Get help from the best in academic writing.

Alikay Naturals Moisturizing Black Soap Shampoo Best Essay Help

Make sure that you have also downloaded the Assignment #1 Template. You will answer the questions there and submit that file as your assignment.

QUESTION 1: Product Life Cycle

Background Information Needed to Answer Question #1:

Review the Sales Report below for Alikay Naturals Moisturizing Black Soap Shampoo.

As you recall from our learning, here are the four phases of the product life cycle:

Go to the Assignment #1 Template and complete Question 1.

QUESTION 2: Product Changes

Background Information Needed to Answer Question #2:

Review the User Survey Summary data below and form some opinions about the shampoo’s consistency, smell, effectiveness, and price.  Based on this information you will be able to answer question #2.

Go to the Assignment #1 Template and complete Question 2.

QUESTION 3: New Product Development

Background Information Needed to Answer Question #3:

Review the three new product options and based on the survey results below determine which of the three new products you would recommend.

Go to the Assignment #1 Template and complete Question 3.

QUESTION 4: Innovation

Review the following information from Week 2 on types of innovation.

Helpful image from Week 2 Learn’s section for your review:

Go to the Assignment #1 Template and complete Question 4.

QUESTION 5: Production Methods

Review the following information from Week 3.


Go to the Assignment #1 Template and complete Question 5.

Next step: submit your work

Save your completed template (not these instructions) to your desktop.

Navigation: Select File at the top, then select Save As > Browse > Desktop, select Save.

Log into your class and select Assignment #1 on the left, scroll down and select Submit Your Work, click Browse My Computer, find your file on the desktop, click Open, then click Submit.
If you have any issues please email me or call.

I will provide you assignment feedback and you can then make any changes you would like and resubmit for grading.

Congrats on completing assignment #1!

Ethical Issues in Policing easy essay help

nPolice work has been called a “morally dangerous” endeavor

nTemptations faced by the average patrol officer much greater than those confronted in other occupations

nPolice corruption is a broad area of concern.

nMany of the problems of police corruption are linked to the tremendous amount of discretion possessed by the patrol officer

Most effective prevention against COVID-19 global history essay help: global history essay help

Full Name

Instructor’s Name

SPCH 1311




A.      Capture the Audience’s Attention (Attention-Getter)

B.      Introduce Yourself and Your Topic

C.       Background Knowledge of Topic

D.      Topic sentence/thesis statement

First Main Point (Social distancing has been proven to work.)

A.      According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), social distancing is the most effective prevention against COVID-19.

1.       Supporting Detail – This study was backed by a similar claim by Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, which claims that social distancing is 79% effective in the United States.
2.       Example – For example, 88% of individuals who tested positive with COVID-19 and who were studied during the month of April, did not practice social distancing (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia).

B.      COVID-19 spreads via bodily fluids while in close contact with an individual for an extended amount of time—typically anywhere from 10-15 minutes (CDC).

1.       Supporting Detail – If you are not practicing social distancing, the potential for bodily fluid droplets from someone who has COVID-19 has the potential to land in your mouth or nose (CDC).
2.       Example – According to Jenna Birch, a researcher for, of the individuals who she interviewed who admitted to refusing to social distance and were diagnosed with COVID-19, defying guidance made them feel as though they are in control.
Second main point

A.      Support

1.       Example
2.       Example

B.      Support

1.       Example
2.       Example
Third main point (weakest)

A.      Support

1.       Example
2.       Example

B.      Support

1.       Example
2.       Example

A.      Restate topic

B.      Summarize three main points

C.       Revisit introduction or tie all ideas together

Background Information Assignment “essay help” site:edu

Make sure that you have also downloaded the Assignment #1 Template. You will answer the questions there and submit that file as your assignment.

QUESTION 1: Product Life Cycle

Background Information Needed to Answer Question #1:

Review the Sales Report below for Alikay Naturals Moisturizing Black Soap Shampoo.

As you recall from our learning, here are the four phases of the product life cycle:

Go to the Assignment #1 Template and complete Question 1.

QUESTION 2: Product Changes

Background Information Needed to Answer Question #2:

Review the User Survey Summary data below and form some opinions about the shampoo’s consistency, smell, effectiveness, and price.  Based on this information you will be able to answer question #2.

Go to the Assignment #1 Template and complete Question 2.

QUESTION 3: New Product Development

Background Information Needed to Answer Question #3:

Review the three new product options and based on the survey results below determine which of the three new products you would recommend.

Go to the Assignment #1 Template and complete Question 3.

QUESTION 4: Innovation

Review the following information from Week 2 on types of innovation.

Helpful image from Week 2 Learn’s section for your review:

Go to the Assignment #1 Template and complete Question 4.

QUESTION 5: Production Methods

Review the following information from Week 3.


Go to the Assignment #1 Template and complete Question 5.

Next step: submit your work

Save your completed template (not these instructions) to your desktop.

Navigation: Select File at the top, then select Save As > Browse > Desktop, select Save.

Log into your class and select Assignment #1 on the left, scroll down and select Submit Your Work, click Browse My Computer, find your file on the desktop, click Open, then click Submit.
If you have any issues please email me or call.

I will provide you assignment feedback and you can then make any changes you would like and resubmit for grading.

Congrats on completing assignment #1!

The achievement of organisational strategies essay help writing: essay help writing

Page 1 of 11

MPM701 – Business Process Management

Trimester 1, 2021

Group Assignment

DUE DATE AND TIME: Friday 30th April 2021, 8:00 pm


WORD COUNT: 2000 words

HURDLE DETAILS: Not Applicable

Learning Outcome Details

Unit Learning Outcome (ULO)

Graduate Learning Outcome (GLO)

ULO 1: Relate the principles and frameworks of BPM to the achievement of organisational strategies and goals.

GLO1: Discipline-specific knowledge and capabilities

ULO 2: Generate solutions to organisational problems using the tools and methodologies of BPM.

GLO1: Discipline-specific knowledge and capabilities

GLO5: Problem solving

ULO 3: Critically evaluate the appropriateness of enterprise systems to enable BPM and change.

GLO1: Discipline-specific knowledge and capabilities

GLO4: Critical thinking

ULO 4: Design and deliver informed recommendations about process change to a variety of organisational audiences.

GLO1: Discipline-specific knowledge and capabilities

GLO2: Communication GLO3: Digital literacy GLO5: Problem solving

Assessment Feedback:

Students who submit their work by the due date will receive their marks and feedback on CloudDeakin approximately three weeks after the due date.

Deakin’s Bachelor of Commerce and MBA are internationally

EPAS accredited

Deakin Business School is accredited by AACSB and EQUIS

Deakin’s Bachelor of Commerce and MBA are internationally

EPAS accreditedDeakin Business School is accredited by AACSB

Page 2 of 11

Description / Requirements

Business processes permeate all aspects of business and it is arguable that if a business is not adopting a business process management approach to realise its strategies, and its subsequent objectives and goals, then it may reduce its chances for success – even its very survival. By taking a business process management approach, organisations can improve their chances of succeeding in their quests for sustained competitive advantages through greater efficiencies, quality, innovation and customer responsiveness. In, what is now, a

highly competitive, global, interconnected and uncertain business environment, there has never been a better time to draw on the advantages offered by applying the BPM discipline to any business or organisation anywhere.


Upon successfully completing this assignment you will have demonstrated that you can provide clear written advice, and recommendations for change, to a business owner, in relation to business process management (BPM). Your advice will offer the business owner several reasons for adopting a business process management approach including:

▪ an explanation as to what the current business processes are and why they should be re-designed

▪ a proposed redesign solution

▪ any special considerations that need to be taken into account to deliver the proposed solution successfully

▪ succinct recommendations

In providing your advice to the business owner you will take into account various perspectives and circumstances encompassing the business.

Overview of Compostwizard Pty Ltd

Darlene Daylight is the inventor of the Compostwizard. The Compostwizard is a solar driven digging device approximately 1.5 metres in length, containing a carbide tipped, stainless steel retractable probe 200 millimetres long. The Compostwizard utilises a miniature micro-computer combined with nano-technology to instantly analyse and calculate soil composition and provide precise instructions for transforming unusable, useless soil into luscious, nutrient rich compost/top soil capable of growing most plants and vegetables. Details of soil composition are wirelessly transferred by the device to a secure cloud based data repository developed and maintained by Darlene.

The Compostwizard is made entirely of carbon fibre rendering it extremely light and therefore easy to use by people of all ages. It has attracted enormous popularity amongst a range of users including home and market gardeners, commercial nurseries and farmers both private and commercial and demand has always exceeded supply.

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Coming from a farming background, Darlene was always looking for ways to improve soil condition as this has an enormous impact on a farm’s productive capacity. After leaving home, she decided to purchase a hobby farm and after meeting her husband (a former graduate of Deakin University’s engineering faculty) she spent the next decade developing the Compostwizard. Their greatest challenge was ensuring that the stainless steel probe could operate effectively in all soil types and under all temperatures. After years of testing, Darlene eventually launched the Compostwizard under a new business venture in 2016.

Darlene’s new business is a private company called Compostwizard Pty. Ltd. The business manufactures and distributes the Compostwizard but the two most important components (the carbon casing and the stainless steel probe) are obtained from external suppliers located in Canada and Spain respectively. The supplier in Spain is the only company in the world capable of making the probe.

Compostwizard Pty. Ltd. comprises a number of standard functional areas in line with most small to medium enterprises. The company’s organisational chart is shown below:

The departmental directors are named in their respective function boxes in the chart. The number of employees working under each director is shown in each of the function boxes respectively (numbers of employees in each department include the directors of those departments). The sales function is also charged with marketing and service responsibilities; service requests though are usually referred to the logistics department. The accounting function is also charged with finance responsibilities.

The production function manufactures the Compostwizard and manages the warehouse. The firm has a

centralised IT function which provides some of the firm’s IT needs. Compostwizard Pty Ltd currently employs 50 individuals, including Darlene.






Darlene DaylightDaylight CharlieCharlie WatersWaters

(1 employee)

(1 employee)


Production Mike Nutrient Mike Nutrient (12 (12 employees)employees)



Julie Weedy

Julie Weedy (8 employees)(8 employees)


Logistics Greg Mulch Greg Mulch (6 employees)(6 employees)


Purchasing Jake SupplementJake Supplement

(7 employees)

(7 employees)


Sales Bette Biopic Bette Biopic (7 employees)(7 employees)


Accounting John John Compost Compost (6 employees)(6 employees)


R&D PaulPaul Hoseman Hoseman (2(2 employees)employees)

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The business experienced strong growth in its first few years and this enabled it to grow quickly. In 2020 things started to change. Sales were down and profits reduced (see profit table below). This decline continued through 2021. The impact of COVID-19 has had a devastating and destabilising impact on the global economy resulting in extreme volatility. Innovation and client responsiveness are now seen as more important than ever to ensure long term sustainability.

2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Revenue $m 1.5 2.5 5 6 4 3.2








1.5 Profit $m 1 1.7 3 3.5 2 1.7

Sales of the Compostwizard essentially relied upon word of mouth communication and thereore, a solid marketing strategy had never been developed. Worse still, Darlene had never put much time or effort into developing streamlined and computer based business processes and rather, resorted to many paper based manual methods to get things done, including purchasing material, controlling production, satisfying customer orders and managing all the accounts.

Darlene’s business strategy has always centred on innovation and up to this point, nobody had been able to produce a comparable device that could compete with the Compostwizard thus giving her a sizeable competitive advantage.

Darlene underpins this strategy with a focus on quality and customer responsiveness. She also realises that, given a recent rise in customer complaints about delays in receiving orders, her firm’s customer responsiveness is waning and needs urgent attention. Darlene wishes to maintain her strategic stance but knows that organisational change must occur urgently if it is to work as intended.

Darlene decided to hold a meeting with her directors. They assembled during the morning around the board room table where Darlene asked “What happens when a customer places an order for a Compostwizard?” (Darlene’s question assumed that the group would understand that a customer might be a wholesale or retail customer or an individual purchasing directly from the company either online (via eBay) or via phone or fax. Compostwizard Pty Ltd does not have a retail store front).

Bette spoke up and said, “well, we write up a sales order form and send it to production.” Mike said, “when we get to the sales order form, usually within three days, we physically check to see if there is a Compostwizard (or number of Compostwizards) in stock that suits the configuration required and if there is, we pack it, label it and write stock details onto the sales form and send it over to Greg’s guys to ship it out and we also send a duplicate copy to John so he can organise the accounts. We keep a triplicate in a box in my office – one day I will sort through these and complete a reconciliation. I also keep ‘post it’ notes of sales orders on my office whiteboard – these usually match the triplicates in the box so I don’t need to fiddle with the papers in the box.” When the box is full, we send it to John in Accounting.

Then Greg said, “well, when we get the sales order from Bette, we sign it and make notations of the date and time, then, when we pack the order onto one of the trucks for local delivery or get Fedex to collect it for interstate or international delivery, we forward the sales order along with a shipping note to John in accounting. We don’t know what he does with it but we’ve always done this. We keep a photocopy of the shipping note in a ring binder in the warehouse office.

Page 5 of 11

When the photocopier is broken we just slap a ‘post it’ note on the order in the folder. This seems to work well because we don’t lose the details for many orders”.

Then John spoke up and said, “when we receive the sales order from Bette we file it and wait for the shipping order to come in from Greg. We usually cross check all sales orders and shipping orders that are sitting on our desks every day to ascertain whether an invoice action can be taken. When we see a sales order and a shipping order for the same sale (which we ascertain by looking at the name of the customer on the order), we send the customer an invoice to the customer’s address, either their shipping or head office address – it doesn’t really matter, we just choose whichever address appears first on the order. Payment terms are net 14 days and the majority of our customers pay within this time which means that there is very little action required in following up debtors.”

Darlene sighed quietly to herself and then asked, “well, what happens if we haven’t got any suitable Compostwizards in stock?” Mike said, “well, when we get the sales order from Bette and check for suitable stock, if we find that we’ve run out, we organise a purchase request and send it to Jake so that we can get the necessary materials to make more. It only takes us a few days to get the purchase request organised and sent.” Jake then spoke up and said, “when we get the purchase request from Mike, we file it for action so

that purchase requests are tended to in order of date received. That’s how we prioritise things in my department!

When we finally find time to get to the request, we study it and then organise purchase order forms which we complete and send to our respective suppliers. We send these in the surface mail. It usually takes about four and a half weeks before we receive dispatch confirmations and invoices from our suppliers indicating that our orders have been filled and sent. Then we send the original invoices from our suppliers, with a payment order, to John so that he can organise payment for the materials. Our job is done!”

John then said, “when we receive the invoices and payment orders from Jake, we pay these immediately. We’d hate to ruin our relationships with our suppliers.”

Darlene sensed tensions between members of the group. She particularly noticed a strong three way tension between Mike, Jake and John. Bette seemed to be the most positive member of the group, even though sales were down, and whenever she spoke, Darlene noticed that all other members of the group became anxious.

Darlene was beginning to see the consequences of her neglect of the firm’s business processes and sensed that if all of this were to continue, she could be out of business within a couple of years or even sooner. She is confident that the Compostwizard can adapt to changing times and will remain very popular for many years to come but she knows that she must match this fantastic product with excellent business processes.

Darlene engages your BPM consulting firm to help make sense of the current organisational approach and to provide some preliminary advice about redesigning processes so that the current downward trend in performance can be reversed. She gives you the transcript of her meeting with her directors (as seen above). She also provides you with some other basic information that she quickly gathered together for you including some Balance Sheet items (to help you to form a view of the firm’s position to invest in change) and some other miscellaneous information which might help you to determine the extent of change necessary. No other information is available to you to develop a solution. Darlene states that she has at least been conscious of accumulating some cash reserves for the firm’s development and that it seems the day has come to use some (or possibly all) of these! All of this is revealed in the tables shown below.

