Franco-Prussian War refers to the war that was fought between 1870 and 1871 between South German states and France. It was also called Franco-German war. The South German states were led by Prussia in this war which was an indication of the rise of the military power of German as well as its imperialism. It also indicated the end of the French hegemony in the continental Europe leading to the unification of Germany. It was a war that violently changed the European history’s course.
What led to the Franco-Prussian War?
Prussia emerged as the leading power in Germany. This increased German states’ unification and Napoleon III viewed them with apprehension following the victory of Prussia in the 1866’s Austro-Prussian War. At the same time, the growing rift between France and Prussia encouraged Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian chancellor, to unify the states of Germany. He ensured Italian and Russian neutrality while counting on the neutrality of British. Both sides pushed for war preparations with France indicating remarkable inefficiency while Prussia had astounding thoroughness.
The offer of Spain throne to the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen’s house prince acted as the immediate war pretext. This house was a branch of the Prussia ruling house. At first, the offer was rejected but accepted later on the advice of Bismarck on July 12th following a strong protest by France. The aggressive foreign minister from France, Duc de Gramont, insisted on Prussian assurances but the Prussia’s King William I, who became Emperor William 1, refused the assurances. Through the publication of Ems dispatch, Bismarch inflamed the feelings of France. On 19th July, France made a war declaration.
How the war was fought
South Germany states considered France as the aggressor. Therefore, they joined the confederation of North Germany enthusiastically just the way Bismarck hoped. Helmuth Karl Bernhad von Moltke was responsible for the military conduct during the war. Napoleon III was in command of the French side but later devolved on the Marshal Bazaine. Germans moved to Alsace on 4th August 1870. The French were defeated by the Germans at Wissembourg pushing French to the Châlons-en-Champagne forcing a wedge between the Bazaine and MacMahon’s forces while centering on Metz. Attempts to join MacMahon were defeated at Vionville on 16th August and at Gravelotte on 18th August. The Germans started to march to Paris leading to the Sedan disaster when MacMahon and Napoleon III attempted to rescue Bezaine. The emperor was captured alongside his 100,000 men.
A bloodless revolution took place after Paris received the Sedan disaster news. The deposition of Napoleon occurred while a provisional national defense government was formed. General Trochu, Jules favre and Leon Gambetta led the government. On 19th September, the Germans surrounded Paris leading to a grueling siege. In a balloon, Gambetta managed to escape out of Paris to the provinces from where he organized a resistance. A gallant stand was made by Faidherbe on Loire, Chanzy to the north as well as Bourbaki to the east. However, the surrender of Bazaine on 27th October with 180,000 men’s garrison made the resistance useless. However, Paris was held out till 28th January 1871 leading to a famine that lasted for several months. Though an armistice was signed by Adolphe Thiers and Bismarck on the same day, Belfort fortress resisted till 16th February.
Why and how the Franco-Prussian War ended
The war between Germany and France ended after the Frankfurt treaty was signed on 10th May 1871. According to this treaty, France was to cede Alsace province and partly Lorraine. France was also required to pay war indemnity in form of gold francs amounting to 5 billion. It was also to submit to the occupation by the German troops till the full amount was rendered. The discharge of this obligation occurred in September 1873 and at the same month following the occupation which lasted for about 3 years; France was finally freed from the German soldiers.
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Arab Israeli War 1948 descriptive essay help
Arab Israeli War 1948
The Arab Israeli war 1948 was the first war in a series of numerous military conflicts between Israel and Arab forces. Israel got its independence in 1948 after the United Nations recognized it as a sovereign country in the Middle East. If the pre-war relations in Palestine were fraught with serious difficulties, then the difficulties paled into being insignificant after the independence of Israel. This is because the Arab nations started attacking Israel after it became an independent state. If Israel faltered at the time of this hurdle, it would have stopped existing as an independent state regardless of the decree of the United Nations.
What led to the Arab Israeli war 1948?
The war between Israel and Arab nations broke out in 1948 when five nations from the Arab world invaded the former Palestinian territory immediately after the United Nations announced the independence of Israel as a state on 14th May 1948. Conflict between Arab groups and Jewish was immediately sparked by the resolution of the United Nations. Fighting started with attacks by the irregular Palestinian Arabs bands which attacked the local Arab Liberation Army that was made of volunteers from Arab countries and Palestine. The groups began attacking Jewish cities, armed forces and settlements.
The Jewish forces were made of Haganah, which was an underground Jewish community militia in Palestine as well as the LEHI and Irgun groups. The aim of the Arabs was to block the Partition Resolution while preventing a Jewish state’s establishment. On the other hand, the Jews wanted to take control of the territories that they had been allotted as per the Partition Plan.
How the war was fought
During this war, the Arab forces from Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq occupied parts of eastern and southern Palestine that were not given to the Jews by the UN’s partitioning of Palestine. They captured east Jerusalem which included the small quarter of the Old City with an aim of forestalling a Jewish state’s creation in Palestine. Their aim was to capture the entire Jerusalem and shell it while cutting off the Jewish people living there from coastal plain.
Meanwhile, Israel got control of the road that leads to Jerusalem via Yehuda Mountains while repulsing repeated Arabs attacks successfully. In 1947 as well as 14th May 1948, the United States offered a de facto recognition of the Provisional Government of Israel. However, the US maintained arms embargo during this war against the belligerents.
Why and how the Arab Israeli war 1948 ended
It was after breaking the siege of the Old City that Israel took control of the Western parts of Jerusalem. Israel captured some villages and suburbs from their enemy, the Arabs. Nevertheless, the Israel forces were not successful in their efforts to protect the Jewish living in Eastern Jerusalem. Later on 28th May 1948, the Old City’s Jewish quarter fell under the Arab Legion. On November 1948, ceasefire lines were established between the Transjordan forces and Israel with several non-main land areas. The lines acted as the temporary boarder between what initially were mixed communities. Western Jerusalem was the capital city of Israel while the eastern Jerusalem, which included holy sites, was under the occupation of Transjordan that became Hashemite Kingdom in 1949. Essentially, the city was divided into two.
Who was affected by the war?
The 1948 war, which is called the “War of Independence” by the Israelis led to the deaths of 6,000 Israelis. This was about 1 percent of the population of the country. In Jerusalem, over 1,000 Jewish civilians were wounded. The Arab nations that attacked Israel lost over 7,000 men.
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What is Environmentalism? buy essay help: buy essay help
What is Environmentalism?
Environmentalism refers to the advocacy for restoration, preservation and improvement of the earth’s natural environment, more so with an aim of controlling pollution. It is a philosophy that planet Earth should be viewed as a ship that is at the center of an ocean where, if there is a fire outbreak, humans should put their efforts towards putting that fire out because they do not have another place to run to. Environmentalism is also a theory whose perception of the environment is that of a vital factor for development, especially intellectual and cultural development of a group or individuals. It can also be seen as an ethical and political movement that aims at improving and protecting the natural environment’s quality via changes of the environmentally harmful activities by humans.
What led to the emergence of environmentalism?
This term was coined for the first time in 1922 to denote a social movement whose aim was to influence political processes through activism, education and lobbying with an aim of protecting the ecosystems and natural resources. In the 1960s and the beginning of 70s, there were pessimistic environmental visions. These reflected the pervasive “civilization malaise” sense as well as the conviction that the long-term prospects of earth were bleak. Nevertheless, towards the end of the 1970s, more environmentalists emerged attempting to develop more strategies that would limit environmental degradation via recycling as well as using what was called “emancipatory” environmental ideas. These had a more practical and positive approach and they included aspects like those of promoting ecological consciousness as well as environmental “stewardship” ethic. These were aimed at the establishment of a clean and safe environment for humans.
Why it is important
This ideology or environmental movement is important for various reasons which are simply its causes.
They include the following:
Reduction of the emissions of greenhouse gases or global warming mitigation such as through activities like promotion of mass transit.
Promotion of vegan or vegetarian diets because they are environmentally friendly since meat is energy intensive and it emits more greenhouse gases.
Reduction of chemical pollution through agriculture and manufacturing.
Creation of more sanctuaries for the wildlife to prevent extinction while conserving the existing ones.
Protecting the endangered species.
Opposing more use of the fossil fuels.
Encouraging better practices for municipal and industrial waste management.
How environmentalism is depicted
There are different movements that depict this philosophy that is aimed at protecting or preserving the environment.
The argument of this movement or theory is that a free market, tort law and property rights offer the ideal tools for preserving environmental sustainability and health. The theory considers stewardship as natural and the expulsion of aggressors like polluters via class or individual action. Many conservatives and libertarians have supported this theory.
This is an environmental movement via which evangelicals emphasize the biblical mandates about the role of humanity as the steward and the subsequent responsibility in taking care of the Creation. Although the focus of this movement has been on different issues that affect the environment, it is popular for focusing on climate action on the biblical basis from a theological perspective. The argument of the Evangelical Climate Initiative is that changes in climate that are induced by humans will pose severe impact and consequences especially on the poor and that the mandate that God gave Adam was to take care of the Garden of Eden and this applies to modern evangelicals. Thus, working towards mitigating the impacts of the climate and supporting communities to adapt to change is a moral obligation.
Environmental conservation is considered as setting natural resources aside to prevent them from being damaged by contact with the humans or some activities by humans. Such activities include mining, logging, fishing and hunting. Laws and regulations can be established to ensure that natural resources are preserved or conserved.
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Environmental Impact Analysis law essay help
Environmental Impact Analysis
Environmental impact analysis is typically an analysis that is done with an aim of assessing the potential effect or impact of a proposed project on the social and natural environment. This analysis can include assessment of both long-term and short-term effects that a development project that has been proposed is likely to have on physical environment which includes water, air and/or noise pollution and its effects on the local services, health and living standards as well as aesthetics.
