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A Private Trouble In The American Society Best Essay Help





Feminism: An Example of a Private Trouble

Jonai Tellison

Eastern Gateway Community College

SOC203- Race & Minority Groups

November 22, 2021.

Feminism: A Private Trouble

In the structural issues of American society, one of the private troubles is feminism, where gender inequality is practiced since the gender difference between men and women gives men more privileges than women and transgender individuals. This factor is seen as a problem since we can see bias and discrimination of different gender because they are treated unfairly and not given any privileges in their lives (Lumen, 2021). Transgender people are also discriminated against because of changing their sex. This is mainly brought by the United States system of American culture and society, which contributes to the rising oppression. These practices cause a lot of suffering to individuals’ feelings, way of life, and social interactions since they will be experiencing abuse based on their identities (NMOAAH&C, 2021). We can see that the social norms have made almost every woman dependent on men for their economic support, which dominates women that are under men and their values are low. These practices are mainly brought about by the systematic policies that were put by the government.

In order to overcome this problem, some demonstrations have been made by some groups that used to help black women and other white women have the right to be working-class women and discrimination that affects sexism (Lumenlearning, 2021). If every person acknowledges that human rights also apply to women’s rights and women’s rights apply to human rights. And these rights are reciprocity in favor of every gender and race, then the problem of women and transgender being picked on will end. Society should create a policy that allows equality among women by introducing opportunities that give women the ability to have higher leadership positions and pay as men. The government of American should put the same right they have implicated to the people having segregation to houses and other incomes to every person be it black, Hispanic, and white people. The process of confronting this issue requires that individuals change their attitudes towards each other to allow equality and acceptance.

The structural issue of feminism uses the theoretical perspective of conflict theory since it shows the various social problems that arise from the inheriting of inequality. As we can see, feminism emphasizes how society is filled with practices of gender inequality because it demonstrates that in social, political, and economic life, women are the subordinate sex in every point of view (Lumenlearning, 2021). Inequality in a place contributes to social problems since you might find that a company considers hiring the male gender that the women or they cannot employ a transgender person, which leads to conflicts. This means that conflict theory is the most suitable. After all, it demonstrates the oppression system, helps identify the inequality, and helps in social identity because everyone is able (NMOAAH&C, 2021). This conflict theory makes it possible for the social problem to have a solution that includes far-reaching changes that, if applied it will change the structure of society. If it changes, then the view of women depending on men to provide the essential thing will change, and there will be independent women, and another perspective of social view will come.


Bailey, Z., Feldman, J., & Bassett, M. (2021). How Structural Racism Works Racist Policies as a Root Cause of U.S. Racial Health Inequities. New England Journal Of Medicine, 384(8), 768-773.

Lumenlearning. (2021). The Feminist Perspective | Introduction to Sociology. Retrieved 22 November 2021, from

Lumen. (2021). Institutional Prejudice or Discrimination | Introduction to Sociology. Retrieved 22 November 2021, from

National Museum of African American History & Culture (2021). Social Identities and Systems of Oppression. Retrieved 22 November 2021, from

Biopsychosocial Assessment Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Biopsychosocial Assessment





I. Identifying Information A. Demographic information: age, sex, ethnic group, current employment, marital status,

physical environment/housing: nature of living circumstances (apartment, group

home or other shared living arrangement, homeless); neighborhood.

B. Referral information: (referral source (self or other), reason for referral. Other professionals or indigenous helpers currently involved.

C. Data sources used in writing this assessment: interviews with others involved (list dates and persons), tests performed, other data used.

II. Presenting Problem A. Description of the problem, and situation for which help is sought as presented by the

client. Use the clients words. What precipitated the current difficulty? What feelings

and thoughts have been aroused? How has the client coped so far?

B. Who else is involved in the problem? How are they involved? How do they view the problem? How have they reacted? How have they contributed to the problem or


C. Past experiences related to current difficulty. Has something like this ever happened before? If so, how was it handled then? What were the consequences?

III. Background History A. Developmental history: from early life to present (if obtainable) B. Family background: description of family of origin and current family. Extent of

support. Family perspective on client and clients perspective on family. Family

communication patterns. Familys influence on client and intergenerational factors.