Page 6 of 11

Balance Sheet Items (summarised as at June 2020) $ Cash at Bank (based on latest statement found on floor) 800,000

Debtors (estimated)

600,000 Percentage of debtors outstanding more than 2 months 30%


255,000 Stock on Hand (based on rough estimate count in warehouse) 85,400

Other Assets (including land, buildings, equipment and vehicles (straight line depreciation), investments, patents, trademarks and goodwill.

2,700,000 Other Liabilities (including bank loans, venture capital) 800,000

Loan expiry and review date

30 April, 2021

Other information (based on Darlene’s investigations only; no other information is available) Item Units/Info Organisational Personal Computers (Quad Core, basic peripherals) 11

Laser Printers (Hewlett Packard, 4 years old)

3 Local Area Network 6 PCs connected

Internet Access

7 PCs connected Software – Microsoft Office 2016, Microsoft Vista 12 Licences only

Telecommunication Networks – Cable available to whole business

Cable Telecommunications provider Telstra

Some client data are currently held on spreadsheets

Excel and Open Office Three MS Access databases hold some data on employees Name, Address, Employee Number and Title only.

A company intranet has not been established

Computer literate staff (basic and intermediate levels; no power users) 22

Total product lines

3 approx. Suppliers (one in Canada, one in Spain, both have Internet access 2 approx.

Customers (i.e. retail stores and some distributors)

27 approx. Retail Price for a Compostwizard $2,500

Cost of producing a Compostwizard unit

$639 Individual Directors’ salaries p.a. $60,000

Staff average annual income

$55,000 Production time for one Compostwizard 8 hours

Page 7 of 11


Task: Business Report (40 marks)

This assignment will be completed by teams of 3 individuals.

Your task is to prepare a preliminary business report for the CEO. The main body of your report must be structured using the following headings. A brief about what each section of the report must address is also provided.

BPM and Strategy

▪ State in plain terms what Business Process Management is and how it can help ’Compostwizard Pty Ltd’

▪ In describing the benefits of BPM, ensure that you briefly explain how BPM connects to:

o business strategy from internal and external perspectives,

o positioning,

o structure and

o value propositions.

▪ Briefly describe the meaning of value chains and how using BPM, in conjunction with this concept, can assist ‘Compostwizard Pty Ltd’ to improve its financial position.

Problem Analysis

▪ While there are a number of problems within ‘Compostwizard Pty Ltd’, you are required to concentrate your efforts on the problem which you determine to be the most urgent. Failure to clearly identify what you consider to be the most urgent problem, will result in the loss of five marks. In relation to this problem, you are required to identify the causes and the consequences of the problem. Think carefully about the problem that you identify as the most urgent. You must be able to ‘model’ the problem as part of your As-Is and To-Be diagram and the problem must not be the same as the solution. For example, it is not acceptable to identify a “lack of I.T.” as the most

urgent problem, only to then provide an I.T. based solution (i.e. the problem cannot be the same as the solution!).

▪ Identify the capabilities gap and the performance gap.

▪ Show the current ‘As Is’ process using Bizagi Modeler software. If you cannot use the Bizagi modelling software, you may present your diagrams on any other software provided it is BPMN compliant (ie. Lucidchart)

▪ Identify any process flow problems and/or day to day management problems; output and input problems; and problems with controls and enablers; develop a project scoping diagram to illustrate the problem which you have identified

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Proposed Solution

▪ Explain what it means to develop a ‘business process architecture’ and, particularly, how valuable this can be to ‘Compostwizard’ and its success

▪ Describe a ‘To Be’ process and explain how the process will address the most urgent problem identified in the previous section; what will the ‘To Be’ process do, or not do, when the change project is rolled out

▪ Support your ‘To Be’ process with a BPMN process flow diagram using Bizagi Modeler software (or other graphical software (BPMN complaint) if you are unable to use Bizagi)).

▪ Are there any key aspects in your proposed solution that you should clearly describe to Darlene for example: SOA; ERP; Master Data; Core, Support and Management processes; alignment issues; etc?

▪ Based on the information provided in your proposed solution, you must also include a fully annotated organisational structure chart.

Solution Considerations

• Large BPM driven organisational changes can be extremely valuable, they are also complex undertakings impacting the organisation, its people and its use of modern technologies.

▪ Identify and briefly describe significant considerations that might impact ‘Compostwizard Pty Ltd’, both during the redesign development stage and upon the implementation of your proposed solution. Some considerations might pertain to the costs of bridging the gap (time, effort, money, etc.), risks, opportunity costs, internal politics, etc.

▪ Specifically address any upstream or downstream implications (within or outside the organisation) of the solution you have proposed, stating why these implications are important.


▪ Provide a succinct list of recommendations to conclude your report. Your recommendations should leave the CEO in no doubt as to what must happen next.

Written Assignment Administrative Details

You should include a brief executive summary, table of contents and brief appendices. Do not include extensive appendices – this is a preliminary report – extensive appendices may result in a reduction of marks. Use the section headings above to structure the main body of your report (you should not need sub- headings). The CEO will not read the report if it does not use the above headings in the body of your report.

The CEO wants to see a reasonable use of references. While textbook references can be used, the CEO would prefer that you use industry research reports, case studies and any other industry-based evidence which can justify why the organisation should implement your proposed BPM solution.

You do not need to specify a particular commercial solution (such as SAP or another enterprise system), although you may specify commercial solutions to help you to clarify and support your proposed solution recommendations.

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The report must be no longer than 2,000 words (approximately 4 to 5 pages of words, but by including diagrams and any other graphics or figures it will be considerably longer. Words in diagrams such as the Gap Model, Project Scoping Diagram and As-Is and To-Be process diagrams will not be included in the word count provided they are used to explain necessary steps and highlight critical information. If paragraphs of text are included in these diagrams, they will be included in the word count. Words in tables are included in the word count of the main body of your report.

Note that the 2000-word count does not include your cover page, your executive summary, your reference list or your appendices.

Note also that 10% of the total available marks for the assignment may be deducted from your final assignment mark for every 100 words that exceed the 2000-word limit. For example, assignments of 2300 words (not including descriptors in diagrams, cover page, executive summary, reference list or appendices) may receive a penalty deduction of 30% of the total available marks for the assignment. Please do not exceed the word limit for the assignment.

It is strongly recommended that the process to produce your report be an iterative one, with interim reports and drafts produced early so that you and your group partners can reflect on progress and refine the work as necessary. You might be asked in your seminars to present a brief update about the progress of your report. This is a major unit assignment, get started early as the trimester moves very quickly.


Preliminary Business Report (40 marks)

Your report will be assessed using the marking criteria shown below:

Marking Criteria Mark BPM and Strategy 15

Problem Analysis

20 Proposed Solution 20

Solution Considerations

15 Recommendations 10

Overall Quality of the Report

▪ Presentation

▪ Spelling and Grammar

▪ Quality and use of References

20 Total 100 (will be converted to a mark out of 40)

It is expected that you and your partners will contribute significantly and equally to the group’s efforts and will therefore receive 100% of the final assignment mark out of 40. However, if you do not make a significant contribution you will receive less than 100% of the assignment mark. In particular, in the past, some members of some groups have only made a contribution in the last few days before submission – they are usually awarded a very low percentage of the assignment mark, sometimes 0%.

Page 10 of 11


Also note that it is not sufficient to simply research aspects of the solution that your team proposes without also contributing to the overall final report. You must normally make regular, at least weekly, contributions to the work; if you are unable to do so you must make necessary arrangements with your partners. Other team-working skills may be discussed in seminars and online in Cloud Deakin.

The first page of the business report must contain the names of all team members with the proportional contribution of each team member agreed to by all team members. The total proportion must sum to (or round up to – see below) 100%. For example:

Clint Eastwood:


Cameron Diaz:


Tom Cruise:


Rounded Total


In case of dispute, your seminar facilitator will be able to provide advice on determining each team

member’s contribution, and may in certain instances intervene to determine the allocations. Individuals will be awarded a percentage of the final team mark based on the proportions reported, with the student(s) receiving the highest proportion obtaining 100% of the team marks and all other team members receiving a proportional allocation. For example, if the team above obtained a team mark of 32/40, all team members would receive the full 32 marks (they contributed equally).

Online areas and getting help

A ‘Written Assignment’ link is in the ‘Unit Assessment’ area in the MPM701 Cloud Deakin site (in the Unit Resources folder) and it accessible to all students enrolled in MPM701. The written assignment area contains resources to support your work for this assignment.

The Written Assignment area contains a Written Assignment Discussion area for questions and discussions of a general nature about the assignment. It is open to all students so that all students can benefit.

Submission Instructions

(Up to 5 marks may be lost if these instructions are not followed correctly)

Your work must be submitted in accordance with the instructions shown below.

1. You lodge your assignment via the ‘Drop Box’ which is accessible in the Written Assignment area of the MPM701 Cloud Deakin site.

2. Your assignment must be submitted in Word format. The Word document you submit must be named using the Deakin user ID of the student who is to do the actual submission in Cloud Deakin. The format is:


For example, if Clint Eastwood is going to submit an assignment via Cloud Deakin and his Deakin user ID is ‘clinte’, then the Word document would be named


3. Submit the Word document (preliminary business report) via the Written Assignment Submission link. Only ONE member of the team completes this step – that is, there must be only one submission from the group.

Page 11 of 11


Important to note:

▪ If you submit your assignment after 11:59pm on the due date it will be considered late. If you need to, you can look up your local time at

▪ No extensions will be considered for assignment submission due dates, unless a written request is submitted well prior to the due date and approved by the unit chair or the off-campus coordinator.

▪ See below for penalties pertaining to late submissions.

You must keep a backup copy of every assignment you submit, until the marked assignment has been returned to you. In the unlikely event that one of your assignments is misplaced, you will need to submit your backup copy.

Any work you submit may be checked by electronic or other means for the purposes of detecting collusion and/or plagiarism.

When you are required to submit an assignment through your CloudDeakin unit site, you will receive an email to your Deakin email address confirming that it has been submitted. You should check that you can see your assignment in the Submissions view of the Assignment ‘dropbox’ folder after upload, and check for, and keep, the email receipt for the submission.

Additional Notes

▪ Penalties for late submission: The following marking penalties will apply if you submit an assessment task after the due date without an approved extension: 5% will be deducted from available marks for each day up to five days, and work that is submitted more than five days after the due date will not be marked. You will receive 0% for the task. ‘Day’ means working day for paper submissions and calendar day for electronic submissions. The Unit Chair may refuse to accept a late submission where it is unreasonable or impracticable to assess the task after the due date.

▪ For more information about academic misconduct, special consideration, extensions, and assessment feedback, please refer to the document Your rights and responsibilities as a student in this Unit in the first folder next to the Unit Guide of the Resources area in the CloudDeakin unit site.

Building evidence of your experiences, skills and knowledge (Portfolio) – Building a portfolio that evidences your skills, knowledge and experience will provide you with a valuable tool to help you prepare for interviews and to showcase to potential employers. There are a number of tools that you can use to build a portfolio. You are provided with cloud space through OneDrive, or through the Portfolio tool in the Cloud Unit Site, but you can use any storage repository system that you like. Remember that a Portfolio is YOUR tool. You should be able to store your assessment work, reflections, achievements and artefacts in YOUR Portfolio. Once you have completed this assessment piece, add it to your personal Portfolio to use and showcase your learning later, when applying for jobs, or further studies. Curate your work by adding meaningful tags to your artefacts that describe what the artefact represents.

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oCompensating wage differentials consist of extra pay that an employer must provide a worker for some undesirable job characteristic that does not exist in alternative employment.

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Chapter 15 Assignment

For this assignment I want you to prepare a proof chart for the Douglass Financial Inc. case. The Douglass Financial Inc. case can be found in Appendix B in your textbook. You are a paralegal for the firm representing the Plaintiff, Jessica Hewitt. The case is set for trial 30 days from now. Your supervising attorney has asked you to prepare a proof chart based on the witnesses and documents/information you have for the case. Use the case information in the Appendix to get an idea of what witnesses, documents, and information you will need to prove your case. I realize, to some degree, you will have to make up some witnesses, documents, and information for your proof chart. That is okay. Pretend as if you have everything you need (or would need) to prove your case and prepare your proof chart accordingly.

An example of a proof chart can be found in your textbook on page 383 (Exhibit 15-1). To complete this assignment, you will first need to do a bit of research to determine what you have to prove at trial. (So, do NOT wait until the last minute to start this assignment.) Do not worry about any affirmative defenses or counterclaims other parties may have against Ms. Hewitt. Your job is to prepare a proof chart for Ms. Hewitt’s case-in-chief–the proof chart is only for proving up her causes of action (and the elements of those causes). Use the Complaint in the case materials in the Appendix to guide you; the Complaint details Ms. Hewitt’s causes of action and the elements for those causes. Only prepare a proof chart for the case against Douglass Financial, Inc. (the sponsor of the event). Do not worry about the other defendants.

Regionalization from a geographic perspective essay help tips

What is meant by the term regionalization? What is the similarity between scientific classification from a biological or scientific perspective and regionalization from a geographic perspective.
What is a functional region or a nodal region?
Who is Donald Meinig? What is his famous cultural study all about? What model does he present to explain the concept of nodal or functional regions? What city does he use to make his case. What are the components of his model? How do the three components differ?
Define the term regionalism.
What is sectionalism?
What is meant by the term Irredentism? Give an example or examples to make your case.
What is the definition of a landscape?
Describe the essential differences between an ordinary landscape and a symbolic landscape. Cite examples to highlight your explanation.
Do you agree that landscapes are excellent ways of picturing or seeing  a nation or sending a message? Explain your answer. Give an example or two.
Why is it that not every reader will take the same message from a particular landscape?
What is meant by the term sense of place? How is this type of sense developed?
How do you give definition to the concept of life world? How would you describe your own life world?
What is meant by the term inter-subjectivity? How is this type of subjectivity developed or formed?
Do you agree with the concept of power of place? Why or why not?
What is meant by the term geographical imagination? Is such an imagination important? Why or why not?
Give your explanation of how South Beach, Miami Beach, Florida is an excellent example of a place that represents the cumulative legacy of successive  periods of change.  Describe these successive periods of change and the cultural, physical, economic and political significance of each. How have various social, economic and political factors given rise to different expressions of urban design in South Beach during the past 100 years?
Discuss how and why South Beach was able to be transformed from a segregated coconut plantation occupied by a predominantly Anglo American community to a predominantly Jewish community to what it is today, i.e., a multiethnic, cosmopolitan mega city that attracts stars and superstars and players and millionaires from all over the world.
It is said that for a while, South Beach acquired the nickname of “God’s Waiting Room.” What is meant by this expression and what was going on in South Beach at that time to give it that name? Who saved South Beach from total deterioration and ruin?
How would you describe the architectural design and urban landscape in South Beach today?
How has the demographic composition of South Beach changed during the past 30 years in terms of race, age, ethnicity, language, income, culture, etc. What has been the influence of the sun, the sea and the warm weather on attitudes and dispositions and lifestyles?


This is an opportunity to improve your average and your status in this class. You should take this assignment seriously and put your best foot forward. I don’t like to recommend number of pages, but use your best judgment  as to how much you need to write. I can say one thing for sure, “one- liners” won’t get it!!


This assignment will count the same as a regular test!! Impress me with your comprehensiveness of the various subjects and you do not have to stick strictly  with the book.