Who is involved in environmental impact analysis?
This analysis is usually done by local officials, developers and planners as well as other community members. These recognize that the environmental quality and economic development are also important elements of the growth of the community. Generally, this process usually involves different individuals, especially civil servants and professionals with expertise in environmental engineering and science. It mostly includes local officials with knowledge about the management regulations and procedures of the federal, state and local agencies.
Community members with interest and expertise in local natural resources and environment are also involved. Choosing the right individuals for this analysis ensures that accurate considerations are given to the potential impact of a proposed development project. This is why the relevant agencies must ensure that the analysis is done by only suitable experts even if consultants have to be hired to perform the analysis.
What environmental impact analysis entails
This analysis involves a systematic process during which human and natural resources are identified, described and evaluated with an aim of improving the decisions made about their management. The choice to analyze a community’s environment does not mean that all the resources identified have to be protected or preserved. It simply means that the community has to be informed or knowledgeable about the available resources. This ensures that decisions made for the development reflect different values of the community instead of economic values only. This analysis facilitates planning by the community by helping the officials of the local government, citizens and the community leaders to:
Identify the valuable resources in their community environment or surrounding areas that the proposed development can affect.
Evaluate the capacity of the community for the additional development considering the priorities of protecting the environment.
Identify the tradeoffs or deficiencies between the possible development course of action or alternatives and environmental impacts that are associated with the alternatives.
Determine the groups in a community that might be affected by the proposed action or project indirectly or directly.
Why environmental impact analysis is important
Basically, the importance of this analysis is ensuring environmental protection by ensuring that the authority in charge of local planning considers the possible effects before granting permission for any project as well as take the effects into account while making decisions.
The importance of this analysis is basically to:
Ensure compliance of development projects with all appropriate and relevant environmental regulations and laws which include floodplain and wetland regulations as well as storm-water management regulations during operation and construction of new projects.
Promote communication among developers, local officials, community leaders as well as citizens about the kind of proposal and its possible impact on the environment.
Ensure fair and consistent review of the development proposals through the application of a process of systematic review that entails environmental assessment.
Provide a forum via which alternatives can be explored for the proposed strategies or development to mitigate the impacts, if or when necessary.
For instance, this analysis can inform decisions about development projects regarding the most appropriate housing project site. It can also help in the establishment of mitigation strategies for the proposed development that have been approved such as the design elements of a site to reduce the volume of storm-water runoff or contamination.
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Elimination-By-Aspects (EBA) Model college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc
Elimination-By-Aspects (EBA) Model
Elimination-By-Aspects (EBA) model refers to a multi-attribute decision making theory in which a choice has to be reached via an iterated eliminations’ series. It is a brand choice theory or model representing ultimate selection as a series of several eliminations. Every alternative that is available while making a choice is seen as comprising of several aspects such as product features. At every stage of the process of making a choice, an aspect has to be selected with a probability that is proportional to the importance of that aspect for the consumer. All alternatives that are considered but do not have the aspects selected are eliminated. This decision making process continues until when there is a single alternative. It is at this time that the assumption is made that the consumer has chosen the remaining item.
How the Elimination-By-Aspects (EBA) model works
To make a choice, iterated elimination series are made. The person making a decision has to select an attribute every time. There is a probability of making a selection that is proportional to the perceived importance of the attribute, and eliminating all alternatives that do not have the attribute and selecting a next important attribute as well as proceeding in a similar manner until all but one of all alternatives is eliminated. This model is a stochastic lexicographic choice version and though there is no guarantee that it produces an optimal choice, it seems from the experimental tests that it is a characteristic of the multi-attribute process of human decision making.
Who produced the model?
This model was proposed by Amos Tversky, a psychologist, in 1972. The psychologist proposed that individuals evaluate a single characteristic of an option at a time starting with the feature that they consider as the most important. If the item does not meet the established criteria, it is crossed off the options’ list. The list of the possible choices keeps getting smaller as the items are crossed off the options’ list until a single alternative is eventually arrived at. This alternative is assumed to be the one that the consumer has chosen.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of EBA model?
This model avoids the independence from the irrelevant alternatives property of other choices’ models like the Luce’s Choice Axiom model. This attribute is usually seen as the appealing EBA model feature. The model has also led to the establishment of the other choice models such as the sequential or hierarchical choice models which include the Hierarchical Elimination Model as well as the Generalized Elimination Model.
The model is more difficult to apply and calibrate than other choices’ models.
Who uses Elimination-By-Aspects (EBA) model?
This model can be used by anybody when making decisions. In most cases, the model is considered as being used by consumers to eliminate the available options that lack a given attribute. The probabilities that result from this model are used in constructing demands. The demands are in consistent with a partial heterogeneity of the tastes and they can be linked to the spatial framework where the consumers possess convex distance’s perception. In EBA model, price equilibrium in the pure strategies is found where the highest attributes level’s cost is not very low. This leads to the attributes’ differentiation form being both vertical and horizontal.
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What Is Niche Marketing Strategy? summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help
What Is Niche Marketing Strategy?
Niche marketing strategy refers to a marketing plan that targets a specific market segment with a high potential to recognize the product or service. Unlike mass marketing that casts a wide net, niche marketing narrows down to selected demographic regions and media channels, which reach highest number of the targeted customers.
In niche marketing, you go for a differentiated market in terms of gender, occupation, age, hobbies, and ethnic background among other elements of market segmentation. Once you identify a niche, it becomes easier to find several niches within it and meet customer needs holistically.
Proponents of niche marketing argue that this strategy allow you to tailor everything like product features, advertising and distribution channels to the specific needs of the customers, making your products services more appealing to that particular segment. If well executed, niche marketing has low costs and offers you the benefit of being ahead of your competitors.
Ways of Executing Niche Marketing Strategy
Niche marketing thrives on the premise of offering products and services that address specific needs within a specific demographic region within the market. Here, you do not engage in blind marketing because you understand what potential customers are looking for in the market. In this section, you will learn different ways that will help you to carry out a niche marketing strategy successfully.
The first approach is the use of word-of-mouth campaigns. This approach allows conversations among consumers as compared to advertising and marketing strategies, which publicize products and services in the market. However, word of mouth results into low brand exposure as you interact with limited number of customers face-to-face and introduce the product or service. This means it would take you longer to realize the results of your efforts even though many customers approve of this method.
Another strategy in niche marketing is use of endorsement campaigns. Here, a company uses an influential person within the target market to endorse the product or service. It is a common approach in adverts where celebrities act like spokespersons of different companies. The success of this depends on the credibility of the personality and the manner in which the message is delivered to the target audience. The last niche marketing strategy is targeted collateral campaigns. This involves consistent exposure of target customers to the brand.
Important Rules in Niche Marketing
Niche marketing can be a sure way of cutting on costs and ensuring that you hit your targets without hustle. For example, if you choose to target an Asian or Hispanic market segment for your product, you would go for an ethnic radio or TV station with low and affordable rates. This would allow you to increase the frequency of your ads or adopt a more comprehensive marketing mix. Here are some rules that every company that wishes to venture in niche marketing ought to consider.
Firstly, you must meet the needs of your customers. Your benefits should appeal to the market niche through differentiation. Look for something new but compelling to your customers, depending on their needs and the solutions you are offering. Your solutions must however be unique to allow you stand out from the rest.
The second rule is to say something. As you enter the market, speak the language of your customers so that you present yourself as one of them and not as an outsider. Understand the hot buttons in the market. Alter and tailor your campaign and slogans to speak to the hearts and minds of the niche market. Lastly, test the market through research and analysis to prepare for new challenges.
Advantages of a niche marketing strategy in business
Niche marketing strategy has a wide range of benefits. For example, it allows you to reach your potential customers without spending a lot on advertising and marketing. This is because you are likely to use local communication channels that offer friendly rates but are highly recognized in the niche market.
Moreover, niche marketing allows you to go for a market size that you can handle comfortably. Depending on the resources, plan and targets, which you have set, this approach resonates within the limits of the company. However, the size of your niche must be sufficiently big to support your business.
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Understanding Mass Marketing Strategy college admission essay help
Understanding Mass Marketing Strategy
Mass marketing strategy is also called undifferentiated marketing. Here, you cast a wide net. It is the opposite of target marketing. Organizations use mass marketing in order to promote a single product to as many potential customers as possible within the market and without considering how different segments of the market are likely to respond. Thus, a mass market refers to a general population, which a company targets for sale and marketing of its products. A better way of understanding mass marketing is comparing it to niche marketing where a small segment of the market exists. For example, tractors are a niche market since they are only applicable in farming.
A mass market is larger with varying demographics. For example, automobiles always target a mass market with diverse ages, preferences and locations worldwide. Since one can diversify these markets into smaller segments, products targeting a mass market have different promotion strategies, which suit the market. This means that individual segments exist within the mass market.
Benefits of Mass Marketing Strategy
The main target of every company is to generate customers. This largely determines the success of an organization. A successful company thus, is that which has more customers as compared to other players within the same market and industry. However, for this to happen, people must know that your product exists in the market. If no one knows about your products and services, then expect no sales at all. The best ways of letting people in need to recognize your products is through mass marketing strategy.
Mass marketing gives a chance to serve the entire market with a single product or service. A practical example of this is Coke, which targets every family in the world with its soft drinks. If the whole market recognizes your product, then you are better than a company that targets a segment of the market.
The main advantage of mass marketing is that you have a greater audience, which should translate into increased sales if your promotion mix is effective. Nonetheless, the main task would be winning customers in a mass market since they have varied tastes and preferences. Market analysis and research would help to identify trends within the market that are likely to have an impact on your business.
