids IT providers in identification of key customers as well as evaluation of the impact they have on organizations. Information, which is gathered in accounting also helps providers of IT service to monitor expenditure and income data which is helpful in evaluation of efficiency of financial controls. The information that is gathered at this stage aids in determining whether IT service providers are supposed to take any action or whether they are not.

Thirdly, IT service providers are supposed to understand the process of charging. This is a process involving strategic decision and IT service providers are supposed to know how to carry it out since it increases the costs of operation. Charging, also influences the manner in which customers behave towards IT service providers. In this instance, customers might compare alternative service providers with what they already have in their organizations.

While reviewing IT financial management as is the case with other topic, it is important to note it is very broad. However, by narrowing it to IT service, it becomes manageable since it is restricted to IT services only. The major goal of the topic is helping IT service providers to account and budget for their costs of service provision. The topic also distinguishes objective of each IT financial management activity as follows. The budgeting objectives are to predict the amount of money that an organization needs in order to run its IT services as well as minimize the tendency of overspending or under spending.

Additionally, budgeting attempts to compare actual spending with predicted spending in order to ensure IT services do not run out of money. The objectives of accounting are an illustration of how an organization spends its money, determines cost of service provision and performs benefit/cost analysis. Lastly, the objectives of charging are aimed at recovering the cost of IT services provision, running the company as a business an influencing the behavior of customers (Sottini and Jan 11).


The topic of IT financial management is of great importance to all IT service providers. It helps them in management of resources in the appropriate manner through ensuring they understand the right manner of running their organizations as businesses. The topic, overall, introduces the notion of spending money wisely and ensuring IT service providers understand why they are supposed to spend money in that manner. I appreciate the role played by the topic among IT service providers.

Unlike other topics, this topics deals with the financial resources. It insists IT organizations are not in any way different from other kinds of organizations. Precisely because of this, the topic maintains IT service providers are supposed to run their organizations as they would businesses. In other terms, the topic attempts to show IT service providers the reason they should account for their money as well as spend it in the appropriate manner.

The topic explores financial resources and attempts to ensure IT service providers use the best practices while handling their resources. The topic also attempts to ensure IT service providers understand operation costs within their organizations, structure costs and factors influencing them. In doing so, the topic ensures IT service providers are able to make best decisions in their business practices.

IT financial matters therefore, are important aspects in IT service management since they deal with specific matters other topics fail to address. As a matter of fact, the topic is unique in its own way (Brewster et al. 52). IT service providers are helped by the topic to compare expenditures with their income in response to their plans and budget. It also identifies potential problems found in IT and analyze appropriate line of action. IT financial matters, essentially help in matters of planning and of making appropriate decisions.

I understand that as a topic, IT management ensures IT service providers are compliant with financial practices for their individual benefit. The topic as well illustrates rationale behind proper financial resources management among IT service providers. In this instance, the topic introduces financial management in its unique form in IT through contrasting it from other disciplines. Therefore, the topic analyzes cost and the manner in which IT service providers are supposed to address costs so they can enjoy success in their practices. Also, the topic analyzes investment and relationship to other aspects in an organization. In doing this, the topic illustrates the manner in which IT service providers are supposed to handle their services as businesses so they can enjoy success.

The following strategy is identified as the strategy that is unique and which IT organizations are supposed to adopt in order to succeed in planning their finances properly. First, the topic claims IT organizations are supposed to engage in proper policy management. In this instance, the topic claims IT organizations need to identify their objectives as well as define clear methods for management of financial matters. Secondly, the topic claims IT organizations need to plan how to use their resources. Planning aids in controlling and predicting process of spending money both in the long and short term. Thirdly, the topic claims IT organizations need to evaluate investments. The purpose of this evaluation is establishing the viability of their initiatives implementation. Fourthly, the topic also claims IT organizations are supposed to engage in pricing of their services. Organizations, at this level can set prices for their IT services (Sottini and Jan 15).


In the last 2 decades, IT technology has continued to change the manner in which organizations operate. Regardless of this fact, an organization cannot survive if it never manages its money and resources effectively. This is true for organizations that provide IT services just as is the case in other organization. For an organization to succeed in business, the organization is supposed to understand financial matters in IT. One way of doing this is understanding the topic of IT financial management. The topic analyzes budgeting and cost in details and the way IT service providers are supposed to address the issue. The topic also maintains that IT service providers are supposed to handle organizations as businesses.

Work cited

Brewster, Ernest, et al. It Service Management: A Guide for Foundation Exam Candidates. Swindon: British Informatics Society, 2010. Internet resource.

Sottini, Maxime, and Jan Bon. It Financial Management: Best Practice. Zaltbommel: Van Haren Publishing, 2009. Print.

Van, Bon, and Annemiek Veen. Release & Control for It Service Management: Based on Itil : a Practitioner Guide : Configuration Management, Release Management & Change Management. Zaltbommel, Netherlands: Van Haren Pub, 2007. Print.

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