Information for proof chart paper essay help online

Chapter 15 Assignment

For this assignment I want you to prepare a proof chart for the Douglass Financial Inc. case. The Douglass Financial Inc. case can be found in Appendix B in your textbook. You are a paralegal for the firm representing the Plaintiff, Jessica Hewitt. The case is set for trial 30 days from now. Your supervising attorney has asked you to prepare a proof chart based on the witnesses and documents/information you have for the case. Use the case information in the Appendix to get an idea of what witnesses, documents, and information you will need to prove your case. I realize, to some degree, you will have to make up some witnesses, documents, and information for your proof chart. That is okay. Pretend as if you have everything you need (or would need) to prove your case and prepare your proof chart accordingly.

An example of a proof chart can be found in your textbook on page 383 (Exhibit 15-1). To complete this assignment, you will first need to do a bit of research to determine what you have to prove at trial. (So, do NOT wait until the last minute to start this assignment.) Do not worry about any affirmative defenses or counterclaims other parties may have against Ms. Hewitt. Your job is to prepare a proof chart for Ms. Hewitt’s case-in-chief–the proof chart is only for proving up her causes of action (and the elements of those causes). Use the Complaint in the case materials in the Appendix to guide you; the Complaint details Ms. Hewitt’s causes of action and the elements for those causes. Only prepare a proof chart for the case against Douglass Financial, Inc. (the sponsor of the event). Do not worry about the other defendants.

Sexual consent and rape gray area free college essay help: free college essay help

Navigating Consent: Debunking the

“Gray Area” Myth

January 4, 2013 / Sara Alcid (

We have all heard that a so-called “gray area” exists around sexual consent and rape — that sometimes it’s unclear as to whether each party is consensually participating in an act of sex, but that certain actions, clothing, or conversations invite sex and signal consent.

This is just not true.

This “gray area” is the result of a few different working parts and understanding their origin can help us understand how they play out in our everyday lives.

Distancing yourself from their harmful grip is an important part of developing a healthy sexuality for women, men and any other gender-identified people.

Where Does the “Gray Area” Come From?

The topic of consent is typically missing from the sex ed talks we receive at school, home, or a doctor’s office. If we’re lucky, we do learn about STIs, STDs, and contraception from a teacher, family member or doctor.

But the vast majority of us never hear about the issue of consent when we’re being formally introduced to the practice of healthy sex and sexuality.

The most prominent models for learning about consent are movies, television, and porn. Not the greatest source of healthy sexuality education, to put it mildly.

The central tenant of consent that we take away from these inadequate learning experiences is: Guys, no means no! Listen to women.

This is problematic for several reasons. First, it limits consent to a purely heterosexual issue. This excludes same-sex partners and queer people from the cultural and educational conversation about consent. It also ignores the presence of sexual violence in the queer community.

Second, it positions men as the gatekeepers of consent and sets up a power dynamic that undermines consent as an ongoing conversation between two partners.

It’s important to realize that we all come to the negotiation of consent with a lifetime of internalized experiences relating to consent. For example, we learn as girls and teenagers to tolerate boundary violations and micro-aggressions like catcalling, bra-snapping, butt pinching, and other unwanted attention in the name of boys having good old fun.

Furthermore, encouraged styles of communication vary greatly between girls and boys, women and men. Being polite, sweet, and unassuming is the most acceptable style of communication for women and girls to practice, while being loud, forceful and confident is the most glorified type of communication for men and boys to practice. It is no surprise that men are traditionally positioned in a place of power as the gatekeepers of consent.

Another huge factor in the existence and popularity of the “gray area” myth is that it lets rapists off the hook. If a lack of clarity around consent is normalized, rape can be excused as an accident —merely a misunderstanding.

It’s difficult to “unlearn” the things we’ve been taught by society, but removing the “gray area” from sex simultaneously removes a lot of anxiety from the experience, allows you and your partner to be honest and open with each other, and makes sex far more enjoyable ( overall.

Where Do We See the “Gray Area”?

The “gray area” we have come to know as an inevitable part of sex and consent is a product of our culture’s less than healthy or communicative approach to sex.

But the reality is that this murky confusion does not have to and should not exist. A great way to spark a shift in the way we think about sex and consent is to look at the common ways the “gray area” myth plays out.

How the “Gray Area” Myth Wrongly Assumes Consent

Here are some common examples of when consent is inferred or assumed where it does not exist. It’s important to note that while women are disproportionately affected by rape, both men and women perpetuate myths about consent and have sex in the absence of enthusiastic consent.

1. “Did you see how short her dress was? She was asking for sex.”

Sometimes women’s outfits, particularly ones that reveal a lot of skin, are perceived as an invitation for sex or a signal of pre-consent.

The truth is that someone’s choice in dress NEVER ( invites unwanted sexual attention or rape. There is not one single thing that a person can do to “ask” to be raped. It’s a dress, not a yes.

True consent is enthusiastic consent—a deliberate and thoughtful process—not something that can be interpreted.

Think of enthusiastic consent as an active and ongoing process of willingly and freely choosing to participate in any act of sex with someone else.

Each person involved equally participates in the process and feels comfortable to make and communicate any choice or feelings without feeling pressured, manipulated, or afraid.

The “she was asking for it” myth is a spinoff of the gray area myth—it works to place the blame on rape victims instead of rapists and perverts true consent. Don’t be fooled by this myth, ladies and gentlemen.

2.    “She was flirting with me SO much. She was totally asking for sex.”

Flirting and acting romantically interested in someone is commonly interpreted as a desire to have sex. For the same reasons a woman’s outfit is never a signal of consent, flirting is never a signal of consent.

It may mean that she’s interested in you. But whether or not she wants to have sex with you is an entirely different question. It’s possible that she does want to have sex, but you need to check in and ask about it and not jump to any  (    assumptions.

3.                “We’re dating so I can have sex with them whenever I want.”

Many people in relationships assume that their relationship status translates into a permanent state of consenting to sex.

But just because you’re dating someone doesn’t mean you have a free ticket to have sex with them whenever you want.

Consent should be thought of as an ongoing process and conversation—just because you’ve given consent once, are in a relationship with someone, or even married to them does not mean that you are obligated to have sex with your partner.

Jaclyn Friedman, co-editor of Yes Means Yes, explains the active nature of here:

“Sexual consent isn’t like a lightswitch, which can be either “on” or “off.” It’s not like there’s this one thing called “sex” you can consent to anyhow. “Sex” is an evolving series of actions and interactions. You have to have the enthusiastic consent of your partner for all of them. And even if you have your partner’s consent for a particular activity, you have to be prepared for it to change. Consent isn’t a question. It’s a state.”

A partner may give consent without desire because they feel obligated to or because they don’t feel confident enough to speak up. Consent without desire cannot be considered consent if an underlying and unspoken pressure or obligation exists.

At the same time, consent can be given without the person feeling really sexually excited themselves. This may happen, for example, if they are doing it primarily to give pleasure to their partner or to build up the low level of sexual desire. As long as there’s no feeling of pressure and coercion, while it may not be full throttle enthusiastic consent, it can still be given in this situation.

4.   “They kept saying ‘no’ but eventually said ‘yes’.”

Because many people are taught to think about consent in an “all you need is a yes” way, consent can be approached as an end goal—something you can pressure someone to eventually agree to.

The commonality of this sexual experience—being pressured into seemingly “consenting”—is astounding and many people do not realize that this is not consent at all.

Pressure to engage in a sexual act one does not wish to, either aggressive or calm and persistent, crumbles the platform on which true consent can be communicated freely and honestly.

Badgering, guilt-tripping, or pressuring someone until an initial “no” becomes an “okay” or “yes” is not actually a consensual yes.

It is rape.

5.    “They didn’t say ‘no’…”

Silence, “ouch,” or “maybe…” are interpreted by some as expressions of consent because a defined and clear “no” wasn’t uttered.

A lack of “no” is not a “yes.” Assumed or inferred consent is not consent.

An “Okay, I guess” is not a yes. It’s important to not use or base your actions off of vague language when communicating about sex and intimacy.

6.    “We were both wasted, but we both really wanted it.”

Having sex while intoxicated certainly isn’t uncommon and that’s why it’s important to understand that while you’re drunk, it’s difficult to negotiate consent honestly and clearly.

Being drunk, asleep, or under severe duress—like grief and extreme sadness are situations in which full, informed and free consent cannot be fully or truly given.

Alcohol or experiencing strong emotions make communication difficult, both communication with oneself about desire and needs as well as with someone else about consent.

What Now?

To evolve as better partners and accountable individuals, we must begin to recognize instances in which consent is being assumed where it does not exist. We must also talk, listen, and hold ourselves to a high standard of sexual communication—the only way to ensure truly consensual sexual experiences.

In what other instances have you noticed “gray area” being created to infer consent where it does not exist? Please share below in the comments.

Found this article helpful?

Help us keep publishing more like it by becoming a member!


Associated issues in business situations english essay help online

Brief background of the company or business situation of the case.
Products, Customers, Size of the company (small, medium, large), No. of employees, Operational details, Region, Turnover etc

Brief overview of the situation, associated issues / problems.

Purpose / objective of the report

Scope and limitations – what issues are covered, and what issues are not covered and why


Outline of the structure of report – how rest of the report is structured

Innovative Research Design college essay help service: college essay help service

Vaccine manufacturing facilities my essay help uk: my essay help uk

Vaccine manufacturing facilities have had to rapidly ramp up their capabilities to produce RNA vaccines. Credit: Olivier Maire/EPA-EFE/Shutterstock

It was a Friday afternoon in March 2013 when Andy Geall got the call. Three people in China had just become infected with a newstrain of avian influenza. The global head of vaccines research at Novartis, Rino Rappuoli, wanted to know whether Geall and hiscolleagues were ready to put their new vaccine technology to the test.


12 JANUARY 2021

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A year earlier, Geall’s team at Novartis’s US research hub in Cambridge, Massachusetts, had packaged strings of RNA nucleotidesinside of small fat droplets, known as lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), and used them to successfully vaccinate rats against a respiratoryvirus

. Could they now do the same for the novel flu strain? And could they do it as fast as possible?

As Geall, head of the RNA group, recalls: “I said, ‘Yeah, sure. Just send us the sequence.’” By Monday, the team had begunsynthesizing the RNA. By Wednesday, they were assembling the vaccine. By the weekend, they were testing it in cells — a weeklater, in mice


The development happened at a breakneck speed

. The Novartis team had achieved in one month what typically took a year ormore.

But at the time, the ability to manufacture clinical-grade RNA was limited. Geall and hiscolleagues would never find out whether this vaccine, and several others that they developed,would work in people. In 2015, Novartis sold its vaccines business.

Five years and one global pandemic later, RNA vaccines are proving their worth. Last month, twoRNA vaccine candidates — one from US pharmaceutical giant Pfizer and BioNTech in Mainz,Germany, and another from Moderna in Cambridge, Massachusetts — won emergency approvalfrom regulators in several countries to fight COVID-19.

The era of RNA vaccines has arrived — and dozens of companies are getting in the game. “All ofthe major pharmas are, in one way or the other, now testing out the technology,” says JeffreyUlmer, former head of preclinical research and development at GlaxoSmithKline’s vaccinedivision in Rockville, Maryland, and before that a member of Geall’s team at Novartis.

The idea of using RNA in vaccines has been around for nearly three decades. More streamlined than conventional approaches, thegenetic technology allows researchers to fast-track many stages of vaccine research and development. The intense interest nowcould lead to solutions for particularly recalcitrant diseases, such as tuberculosis, HIV and malaria. And the speed at which theycan be made could improve seasonal-flu vaccines.

But future applications of the technology will run up against some challenges. The raw materials are expensive. Side effects can betroubling. And distribution currently requires a costly cold chain — the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, for example, must bestored at −70 °C. The urgency of COVID-19 is likely to speed up progress on some of those problems, but many companies mightabandon the strategy once the current crisis subsides. The question remains: where will it end up?

“The RNA technology has proved itself, but it’s not done yet,” says Philip Dormitzer, head of viral vaccines research at Pfizer, and aformer colleague of Geall’s at Novartis. “And now that we’ve seen it work for COVID-19, it’s tempting to want to do more.”

Small particles, big advance

Vaccines teach the body to recognize and destroy disease-causing agents. Typically, weakened pathogens or fragments of theproteins or sugars on their surfaces, known as antigens, are injected to train the immune system to recognize an invader. But RNAvaccines carry only the directions for producing these invaders’ proteins. The aim is that they can slip into a person’s cells and getthem to produce the antigens, essentially turning the body into its own inoculation factory.

The idea for RNA-based vaccination dates back to the 1990s, when researchers in France (at what is now the drug firm SanofiPasteur) first used RNA encoding an influenza antigen in mice

. It produced a response, but the lipid delivery system that the teamused proved too toxic to use in people. It would take another decade before companies looking at RNA-interference therapeutics




COVID-19 vaccines poised forlaunch, but impact on pandemicunclear



— which rely on RNA’s ability to selectively block the production of specific proteins — discovered the LNP technologies that wouldmake today’s COVID-19 vaccines possible.

Vaccine manufacturing facilities have had to ramp up their capabilities to produce RNA vaccines.

Credit: Robin van Lonkhuijsen/ANP/AFP/Getty

“Finally, there was the breakthrough,” says Nick Jackson, head of programmes and innovative technologies at the Coalition forEpidemic Preparedness Innovations in Oslo, a global partnership to accelerate vaccine development. “That was really thewatershed that allowed the application of messenger RNA to a whole range of different disease indications.”

In 2012, around the time that Geall and his colleagues described

the first LNP-encapsulated RNA vaccine, the US DefenseAdvanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) began funding groups at Novartis, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Sanofi Pasteur and elsewhereto work on RNA-encoded vaccines and therapeutics. None of the big-name firms stuck with the technology, however. “They werereticent about taking on any risk with a new regulatory pathway for vaccines, even though the data looked good,” says DanWattendorf, a former programme manager at DARPA.

But two smaller firms with ties to the DARPA programme continued to work on the technology. One was CureVac in Tübingen,Germany, which began human testing of a rabies vaccine in 2013

. CureVac also has a COVID-19 vaccine in late-stage testing.

The other was Moderna, which built on work funded by DARPA to eventually bring an RNA-based vaccine for a new strain of avianinfluenza into clinical testing in late 2015. It elicited strong enough immune responses

that the company moved ahead withhuman trials of RNA vaccines for cytomegalovirus (a common cause of birth defects), two mosquito-borne viruses (chikungunyaand Zika) and three viral causes of respiratory illness in children.

GlaxoSmithKline, which had acquired most of Novartis’s vaccine assets, also began evaluating an RNA-based rabies vaccine in2019.




That was the full extent of clinical development for RNA vaccines at the beginning of 2020: only adozen candidates had gone into people; four were swiftly abandoned after initial testing; andonly one, for cytomegalovirus, had progressed to a larger, follow-on study.

Then came the coronavirus — and with it, “there’s been this enormous spotlight”, says KristieBloom, a gene-therapy researcher at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, SouthAfrica. In the past ten months alone, at least six RNA-based COVID-19 vaccines have enteredhuman testing. Several more are nearing the clinic.

Need for speed

RNA vaccines seem built for speed. From the genetic sequence of a pathogen, researchers canquickly pull out a potential antigen-encoding segment, insert that sequence in a DNA template and then synthesize thecorresponding RNA before packaging the vaccine for delivery into the body.

Moderna, for example, managed this within 4 days of receiving the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence. It focused on the virus’s spikeprotein, a surface protein used to enter cells. Collaborating with the US National Institutes of Health, the company then ran proof-of-concept experiments in mice before kicking off first-in-human testing in a span of just two months.

Any vaccine, in theory, could be created in the same way. “It truly is a platform in that sense,” says John Shiver, head of vaccineresearch and development at Sanofi Pasteur. With RNA, “you don’t have to recreate the entire process”.

Classical approaches to vaccine creation, by contrast, require bespoke, expensive and time-consuming steps for every candidate.These inefficiencies help to explain why health authorities must choose which strains to put into each year’s seasonal-flu vaccinemonths ahead of flu season. Those choices often miss the mark, and there is no time to go back and test an alternative. As a result,flu vaccines are rarely more than 60% effective.