Why mass marketing is not the best
While mass marketing strategy can work well in publicizing your products and services in the entire market, it does not always guarantee you success. In fact, it could the beginning of your downfall. The greatest undoing of this approach is that it has limited appeal to potential customers. Customers think differently. This means that what is appealing to one demographic region could be a repellant to another demographic region.
Secondly, mass marketers experience lower profits. Even though they make higher sales in large quantities, they risk making losses because of high cost of doing business within a mass market. To penetrate the entire market within a single product, the company has to employ high-level marketing and promotion, which may turn out to be counterproductive.
In addition, mass marketing does not meet particular of the market. Unlike niche marketing where a company targets a specific segment of the population and satisfies their needs, mass marketing assumes that everyone is need of the product. This leaves parts of the market with unmet needs because of the varied tastes and preferences in any market.
Tips for a successful mass marketing strategy
A mass marketing strategy can be effective where the company understands the market through research and analysis. The first thing to do is to have short-term measures to evaluate your strategy. Have parameters that you will use to gauge the impact of your efforts within a specified period. You may choose to use total sales, customer satisfaction ratings, increased revenues or transaction costs among others.
Secondly, it is important to know your customers. Knowing your customers allows you to address their needs holistically. It implies that you understand their tastes and preferences and are aware of their expectations. It is essential to keep in touch with your customers through emails and mobile phone numbers. This will allow you to monitor buying patterns, likes and dislikes among others.
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Relationship Marketing Strategy scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Relationship Marketing Strategy
Relationship marketing strategy is a strategy designed by business entities to develop strong connections with customers for long-term engagement. Through this strategy, businesses strive to interact with their customers directly, feeding them with the right information that meets their needs and expectations. The strategy ensures open communication between the buyer and seller, thereby enhancing customer loyalty.
Due to the open communication between the buyer and seller that this strategy fosters, it can enable the business to easily increase individual sales over a long period of time. In fact, business always strive to appeal to the emotions of customers in applying this strategy in order to convince a larger population. The exchange of information builds trust of customers towards the brand. Relationship marketing is more focused on long-term commitment of customers to a brand.
Breakdown of Relationship Marketing Strategy
Unlike other advertising practices, relationship marketing strategy does not involve a single transaction or promote a particular product or service. Instead, it entails the refining of a business’ operations in order to enhance the value of that relationship for its clients. The strategy emphasizes on improving internal operations.
By streamlining the internal operations of a business towards satisfaction of customers’ needs, the latter will be happy and most likely come back again. In fact, many customers will be hesitant to switch even in the wake of product problems. In many occasions, customers leave a company not because they were unhappy with the products but customer service.
Technology is also instrumental in relationship marketing. The developments in technology have enabled businesses to easily track, story and conduct analyses on information regarding customers. There are various ways through which companies are able to effectively communicate with customers directly including, personalized adverts and special deals. Many business also offer expedited service as a reward for customer loyalty.
Through social media, companies are able to continuously engage customers informally, in ways that suit the needs of each. Technology has made it easier for businesses to automate their services and engage customers on a personal level, encouraging commitment for a long period of time.
Another important aspect of relationship marketing is branding. Customers can remain loyal to a company if they feel like the brand or products they acquire from it truly represents who they are and their desires. In relationship marketing, businesses try to promote the brand or image of the company so many customers can find it comfortable to identify with it.
Example of Relationship Marketing Strategy
There are various companies today that apply relationship marketing in their efforts to encourage customer loyalty. An example is Dell, which created a special online store to cater for the needs of corporate customers who purchase their products in large volumes. The store is tailored to the specific ordering needs of online customers. Through this high level service, the company has been able to experience increased customer loyalty.
Forms of Relationship Marketing Strategy
Although technology plays a crucial role in the application of relationship marketing strategy, there are various avenues that can also be pursued by businesses. The main goal of this strategy is to evoke an emotional connection between a company and customers. The following are some of the ways through which the strategy can be effectively applied to enhance the loyalty of customers.
There are various platforms where companies can interact with the communities in their target market. Engagement with community groups on different levels can greatly promote open communication and interaction between a company and clients.
Organizing events for clients
Hosting events as a reward to clients not only enhances their confidence in the company but also feel honored, which is an ideal emotional appeal. Such events can include seminars, mobile clinics, and dinner parties among others. These will go a long way in building the business’ brand and attracting even friends and families of existing customers.
Communication is an important element in every relationship, however, the way in which it is conducted has a greater bearing on its success. In the application of relationship marketing strategy, businesses should always maintain frequent interaction with customers. Besides, accuracy should also be upheld so customers do not get misleading information.
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Product Positioning Strategy college essay help los angeles
Product Positioning Strategy
The aim of developing and implementing a product positioning strategy in business is to differentiate a product or service from those of other key competitors. In this way, customers will tend to give precedence to particular products when shopping, thereby earning the company an edge above its competitors. When customers prefer buying a given product over other similar competing ones, there is no doubt that the product will emerge powerful in the minds of your target audience.
Product positioning assists in establishing the identity of a particular product or service in the view of buyers. The choice of the product to be positioned depends on the company and its objectives. However, it should be noted that the success of the strategy used to position relies on a wide range of factors related to motivations and needs of the target customers. This implies careful thought should always be given to the process of creating a strategy, evaluating its effectiveness and integration.
What Should a Good Product Positioning Strategy Involve?
The choice of a product positioning strategy is critical in ensuring that a company can effectively distinguish its products or services from the competitors.’ Applying a wrong strategy can have adverse effects on the company’s marketing efforts and bottom line. Therefore, it is always important to know how a good strategy should be formulated for the best results.
One of the main elements of a good strategy for product positioning is the sustainable competitive advantage of that product. It should emphasize on the features of the particular product, which make it look distinct from that of a key competitor. The competitive edge should be related to long term features of a product for it to be sustainable. An example of a long term product feature is eco-friendliness.
Customer buying criteria
A good strategy for product positioning should also address the important buying criteria of the target customers. Every business has its target market and understands the buying trends of its customers. In order to ensure better product positioning, the strategy should be formulated in a way that meets the shopping needs of customers.
In order to convince customers to buy a particular product over others, the company has to provide reasons to substantiate the claim. An ideal strategy should sell an idea which the company is able to vividly prove to customers. In this way, the product can even appeal to a much wider audience.
Choosing a Product Positioning Strategy
There are various strategies for product positioning that can be adopted by different businesses. One of them is positioning a product against that of a competitor. For it to be effective, there should be a specific superiority claim made by the company. On the other hand, Product positioning can also be done away from the competitor.
A product positioning strategy can also be focused on the benefits of a product to its audience. However, the benefits should emphasize on something unique, which other competing products have not explored or fully integrated. Highlighting a specific attribute (s) of a product can also be an effective positioning strategy.
Comparing a product or service to another in a different category can also be an effective way of enhancing differentiation. For instance, a lotion-manufacturing company can compare its product to a dish-washing soap, claiming it softens the hands while cleaning dishes.
A product can also be positioned based on when or how it is used by the customers. Highlighting the usage occasions for a product or service can also convince customers to consider buying it during such times. Besides, a strategy focused on the unique characteristics of specific customers can also be effective in product positioning.
Creating a Good Product Positioning Strategy
Developing an ideal strategy for product positioning requires that you have a better understanding of the purchasing decisions of your target customers, how your competitors position their products and what your product offers. Generally, an effective product positioning strategy should properly differentiate the product from that of the competitor, address the important buying criteria of target customers and articulate the main attributes of that product. However, it must always undergo testing to ensure that it can meet the set goals.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy mba essay help
Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy
There are numerous advantages and disadvantages of wind energy. Wind energy refers to the energy that is extracted from the air flow through the use of sails or wind turbines to produce electrical or mechanical energy. It is the energy that is generated through the conversion of wind currents into a different type of energy through the use of wind turbines. Complex mechanisms that involve earth rotation, sun heat capacity, polar ice caps and oceans cooling effect, gradients of temperature between sea and land as well as the physical effects that obstacles like mountains generate winds.
Wind force is converted by turbines into rotational force or torque. This is then used in propelling electric generators producing electricity. The power stations for this energy are called wind farms and they basically aggregate output from different wind turbines via a central point of connection to an electricity grid. There are both off-shore and on-shore projects of wind energy all over the world.
Major advantages and disadvantages of wind energy
Clean source of fuel
Wind energy does not entail air pollution like other power plants that depend on fossil fuels’ combustion such as natural gas and coal. The turbines that are used in the production of wind energy do not produce emissions which lead to greenhouse gases or acid rain. Thus, wind energy is considered pollution-free.
Domestic energy source
Most places have abundant supply of wind. This means that this energy can be produced and supplied to households reducing dependence on non-renewable energy sources. Generally, wind energy has enormous potential. It is twenty times more than the actual needs of the human population.
Wind energy is among the lowest-priced renewable forms of energy that are available today. It costs between six and four cents per kilowatt-hour. However, this depends on wind resource as well as project financing in a given project.
Wind energy is economical for rural areas
It is possible to build wind turbines in the existing ranches or farms. This makes wind energy very economical for rural areas where there are ideal wind sites. Ranchers and farmers can continue their production activities in the ranches or farms since wind turbines will take only a portion of the land.
Provided that the sun is shining and wind blowing, the produced energy is possible to harness and send to the power grid.
Unreliability is the major disadvantage of wind energy. In most areas, the blowing wind is of low strength. This makes it incapable of supporting wind farms or wind turbines. Such places cannot rely on wind energy alone. It has to be supplemented with geothermal, solar or hydro-electric energy.