C. Intimate relationship history D. Educational and/or vocational training E. Employment history F. Military history (if applicable) G. Use and abuse of alcohol or drugs, self and family H. Medical history: birth information, illnesses, accidents, surgery, allergies, disabilities,

health problems in family, nutrition, exercise, sleep

I. Mental Health history: previous mental health problems and treatment, hospitalizations, outcome of treatment, family mental health issues.

J. Nodal events: deaths of significant others, serious losses or traumas, significant life achievements

K. Cultural background: race/ethnicity, primary language/other languages spoken, significance of cultural identity, cultural strengths, experiences of discrimination or

oppression, migration experience and impact of migration on individual and family

life cycle.

L. Religion: denomination, church membership, extent of involvement, spiritual perspective, special observances

IV. Assessment A. What is the key issue or problem from the clients perspective? From the workers


B. How effectively is the client functioning? C. What factors, including thoughts, behaviors, personality issues, environmental

circumstances, stressors, vulnerabilities, and needs seem to be contributing to the

problem(s)? Please use systems theory with the ecological perspective as a

framework when identifying these factors.

D. Formulate a risk and protective factors assessment, both for the onset of the disorder and the course of the disorder, including the strengths that you see for this individual.

E. Identify the strengths, sources of meaning, coping ability, and resources to be mobilized to help the client.

F. Assess clients motivation and potential to benefit from intervention

V. Mental Status Assessment/Exam 1. Appearance 2. Behavior 3. Mood 4. Affect 5. Speech 6. Cognition 7. Thought Content 8. Thought Process 9. Perception 10. Judgement 11. Insight

VI. Summary Impression Provide a brief written broad level overview of the first four segments of this assessment

along with your summary of what you believe to be the key themes (concerns, strengths,

presentation etc.).

VII. Diagnosis and Rationale Given the case information, and your responses to the questions below, prepare the

following: a diagnosis, the rationale for the diagnosis order to make a more accurate


(Formulate a critique of the diagnosis as it relates to this case example. Questions to

consider including- Does this diagnosis represent a valid mental disorder from the social

work perspective? Is this diagnosis significantly different from other possible diagnoses?

Your critique should are based on the values of the social work profession (which are

incongruent in some ways with the medical model) and the validity of the specific

diagnostic criteria applied to this case.)

VIII. Recommendations/Proposed Intervention

(Given your risk and protective factors assessments of the individual, your knowledge of

the disorder, and evidence-based practice guidelines, formulate goals and a possible

treatment plan for this individual)

A. Tentative Goals (with measurable objectives and tasks) 1. One Short-term 2. One Long-term

B. Units of Attention C. Possible obstacles and tentative approach to obstacles

Whether prostitution should be a criminal offense college essay help

Lesson 11 Discussion.

Do you believe prostitution should be a criminal offense? Why or why not?

This discussion should be a minimum of 1 page (250 words).


(VCU. (n.d). Deviance and Social Control.

Lesson 12 Discussion.

Should children who commit violent acts be held responsible for their actions? What should the response to juvenile violence be: treatment or punishment (or some combination, or something else)? How can juvenile violence be prevented?

This discussion should be a minimum of 1 page (250 words).


In a (minimum) one-page, describe the difference between crime and deviance. Using sociological knowledge, discuss reasons why some people are more likely to be convicted of a crime than others.

APA format is required


(Crashcourse. (2017, Jul 31). Crime: Crash Course Sociology #20. YouTube. )

Separating fact and evidence essay instant essay help: instant essay help


Lesson 11 Discussion. (200 words).

After reviewing the readings/video (found in the readings), please consider the following for your discussion post:

What is the importance of documentation in the practice of Social Work?

Please share your thoughts on the video and what you have learned about separating fact and evidence from assessment and opinion?


Intro to Case Notes for New Social Workers:

Writing Good Case Notes:

LESSON 12 DISCUSSION. (200 words).

Please review the reading and consider the following in your discussion post:

Please share your thoughts after reviewing this information about evaluating social work practice.

How can you utilize this information in your Social work practice?

Why is it important to evaluate the practice of Social Work (micro, macro, and mezzo)?

To receive full credit, you will need to post one substantial post. Each discussion post should be a minimum of 250 words or one page.