With RNA, however, vaccine makers could more quickly pivot to an effective selection ofantigens. “You could theoretically move very fast to adjust sequence and address that — almoston the fly,” says Ron Renaud, chief executive of Translate Bio, an RNA-focused company inLexington, Massachusetts, that is working with Sanofi Pasteur on RNA-based vaccines forinfluenza, COVID-19 and several other viral and bacterial pathogens.

Thanks to their plug-and-play functionality, RNA vaccines could aid basic research. JustinRichner, a vaccinologist at the University of Illinois College of Medicine in Chicago, is developinga RNA-based dengue vaccine in his own laboratory. Richner and his colleagues routinely chopand change the gene sequence encoding the envelope protein that the dengue virus uses tolaunch its attack on human cells. By iterating their design, the researchers have tested around 15vaccine candidates in mice.

“It’s really easy to manipulate the coding sequence of the vaccine to try new hypotheses and strategies that may make for bettervaccines,” says Richner.

Other treasures

Advances in the technology are now helping researchers to close in on some of the holy grails of vaccine development — such as auniversal flu shot that would work against any strain of the virus without being redesigned each year. Others are eyeing jabsagainst HIV and other top killers in lower-income countries. Such vaccines have eluded scientists often because of the way that

Could new COVID variantsundermine vaccines? Labsscramble to find out


The lightning-fast quest forCOVID vaccines — and what itmeans for other diseases


pathogens systematically alter their surface proteins to evade immune recognition. Some infectious agents, such as malaria, alsohave elaborate life cycles that further complicate the process of picking antigens.

RNA vaccines could include instructions for multiple antigens, either strung together in a single strand, or with several RNAspackaged together in a single nanoparticle.

Norbert Pardi, a vaccine scientist at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine in Philadelphia, took the latterapproach for his experimental flu vaccine. Made of four RNA strands, each encoding a different influenza protein, the multiplexvaccine successfully protected mice from infection with one particular subtype of influenza virus


Now, Pardi and his collaborators at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City hope to repeat the exercise forthe other 2 main viral subtypes before putting everything together into a 12-strand flu shot that could supplant the need forannual vaccination. “If you hit the virus at multiple points,” Pardi says, “you can induce broadly protective immune responses.”

Stability and safety

Despite its many potential advantages, today’s RNA-vaccine technology leaves room for improvement. “This technology is stillsuper early,” says Robin Shattock, an immunologist at Imperial College London, “and we’re going to see multiple generations anditerations over the coming years, I suspect.”

First, there’s the issue of cold storage. Both the Pfizer–BioNTech and Moderna vaccines require cold temperatures to maintain theintegrity of their RNA.

But at least two companies claim to have COVID-19 RNA vaccines that are stable for months atwarmer temperatures.

CureVac, which uses the same LNPs as Pfizer–BioNTech, folds its RNA into compact 3Dstructures, which allows for storage at refrigerated temperatures for months, says chieftechnology officer Mariola Fotin-Mleczek. And Suzhou Abogen Biosciences, a Chinese companywith an RNA vaccine for COVID-19 now in early human testing, has focused on LNP quality andpurity to create a product that reportedly maintains its potency for up to one week at roomtemperature


There’s another challenge: so far, RNA vaccines tested for human use against disease, COVID-19or otherwise, have generally required a double dose to be effective. And judging by poorcompliance with other multidose vaccines, many people who get the first shot probably won’t get the second.

New delivery systems could fix that. At Vaxess Technologies in Cambridge, Massachusetts, for example, researchers havedeveloped a wearable skin patch studded with tiny silk-tipped, dissolvable microneedles that slowly trickle vaccine into the body.

Administering the vaccine in drips instead of all at once could help to solve a third drawback: side effects. Severe reactions,although transient, do seem to be more common with COVID-19 shots than with other immunizations — more than 80% of peoplewho received the Moderna vaccine in clinical trials had some type of systemic reaction to the shot, with bouts of fatigue, musclepain and other issues that often proved briefly debilitating.

That unpleasantness might be acceptable in the midst of a deadly global pandemic, says vaccinologist Stanley Plotkin, whoconsults for many vaccine manufacturers. But people might baulk at routinely feeling so ill for, say, their annual flu shot. And forany vaccines geared toward infants, “one would certainly want to have something less reactogenic”.


Search for better COVIDvaccines confounded by existingrollouts



Contaminants in vaccine synthesis and the LNP delivery system are thought to be two of the main sources of reactogenicity.Purification systems are only so good, and LNPs can be optimized only so much. For these reasons, vaccine manufacturers oftenadminister lower doses to limit a person’s exposure to both. With a conventional RNA vaccine, lower doses mean lower potency.But companies such as Arcturus Therapeutics in San Diego, California, and VaxEquity in London have devised workarounds bycreating self-amplifying RNA constructs for their COVID-19 vaccines (see ‘How RNAs can work harder’).

In small doses

Unlike the front-runner RNA-based vaccines, which contain little more than the coding sequence for the coronavirus spike proteinflanked by regulatory regions on either end, these self-replicating vaccine candidates also include instructions for the RNA tocopy itself.

The vaccine constructs are a bit clunkier, requiring more sequence optimization and manufacturing finesse. But they allowcompanies to lower the dose. And the replicating RNA more closely mimics a natural viral infection — triggering a stronger,broader immune response, which might allow for single-dose inoculation regimens.

Nik Spencer/


BioNTech has improved on the amplifying technology

. Before COVID-19, the company focused mostly on cancer vaccines. Butwith a proven reputation, expanded production capacity and substantial cash flow expected from sales of the COVID-19 vaccine,“that will allow us to expand on the infectious-disease platform much faster”, says BioNTech co-founder and chief executive UğurŞahin.

Ziphius Vaccines in Oostkamp, Belgium, has similarly tried to capitalize on coronavirus momentum. Founded in May 2019 —initially to develop RNA-based treatments for rare diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis — Ziphiusoverhauled its development plans last year after starting to work on a self-amplifying RNA vaccine for COVID-19. Chief executive


Chris Cardon says the start-up is now trying to raise €30 million (US$37 million) to advance 14 preclinical programmes for avariety of infectious diseases.

RNA vaccines might yet face financial headwinds. Many industry insiders don’t expect the current white-hot interest to last oncethe pandemic subsides.

“It’s pretty hard to talk people into taking bets on this type of technology for vaccines in infectious diseases,” says Nathaniel Wang,chief executive of Replicate Bioscience in San Diego, California, a company he co-founded last year with Geall to develop RNA-based treatments for cancer. And although Replicate has forged some academic and commercial partnerships around RNAvaccines for COVID-19 and Zika, it’s not what most venture-capital firms want to fund, says Wang.

Still, with RNA vaccines making headlines, Geall and many of his former colleagues have been replaying their days at Novartis. Hadthe company not sold off its vaccines unit, could they have helped to stamp out Ebola or Zika outbreaks in the past decade?

“There’s always a little bit of sadness looking back,” says Christian Mandl, former head of research and early clinical developmentat Novartis’s vaccines unit. But he takes solace in the success of the COVID-19 vaccines today. “I am very proud that we made avaluable contribution.”



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Geall, A. J.

et al.

Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA


, 14604–14609 (2012).


Hekele, A.

et al.

Emerg. Microbes Infect.


, e52 (2013).


Ulmer, J. B., Mansoura, M. K. & Geall, A. J.

Expert Opin. Drug Discov.


, 101–106 (2015).








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The habit of communal bathing global history essay help

The habit of communal bathing was deeply engrained in Roman


Private bath complexes in some wealthy houses and villas. These

were designed to accommodate multiple bathers.  Function?

Their owners still often went to the public baths.

Public baths: baths open to the public, whether publicly or

privately owned.

In 4th c CE, the city of Rome had nearly 1000 public baths.
Every town and village throughout the Roman empire had at least

one public bath building.  Hundreds are still preserved.

Nash equilibrium in the terrorism game melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

POLI 172

Homework 4                             April 21, 2021

You can work on this homework with 1-4 other classmates (groups of 2-5 total). However, each person must turn in their own assignment. Assignments must be turned in by 4:30 pm on April, 28th (right before class). Late assignments will receive no credit. You may email me to ask for clarification on any question. Or, you can come to office hours next week on Monday.

You should turn in an electronic copy of your homework by uploading it through the course website. You should show your work and explain your answers. Your answers should be neat, and easy to follow.

Like past homeworks this homework is out of 100 points. However, on this homework, you start with 50 points and the questions themselves are worth 55 points on top of that (meaning there is actually an opportunity to get 105/100 points).

Problem 1: Nash equilibrium in the terrorism game

We’ve talked about versions of the game below in class.


Man       Woman






In most of the games we’ve talked about in class, there are Nash equilibria where each player takes a particular action “with certainty,” meaning they take a definite action; they don’t randomly choose each action a certain percent of the time. For example, in the Split or steal game, there is a Nash equilibrium where both players choose steal.

Explain why, in the game above, there is no Nash equilibrium where both players choose a particular action with certainty. For example, there is no Nash equilibrium where the Government chooses Man with certainty and Terrorists play Woman with certainty. (15


Problem 2: Learning in the terrorism game.

Still considering the game above, let’s say that the government plays a sub-optimal strategy. Instead of choosing Man with probability 1/2 and Woman with probability 1/2, the government chooses Man with probability 9/10 and Woman with probability 1/10. Furthermore, assume that the terrorists do choose Man with probability 1/2 and Woman with Probability 1/2.

Should the terrorists change their strategy in light of the government’s? (10 points)


POLI 172

Homework 4                             April 21, 2021

Yes, the terrorists would do better if they played Woman more often than 1/2 the time.
Yes, the terrorists would do better if they played Woman less often than 1/2 the time.
No, the terrorists cannot improve their payoff by playing Woman more or less often than 1/2 the time.

Problem 3: Signaling theory

Let’s say that you’re considering hanging out with a friend. Your friend just got vaccinated yesterday against Covid-19. So, they haven’t built up any immunity to the virus just yet. Nonetheless, you might still be willing to hang out with this person compared to a person who hadn’t been vaccinated and didn’t know whether or when they intended to get vaccinated. Why or why not?

In writing your answer, think of getting vaccinated as a potential signal of how generally cautious people are about Covid-19. In signaling theory, there have to be

Different types of people
Different types have to have (or perceive) different costs or benefits to sending the signal, such that some types are willing to send the signal while others are not.

Do you think these requirements apply to the act of getting vaccinated for Covid-19, why or why not? (15 points)

Problem 4: Strategic complements vs substitutes

For one of our game labs, we played a traffic game where players could either take Bellevue or Lake Rd to UCM. Bellevue was quicker all else equal, but both roads became slower as more people used them. In this game, were the strategies (Bellevue or Lake) strategic complements or substitutes? Why? (15 points)


RNA vaccines an introduction essay help online


RNA vaccines: an introduction

October 2018

Laura Blackburn

Vaccination is one of the major success stories of modern medicine,

greatly reducing the incidence of infectious diseases such as measles,

and eradicating others, such as smallpox. Conventional vaccine

approaches have not been as effective against rapidly evolving

pathogens like influenza or emerging disease threats such as the

Ebola or Zika viruses. RNA based vaccines could have an impact in

these areas due to their shorter manufacturing times and greater

effectiveness. Beyond infectious diseases RNA vaccines have potential

as novel therapeutic options for major diseases such as cancer.


• Unlike a normal vaccine, RNA vaccines work by introducing an mRNA sequence (the molecule which tells

cells what to build) which is coded for a disease specific antigen, once produced within the body, the

antigen is recognised by the immune system, preparing it to fight the real thing

• RNA vaccines are faster and cheaper to produce than traditional vaccines, and a RNA based vaccine is also

safer for the patient, as they are not produced using infectious elements

• Production of RNA vaccines is laboratory based, and the process could be standardised and scaled,

allowing quick responses to large outbreaks and epidemics

• Most current research is into RNA vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer, for which there are several

early-stage clinical trials, there is also some early research into the potential of RNA vaccines for allergies

• There is still a lot of work to be done before mRNA vaccines can become standard treatments, in the

meantime, we need a better understanding of their potential side effects, and more evidence of their

long term efficacy


What are RNA vaccines and how do they work?

Conventional vaccines usually contain inactivated disease-causing organisms or proteins made by the

pathogen (antigens), which work by mimicking the infectious agent. They stimulate the body’s immune

response, so it is primed to respond more rapidly and effectively if exposed to the infectious agent in the


RNA vaccines use a different approach that takes advantage of the process that cells use to make proteins:

cells use DNA as the template to make messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which are then translated to build

proteins. An RNA vaccine consists of an mRNA strand that codes for a disease-specific antigen. Once the

mRNA strand in the vaccine is inside the body’s cells, the cells use the genetic information to produce the

antigen. This antigen is then displayed on the cell surface, where it is recognised by the immune system.

How are RNA vaccines produced and administered?

A major advantage of RNA vaccines is that RNA can be produced in the laboratory from a DNA template

using readily available materials, less expensively and faster than conventional vaccine production, which

can require the use of chicken eggs or other mammalian cells.

RNA vaccines can be delivered using a number of methods: via needle-syringe injections or needle-free into

the skin; via injection into the blood, muscle, lymph node or directly into organs; or via a nasal spray. The

optimal route for vaccine delivery is not yet known. The exact manufacturing and delivery process of RNA

vaccines can vary depending on the type.

Types of RNA vaccine

1. Non-replicating mRNA

The simplest type of RNA vaccine, an mRNA strand is packaged and delivered to the body,

where it is taken up by the body’s cells to make the antigen.

2. In vivo self-replicating mRNA

The pathogen-mRNA strand is packaged with additional RNA strands that ensure it will be

copied once the vaccine is inside a cell. This means that greater quantities of the antigen are

made from a smaller amount of vaccine, helping to ensure a more robust immune response.

3. In vitro dendritic cell non-replicating mRNA vaccine

Dendritic cells are immune cells that can present antigens on their cell surface to other types of

immune cells to help stimulate an immune response. These cells are extracted from the patient’s blood,

transfected with the RNA vaccine, then given back to the patient to stimulate an immune reaction.


Benefits of mRNA vaccines over conventional approaches are1:

Safety: RNA vaccines are not made with pathogen particles or inactivated pathogen, so are non-infectious.

RNA does not integrate itself into the host genome and the RNA strand in the vaccine is degraded once the

protein is made.

Efficacy: early clinical trial results indicate that these vaccines generate a reliable immune response and are

well-tolerated by healthy individuals, with few side effects.

Production: vaccines can be produced more rapidly in the laboratory in a process that can be standardised,

which improves responsiveness to emerging outbreaks.


Important challenges

The methods to make mRNA vaccines can be very effective. However, there are technical challenges to

overcome to ensure these vaccines work appropriately:

Unintended effects: the mRNA strand in the vaccine may elicit an unintended immune reaction. To minimise

this the mRNA vaccine sequences are designed to mimic those produced by mammalian cells.

Delivery: delivering the vaccine effectively to cells is challenging since free RNA in the body is quickly

broken down. To help achieve delivery, the RNA strand is incorporated into a larger molecule to help stabilise

it and/or packaged into particles or liposomes.

Storage: many RNA vaccines, like conventional vaccines, need to be frozen or refrigerated. Work is ongoing

to reliably produce vaccines that can be stored outside the cold chain, since these will be much more

suitable for use in countries with limited or no refrigeration facilities.

How could RNA vaccines be used for human health?

The most active areas of research into RNA vaccines are infectious diseases and cancer where there is

research ongoing as well as early-stage clinical trials. Work into the use of RNA vaccines to treat allergy is still

at the early research stage2.