Generally, wind turbines produce less electricity when compared to fossil fuels. This means that more turbines are required to ensure that wind energy makes a significant impact where it is relied on.
Wind turbines cause noise pollution especially where they are set up for commercial energy production purposes. The noise that they produce is similar to that of the engine of small jets. This noise can be a problem to those who live near the wind turbines. However, it is not a problem to those living away from the turbines because they will not hear the noise.
High initial investment
Wind power has to compete with the conventional power sources in terms of costs. On the basis of the energetic level of a wind site, a wind farm can either be costly or cost competitive. Although there has been a decrease in the wind power cost over the years, the initial investment cost is higher than that of buying fossil-fueled generators.
The contemporary world should consider different sources of energy. More people, institutions and governments are looking for environmental-friendly energy sources that they can exploit. Considering the merits and demerits of wind energy is important because global warming and other environmental problems could be due to the modern energy-craving lifestyles. Perhaps, exploiting renewable energy sources more can help in dealing with environmental problems.
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Impact of Trade Unions on Wages and Employment essay help app: essay help app
Impact of Trade Unions on Wages and Employment
In various labor markets, the labor demand and supply is affected by the actions of government and trade unions. Imperfections occur in labor market due to such interventions. This essay will look at the Impact of Trade Unions on Wages and Employment.
A labor or a trade union is an organization of workers who have come together to realize a common goal in major areas such as work conditions, working hours and wages. The union through its management and leadership bargains with the employer on behalf of other union members. They also negotiate for better contracts with employers. Labor union negotiations include that of
Rules governing hiring and promotion of workers
Disciplinary and grievances meetings
Workplace safety and policies and
Benefits among other employee interests
Education facilities and consumer benefits such as discounted insurance
By doing so, they impact wages and employment as discussed below
Impact of trade unions on wages and employment sector
Impact on wages
One of the most important and primary goals of a trade union is to improve and maintain good terms and conditions for members of the union. This is done by ensuring collective bargaining with relevant employers. The success of the union largely depends on their bargaining power or their ability to restrict supply of labor to employer. The ability of the employer to acknowledge with above market wages also determines success of the union.
Generally, the mechanism by which labor unions create a union premium wage for employees is through their direct impact on wages of workers by bargaining. Even so, there are many ways in which a union non-union wage differential can occur including the ability of the union to downward pay flexibility during in hardship relative to their uncovered parts.
The other way is the possibility that wage hikes induced by unions thus limiting entry of workers to the union department. This further lowers wages in regards to the salaried in the covered sector.
The other impact of trade unions on wages is the threat effect where non-union employers raise their salaries to avoid unionization. Unions can have a significant and an indirect effect on wages. For example, their unity and voices face lengthens and strengthens their job tenure. This is in many cases correlated with higher pay and changes the incentives bosses and personnel face when investing in their human capital.
Impact on employment
Trade unions have had an impact on employment sector for many years. Employment in a typically unionized environment in the private sector for instance has significantly reduced at a rate of 1.8 percent per year. On the other hand, in a non-unionized environment, employment grew at relatively 1.4 percent per year. The difference grew after controlling for other factors that affect level of employment.
Therefore, union recognition restricted growth of employment and of continuing workplaces in the workplace in the 1990s. This is a negative effect of unions employment growth was relatively larger in service industries compared in manufacturing.
Trade unions have also been closely associated with workplace closure because in many cases, jobs are not transferred anywhere else. This means large-scale loss of jobs. However, this happens in presence of other factors that affect workplace closing and industrial features, type of employment and nature of workforce as well as the manner in which it is managed.
With these factors in mind, employment sector fully recognizes trade unions. Ever since the Industrial Revolution, trade unions have been credited with securing improvements on working conditions and wages. In the employment sector, unions negotiate for a better pay, negotiate for better and ideal working conditions like enhanced health and safety as well as holidays, offer quality training for new skills and give general advice and support.
Trade unions impact wages and employment in different ways. This is why workers and employers approach the issue from different perspectives. Therefore, trade unions have a great role especially in the worker-employer dialogue for many centuries. For employers it is always good to understand the role of the unions and how they fit into current business environment and the role they play in modern economy.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy essay help site:edu
Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy
What is nuclear energy
Nuclear energy is power that is generated by separating an atom into lighter atoms to reduce its mass. The reduction of the mass is transformed into useful energy and this is what is popularly known as nuclear fission. The control of the reaction is harnessed into Nuclear energy.
By understanding the pros and cons of nuclear energy, you will be better placed to make informed decisions on your energy use.
Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy
One of the major benefits of using nuclear energy is that it is highly affordable. Less uranium is used to produce nuclear power. Coal and oil are affordable and they lower the cost of energy production. On the other hand, uranium that is used in energy production is also cheap to produce, procure and transport. As a result, it lowers the cost of energy production.
A nuclear energy plant can run uninterrupted for more than a year. This means that there are only little brownouts or little power interruption. What’s more, the operation and running of the plant is not in any way affected by foreign suppliers or change in weather. These make it a more reliable source of energy.
No greenhouse emissions
Nuclear energy does not have some gas emissions and the plant does not produce greenhouse gasses. According to recent studies, life cycles emissions from the plant do not give off are always at par with other renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. Therefore, it is an attractive feature to many consumers bearing in mind that many people across different parts of the globe are environmental conscious.
Disadvantages of nuclear energy
Nuclear energy comes with a various disadvantages including
Nuclear fission chambers are always cooled by water that is then turned into steam a used to power turbines. When the water cools down to a state that in change back to liquid form, it is pumped back to the nearest wetlands. It is however good to note that even though several measures are taken to ensure no radiation is pumped to the environment heavy metals and pollutants often make their way out of the fission chambers. The intense heat given off by the liquid can also severely damage the eco system near the chamber.
Nuclear reactors are built with various safety systems designed to contain radiation given off in the fission process. These safety measures are installed and maintained properly to function efficiently. When they are not properly maintained, a nuclear reactor could easily reduce harmful radiations into the environment during regular use. What’s more, if a containment field would rupture suddenly, the effects of leaked radiation would be very catastrophic.
Nuclear energy is produced by uranium and it is a naturally unstable product. Therefore, special measures must be taken during the transportation, mining and storage of uranium and any other waste product to ensure it does not release any harmful levels of radiation.
Over the past years, several nuclear reactors have failed and forced the government to shut down those that still existed. The abandoned reactors are taking up valuable land space and could be contaminating surrounding areas yet they are too unstable to be eliminated.
Similarly, it is quite difficult to manage nuclear waste. It also takes many years to get rid of radioactivity and related risks. It is essential to note that nuclear energy reactors have an expiration date or a limited life. Nuclear plant investment is high and must be recovered within the shortest time possible. These further raises the cost of generated energy, which is cheap compared to fuel. The recovery process in itself is very expensive.
Nuclear weapons were lastly used during the Second World War when two bombs were dropped in Japan. To date, there is still the fear of nuclear of nuclear weapons in war despite the signing of Nuclear Non Proliferation treaty by many countries.
With the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy, nuclear power still remains one of the most controversial energy sources in existence. Inform yourself further on the topic to understand how Nuclear Energy works.
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Effects of Trade Barriers on International Trade college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Effects of Trade Barriers on International Trade
To understand the effects of trade barriers on international trade, it is essential to know what international trade is and what a trade barrier is. -International trade refers to the exchange of goods and services between different countries. This form of trade leads to growth of global economy where demand and supply affect and are affected by different global events.
Trade barriers come in different forms including quotas. They are trade limits set by a country on all imported products. This is carried out or practiced for various reasons including the need for the government or the state to protect its domestic manufacturers and infant industries. Other common trade barriers used by governments include taxes, tariffs and exercise duties.
In this way, the barriers can impact international trade by preventing flow of goods and services from producers to consumers. Where duties, tariffs and quotas prevent flow of goods, it ends up impacting the profitability or productivity of clients despite the fact that such, will often explore other markets without any barriers.
Effects of trade barriers on international trade
As mentioned above, trade barriers affect the productivity of producers across different parts of the globe. Producers therefore explore markets with no barriers leading to low profits.
Without net export, a country can easily remain a consumer of products and services from other countries without incurring huge debts. This is through trade imbalance and is economically advantageous to involved parties as they maximize on the production of their industries via open markets to a large client base.
In order to protect their economies, many countries impose quotas, tariffs, exchange controls and subsidies among other barriers on imported products. By use of protectionism, a state can easily gain from it by protecting infant companies, protecting manufacturing companies and dumping but on the other hand, they can have issues such as organizations retaliating, misallocation of funds and being or remaining inefficient. In regards to international trade, states benefit on comparative and it is an absolute advantage.
With trade barriers, international trade tends to increase the amount of goods that local consumers can choose from. This decreases the cost of such products via increase competition and allows domestic companies to ship their products abroad. While all these appear beneficial free trade hasn’t been widely accepted as totally beneficial to all parties.
Comparative advantage and trade barriers
According to economists, the effects of trade barriers on international trade can be best explained by the theory of comparative advantage. The theory focuses on free trade which involves eliminating all barriers except for those that are considered healthy for global trade. However for countries that practice free trade, products are heavily subsidized especially on industries such as agricultural and steel industry.
Trade barriers in this case affect international trade in developing countries. Rich country players set trade policies that lead to dumping on global markets and overproduction. The countries will further reduce prices for certain goods.
Additionally, trade barriers have a larger potential for reducing international trade welfare compared to tariffs. They lead to creation of little economic resources especially those set aside from production of tangible goods. An export subsidy can also be used to offer an advantage to a local producer over a foreign or an international producer.
Trade barriers such as export subsidies therefore have a high and strong negative impact because besides affecting resource allocation, they significantly impact or reduce global economy in terms of international trade.
The barriers simply operate by increasing the price of imported goods hence, forcing local producers to explore global markets. In other cases, they are forced to reduce the prices of their products due to increased competition. Local consumers are left paying a lot more and this limits the volume of imports and in the end, it affects international trade.
Many countries across the globe introduce trade barriers as a way of protecting its local industry. Even so, there is still a very delicate balance between the pursuit of efficiency in international trade and the need for the state to ensure there is little unemployment rate.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass Energy writing an essay help: writing an essay help
Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass Energy
The energy crisis that the world is facing today has made many organizations, governments and individuals to consider the advantages and disadvantages of biomass energy. Biomass energy refers to a form of energy that is created when waste products are burnt and the created heat is used to produce energy that is then converted into electricity. Finding an improved and new renewable energy is a primary goal for most scientists globally. Biomass energy is among the forms of energy that are being subjected to scientific studies. This is because apart from producing electricity, the process of producing this energy helps in waste reduction. Nevertheless, just like the other forms of energy, there are advantages and disadvantages of biomass energy.
Advantages and disadvantages of biomass energy
There will always be biomass sources which include garbage, manure and crops. Once a crop that has been grown throughout the year is converted into fuel; another one is grown to act as fuel for the next year. Renewing biomass takes the same, long duration that gathering or growing takes. However, there are cases when this can take months.
Biomass is actually part of a carbon cycle. This is the major advantage of biomass energy. Plants absorb carbon from the environment or atmosphere for purposes of photosynthesis. Once plants are burnt or when they decay, this carbon is released to the atmosphere. Since this is a cycle, this carbon is absorbed by the next crop. This cycle continues ensuring that the carbon amount that is released by biomass fuel to the atmosphere and the carbon that is extracted from the atmosphere by plants is balanced. This is precisely why biomass energy does not cause global warming. It is a clean fuel or energy.
It helps in reducing waste
To create biomass energy, waste has to be burned. This waste can be lumber scraps or manure and other trash. With the landfills overflowing, biomass energy’s production can be a great option due to its ability to enhance waste reduction.
There are large quantities of biomass across the world. This means that this energy can be produced in any part of the world.
When compared to oil and coal, biomass energy is inexpensive. Typically, the cost of producing the same amount of energy from fossil fuels is 1/3 less. This implies that every year, you will spend 1/3 less when you use biomass energy to heat your home. This can lead to considerable savings over time.
Large spaces are required for the processes that are involved in harnessing biomass energy. Storing this energy needs particularly large areas.
The techniques of producing biomass energy which include combustion or pyrolysis cause air pollution sometimes. Carbon emissions that result from the production of this energy are what cause global warming. Additionally, nitrogen oxides are produced when power is extracted from the biomass. These are volatile organic and particulate compounds. However, it is possible to stop the release of these emissions into the air or environment through the use of specialized fertilizers.
Biomass energy is relatively inefficient when compared to other forms of energy such as fossil fuels. When compared to gasoline, ethanol, which is a biodiesel, is inefficient. To work properly, it is mixed with gasoline.
Why advantages and disadvantages of biomass energy should be considered
Biomass has many uses. Being a relatively new power source, it is important to consider its advantages and disadvantages to determine if it is worth exploiting. The advancements in biomass energy are beyond the traditional uses of this energy. They have made mass-producing and harvesting this energy possible. This is why governments, individuals and institutions should consider the advantages and disadvantages of this energy.
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Risk Management admission college essay help
In an occurrence where the ship sinks transporting client commodities, it can be labelled as a problem bearing in mind the fundamental elements. If natural forces led to the occurrence, it could be taken as a natural disaster. Such an occurrence cannot be tied to the process f doing business. Most businesses are committed to establishing good relationships with clients, and even though they do not anticipate such occurrences, they put in place a risk management measures so as to avoid or reduce the damage that can occur as a result of the natural disaster.
Calamities such as natural danger can be lessened if the best precaution are introduced and the losses that were to be experienced can be lessened or even be shunned. The occurrence can lead to the loss of clients as the relationship created on the basis of carrying commodities on time has been destroyed. Additionally, it will be challenging for the corporation to undertake a budget as it will buy commodities without looking at the rates to shun stock out. The incidence in question could not be an accomplished event. It is beyond administration authority, however if suitable eventuality actions are initiated, the consequence could be lessened.
The business being discussed is about the importation of vehicles. A number of many side habits can distress the business operation. Calamities may take place when commodities are being transported to the clients. The accident could either be fire rear-benders, ruptures, and goods being stolen as well as minor collisions. These days, terrorist undertakings have increased quickly. Perceptibly, terrorism has destructive consequences on transporting industry. An erratic traffic can be a blockade, delaying the anticipated time of carrying commodities to the clients. The moment the business of bringing in vehicles, one relies on price variation to work in the budget. If rates vary arbitrarily, they will impact the rates of goods impacting the amount and quality of commodities purchased. Political unsteadiness is as well a core multifaceted reliance facet when bringing in commodities.
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Money and Banking summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help
Money and Banking
Glass co. has a credit rating of AAA which implies that it is rated highly credit wise and has a low chance of defaulting its credit obligations. Aluminum Co. has a credit rating of BB- which is quite low and indicates a higher chance of defaulting on its financial obligations. This in itself should worry an investor because there is no guarantee of dividend being paid. The share price of Glass Co. is twice as high as that of Aluminum Co. but it yields dividend twice those of Glass Co. this implies that even though an investor may be able to buy more shares of Glass Co. than of Aluminum Co., the returns will be the same. There is a higher risk in investing in Glass Co. than Aluminum Co and so I would advise Sam to invest in Aluminum Co.
S & P
Prime, maximum safety
Very high grade/quality
Upper medium quality
Lower medium grade
S & P
In poor standing
Maybe in or extremely close to default
money and banking- Credit ratings
Financial investments require brokers to complete the transaction. Brokers are licensed to do this job and acquire their profits from brokerage fee that they charge (Sanderson 1992). This is the first cost that any financial investment incurs. There is the spread cost which is the difference between the price the dealer paid for the stock and the price the buyer pays. Brokerage fees and spread cost can be reduced by making the purchase of securities once. This will minimize the amount of money that may be lost through spread cost. Quoting the lowest price possible for the security being bought will also reduce the amount of spread costs.
Real interest rate is nominal interest rate- inflation rate
Inflation rate 1%
Government bond= 3%-1%=2%
Commercial bonds = 7% – 1% =6%
CBAF Fin. Inv. Inc. = 10% – 1% = 9%
Based on the current inflation rate of 1% none of the investments can be termed as loss. All of them are going to yield a positive increment to the investors’ purchasing power after the changes in prices are accounted for (Neely and Rapach 2008).
Graph showing the relationship between real and nominal rates
Graph showing the relationship between real and nominal rates
Risk premium is the amount of money paid in excess of the risk free return that an investment is expected to yield. It acts as form of compensation to investors to tolerate the risks of their investment. An investment with a very low risk has a low risk premium (Lally 2010). This is because the investor has a little chance of losing the investment made. Investments carrying huge risks such on commercial bonds from small companies have a high risk premium because the investments are highly risky. Sam should consider risk premium when investing in commercial bond floated by Giants Corp. this is because the credit rating of the company is very low which makes the investment a high risk one. This is highly risky although it has a relatively high return rate Sam should consider the risk premium if he decides to invest in it.
There are risks that are likely to come along with the investments. But Sam does not really need to inform the bank about his investment because when he borrowed the money the repayment was not pegged on his inheritance. This implies that he was supposed to pay the loan using income from his job. He does not plan to quit his job which implies that even if his investment makes losses he will still have income to service the loan. As long as he is paying his monthly instalments as agreed the bank has no need of information pertaining to his inheritance not unless he intends to change his payment schedule.
Sam has enough money to clear his loan and still invest. But he has the option of maintaining the instalments and paying the loan in the remaining 20 years. This would be the best option if he decides to make an investment with a higher return than the interest rate of the loan. If he invests in CBAF Fin. Inv. Inc. he will be receive an interest of 10% per annum. This will be double the amount of interest he is paying on his loan. He can therefore pay the loan using the interest from the investment. This implies that the money he needs to clear the loan will yield much more if he invests it. It will have given him an equivalent or quarter of the money he owes the bank. He will earn 10% from the investment and pay an interest rate of 5%. This implies that if we factor in the inflation rate of the 20 years duration he will generate at least 3% interest from the money he could have used to clear the loan in lump sum (Fairfield 1994). Therefore it makes more financial sense to invest the money rather than clear the loan due to the benefits arising from the interest the investment will bring.
100, 000 dollars per year for 3 years = 300, 000.
Pv= future cash flow/ (1+ interest rate) number of years
300,000/ (1+7%) 3=244,889.36
The value obtained indicates that the actual value of the money genarted by the investment will be less than the value obtained. This is because cost of living will be higher making the worth of dollar today higher than in three years time.
Monetary policy is the process that the monetary authority of a country uses to control the supply of money. This is done by manipulating the interest rates charged by commercial banks on loan (Zoli 2006). This is done to control aspects of economy such as prices and unemployment. This is meant to control, the amount of money in circulation. When the banks change low interest rate many people are able to borrow which increases the amount of money in circulation. When the government wants to reduce the amount of money in circulation it increase the interest rates which reduces the amount of loans people are taking effectively reducing the amount of money in circulation. Fiscal policies are the control of the economy by the government through revenue collection and expenditure. This is done to control the economy by determining how the government spends in different sectors. The amount of revenue the government collected determines how it is able to deal with its financial obligations. When the government has huge debts it increase its revenue collection to foot its bills and clear its debts and when it has more income than its debts and expenditure it reduces the amount of tax it collects. This is all that fiscal policy is meant to do, control the amount of money government has by regulating the amount of taxes it collects based on its expenditure (Bunea-Bontas and Petre 2010).