Infectious diseases

Researchers using conventional approaches have

struggled to develop effective vaccines against

a number of pathogens, particularly viruses, that

cause both acute (Influenza, Ebola, Zika) and

chronic (HIV-1, herpes simplex virus) infection.

RNA vaccines are being explored as a way to more

rapidly and cheaply produce vaccines for these

diseases, particularly in response to emerging

outbreaks. Clinical trials have been carried out

or are ongoing on mRNA vaccines for influenza,

cytomegalovirus, HIV-1, rabies and Zika virus.

Cancer vaccines

Cancer vaccines are a form of immunotherapy,

where the vaccine triggers the immune system

into targeting the cancer. Both dendritic cell

vaccines and personalised cancer vaccines,

where the RNA sequence in the vaccine is

designed to code for cancer-specific antigens,

are being explored. Over 50 clinical trials are

listed on for RNA vaccines in

a number of cancers, including blood cancers,

melanoma, glioblastoma (brain cancer) and

prostate cancer.

Case study: A recent study3 explored the

use of programmable self-replicating RNA

vaccines, delivered in a nanoparticle, for

a range of infectious diseases including

Ebola virus, H1N1 Influenza and Toxoplasma

gondii, which were effective in mice.

These vaccines can be manufactured

in approximately one week and made

against a range of diseases, demonstrating

potential terms of swift response to disease


Case study: Researchers sequenced the

genomes of tumours from patients with

melanoma. They made RNAs coding for

mutant proteins, specific to the patients’

cancers, that could generate an immune

response and made these into patientspecific

vaccines. Eight out of thirteen

people vaccinated stayed tumour free up

to two years later4.



PHG Foundation is a health policy think tank with a special focus on how

genomics and other emerging health technologies can provide more

effective, personalised healthcare

RNA vaccines – who’s involved?

There are a number of companies and initiatives with an interest in RNA vaccines including the Merit

Consortium, which is a European initiative to develop cancer vaccines, while UniVax is a research

collaboration to develop a universal influenza vaccine. Companies such as Moderna Therapeutics,

CureVac and BioNTech, are involved in phase I trials of RNA vaccines in cancer and infectious

disease. These companies are also exploring the broader use of RNA therapeutics for diseases where

important proteins are missing or defective and mRNA treatments could be used to express a

functional copy of the protein.

Harnessing RNA vaccines for health – what are the challenges and key


• Research and clinical trials: further research is needed to address technical hurdles such as

vaccine stability and delivery. It is not yet certain which production method(s) are currently

the best. Clinical trial data is limited – more long-term studies are needed to determine the

effectiveness of RNA vaccines.

• Production: vaccine production is currently small scale and it is not clear if current methods

are capable of epidemic-level vaccine production.

• Resources: the personalised approach for cancer vaccines is time and resource intensive and

work is needed to determine if this approach is cost-effective.

• Safety: better understanding of vaccine adverse effects is needed – these can include

inflammation or autoimmune reactions.


1. Pardi N, Hogan MJ, Porter FW, et al. mRNA vaccines – a new era in vaccinology. Nat Rev Drug Discov.

2018; 17(4): 261-279.

2. Weiss R, Scheiblhofer S, Thalhamer, J. Generation and Evaluation of Prophylactic mRNA Vaccines Against Allergy. Methods

Mol Biol. 2017; 1499: 123-139.

3. Chahal JS, Kahn OF, Cooper CL, et al. Dendrimer-RNA nanoparticles generate protective immunity against lethal Ebola,

H1N1 influenza, and Toxoplasma gondii challenges with a single dose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2016; 113(29): E4133-42.

4. Sahin U, Derhovanessian E, Miller M, et al. Personalized RNA mutanome vaccines mobilize poly-specific therapeutic

immunity against cancer. Nature. 2017; 547(7662): 222-226.

Educational experience between children summary and response essay help

—Educational experience: children who do poorly in school, lack motivation, and feel alienated are the most likely to engage in deviant and criminal acts. When children feel unsafe and bullied in school they are more likely to be involved in aggressive behaviours. Children who don’t like school, whose school progress is poor, who think grades are unimportant, who have lower educational aspirations, and who skip classes are more likely to be involved in property offences.

—Doing well in school and developing feelings of attachment to teachers have been linked to resistance to crime: children who score higher on reading achievement tests are less likely to be involved in delinquent acts.

—Schools can help contribute to criminality: when teachers label problem youths. A streaming system (i.e. academic and applied) that identifies some students as university-bound and others as academic underachievers acts to stigmatize youths.

Educational systems: often underfunded and understaffed.

Jonathan Corum and Carl Zimmer college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

How the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines Work


Jonathan Corum and Carl Zimmer


Dec. 23, 2020


The New York Times


The New York Times Company

Document Type:



572 words

Lexile Measure:


Full Text:

The Food and Drug Administration has now authorized two vaccines for Covid-19, one made by Pfizer and BioNTech and the other byModerna. The two vaccines have efficacy rates of 94 percent or more, and use the same strategy to train our immune systems to fightthe coronavirus.

A Piece of the Coronavirus

The coronavirus is studded with proteins that it uses to enter human cells. These so-called spike proteins make a tempting target forpoten- tial vaccines and treatments, and the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are based on the virus’s genetic instructions forbuilding the spike protein.

Messenger RNA Inside an Oily Shell

The two vaccines use messenger RNA, genetic material that our cells read to make proteins. The molecule — called mRNA for short — isfragile and would be chopped to pieces by our natural enzymes if it were injected directly into the body. To protect the mRNA, thevaccines wrap it in oily bubbles made of lipid nanoparticles.

Lipid nanoparticles surrounding mRNA

Because of their fragility, the mRNA molecules would quickly fall apart at room temperature. Pfizer is building special containers with dryice, thermal sensors and GPS trackers to ensure the vaccines can be transported at minus 94 degrees to stay viable. Moderna’s vaccinewill need to be refrigerated, and should be stable for up to six months when shipped and stored at minus 4 degrees.

Entering a Cell

After injection, the vaccine particles bump into cells and fuse to them, releasing mRNA into the cell. The cell’s molecules read itssequence and build spike proteins. The mRNA from the vaccine is eventually destroyed by the cell, leaving no permanent trace.

Spotting the Intruder

When a vaccinated cell dies, the debris contains many spike proteins and protein fragments, which can be taken up by a type of immunecell called an antigen-presenting cell.

The cell presents fragments of the spike protein on its surface. When other cells called helper T-cells detect these fragments, the helperT-cells can raise the alarm and help marshal other immune cells to fight the infection.

Making Antibodies

Other immune cells called B-cells may bump into the spikes on the surface of vaccinated cells, or free-floating spike protein fragments. Afew of the B-cells may be able to lock onto the spike proteins. If these

B-cells are then activated by helper T-cells, they will start to proliferate and pour out antibodies that target the spike protein.

Stopping the Virus

The antibodies can latch onto coronavirus spikes, mark the virus for destruction and prevent infection by blocking the spikes from attach-ing to other cells.

Killing Infected Cells

The antigen-presenting cells can also activate another type of immune cell called a killer T-cell to seek out and destroy any corona- virus-infected cells that display the spike protein fragments on their surfaces.

Remembering the Virus

Protruding spikes

Displaying spike protein fragments

Matching surface proteins

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine requires two injections, given 21 days apart, to prime the immune system well enough to fight off thecoronavirus. Moderna’s vaccine also requires two injections, spaced 28 days apart. But because the vaccines are so new, researchersdon’t know how long their protection might last.

It’s possible that in the months after vaccination, the number of antibodies and killer T-cells will drop. But the immune system alsocontains special cells called memory B-cells and memory T-cells that might retain information about the coronavirus for years or evendecades.


COPYRIGHT 2020 The New York Times Company

Source Citation

(MLA 8th Edition)

Corum, Jonathan, and Carl Zimmer. “How the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines Work.”

New York Times

, 23 Dec. 2020, p. D8(L).

Gale Academic OneFile

, Accessed 27Jan. 2021.

Gale Document Number:


Jenna Johnson and Abigail Hauslohner college admission essay help


“‘I think Islam hates us’: A timeline of Trump’s comments about Islam and Muslims”

By Jenna Johnson and Abigail Hauslohner

May 20, 2017

President Trump is in Saudi Arabia this weekend to meet with Arab leaders, visit the birthplace of Islam and give a speech about religious tolerance with the hope of resetting his reputation with the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims. But it’s unclear if a two-day visit is enough to overshadow his past statements about Islam and its faithful, with his rhetoric becoming more virulent as he campaigned for president.

Here’s a look back at some of the comments that he has made:

March 30, 2011: For years, Trump publicly questioned then-President Barack Obama’s religious beliefs and place of birth. As he debated running for president in the 2012 election, Trump said in a radio interview: “He doesn’t have a birth certificate, or if he does, there’s something on that certificate that is very bad for him. Now, somebody told me — and I have no idea if this is bad for him or not, but perhaps it would be — that where it says ‘religion,’ it might have ‘Muslim.’ And if you’re a Muslim, you don’t change your religion, by the way.” (Obama is a Christian, and state records show he was born in Hawaii.)

Sept. 17, 2015: At a campaign town hall in New Hampshire, a man in the audience shouted out: “We have a problem in this country; it’s called Muslims. We know our current president is one.” The man mentioned Muslim “training camps” and asked: “When can we get rid of them?” Trump responded: “We’re going to be looking at a lot of different things. You know, a lot of people are saying that, and a lot of people are saying that bad things are happening out there. We’re going to be looking at that and plenty of other things.”

Sept. 20, 2015: On NBC News, Trump was asked if he would be comfortable with a Muslim as president; he responded: “I can say that, you know, it’s something that at some point could happen. We will see. I mean, you know, it’s something that could happen. Would I be comfortable? I don’t know if we have to address it right now, but I think it is certainly something that could happen.”

Sept. 30, 2015: At a New Hampshire rally, Trump pledged to kick all Syrian refugees — most of whom are Muslim — out of the country, as they might be a secret army. “They could be ISIS, I don’t know. This could be one of the great tactical ploys of all time. A 200,000-man army, maybe,” he said. In an interview that aired later, Trump said: “This could make the Trojan horse look like peanuts.”

Oct. 21, 2015: On Fox Business, Trump says he would “certainly look at” the idea of closing mosques in the United States.

Nov. 16, 2015: Following a series of terrorist attacks in Paris, Trump said on MSNBC that he would “strongly consider” closing mosques. “I would hate to do it, but it’s something that you’re going to have to strongly consider because some of the ideas and some of the hatred — the absolute hatred — is coming from these areas,” he said.


Nov. 20, 2015: In comments to Yahoo and NBC News, Trump seemed open to the idea of creating a database of all Muslims in the United States. Later, he and his aides would not rule out the idea.

Nov. 21, 2015: At a rally in Alabama, Trump said that on Sept. 11 he “watched when the World Trade Center came tumbling down. And I watched in Jersey City, N.J., where thousands and thousands of people were cheering as that building was coming down.”

Nov. 22, 2015: On ABC News, Trump doubled down on his comment and added: “It was well covered at the time. There were people over in New Jersey that were watching it, a heavy Arab population, that were cheering as the buildings came down. Not good.” (While there were some reports of celebrations overseas, extensive examination of news clips turn up no such celebrations in New Jersey.)

Nov. 30, 2015: On MSNBC, a reporter asked Trump if he thinks Islam is an inherently peaceful religion that’s been perverted by a small percentage of followers or if it is an inherently violent religion. Trump responded: “Well, all I can say … there’s something going on. You know, there’s something definitely going on. I don’t know that that question can be answered.” He also said: “We are not loved by many Muslims.”

Dec. 3, 2015: The morning after Syed Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik killed 14 people in San Bernardino, Calif., Trump called into Fox News and said: “The other thing with the terrorists is you have to take out their families, when you get these terrorists, you have to take out their families.” (Killing the relatives of suspected terrorists is forbidden by international law.) Later, in a speech to the Republican Jewish Coalition, Trump criticized Obama for not using the phrase “radical Islamic terrorism” and commented: “There’s something going on with him that we don’t know about.”

Dec. 6, 2015: On CBS News, Trump said: “If you have people coming out of mosques with hatred and death in their eyes and on their minds, we’re going to have to do something.” Trump also said he didn’t believe the sister of one of the San Bernardino shooters who said she was crestfallen for the victims, saying: “I would go after a lot of people, and I would find out whether or not they knew. I would be able to find out, because I don’t believe the sister.”

Dec. 7, 2015: Trump’s campaign issued a statement saying: “Donald J. Trump is calling for a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country’s representatives can figure out what is going on.” Trump read this statement aloud at a rally in South Carolina.

Dec. 8, 2015: On CNN, Trump quoted a widely debunked poll by an anti-Islam activist organization that claimed that a quarter of the Muslims living in the United States agreed that violence against Americans is justified as part of the global jihad. “We have people out there that want to do great destruction to our country, whether it’s 25 percent or 10 percent or 5 percent, it’s too much,” Trump said.


Dec. 13, 2015: On Fox News, Trump was asked if his ban would apply to a Canadian businessman who is a Muslim. Trump responded: “There’s a sickness. They’re sick people. There’s a sickness going on. There’s a group of people that is very sick.”

Jan. 12, 2016: At a rally in Iowa, Trump shared his suspicions about Syrian refugees and then read the lyrics to Al Wilson’s 1968 song “The Snake,” the story of a “tender woman” who nursed a sickly snake back to health but then was attacked by the snake. Trump often read these lyrics at rallies.

Feb. 3, 2016: Trump criticized Obama for visiting a mosque in Baltimore and said on Fox News: “Maybe he feels comfortable there … There are a lot of places he can go, and he chose a mosque.” (It was Obama’s first visit to a mosque during his presidency, and it was made in an effort to encourage religious tolerance in light of growing anti-Muslim sentiment.)

Feb. 20, 2016: After Obama skipped the funeral of Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, Trump tweeted: “I wonder if President Obama would have attended the funeral of Justice Scalia if it were held in a Mosque? Very sad that he did not go!” (Obama did pay his respects when Scalia’s body lay in repose in the Supreme Court.) That night at a rally in South Carolina, Trump told an apocryphal tale that he would return to repeatedly about U.S. Gen. John J. Pershing fighting Muslim insurgents in the Philippines in the early 1900s and killing a large group of insurgents with bullets dipped in pigs’ blood.

March 9, 2016: On CNN, Trump said: “I think Islam hates us. There’s something there that — there’s a tremendous hatred there. There’s a tremendous hatred. We have to get to the bottom of it. There’s an unbelievable hatred of us.”

March 22, 2016: Soon after three suicide bombings in Brussels tied to a group of French and Belgian Muslims, Trump told Fox Business: “We’re having problems with the Muslims, and we’re having problems with Muslims coming into the country.” Trump called for surveillance of mosques in the United States, saying: “You have to deal with the mosques, whether we like it or not, I mean, you know, these attacks aren’t coming out of — they’re not done by Swedish people.”

On NBC News, Trump added: “This all happened because, frankly, there’s no assimilation. They are not assimilating . . . They want to go by sharia law. They want sharia law. They don’t want the laws that we have. They want sharia law.”

March 23, 2016: In an interview with Bloomberg TV, Trump said that Muslims “have to respect us. They do not respect us at all. And frankly, they don’t respect a lot of the things that are happening throughout not only our country, but they don’t respect other things.”

March 29, 2016: During a town hall in Wisconsin, CNN’s Anderson Cooper asked Trump: “Do you trust Muslims in America?” Trump responded: “Do I what?” Cooper again asked: “Trust Muslims in America?” Trump responded: “Many of them I do. Many of them I do, and some, I guess, we don’t. Some, I guess, we don’t. We have a problem, and we can try and be very politically correct and pretend we don’t have a problem, but, Anderson, we have a major, major problem. This is, in a sense, this is a war.”