Bunea-Bontas, C. & Petre, M.C. 2010, “FISCAL POLICY DURING THE CURRENT CRISIS”, Romanian Economic and Business Review, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 48-67.
Fairfield, P.M. 1994, “P/E, P/B and the present value of future dividends”, Financial Analysts Journal, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 23.
Lally, M. 2010, Estimating the Market Risk Premium Using Historical Data from Multiple Markets, Rochester.
Neely, C.J. & Rapach, D.E. 2008, “Real Interest Rate Persistence: Evidence and Implications”, Review – Federal Reserve Bank of St.Louis, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 609-641.
Sanderson, S. 1992, “The Financial Impact of Risk Costs”, Risk Management, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 46.
Zoli, E. 2006, How does Fiscal Policy Affect Monetary Policy in Emerging Market Countries?, Rochester.
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Article Review- Business operations rice supplement essay help
Article Review- Business operations
What are the diverse tactics both parties undertake in corporate talks?
Americans line of attack in corporate talks as purely business and their aim is to decide on what is written on the agreement, sign it and complete the arrangement. Chinese treasure good relations more than the real content of the agreement. Americans have no desire of knowing the individual they are undertaking ventures individually as they trust that the agreement dilemmas all individuals engaged as well as breaking its legal complications.
What are the mistakes both parties have committed in this cross-cultural negotiation process, and what should they have done better?
Both parties made a blunder of not comprehending the conciliation culture of every nation. This would have eradicated a number of the disparities which at the end destroyed the entire agreement. The Americans anticipated the Chinese to conciliate as Americans do whereas the Chinese anticipated the Americans to be more cooperating as the Chinese individuals. They culminated in conflicting on numerous fundamental things as none of them was familiar with each other team’s means of talking.
What are the key characteristics of a successful cross-cultural negotiator?
A multicultural mediator comprehends the principles of the two teams from diverse cultures negotiating. The negotiator understands which part of culture is stretchy and which need to be stuck to. The mediator is well-versed with the procedure both parties utilize when conversing as well as ensure that he or she is well-acquainted with both and comprehends their importance. The mediator is as well fluent in dialects of the two teams talking to facilitate all details are well apprehended.
How could both sides have prepared better to anticipate the problems faced in the negotiation?
They could have acquainted themselves with the talking tactics of every culture. This would have allowed them to get set for the possible barriers they were to encounter in the negotiation. This preparation would have allowed them to conciliate at ease on problems that they knew could be altered. The Americans would have been well-versed with the bureaucracy in china and thus would not have been disturbed by the continuous talks the Chinese individuals had with ageing individuals. They would as well have been well-acquainted on how the Chinese treasure relation as well would have taken their time to develop this prior to commencing the real talks. The Chinese would as well have been well-versed of the significance Americans attach to written agreements and therefore would have treated the written manuscript more earnestly than they did.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy college essay help free
Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy
Geothermal energy is the heat/ thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth and a major source of renewable energy in the world today. Man has developed technology to tap into the earth and generate energy with a lot of ease. Upon its discovery, geothermal energy offered revolutionary solutions and spread to every end of the planet. However, like other sources of energy, it has pros and cons. If you were evaluating various sources of renewable energy, then it would be wise to understand the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy. This research will help you get answers to a wide range of questions surrounding the feasibility of geothermal energy.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy
The biggest advantage geothermal energy is that it is a renewable source of energy. This means man will continue enjoying it, as long we do not pump too much cold water into the earth to cool underlying rocks. As a renewable source of energy, geothermal is a favorable option in this generation where the world is over depending on nonrenewable sources of energy like coal and petroleum.
Geothermal energy is clean. It does not emit harmful gases into the atmosphere. Thus, it does not cause environmental pollution like combustion of petroleum and fossils, which cause massive pollution. Today, man suffers the effects of this over-dependence though global warming. Adopting geothermal energy can be a good way of reducing the impact of greenhouse gases. It is therefore clear that the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy depend on its usability and friendliness to the environment.
Geothermal energy uses minimal land. Drilling does not take too much room. This means that harnessing this energy does not hurt the surrounding environment.
In addition, geothermal is self-reliant. This means that the plant uses the power it produces to keep it running. In the process, you cut on cost since you are spending on outsourcing power. Furthermore, geothermal energy is more reliable than nonrenewable sources of energy. It is a constant source of energy, implying that it does not rely on external sources.
Besides being a renewable and clean source of energy, geothermal energy has its fair share of drawbacks. Firstly, you cannot put up a geothermal power plant anywhere. The location fit for the plant must have the right rocks. The type of rocks present matters a lot because some rocks are too strong to drill. The rocks must also occur at reasonable depths to make drilling possible.
Critics of this type of energy argue that the drilling process bears a lot of heat and exposure to steam, which is not always a good experience. During drilling, dangerous minerals may come to the earth surface and pose challenges.
In terms of other disadvantages, geothermal installation costs are always too high. To have a geothermal power station, one needs large investments.
You also need electricity towers to move power from where it is generated to the consumers.
Geothermal energy also has limited availability of sources. Not many places in the world where geothermal energy can be extracted.
It is also hard to install plants across the planet because of poor or no infrastructure, equipment and staff.
Notably, the sector also faces shortage of labor.
Lastly, the source of geothermal energy can be depleted. In some case, geothermal sites may run out of steam. When this occurs, you can wait for decades before the supply goes back to where it was before.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy– Bottom line
Many people prefer geothermal energy because it is highly effective and requires minimal maintenance expenses. According to evaluation results, geothermal energy uses up to 25% to 50% less electricity as compared to traditional systems of cooling and heating. In addition, geothermal pumps are long lasting than conventional pumps.
Importantly, geothermal energy is not only friendly to the environment but also friendly to people. For example, the pumps moderate noise, which cannot affect the daily lives of people within the neighborhood.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Fossil Fuels buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
Advantages and Disadvantages of Fossil Fuels
Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. They are deposits of combustible geologic organic materials, from decayed animals and plants which have been converted to crude oil, natural gas or coal through exposure to heat and pressure that is found in the earth’s crust over millions of years. This essay will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels.
Today, man meets his daily energy needs using coal, natural gas and petroleum. Importantly, the demand for energy will never drop, with burgeoning population all over the world. With this demand, the world is finding fossil fuels a major source of energy. However, over dependence on these sources of energy can lead to devastating environmental effects like pollution. In addition, they emit harmful gases into the atmosphere resulting into severe consequences on natural habitat. Since fossils once existed, it implies that they are nonrenewable and will be depleted.
Advantages and Disadvantages of fossil fuels today
Fossil fuels offer a wide range of advantages and disadvantages. Let us look at each category at a time. The first advantage of fossils as a source of energy is convenience. They are widely preferred all over the world because they have the capacity to generate large amounts of energy. They are highly combustible, making them better than other fuels in the world today. They are also easy to locate and transport. Therefore, the cost of transport is low, which makes them a better option.
Another advantage is cost and availability. Their low cost is a leading positive aspect, which appeals to human beings. Fossil fuels are cheap because they are highly abundant, which reduces the cost of drilling and mining as opposed to other fuels. For example, coal is one of the most abundant fossil fuels in the world. With modern and advanced technology, it is easy to efficiently extract and use fossil fuels.
The advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels depend on their efficiency, cost and impact on the environment. Critics of fossil fuels argue that they are a major cause of environmental pollution. In other words, fossil fuels are an environmental hazard, threatening current and future generations. The use of these fuels leads to buildup of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere, leading to global warming.
Environmental effects of fossil fuels
As already, mentioned, fossil fuels are harming the natural habitat. Today, the world is grappling with climate change because of burning fossil fuels. While humanity remains optimistic of finding a lasting solution to this global scourge, its effects remain real and catastrophic. If the trend continues, it is doubtless that fossil fuels will go into the annals of history as one of the worst mistakes of humanity.
Another disadvantage of fossil fuels is the risk in mining coal. Even with advancement in technology, coal mining remains dangerous and harmful to the environment. Coal mining turns pristine land into a rugged landscape that can hardly support life. Today, man is cutting down the peaks of some of the well-known mountains in the world to access coal with ease.
Moreover, fossil fuels are causing acid rain. For instance, burning fossils leads to emission of acidic gases like sulfur dioxide into atmosphere. This results into acid rain when this gas dissolves in water droplets. The effects of acid rain are far-reaching. From environmental issues to health hazards, man suffers today because of this rain. It leads to corrosion of iron sheets and may cause skin cancer. Other advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels depend on their reliability when compared to other sources of energy in the world.
It is clear that the advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels are endless. Let us discuss more merits and demerits of these sources of energy. Firstly, fossil fuels are very stable because carbon and hydrogen are the main elements that make their molecules. Since they do not form other compounds when exposed to air, fossil fuels are easy to store for a long time.
They also produce high calorific value. When fossil fuels burn, they generate more energy as compared to other fuels, making them more effective. However, fossil fuels harm aquatic life. When the world experiences acid rain, this water drains into water bodies like lakes, seas and oceans, and threaten the lives of aquatic animals like fish.
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15 Most Notable Advantages and Disadvantages of Fossil Fuels
Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest law essay help
Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a terrestrial biome, temperate climate. They are generally characterized with a warm environment or temperate latitudes but in other cases, they extend to cool temperatures. Cool temperate species often grow in the southern hemisphere and they include forest types such as mixed deciduous models of China, Japan and the United States of America, Chile, Tasmania and Mediterranean as well as California.
Structurally, the forests features four layers including a canopy that has four mature sized dominant species, a shrub layer, understory layer and a slightly lower layer. There are also herbaceous plants on the understory layer.
In contrast to tropical rain plants, many biodiversity is often concentrated on forest floor. They are the most distinctive and the richest forest in East North America and China. There are also other globally distinctive ecoregions for the plants in Southern Europe, Russian Far East (Russian Far East Temperate Forests), Caucasus and Himalayas. Forests in the countries experience a wide range of temperature and precipitation changes. The trees are however found with other species in areas that receive rainfall throughout.
Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest climate and soils
The broadleaf forests occur in warm summer areas and cold winters with precipitation often spread throughout the area. They are on the other hand more seasonal in other areas. Snow is also common in the northern areas and decreases in south. Heavy tree cover and warm as well as wet summers allowing a maximal to build up organic materials in loamy soils.
The surface of soil is slightly acidic and with a more reddish layer below due to buildup of iron oxides. This is a fertile and rich soil. Vegetation of the broadleaf is primarily composed of deciduous. They shed their leaves on fall and grow new ones each spring. Seasonal changes in aspect are marked.
With reducing latitude in forest zone, many evergreen trees often appear. They are multilayered including a tree layer, a herb layer and a shrub layer. Normally, there is growth and flowering of herbaceous plants during spring. Conifers and more specifically pines grown in edaphic situations characterized with poor soils and frequent fires.
There are also trees that produce large seeds or masts in some years and few in others. In temperate zone forests, lianas are quite common and compete for light when trees shed their trees. There are no epiphytes and this is probably because they are exposed during low winter temperatures.
Biodiversity patterns of broadleaf
Many dominant broadleaf forest species are widespread but in other ecoregions, there can only be a large number of local and eco-regional endemics. Beta diversity is also high for plants, smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. Unusual soils can harbor specialist invertebrates and plants. There are also ecoregions with high gamma and alpha diversity for plants.
Larger broadleaf require bigger and natural landscape to grow well despite large scale disturbance events such as fire. This is because they necessitate conservation of large forest blocks including fungi, species of plants, lichen and invertebrates that depend on late successional forests.
Sensitivity to the environment or to disturbance
Certain temperate broadleaf and mixed forest species are very sensitive to the environment and habitat fragmentation. Understory species on the other hand cannot cross deforested regions.
There is also the significant impact of human activities. Human populations are very high in the zone including many parts of the largest global cities. They are fairly pleasant climatically and highly productive to the plants. This is because the soils are excellent for farming and most of it is cleared for a long time across different parts of the globe.
Similarly, hardwood species are highly valuable for timber. Therefore, the forests are severely damaged or altered for the purpose. In many areas, they are now in second stage growth and they include a wide range of broadleaf and mixed forest species. Many fire climax pine forests also grow into deciduous forests where they are protected from fires by humans.
Pine forests are also largely used for lumber. There are many reforestation measures in such areas. Therefore, many plants from the zone were domesticated for foods, vegetables, herbs and fruits in the Near East and Europe.
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Coniferous Forests college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles
Coniferous forests are a group of trees that mainly bear cones or coniferous trees. They include hemlocks, pines, firs and spruces among others. Their leaves are needle like, scale like and small in others. Most of them remain evergreen throughout the year. Therefore, they can survive acidic soils and cold temperatures.
Coniferous forests are mainly found within the Arctic Circle or the northern hemisphere. However, there are those found in the southern hemisphere. Northern coniferous trees are popularly known as boreal or tiga forests. They occupy vast area of the region from the Pacific to the Atlantic. They range across the Scandinavia, Europe, Russia and Asia through Mongolia and Siberia to Northern Japan and Northern China.
When do coniferous forests thrive?
Coniferous trees thrive during short summers as well as during long and harsh winters characterized with heavy snowfall lasting for a period of six months. The needle like trees have unique waxy outer coat and it plays a great role in preventing loss of water in freezing environment. Their branches are also flexible and soft pointing downwards thus, preventing snow from sliding over them.
Larches for instance are a good example of coniferous trees. They are deciduous and shed leaves during winter. Other trees including cedars, redwoods and cypresses are mainly found in warmer areas.
Life on forest floor
Evergreen trees at some point in their lives will shed leaves and grow new ones. When the needle falls to the ground, they form a springy and thick mat. The fallen needles will be broken down and decomposed by fungi. The fungi also offer nutrients to the trees from the decomposing components. However for pine trees, the needles do not decompose easily. Therefore, the soils in their roots are acidic and poor.
The forests also thrive in different types of soils and climatic conditions. They grow well in tropic soils and in the subarctic regions. Additionally, they can grow in heavy clays and poor sands as long as they are conditioned to winter climate. The taigas grow in high latitude of any forest and the most common types include pine, firs and spruce.
Growth of coniferous forest
Coniferous trees including redwoods and cedars grow upright in their ideal habitat. The tallest of the trees can reach about 20min in height. The trees are pyramid shaped and with short lateral branches that grow close together. They are very flexible and this helps snow to slide off easily. The leaves are also evergreen, hard and small in size.
It is also worth noting that little light usually penetrates thick canopy trees to reach the floor of the forest. As a result, only a few herbaceous plants and ferns can grow in the areas. Lichens, liverworts and Mosses are found in the floor of the forest and often grow on branches and trunks. Additionally, there are few flowering plants in the region.
Therefore, herbivores can live for long in coniferous forests because they can survive on acidic plants. The forest is a home to a wide range of insects that build their nests in dense trees. Elk and deer are commonly found in the forests because they feed or browse on berries that grow on low laying shrubs. Large predators including wolves and bears can be found in the forests because they can easily hunt for prey such as large herbivores.
Coniferous forests out of many forest types are known and thought to have been least affected by deforestation and human activities. This is believed to be so because the trees that grow in the forest are softwood trees. Therefore, they can only be used in paper production. The demand for paper is however increasing across different parts meaning, a large number of coniferous trees are being cut down.
Last but not least, the trees are the longest and toughest trees living in the world. They easily and relatively grow close together producing a safe environment for their survival. Their growth also creates a highly sheltered and dense forest. Therefore, plants and animals that live in the forest are fully and well adapted to harsh and bitterly cold seasons.
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Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture
The sustainable management of water resources in agriculture is encouraged to prevent wastage of water and encourage conservation. Water resources is an essential ingredient in agriculture, without which farming would not be possible. However, it is not readily available in many parts of the world. Besides, water resources continue to be under greater threat due to factors like urbanization, climate change, and industrialization among others. This implies farmers should be well informed on the efficient use of water and its management in their activities so as to enhance the sustainability of the resources.
Policy makers and farmers should recognize that the management of water use in agriculture is an area that is quite complex and diverse. Agriculture accounts for about 70% of the global fresh water withdrawals. Considering the projected population growth, increased demand for food production and competition from other sectors that also use water, there is going to be even more pressure on the available resources in the coming years. One of the most ideal ways of conserving this precious wealth is through sustainable management of water resources in agriculture.
The background of Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture
Since the 1990, there have been tremendous changes in the use and management of water resources in agriculture. In fact, farming accounts for the greatest share of water use across the world. Although the total area of agricultural land has decreased over the years, irrigation is steadily rising in many countries, especially the OECD countries. Some of the countries that have experienced significant increase in the use of water for agriculture include Korea, Turkey, New Zealand and Greece. However, Mexico, Australia and several European OECD countries, the use of water for farming has gone down.
The reasons for the decreased use of water for agriculture in some countries over the years vary from one to another. However, the main reasons include;
Improvement in the water use efficiency
Release of water towards meeting environmental conservation goals
Droughts mainly impacted by global warming among other climatic factors
The contraction of the European agricultural sector is also another factor that has contributed to the reduction in the use of water resources in agriculture. This has to some extent, ensured the sustainability of the resources.
In many OECD countries where irrigation is steadily gaining ground, farmers have been able to employ various strategies towards sustainable management of water resources for agriculture. Some of the water spills from the irrigation schemes is re-used for other purposes like environmental conservation. However, some points are still lost to pollutant runoffs, ground water sources and evaporation.
In some countries like Greece and Turkey where agriculture greatly depends on irrigation, the increase in water use for farming has been tremendous in the past decade. However, in those where irrigation is not key, the use of water has been on the low. Irrigated agriculture usually has a higher production volume. This further increases the value of shares in farm production for countries that focus on agriculture for exports.
How Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture is Done Today
Although some countries are more involved in agriculture than others, it still remains an important sector that every country has invested in. In order to effectively conserve water while also increasing the volume of production, there are various sustainable water management practices that have been adopted across the world.
Many countries have greatly invested in irrigated agriculture, which not only ensures effective management of water resources but also increased production volume. Latest technologies like drip irrigation have been instrumental in ensuring the better management of water resources in agriculture.
In areas facing droughts and water scarcity, recycling of water is encouraged for sustainability. Besides, researchers also point out that virtual water trade is another option that can be pursued towards ensuring sustainable management of water resources in agriculture.
However, the poor maintenance of irrigation infrastructures by some has also impacted inefficiencies in water use through loss leakages, thereby hindering the sustainable management of water resources in farming. On the other hand, there are also certain countries like Turkey, which still use flooding irrigation that also puts a lot of strain on water resources.