May 20, 2016: On Fox News, Trump said this of Muslims: “They’re going to have to turn in the people that are bombing the planes. And they know who the people are. And we’re not going to find the people by just continuing to be so nice and so soft.”

June 13, 2016: The day after the mass shooting at a gay nightclub in Orlando, Trump declared in a speech in New Hampshire that “radical Islam is anti-woman, anti-gay and anti-American.” He criticized his Democratic rival, Hillary Clinton, for refusing to use the term “radical Islam” and for speaking positively of Islam. “Hillary Clinton’s catastrophic immigration plan will bring vastly more radical Islamic immigration into this country, threatening not only our society but our entire way of life. When it comes to radical Islamic terrorism, ignorance is not bliss. It’s deadly — totally deadly,” Trump said. Later he added: “I want every American to succeed, including Muslims — but the Muslims have to work with us. They have to work with us. They know what’s going on.”

June 14, 2016: At a rally in North Carolina, Trump noted that the Orlando shooter’s parents are Muslim Americans who immigrated from Afghanistan. “The children of Muslim American parents, they’re responsible for a growing number for whatever reason a growing number of terrorist attacks,” he said, adding that immigration from Afghanistan has increased five-fold. “… Every year we bring in more than 100,000 lifetime immigrants from the Middle East and many more from Muslim countries outside of the Middle East. A number of these immigrants have hostile attitudes.”

June 15, 2016: On Fox News, Trump said this of Muslims who immigrate to the United States: “Assimilation has been very hard. It’s almost — I won’t say nonexistent, but it gets to be pretty close. And I’m talking about second and third generation. They come — they don’t — for some reason, there’s no real assimilation.”

July 21, 2016: In accepting the Republican Party’s presidential nomination, Trump focused heavily on “brutal Islamic terrorism” and promised: “I will do everything in my power to protect our LGBTQ citizens from the violence and oppression of a hateful foreign ideology.”

July 24, 2016: On NBC News, Trump defended his proposal for a Muslim ban, despite some of his aides insisting he had rolled it back. “People were so upset when I used the word Muslim. ‘Oh, you can’t use the word Muslim,’ ” Trump said. “… But just remember this: Our Constitution is great, but it doesn’t necessarily give us the right to commit suicide, okay? Now, we have a religious — you know, everybody wants to be protected. And that’s great. And that’s the wonderful part of our Constitution. I view it differently. Why are we committing suicide? Why are we doing that?”

Aug. 11, 2016: At a meeting of evangelical leaders in Orlando, Trump said: “If you were a Christian in Syria, it was virtually impossible to come into the United States. If you were a Muslim from Syria, it was one of the easier countries to be able to find your way into the United States. Think of that. Just think of what that means.”


Aug. 18, 2016: During a rally in North Carolina, Trump said that “all applicants for immigration will be vetted for ties to radical ideology, and we will screen out anyone who doesn’t share our values and love our people.”

Sept. 19, 2016: At a rally in Florida, Trump reacted to explosions over the weekend in New York and New Jersey and said: “There have been Islamic terrorist attacks in Minnesota and New York City and in New Jersey. These attacks and many others were made possible because of our extremely open immigration system, which fails to properly vet and screen the individuals and families coming into our country. Got to be careful.”

Jan. 27, 2017: Within a week of becoming president, Trump signed an executive order blocking Syrian refugees and banning citizens of seven predominantly Muslim countries from entering the United States for 90 days. This order goes into effect immediately, prompting mass chaos at airports, protests and legal challenges. Rudolph W. Giuliani, a close adviser to the president, later said on Fox News: “So when [Trump] first announced it, he said, ‘Muslim ban.’ He called me up. He said, ‘Put a commission together. Show me the right way to do it legally.’”

Feb. 28, 2017: Despite urging from some of his Cabinet members, Trump continues to use the term “radical Islamic terrorism,” including in a speech to a joint session of Congress.

March 6, 2017: Trump issues a new travel ban for citizens from six majority-Muslim countries, which is also challenged in the courts.

April 29, 2017: At a rally celebrating his 100th day in office, Trump once again dramatically read “The Snake.”

May 17, 2017: At a commencement ceremony, Trump previewed his upcoming overseas trip and said: “I’ll speak with Muslim leaders and challenge them to fight hatred and extremism and embrace a peaceful future for their faith. And they’re looking very much forward to hearing what we, as your representative, we have to say. We have to stop radical Islamic terrorism.”



“Amid protests and confusion, Trump defends executive order: ‘This is not a Muslim ban’”

By Brady Dennis and Jerry Markon Washington Post, January 29, 2017

President Trump’s executive order temporarily prohibiting entry into the United States for migrants from seven mostly Muslim countries and refugees from around the world fueled confusion, angst and a wave of protests across the country Sunday.

Even as administration officials tried to clarify the reach of Trump’s action — “This is not a Muslim ban,” the president said in a statement — the exact limits of its scope and legal questions over its constitutionality remained unresolved. So did the question of whether the administration would comply with orders from federal judges to temporarily halt the travel ban.

Raucous protests erupted in airport terminals from coast to coast. Tens of thousands of people protested outside the gates of the White House, in Boston’s Copley Square and in New York’s Battery Park, with its views over the Statue of Liberty.

Scenes of relief, anxiety and sorrow played out around the globe.

At Dallas Fort Worth International Airport, a 70-year-old Iranian woman who recently received her green card was released after being detained overnight. In New York City, a graduate student contemplated whether he would quit his doctoral program to rejoin his wife in Iran after she was blocked from returning to the United States.

And in Iraq, a man who had risked his life working on behalf of the U.S. government bleakly wondered about his future and that of his wife and three children. Visas in hand, the family was due to fly Monday to the United States. “It’s like someone’s stabbed me in the heart with a dagger,” he said.

Trump issued a statement late Sunday afternoon that offered little clarity, even as he defended his executive order as necessary to protect the United States from terrorism.

“To be clear, this is not a Muslim ban, as the media is falsely reporting,” Trump said in the statement. “This is not about religion — this is about terror and keeping our country safe. There are over 40 different countries worldwide that are majority Muslim that are not affected by this order.”

The president reiterated that the country would resume issuing visas to all countries “once we are sure we have reviewed and implemented the most secure policies over the next 90 days.”

Still, barely 48 hours after Trump issued his order, confusion reigned over its reach and its implementation. Even as the president and other top advisers defended the ban, some Trump officials appeared on Sunday to walk back one of the most controversial elements of the action: its impact on green-card holders, who are permanent legal residents of the United States.


“As far as green-card holders going forward, it doesn’t affect them,” Trump’s chief of staff, Reince Priebus, said on NBC News’ “Meet the Press,” contradicting what government officials had said only a day earlier.

Entry to the United States is being refused to legal residents, including green-card holders, from seven mostly Muslim countries who were abroad when the executive order was signed Friday by the president, and some travelers were detained at U.S. airports.

In a separate statement, Homeland Security Secretary John F. Kelly was less definitive, suggesting that green-card holders’ status would help them gain entry to the country but that they nonetheless would be subject to a “case-by-case” review.

Meanwhile, Kelly’s department indicated separately Sunday that it would continue to implement Trump’s directive, even as it said it “will comply with judicial orders” issued by federal judges over the weekend, blocking enforcement of the ban to varying degrees.

“Prohibited travel will remain prohibited, and the U.S. government retains its right to revoke visas at any time if required for national security or public safety,” the agency said in a statement. “No foreign national in a foreign land, without ties to the United States, has any unfettered right to demand entry into the United States or to demand immigration benefits in the United States.”

Trump’s virtually unprecedented executive action applies to migrants and U.S. legal residents from Iraq, Iran, Sudan, Somalia, Syria, Libya and Yemen, and to refugees from around the world. People subject to the ban include dual nationals born in one of the seven countries who also hold passports from U.S. allies such as the United Kingdom.

As the legal questions surrounding the order remained unanswered Sunday, the uncertainty and resentment unleashed by the executive order he signed two days earlier showed few signs of waning.

At Dulles International Airport, lawyers seeking to represent people who had been detained failed to get information from Customs and Border Protection officials despite repeated attempts.

Even three Democratic members of Congress — Reps. Gerald E. Connolly and Don Beyer of Virginia and Jamie Raskin of Maryland — ran into similar roadblocks. Connolly pressed an airport police officer to get a Customs and Border Protection official to meet with the lawmakers to tell them how many people were detained and to see whether they had been able to communicate with their attorneys.

“Are people being detained?” Connolly asked the officer. “How can you enforce the law if you’re not enforcing a judge’s order?”

Connolly soon was on the phone with a CBP congressional affairs official. He and the other members pressed for information on possible detainees, including those traveling on a flight from Turkey. No one on site from the agency would meet with them.


“That is unacceptable. It is our understanding you are detaining people,” Connolly said. “Our understanding is you have not followed that [court] order.”

The president’s far-reaching action triggered a wave of criticism from Democrats on Capitol Hill, who plan to assemble Monday on the steps of the Supreme Court in a show of solidarity with legal attempts to block Trump’s travel ban. In addition, at least one House member said he plans to introduce legislation to overturn Trump’s action by forcing him to comply with the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act, which banned discrimination against immigrants on the basis of national origin.

Trump also encountered growing opposition Sunday from lawmakers in his own party.

“You have an extreme vetting proposal that didn’t get the vetting it should have,” Sen. Rob Portman (R-Ohio) said Sunday on CNN’s “State of the Union,” even as he stopped short of opposing the order outright.

Sens. John McCain (R-Ariz.) and Lindsey O. Graham (R-S.C.) also spoke out against the action, saying in a joint statement that the government has a responsibility to defend its borders but must uphold “all that is decent and exceptional about our nation.”

“It is clear from the confusion at our airports across the nation that President Trump’s executive order was not properly vetted,” they said, adding, “Such a hasty process risks harmful results.”

In a tweet Sunday afternoon, Trump was quick to criticize McCain and Graham as “sadly weak on immigration.” And Republican leaders in Congress on Sunday did not join the opposition to Trump’s order.

“I don’t want to criticize them for improving vetting,” Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said on ABC’s “This Week.” He cautioned that the United States doesn’t have a religious test for entry into the country, and he stopped short of saying that Trump’s action amounted to a Muslim ban.

“I think we need to be careful,” McConnell said. “We don’t have religious tests in this country.”

The Department of Homeland Security noted that “less than one percent” of international air travelers arriving Saturday in the United States were “inconvenienced” by the executive order — though the situation described by lawyers and immigrant advocates across the country was one of widespread uncertainty and disorder at airports where travelers from the targeted countries were suddenly detained.

Federal judges began stepping in late Saturday as requests for stays of Trump’s action flooded courtrooms.

A federal judge in New York temporarily blocked deportations nationwide. Her ruling was followed by similar decisions by federal judges in California, Virginia, Seattle and Boston.


Trump, who centered his campaign in part on his vow to crack down on illegal immigration and to impose what became known as his “Muslim ban,’’ remained unbowed Sunday. As White House officials insisted that the measure strengthens national security, the president stood squarely behind it.

Just after 8 a.m. Sunday, Trump tweeted: “Our country needs strong borders and extreme vetting, NOW. Look what is happening all over Europe and, indeed, the world — a horrible mess!”

Later in the morning, Trump tweeted, “Christians in the Middle-East have been executed in large numbers. We cannot allow this horror to continue!”

Many Americans agreed with Trump. “He doesn’t hate Muslims,” said Kelley Anne Finn of Manassas, Va., who was interviewed at Dulles airport Sunday. “He doesn’t hate anybody. He’s trying to protect us.”

Administration officials said Sunday that they think it is possible for the White House to both comply with a judge’s order and continue enforcing Trump’s executive action. Their thinking is that the court order affects only people now in the United States, and that since the State Department is proactively canceling visas of people from seven predominantly Muslim countries, other travelers who would be affected by the court order are not expected to be able to travel to the United States in the first place.

The officials pointed out that while the order affects deportations, the travelers stranded at U.S. airports are not legally considered to be deported if they go back to their home countries, because they were never technically admitted to the United States.

That interpretation of the law will almost certainly lead to more court battles in coming days and could keep overseas travelers detained at airports in a state of legal limbo. As Sunday wore on, it became clear that the answers to those questions would have to wait until another day.

The protesters outside the White House pushed on, wielding poster boards with messages such as “Islamophobia is un-American” and “Dissent is patriotic,” chanting “No justice! No peace!” and singing renditions of “This Land is Your Land.”

And in airports from Baltimore to Bangor, from Dallas to Denver, shouts of “Let them go!” and “Let them in!” reverberated Sunday. In many cities, demonstrators invoked the same chant: “No hate, no fear. Refugees are welcome here.”



“How Trump’s travel ban broke from the normal executive order process”

Washington Post, By Kim Soffen and Darla Cameron Feb. 9, 2017

Here’s how the process normally works and where Trump deviated, sending the nation’s airports into chaos.

In the process of formulating an executive order, the president’s staff typically reach out to their party’s congressional leaders for feedback. In the case of the travel ban, President Trump did not do so, leaving leaders in the dark.

Instead, Trump’s staff consulted staffers of Congress members without the knowledge of party leadership, and had them sign nondisclosure agreements. This is virtually unheard of, according to Andy Rudalevige, a professor of government at Bowdoin.


Once an executive order is proposed, it is required to be sent to the Office of Management and Budget, an executive branch agency, for review. The OMB sends it along to affected agencies — here, those could be within the State Department, Department of Homeland Security and Department of Justice — for comments, which it compiles into a report and returns to the president. Because the agencies are the ones that will eventually carry out the order and the employees are experts in their field, this step ensures the order is effective and realistic to implement.

There is no evidence that Trump went through this process, according to Rudalevige — OMB never released a report. On Jan. 31, Homeland Security Secretary John F. Kelly, told Congress he had some lead time before the order was issued, but it was unclear if he was aware of the details.

This process is legally required by an executive order put in place by President John F. Kennedy. Although Trump is technically in violation, he will probably see no consequences, according to Rudalevige. The executive branch is charged with enforcing executive orders, so Trump can simply choose not to enforce it in this case. He also has the option to revoke Kennedy’s order, allowing him to bypass OMB in the future without breaking the law.

Under that existing executive order, Trump’s order was required to receive guidance from the Office of Legal Counsel, a part of the Department of Justice. The OLC evaluates the order for legality, in a narrow sense — it considers the text of the order, but not the motivations behind it or its broader implications on justice.

In this case, Trump’s order did go through OLC review, but the process was so hectic that some Department of Justice officials said they thought it never happened, according to reports from CNN, and the department declined to confirm it occurred for several days after the order’s implementation.


The Trump administration had the order go into effect immediately after it was signed. This is quite rare for orders that affect private individuals, according to Rudalevige. He said it’s much more common for administrative directives, such as when President Obama changed the order of succession in the Environmental Protection Agency before leaving office.

This immediate implementation left little time for the affected agencies, such as Customs and Border Protection, to make sense of the order and plan its application.

Chaos ensued. People who boarded flights with valid visas were detained at U.S. airports when they landed. According to lawsuits, some were denied access to lawyers, and were instructed to sign away their right to the visa and then were sent back to their home countries. Protests at international arrival terminals around the nation swelled.

The immediate question: Was the order legal? Executive orders are constrained in a few major ways. First, the orders can only exercise powers given to the president by the Constitution or laws passed by Congress. (One significant consequence — the orders can’t spend money that Congress hasn’t appropriated.) Generally, the president’s authority over immigration is quite broad.

Second, the order must comply with the Constitution, most notably by not violating individuals’ or states’ rights. The primary recourse for a violation here, as has happened with Trump’s immigration order, is judicial action.