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Sustainable Management of Rangelands medical school essay help
Sustainable Management of Rangelands
The sustainable management of rangelands and associated environmental issues contribute significantly to our well being. Rangelands are a greater part of our environment and are responsible for a variety of life’s essentials like fresh air, water resources, minerals, coal, oil, recreational facilities among others. The climatic conditions in rangelands vary from one region to another. However, they usually experience low rainfall with variable arid and semi-arid conditions. Although pastoralism is the main activity conducted in rangelands, some also serve as mining grounds and tourist attraction sites.
What is Sustainable Management of Rangelands?
Sustainable management of rangelands is a set of strategies and measures aimed at ensuring that rangelands and the resources therein are protected against exploitation by human agents among other factors. When these lands are properly conserved, they are able to not only serve the current generation but also the ones to come.
Rangelands refer to an extensive area of land covered by grass, savanna and shrubs. However, there are also other kinds of vegetation that can be found on rangelands. Besides, rangelands can also have other resources like mineral and water reserves although these vary from one region to another.
The Current State of Rangelands
Although the life in rangelands goes on without the knowledge of many people, several tracks are laying in waste due to irresponsible human activities and factors like climate change. As a result of this, several plant and animal species have become extinct with others facing a similar threat. Considering the roles played by these species in the ecosystem, the degradation of rangelands also impacts human life.
There are various factors which have contributed towards the degradation of rangelands. Some of these factors are tied to human practices over the years like mining, road constructions and other developments necessitating land clearance.
Irresponsible mining activities do not only destroy the rangelands but also depletes the resources in those lands like coal and oil. There are rangelands that used to have mineral resources but have today been all wiped out because of unregulated mining practices.
Pollution of water resources is another threat that is causing destruction to rangelands. Despite the various measures towards disposal of wastes, many industries still release harmful chemicals into rangelands, harming the lives that thrive therein. Apart from industrial wastes, many families still do not observe proper waste disposal procedures. As a result of this, some portion of the wastes find their way into range land.
Due to urbanization, many rangelands have been consumed by rising commercial and residential developments, limiting grazing space. With the limited space, there is greater pressure on the existing rangelands because of the competition for the resources by grazers.
Climate change has also played a critical role in the current state of rangelands. It hinders the reproduction and development of various animal and plant species. Besides, climate change has also contributed to immense drought across many rangelands, making them inhabitable.
Strategies for Sustainable Management of Rangelands
In order to deal with all the above issues facing rangelands, there are various measures and policies that have been formulated. Since the threats vary from one region to another, there are short term and long term measures.
In the past and even some countries today, conservation of rangelands has been a reserve of the natives of those regions. However, many have failed due to lack of adequate tools, means and information on environmental conservation. This has necessitated many governments and agencies to come up with campaigns to educate people on the importance of rangelands and environmental conservation.
An example of such campaigns is the ‘’Caring for Our Country’’ initiative by the Government of Australia. The initiative is targeting sustainable land management in rangelands.
There is also a wide range of policies that have been created and implemented to ensure that the use of rangelands is regulated. These policies may not generally address rangelands but are focused on imposing restrictions on various human activities like mining, illegal hunting expeditions, land clearance, waste disposal among others. There are also policies aimed at monitoring of vegetation and conservation of threatened animal and plant species.
Although the above measures may be helpful in sustainable management of rangelands, they are not adequate in eliminating the threats. More efforts and individual responsibility is still required for the well being of rangelands.
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Sustainable Management of Natural Resources a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Sustainable Management of Natural Resources
Sustainable management of natural resources is one of the best ways of ensuring the conservation of these invaluable resources for future generations. Factors like human activity and climate change have continuously put pressure on the existing resources and even claimed the depletion of some. However, these resources play a key role in the ecosystem and their destruction not only threatens the existence of humans, plants and animals but the entire planet. This implies swift and effective measures should be in place so as to reduce the looming threats, while also trying to repair the damage already done to the surviving natural resources.
There are various kinds of natural resources spread across several parts of the world. Some of the most common natural resources include water, oil, wood, minerals, air, and wind energy among others. These resources are critical in the survival of the earth and all that live in it. It is through the resources that we are able to get food, fuel, energy and water for home and industrial operations, fresh air to breathe among other needs.
In fact, our social, economic and environmental health relies on the management of natural resource. As a result of this, the responsibility for sustainable management of these resources do not only lie with policy makers but every individual.
Areas of Focus in the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources
In many cases, the goals of sustainable management of natural resources have not been effectively achieved due to a number of reasons. One of the main reasons is because of the general perception that has been given to the issue. In order to understand the state of natural resources, there are certain specific areas that should be focused on.
The following are some of the key indicators of the state of natural resource management;
Economic and ecological interrelationships in ecosystems management
Carbon emissions, climate change and bio-energy
Valuation of ecosystem services
Management of multi-use natural resources like national parks, game reserves
The main objective of sustainable natural resource management is to conserve them for the generations to come.
How to achieve Sustainable Management of Natural Resources
We rely on natural resources to supply our basic needs ranging from food, shelter, clothing, healthcare and energy. However, not much has been done to ensure the sustainability of these resources. In fact, we have not treated nature with the same kindness that it has served us with over the years. In order to ensure a sustainable society, we have to recognize the impacts of our lives on nature, the resources it offers and take necessary actions towards reducing the risks.
Researchers and scientists have been on the job to come up with measures for conserving a variety of the natural resources that are greatly threatened like water, soil, biodiversity and vegetation.
Today, governments and agencies have also formulated policies towards the sustainable management of nature. Although the policies vary from one country to another, they generally focus on reducing the strain on natural resources. These policies focus on advocating for the use of recycled products, cutting down the rate of carbon emissions, protection of water bodies and forests. Another key area of focus is the regulation of mining activities to ensure that the resources are not depleted.
Challenges Facing Sustainable Management of Natural Resources
Despite the various policies and actions that are being taken towards the conservation of natural resources, there is a series of challenges that have hindered the realization of the objectives. Some of the challenges are within reach while others are also uncontrollable. The following are some of the main challenges faced in the management of natural resources.
Poor environmental practices
Rapid population growth inserting pressure on existing resources
Conflicts in the making of decisions regarding natural resource allocation and use
Lack of adequate policies, regulations, strategies and structures
Even as the global campaign towards sustainable management of natural resources continue to build up, it is clear that more appropriate measures are still required. For a sustainable society that can guarantee our social, economic and environmental well being, we should start looking at the conservation of nature as an individual responsibility.
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Effects of the Industrial Revolution extended essay help biology
The effects of the Industrial Revolution were tremendous and felt in almost every aspect of life. Read about them in this article.
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution took place in the 18th and 19th centuries and was the transition to new manufacturing methods where agrarian American and European societies became industrialized and urban. This transition brought about great impact in the world that s felt even today. The effects of the industrial revolution were experienced in both social, economic and political platforms.
The industrial revolution was characterized by major inventions and technological developments, creating a large scale factory system for large scale production. Besides, the period also saw the increased use of machines in industries and economic specialization towards the end of the 19th century. It also involved several changes to the labor structures, which many were not pleased with.
Although the revolution occurred in Europe, its effects were not limited to those nations. Considering the significance of industries during that time, there is no doubt that changes would impact a greater part of society. In fact, we can still feel and see the impacts of the Industrial revolution in various aspects of life today.
Considering the various impacts of the industrial revolution, it can be a bit challenging to make a clear distinction between them. In order to easily understand the effects, it is advisable to categorize them in terms of economic, political and social status of society. Besides, the revolution also impacted significant technological development.
Economic effects of the Industrial Revolution
The effects of the industrial revolution were mainly embedded in to the economy. The revolution led to a rapid increase and expansion of factories in various sectors. As a result of this, the growth in revenues was immense, leading to massive wealth and power to the industrialists. In fact, between 1800 and 1900, the purchasing power in Great Britain doubled with the national income levels growing tenfold.
The increased population and wealth accumulation necessitated the development of urban centers. By early 1850, several cities had developed across Europe and almost 50% of the population were either living in either towns or cities.
Although the industrial revolution ensured immense economic growth, the factory workers remained on the losing end. A greater portion of the proceeds only went to the wealthy who controlled the means of production. However, the revolution also phased out elements like starvation,
Social effects of the Industrial Revolution
Because of the boom in factories, many people from various walks of life moved into the cities in search of jobs. This not only led to population growth but also exchange of cultures between the masses. Women and children accounted for almost b75% of the total labor force during the revolution. This created very little time for family, causing the breakdown of the family unit.
Although the industries were doing quite well, the working conditions remained poor. The factories were overcrowded, work places were in bad state and even the safety measures were inadequate.
Due to the low incomes of factory workers during the revolution, living conditions hardly improved. The factories hired both men, women and children at very low wages such that many were unable to even afford the simplest housing facilities. Hence, slums rapidly developed across many urban centers.
The employment of children in factories prevented them from obtaining education. Besides, some also faced stunted growth and contracted infections. Due to the poor living conditions, sanitation was plagued and the infant mortality significantly shot up.
Art is another aspect of social life that also changed as a result of the industrial revolution. However, art was mainly used during those times to express how the people felt. In their works, many artists protested against practices like individualism, frustration of workers among others.
Political effects of the Industrial Revolution
During the industrial revolution, many structures including those of the governments were run on laissez-faire approach. As a result of this, there were little or no regulations on the policies of the factories. This implies the rich and middle class people took any path they considered most profitable even if it was at the cost of their workers.
Not willing to take the oppression any more, many workers began forming labor unions. Through these unions, workers were able to present their grievances and advocate for better working conditions. It is also through this period that many rights groups were formed. Owing to the large numbers of their members, these movements had significant impact on the political atmosphere across Europe.
Generally, the effects of the industrial revolution were partly beneficial and also destructive. However, it generally improved the living conditions for many people across Europe and other countries, which traded with European nations.
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