Lawsuits began to pour in the day after the order was signed. Within a week, more than 50 had been filed against the Trump administration by individuals affected by the ban and several states. They argued, among other things, that the ban violated visa holders’ rights to due process and that it is discriminatory on the basis of religion. The Trump administration argued that it’s within the president’s power to change immigration regulations in the name of national security.

Judges across the country began issuing temporary stays on different aspects of the ban. The first came the night after the order was signed — a Brooklyn court order blocked deportations of people detained at airports nationwide. Similar orders followed from Alexandria, Va., and Seattle courts, as well as a broader one out of Boston, all within a day.

Despite the court orders, chaos continued. Officials at some airports reportedly defied the orders at first, continuing to detain visa holders and deny them access to lawyers. But in the hours that followed, marked by protests and confrontations by lawyers and members of Congress, detainees began to be released.


A few days after the initial rulings, then-acting attorney general Sally Q. Yates declined to defend the order, which is typically the Justice Department’s responsibility. In a memo to the department, Yates said the order was not “consistent” with the department’s responsibility to “always seek justice and stand for what is right.” Trump promptly fired her, replacing her with Dana Boente, who has defended the order in court.

As it stands, the order is still working its way through the legal system. Most significantly, on Feb. 3, a Seattle judge temporarily blocked implementation of the ban in its entirety in response to Washington state’s lawsuit. The Trump administration appealed the decision, and the 9th Circuit maintained the freeze on Thursday. An appeal to the Supreme Court is expected, but with the court ideologically split 4-4, a tie would allow the lower court’s decision to stand. A full trial on the merits of the law beyond just the temporary block could happen next.

In addition to these legal challenges, Congress can overturn an executive order by passing a law that contradicts it. This rarely occurs. The legislative process is much slower than a court challenge, and given that the president would probably veto the bill, there would need to be a two-thirds majority in each house of Congress to pass it. Democrats have begun working on such a bill, but few Republicans have publicly opposed the order, and the bill’s passage is unlikely


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Chapter 15 Assignment

For this assignment I want you to prepare a proof chart for the Douglass Financial Inc. case. The Douglass Financial Inc. case can be found in Appendix B in your textbook. You are a paralegal for the firm representing the Plaintiff, Jessica Hewitt. The case is set for trial 30 days from now. Your supervising attorney has asked you to prepare a proof chart based on the witnesses and documents/information you have for the case. Use the case information in the Appendix to get an idea of what witnesses, documents, and information you will need to prove your case. I realize, to some degree, you will have to make up some witnesses, documents, and information for your proof chart. That is okay. Pretend as if you have everything you need (or would need) to prove your case and prepare your proof chart accordingly.

An example of a proof chart can be found in your textbook on page 383 (Exhibit 15-1). To complete this assignment, you will first need to do a bit of research to determine what you have to prove at trial. (So, do NOT wait until the last minute to start this assignment.) Do not worry about any affirmative defenses or counterclaims other parties may have against Ms. Hewitt. Your job is to prepare a proof chart for Ms. Hewitt’s case-in-chief–the proof chart is only for proving up her causes of action (and the elements of those causes). Use the Complaint in the case materials in the Appendix to guide you; the Complaint details Ms. Hewitt’s causes of action and the elements for those causes. Only prepare a proof chart for the case against Douglass Financial, Inc. (the sponsor of the event). Do not worry about the other defendants.









The magician, the same bent old man with a penetrating glance, dressed all in black, with a thin Persian stick inlaid with turquoise in his hand, sits with Osokin near the fire.


The  same  large,  strangely  furnished  room,  with  its  carpets,  brocades,  bookcases  and  bronze figures  of  Indian  gods.  The  statue  of  Kwan-Yin  in  a  recess,  the  big  celestial  globe  on  a  red lacquered stand, the hourglass on the small ivory table near the magician’s chair, and the big black Siberian cat sleeping on the back of the chair.


Osokin  is  gloomy.  He  smokes  a  cigar  and  says  nothing.  At  a  moment  when  he  is  particularly deep in thought the magician speaks.


“My dear friend, you knew it before.”


Osokin starts and looks at him.


“How do you know what I am thinking?”


“I always know what you are thinking?”


Osokin bows his head and stares at the carpet.


“Yes, I know it cannot be helped now,” he says. “But if only I could bring back a few years of this miserable time which does not even exist, as you yourself always say. If only I could get back all the chances which life offered me and which I threw away. If only I could do things differently …” But as he says the words, he suddenly feels afraid, he does not know why.


He stops and looks in perplexity at the magician. Then he glances round him.


“What a strange sensation,” he says to himself. “Has all this happened before? It seemed to me just now that at some other time I have sat here. Everything was exactly the same, and I was saying the same words.


” He looks inquiringly at the magician.


The magician returns his look, laughs quietly and nods.


“Everything has been before,” he says, “and everything can be brought back, everything. But even that will not help.”




Osokin finds himself shivering. What does it all mean? He came to the magician with a definite idea in his mind but now it eludes him, and he cannot put it in words. He must remember what it was, he must explain it to the magician. Why does this stupid fear paralyze him?


He throws his cigar into the fire, rises from his chair and paces up and down the room.


The old man sits watching him, nodding his head and smiling. There is amusement and irony in his look—not an unsympathetic irony, but one full of understanding, of compassion and pity, as though he would like to help but cannot.


Osokin stops in front of him and says like a man in a trance:


“I must go back. Then I shall change everything. I cannot go on living like this. We do absurd things because we do not know what lies ahead of us. If only we could know! If only we could see a little way ahead.


He walks up and down the room, then again stops in front of the magician.


“Listen,” he says, “can’t your magic do this for me? Can’t you send me back? I have been thinking about it for a long time, and to-day, when I heard about Zinaida, I felt that this was the only thing left for me. Send me back, I shall do everything differently. I shall live in a new way and I shall be prepared for meeting Zinaida when the time comes. But I must remember everything, you understand, I must preserve all my experience and knowledge of life. I must remember that I have come back and not forget what I have come back for ….”


He stops. “God, what am I saying? I said the very same thing then.”




He looks at the magician.

The old man smiles and nods.


“I can carry out your wish,” he says, “but it will not be of any use; it will not make things any better for you.”


Osokin throws himself into an armchair and holds his head in his hands.


“Tell me,” he says, “is it true that I have already been here with you before?”


“It is true,” says the magician.


“And I asked you the same thing?”

“You did.”





“And shall I come again?”


“That is not so certain. You may want to come, but you may not be able to. There are many sides to these problems which you do not know yet. You may meet quite unexpected difficulties. One thing only I can say for certain. Circumstances may change, but there is not the slightest possibility of doubt that you yourself will arrive at the same decision. In that there can be no difference and no change.”


“But this is simply turning round on a wheel 1” says Osokin. “It is a trap I” The old man smiles.


“My  dear  friend,”  he  says,  “this  trap  is  called  life.  If  you  want  to  repeat  the  experiment  once more, I am at your service. But I warn you, you will change nothing; you can only make things worse.”


“Even if I remember everything?”


“Even if you remember everything. First, because you will not retain this memory for long. It will be too painful, and you yourself will want to get rid of it and forget. And then you will forget. Second, even if you remember, it will not help you. You will remember and still continue to do the same things.”


“But this is horrible,” says Osokin. “Is there no way out?”




A nervous trembling takes hold of him so that again he cannot speak. There is the cold of the grave in this thought. He feels that this is the fear of the inevitable, fear of himself, of that self from which there is no escape … He will be the same and everything will be the same.


At this moment, Osokin understands that if he goes back as he is everything will indeed go in the same way as before. He clearly remembers all those chains of events at school and afterwards, when everything happened as if by clockwork, as in a machine the movement of one wheel makes another wheel move. But at the same time, he feels that he cannot accept things as they are now, cannot resign himself to the loss of Zinaida and to the thought that everything is his own fault.


Osokin and the magician are both silent.


“What am I to do then?” says Osokin at last almost in a whisper. There is a long pause.


“My dear friend,” says the magician, breaking the silence, “those are the first sensible words I have heard from you since the beginning of our acquaintance.





“You ask what you are to do. Listen to me attentively. What I am going to say to you is said to a man only once in his life, and even so only to very few men. If a man fails to understand, that is his own fault; it is not repeated. You come here, you complain, and you ask for a miracle. And, when I can, I do what you ask, because I sincerely wish to help you. But nothing comes of it. Try now to understand why nothing comes of it and why I am powerless to help you. Understand that I can carry out only your wishes, only what you ask for. I cannot give you anything on my own initiative.  This  is  the  law.  Even  what  I  am  saying  now  I  am  able  to  say  only  because  you  have asked me what you are to do. If you had not asked, I could not have spoken.


“I can add something more to that. If you go back now, everything will be the same as before or worse. For instance, you may not meet me. You must understand that chances are limited; no one has unlimited chances. And you never know when you have used your last chance. On the other hand,  if  you  go  on  living  perhaps  something  can  be  changed  sufficiently  to  enable  you  to  start differently the next time.”


“Is it worth while living for this?”


“That is your affair. You have to decide for yourself. But remember one thing, if you go back as blind as you are now, you will do the same things again and a repetition of all that happened before is inevitable. You will not escape from the wheel; everything will go on as before. You ask me what you are to do. I answer: live. It is your only chance.


“If you think carefully, you will find in my words all that you need. But if you still want to go back and begin again, I will send you back even to the day of your birth, if you like. But I warn you that you will come here again—if you can. Now decide.”


Osokin sits motionless in the armchair. There is another long silence.


Scenes and pictures of his life again pass before him: school —Mother—Paris—Zinaida. God, how many possibilities he has had and lost one after another! And life kept closing in on him until finally he found himself in a narrow tunnel with no way out. But suppose a way out really exists? Why does the magician insist that he should live? And what is the sense in going back if he is bound to come to the same point again, or perhaps to something even worse? What does the magician mean by this? What could be worse?


“When I first began to understand that everything repeats and returns,” says Osokin to himself “it seemed to me an interesting adventure. But now it frightens me, and I feel I must do everything possible to postpone this experience. The adventure which attracted me lies in quite a different direction. Which direction I don’t know yet. But I must find it, before I can risk returning.”


At last, Osokin looks up.


“I will live,” he says. “You are right. I still cannot understand anything, but I do see that to start all this again is not a way out.”




The magician looks at Osokin for a long time as though trying to penetrate into his mind.


“Now that you have said that you are going to live,” he says at last, “I can tell you more. But first I want to ask you, do you think you know your Zinaida well?”


Osokin looks up in astonishment.


“I think I do,” he says, “but what do you mean?”


The old man smiles again.


“If you know her well, how you could believe that she would marry Minsky?”


“How could I believe…? She said that she would not wait any longer for me. And I could not go. Then I met Krutitsky, and he told me …”


Osokin stops and is suddenly seized by a strange and wonderful feeling of hope, of more than hope—the expectation of a miracle.


Why does the magician speak about it?


“I could not tell you this before,” continues the magician, “because I may not say anything that can influence your decisions. But now I can tell you that to-day Colonel Minsky passed through Moscow on his way to Petersburg. Zinaida broke off the engagement three days before the wedding. Besides, she never intended to marry him. Only you could fail to understand that.”


Osokin sits with a bewildered expression on his face.


“Then she is not going to be married,” he says as though he does not understand what he is saying. “But then why…?”


He looks at the magician as though he were seeing him for the first time.


“But why did you not tell me before?”


“Because you never asked. You accepted it as a fact and came to me with a ready-made decision. I cannot argue against ready-made decisions.”


Osokin scarcely hears what the magician is saying.


“God, what an idiot I have been,” he says to himself. “How could I have believed it? Of course, all this is nothing but her usual acting. She needed Minsky just for amusement, up to a certain point but not further. Of course, it is clear to me that she would never have married him. How could I misunderstand her so much?”







Pictures of the last few months pass before him. He sees clearly how he has shut himself up in his pride and obstinacy. Of course, he should have gone with Zinaida at all costs. Now, naturally, everything will be different.


Dozens of plans begin to form in his head. He sees himself in the train. Wheels are rattling. He is on his way to the Crimea. He will see Zinaida. After all, things can be arranged somehow.


The magician is speaking.


At first Osokin does not hear.


“Nothing will change,” says the magician.


“What do you mean by saying that nothing will change?” says Osokin. “Everything has changed already.”


The magician shakes his head and smiles.


“My dear friend, once more you deceive yourself. Nothing has changed. Everything is exactly the same as it has been up to now, and everything will remain the same. Nothing could change and nothing will change.


“The wind returneth again according to his circuits … The thing that has been, it is that which shall be and that which is done is that which shall be done.”


“And nothing can be changed?” says Osokin.


“I  never  said  that  nothing  can  be  changed.  I  said  that  you  cannot  change  anything,  and  that nothing will change by itself. I have already told you that in order to change anything you must first change yourself. And this is much more difficult than you think. It requires constant effort for a long time and much knowledge. You are incapable of such effort and you do not even know how to start. No one is capable of it by himself. People always repeat the same mistakes. At first, they simply  do  not  know  that  they  move  in  a  circle;  and  if  they  hear  about  this  idea,  they  refuse  to believe it. Later, if they begin to see the truth of it and accept it, they think that this is all that is necessary; they become fully convinced that now they know all they need to know and that they can change everything. And immediately they find charlatans who assure them that everything is very easy and simple. This is the greatest illusion of all. In this way men lose the chances which they have acquired through much suffering and sometimes even through great effort.


“You must remember that one may know many things and be unable to change anything, because changing requires different knowledge and also something which you do not possess.”



“What is the thing we do not possess?”


“This question is very characteristic of you. Like everyone else, you think that you can know everything, when in fact you cannot know anything and cannot understand anything. How can I tell you what it is if it does not exist for you?”


Osokin is silent.


Yes,  he  feels  that  the  magician  is  right.  He  cannot  change  anything.  After  his  moment  of exhilaration,  he  is  seized  by  fear  and  anguish.  He  will  again  do  the  same  absurd  things;  he  will again lose Zinaida.


“Then, what is required to make things begin to change?” he asks. And he expects the magician to answer with one of those probably very clever but, for him, almost meaningless phrases, such as: when you are different, everything else will be different.


But the magician says something that Osokin has not anticipated.


“You must realize,” says the magician, “that you yourself can change nothing and that you must seek help. And it must be a very deep realization, because to realize to-day and forget to-morrow is not sufficient. One must live with this realization.”


“But what does it mean to ‘live with this realization’?” asks Osokin. “And who can help me?”


“I can help you,” says the magician, “and to live with this realization means to sacrifice something big for it, not only once, but to go on making sacrifices until you get what you want.”


“You speak in riddles,” says Osokin. “What can I sacrifice? I have nothing.”


“Everyone has something to sacrifice,” says the magician, “except those who cannot be helped. But  of  course,  it  is  impossible  to  say  beforehand  what  one  may  get  for  one’s  sacrifice.  Do  you remember the man who had to work seven years to win a wife, and in the end, they gave him the wrong sister? He had to work another seven years. This often happens.”


Osokin is silent. Something unpleasant stirs in him. What does the old man want from him?


“What I am saying seems strange to you,” says the magician, “because you have never thought about these things in the right way. Besides, thinking by itself will not help. Here again, one must know.  And  in  order  to  know,  one  must  learn;  and  in  order  to  learn,  one  must  make  sacrifices. Nothing can be acquired without sacrifice. This is the thing you do not understand, and until you understand it, nothing can be done. Had I wanted to give you, without any sacrifice on your part, everything you might wish, I could not have done it.


“A man can be given only what he can use; and he can use only that for which he has sacrificed something. This is the law of human nature. So, if a man wants to get help to acquire important knowledge  or  new  powers,  he  must  sacrifice  other  things  important  to  him  at  the  moment.

Moreover, he can only get as much as he has given up for it. There are additional difficulties due to his state. He cannot know exactly what he may get, but if he realizes the hopelessness of his position, he will agree to make sacrifices, even without knowing. And he will be glad to do so, because only in this way can he acquire the possibility of gaining something new or of changing himself; for if he does not sacrifice anything, then everything will remain the same for him or even become worse.”


“Are there no other ways?” asks Osokin.


“You mean ways in which no sacrifices are necessary? No, there are no such ways, and you do not  understand  what  you  are  asking.  You  cannot  have  results  without  causes.  By  your  sacrifice you create causes. There are different ways, but they differ only in the form, magnitude and finality of the sacrifice. In most cases, one has to give up everything at once and expect nothing.


“There is a dervish song which goes like this:

Through four renunciations Ascend to perfection. Leave life without regret. Expect no reward in heaven.


“Do  you  understand  what  that  means?  Most  people  can  go  only  by  this  way  or  by  one  of  the similar ways. But here, now, you are in a different position. You can talk with me. You can know what you have to give up and what you may get for it.”




“How can I know what I can get? And how shall I know what I have to give up?”


“You can know what you may get through the realization of what it is you want. For some very complicated  reasons  which  are  all  in  yourself,  you  happen  to  have  guessed  a  very  great  secret which people generally do not know. By itself your guess is useless because you cannot apply it to  anything.  But  the  fact  that  you  know  this  secret  opens  certain  doors  for  you.  You  know  that everything repeats again and again. There have been other people who made the same discovery, but they could make nothing more of it. If you could change something in yourself, you would be able to use this knowledge for your own advantage. So, you see, you do know what you want and what you may get.


“Now  the  question  of  what  to  sacrifice  and  how  to  sacrifice.  You  say  you  have  nothing.  Not quite. You have your life. So, you can sacrifice your life. It is a very small price to pay since you meant to throw it away in any case. Instead of that, give me your life and I will see what can be made of you. I will even make it easier for you. I shall not require the whole of your life. Twenty, even fifteen years will be sufficient. But during these years you must belong to me—I mean, you must do everything I tell you without evasions and excuses. If you keep your side of the bargain, I shall keep mine. When this time is over you will be able to use your knowledge for yourself. It is your good luck that you can be useful to me just now—not at once, certainly, but I can wait if there is anything to wait for. So now you know what you have to sacrifice.



“There is something else which may be said. People who make the same guess that you have made  have  certain  advantages  and  certain  disadvantages  in  comparison  with  other  people  who guess nothing. Their advantage is that they can be taught what other people cannot be taught, and their disadvantage is that, for them, time becomes very limited. An ordinary man can turn round and round on the wheel and nothing happens to him until he finally disappears.


“Again, there are many things you do not know about this; but you must understand that in the course of time even the position of the stars in relation to one another changes—and men depend on the stars much more than they realize though not in the same way as they think, if they think about it at all. Nothing remains the same in time. But a man who has begun to guess the great secret must make use of it, otherwise it turns against him. It is not a safe secret. When one has become aware of it, one must go on or one will go down. When one finds the secret or hears about it, one has only two or three, or in any case only a few more lives.


“You must understand that, for reasons of my own, I am interested in such people in the same way as I am interested in you. But I can offer my help only at one particular moment and only once. If my help is not accepted, a man may not find me next time. It may sound strange to you, but the fact is that sometimes I see people who would like to come to me, walking along this street, but they cannot find my house. That is why I told you before that you may want to come to me again but not be able to.”


“What happens to those people who cannot find your house?”


“Oh, they have other possibilities, but you must understand that every possibility is always more difficult than the preceding one; there is less and less time. If those people do not find new guidance and new help very soon, their lives begin to go down, and after some time they cease to be born and  are  replaced  by  other  people.  You  must  understand  that  they  become  useless,  sometimes dangerous, because they know the great secret and remember many things; but all that they know, they understand in the wrong way. And in any case, if they have not used their chances before, then each time their possibilities become fewer.


“Now you must think about yourself. Fifteen years seem a long time to you because you are still very young. Later you will see that it is a very short time, especially when you realize what you can  get  for  it.  So  go  home  and  think.  When  you  have  understood  and  put  in  the  right  order everything I have said, you may come here and tell me what you have decided.


“I can only add one thing more. Like everyone else, you think that there are different ways of doing the same thing. You have to learn to understand that there is always only one way of doing a thing; there can never be two ways. But you will not come to this easily. For a long time, you will have a great deal of inner argument. All this has to be destroyed. Only then will you be ready for real work. And understand another thing: only when you are useful to me will you be useful to yourself.


“I must also warn you that there are many dangers on the way, dangers about which you have never heard—or heard quite wrongly. A long time ago I met a very disagreeable gentleman who is sometimes pictured with horns and hoofs. He is not so big as some people make him out to be, but his chief occupation in life is to hinder the development of people who have guessed the great secret. And my occupation is to hinder him. So, you must understand that very powerful forces will be opposed to you and you will be alone, always alone. Remember this.


“Now go and come back when you have decided. Take as much time as you like, but I advise you not to delay too long.”




Measurements of criminal and delinquent behavior college application essay help: college application essay help

Define criminal behavior and juvenile delinquency.
Introduce the reader to the various measurements of criminal and delinquent behavior.

Aspects of Culture and Language (Funds of Knowledge) cbest essay help



Examining White privilege, Racial Attitudes, and/or Identities
Uncovering Bias and/or Stereotypes
Discovering Aspects of Culture and Language (Funds of Knowledge)
Examining the History and/or Literature of Minoritized Groups in the U.S.
American-Indian/Alaska Natives
Asian/Pacific-Islander Americans
Arab and/or Muslim Americans
LGTBQ Americans
Other approved minoritzed group * ask Dr. V.



Background (25 points)



Theme: (5)


Brief explanation of the unit and purpose of the unit (5)


Essential questions: (5)


Arizona State Standards (5)


Student outcomes (5) – What will students know, understand and be able to do by the end of the unit?)



Lesson Plans (3) (45 points)

Each lesson should have:

** See example below

Anticipatory Set

III. Modeling

Guided Practice
Check for understanding
Independent practice.


Each component should be a description of about a paragraph long. DO NOT write pages of explanation. Keep it brief.


Lesson 1: (15)


Lesson 2: (15)


Lesson 3. (15)



Padlet (20 points)

Come up with 10 resources for your unit plan. Ensure that there is a brief description of the resource in each resource post of the Padlet.


Video description/presentation Vidgrid (10 points)

This should be a 2-3 minute explanation of your unit plan





































Unit Plan EXAMPLE: The Riots of 1964 (Social Awareness)

9th grade ELA in Rochester, NY

(By Quiana D. Beasley, 2016)



A.) Background (of Unit Plan) (25 points)

Theme: Uncovering Bias and Stereotypes


Explanation/Purpose: The unit focuses on the theme of “Stereotypes” and acknowledges and incorporates the lives and backgrounds of the inner-city students within the Greater Rochester region of New York State.  All forms of text or media used in this unit plan focus on the history of racial tension in the area, life stories of minority men who have grown up in the area, and originate from authors or situations that may mirror the students’ cultural experiences or personal lives in order to give students a sense of ownership and identity in their learning process. Students will look for opinion, evidence-based claim evidence, analyze text-to-self connections, and text-to-text connections. Students will examine questions in the unit such as: 1) Who am I? What’s my role in my family, school, community, and world? 2) What are stereotypes and how are we affected by them? 3) Who is my neighbor? What do I know about those I see daily? 4)What is fact and what is opinion? 5) How does the media shape our perception? 6) What were the Riots of 1964?? 7) How did events on a national scale effect what transpired locally? 8) What stereotypes did the media perpetuate then and now? 9) Can we change society’s perceptions?

Students will watch the documentary “July ‘64” and complete and discuss answers from discussion guide after completing the mini-unit.


Essential Questions:

What were The Riots of 1964 and how did this event shape my community/our society into its current state?
What stereotypes plague: a) The Riots of 1964? b) Our daily personal lives?



9-10.RI.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

9-10.RI.9 Analyze seminal/primary documents of historical and literary significance, including how they address related themes and concepts.

9-10.RI.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

9-10.W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.


Student outcomes: (What will students know, understand and be able to do by the end of the unit?)

1) Read, discuss, and analyze a variety of informational texts

2) Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

3) Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance, including how they address related themes and concepts.

4) Create text-to-self and text-to-text connections

5) Decipher fact versus opinion


B.) Lesson examples (15 points)


Lesson 1 of 3: What are stereotypes and how are we affected by them? (50-60 min)

Materials Needed – Chart paper, markers (colored), student journals



Anticipatory Set- (focus) Before students enter, have sheet of chart paper on the front board with the word “STEREOTYPES” written on the top and a space for the definition (to be written later) underneath the word. Have students take a marker and take turns writing one word or draw a small picture that represents what comes to mind when they here that word. Discuss what’s written on the board and then write the dictionary definition in the space provided underneath the word: “a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.” Open the floor for any questions about the dictionary definition. Identify perceptions and misconceptions on varying levels; individual, class-wide, school-wide, community-wide, and nation-wide Vocabulary words: STEREOTYPES Skills: brainstorming and group sharing Concepts: The purpose of a ‘class gallery’ as a means of a long term, accessible reference, and to map out thoughts and ideas; stereotypes can be positive or negative and can impact the way people view each other or situations.


Modeling (demonstrate) – Before class, in various areas of the room, put up the other five pieces of chart paper labelled: INDIVIDUAL STEREOTYPES, CLASS-WIDE STEREOTYPES, SCHOOL-WIDE STEREOTYPES, COMMUNITY-WIDE STEREOTYPES, NATION-WIDE STEREOTYPES. Explain to students (as you model the task) that today you want them to write down one stereotype that comes to mind for each topic around the room. You can chart examples such as “thugs wear baggy clothes”, “teachers like smart kids better”, “_______ School is where all the dumb kids go”, “only white kids live in the ‘burbs”, and “Africa is poor”.


III. Guided Practice (follow me) – Explain to students that stereotypes are not always pretty and can be offensive, but that you want them to be respectfully honest when they write the stereotypes they’ve heard or believe no matter how they think the colleagues in their class may receive them. Let students know that stereotypes do not always have to be a negative thing and that they should also think about positive stereotypes to write as well. Allow students several minutes to fill in the charts. When they finish the activity, have students sit down and briefly discuss their thoughts and reactions to the stereotypes given.


Checking For Understanding (CFU) – Journal Reflection


Independent Practice –. Have students take out their journals and write down the Journal Reflection question: What is a stereotype that you personally battle and do you think that you’ve earned that label? Why or why not? Allow the rest of the class time for students to complete this reflection and the first 5 minutes of the next class, if necessary, for students to finish their responses.


Lesson 2 of 3:  What were the Riots of ’64? (50-60 min)


Materials Needed – Chart Paper, Newspaper article, “A firsthand account of the riots: ‘An eerie, scary feeling’” <>, journals


Anticipatory Set (focus) – Share your journal reflection from the previous lesson. Ask students if any of them would like to share as well and let them know in return they will receive extra participation points for the day. Have students briefly discuss the positive things their neighborhoods and school have going on that the mainstream media does not cover. Once that discussion closes, have students turn their attention to the K-W-L chart at the front of the room titled, “Riots of ‘64” have students fill out what they know and what they want to know about the event. Remind them that we will fill out the 3rd column as we learn new things. If students have very little knowledge of the event, explain to them that this event happened in Rochester, NY over a weekend in July of 1964 and that it started in the Joseph Avenue area and write that in the “K” column. Raise social awareness and analyze a 1st person account from a historical perspective. 1st Person ELA Skills: group-sharing, read-aloud, active reading. Concepts: the critical lens used in a recounting can change the perception of an issue/situation


Modeling (demonstrate) – ‘Before you begin to read the article, explain what it means to be an active reader.’ Tell students that you want them to mark up the margins with questions they may have about what they read and responses to what they read. Tell them to also circle any words that seem unfamiliar to them. Remind them that, as the “experts” they are in this classroom, this will not just be reading to read, but reading to know, understand, and question.


III. Guided Practice (follow me) – Since this will be their first time actively reading in class, read the article in its entirety to the class and make frequent stops to give actual examples of how you interact with the text.


Checking for Understanding (CFU) – Discuss with students what information they have received from hearing this story through a 1st person (a person who is actually in the action and explains what they see) critical lens. Fill that information into the “L” column on the chart. Allow students to also ask any clarifying questions


Independent Practice –. Have students take out their journals and write down the Journal Reflection question: Based off of what you read in the article of the day and what you know about the time period, what could’ve been the starting point of an event that changed the face of our city? Was the riot necessary? Allow the rest of the class time for students to complete this reflection and the first 5 minutes of the next class, if necessary, for students to finish their response.


Lesson 3 of 3: – How can we change society’s perception of a situation? (50-60 min)


Materials Needed – current day photojournalistic photos, Handouts of pictures from Riots of ’64, journals


Anticipatory Set (focus) – Start the lesson with this quote: “A picture can tell a thousand words, but a few words can change its story.” ― Sebastyne Young. Ask the students to discuss their thoughts on the quote. “What does it mean to you?” “Do you agree/disagree and why?” “Can a picture be read?” Purpose (objective) – Raise social awareness and determine the effects of photojournalism. ANALYZE Skills: group-sharing, read-aloud, active reading Concepts: pictures can tell a story; captions can skew the story


Modeling (demonstrate) – Show the students the three pictures from photojournalistic moments. Ask the students to openly discuss what they see and what they believe is going on in the pictures. Probe further asking them what story these pictures seem to be telling: what races seems to be represented and in which light, which age groups they see etc. After the conversation about the pictures ask the students if they feel like they have now “read” these pictures and why or why not? (quick check for understanding)


III. Guided Practice (follow me) – Explain to students that while a picture is powerful, the use of a simple caption can completely change the original intent of the work. Use the picture of the Muslim women and say, “For instance, while this picture seems to show us a very somber or sad moment, one could very well say ‘Muslim women mourning the government decision to allow for more women’s rights; say it’s too much too soon.’ Does that seem logical? Probably not, but with nothing more than a picture we’re led to trust the caption.” This leads us to today’s activity.


Checking For Understanding (CFU) – Hand out picture packet of photos from the Riots of ’64 and have students create captions based off of their knowledge of the event and targeted toward the African American population. Collect them as a ticket out the door.


Independent Practice – Have students take out their journals and write down the Journal Reflection question: Based off of what you read thus far and the photos you’ve viewed currently which form of media do you think is most honest and why? Support your answer with specifics from what we’ve viewed thus far. Allow the rest of the class time for students to complete this reflection and the first 5 minutes of the next class, if necessary, for students to finish their response





Helpful Websites to help with assignment.


1) AZ State Standards:

This will give you standards and competencies for each grade in each subject area.

2) Learning for Justice (Formerly Teaching for Tolerance)

This is an awesome resource for teachers. Please use it for ideas and examples only.  Perhaps looking at some lesson plans here will spark ideas for you!

3) Edutopia

This is sort of a “general” source on education.  There are some nice videos, plans, and articles that speak to addressing racism, bias and stereotypes in the classroom.  There are also articles centered on celebrating cultural diversity in the classroom.

4) Teaching for Change

This website give you all sorts of resources as an educator working to eliminate bias and prejudice. It has comprehensive book lists for kids. It also contains articles and publications on teaching about US holidays and history months. This website emphasizes literature quite heavily.

Teaching Central America

5) Colorin Colorado

Even though this website is mainly for ELL educators, it can be used for all kinds of lessons and as a general teaching resource. As the name infers, its primary focus is related to students and cultures of Hispanic heritage. However, the website also includes other cultures/ethnic groups.

6) PBS Learning Media

Here’s a great resource from PBS full of videos that will show you what teachers are doing in their classrooms and videos that you might want to use to show your students in your own lesson.


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