Practice Evaluation as Evidence:


Lesson 11 Discussion. (200 words).

How do public policy shifts that address the civil rights of minority groups advance social equality? Is this different than social equity?


CrashCourse. (2016, February 27). Social Policy: Crash Course Government and Politics #49 [Video]. YouTube.



Lesson 11 Discussion. (200 words).

Do you believe prostitution should be a criminal offense? Why or why not?


(VCU. (n.d). Deviance and Social Control.

Lesson 12 Discussion. (200 words).

Should children who commit violent acts be held responsible for their actions? What should the response to juvenile violence be: treatment or punishment (or some combination, or something else)? How can juvenile violence be prevented?
(250 words).


(Crashcourse. (2017, Jul 31). Crime: Crash Course Sociology #20. YouTube. )

Accessing Information About Evidence-Based Practices admission college essay help

Assignment: Accessing Information About Evidence-Based Practices

The first steps toward narrowing the gap between research and practice are recognizing that one exists and educating oneself and others. Social workers must realize the benefits and eliminate the misconceptions surrounding evidence-based practice. In the Bradley episode featured in the resources, the social worker combines her assessment of Tiffani Bradleys individual situation with her knowledge of research to evaluate her supervisors recommended intervention. Now that the social worker has recognized a gap, she/he/they need to access potentially relevant information for a specific case and critically analyze for its applicability to that case. This weeks Assignment allows you to practice these critical next steps in the Bradley family case.

To prepare for this Assignment, review Episode 4 of the Bradley family case study. Develop a list with 23 researchable questions that you could use to find evidence about the efficacy of 12-step programs or other treatments for substance abuse in adolescents. Then, using the resources provided, search for two evidence-based interventions that would be appropriate for Tiffani Bradley. Be sure to consider quality of research, readiness for dissemination, replications, and costs.

Reporting known or suspected cases of elder abuse need essay help

In this discussion, were going to take a look at issues associated with reporting known or suspected cases of elder abuse and the abuse of persons with disabilities.

Helpful web sites:

RAINN (Under Search type in State Law Database then choose your state. Click on Mandatory Reporting: The Elderly)
National Domestic Violence Hotline
National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse

Choose a state that you are interested in and respond to all of the following questions and at least 2 of your classmates posts.

Name of state:

Who are the mandated reporters?
Who is exempt from reporting (if applicable)?
What is the definition of an adult?
What are the penalties for failing to report?
What information is needed for the report?
Is there anything particularly helpful and/or harmful about the manner in which your state deals with reporting elder abuse and/or abuse against a person with disabilities?

Additional Resource:

***Please base your responses on the State of Maryland

Potential challenges for engagement in your field aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Refer to the topics covered in this weeks resources, and incorporate them into your blog.

By Day 3

Post a blog post that includes:

An explanation of potential challenges for engagement in your field education experience
An explanation of personal action plans you might take to address engagement in your field education experience

Assignment on a Commercial Project write essay help

Commercial outline 2


Name: Onyinyechi Collete Adams

Class: SPCH 1311

Commercial Outline:

1. Product/Service Name- MyParking Space app

2. Setting- Urban and city environment.

3. Target Audience- Drivers and individuals who own vehicles or who drive to urban and cities with their cars either on a daily basis or once in a while.

4. Two Product Features- An app-linked map helps the driver google for a parking space in the city or urban with real-time map. The map provides available parking spaces that can be used by the driver based on the location.

A customization setting that allows the driver to set specific instructions to guide the map in giving a more precise location and parking spaces.

5. Three Persuasive Techniques- Ethos: It gives you the privilege to program your time and attain your goals as planned. This is because it reduces your daily uncertainties and enhances easier attainment of goals.

Pathos: Imagine getting late for an interview and losing your dream job just because you could not get a parking slot on time. We understand the worth of your time thus why we are committed to saving you the hustle! Get yourself MyParking Space app and be assured of conquering the world.

Logos: Based on statistics, an average driver in a productive city or urban area spends 17 hours annually looking for a parking space. This interprets to $345 on wasted gas, time and emission. Just imagine how much you can save if that never happened. This is why you need MyParking Space app.

6. Sense of Urgency- Download the app from play store and enjoy the awesome services for free.

7. Price- $30/month or subscribe for 12 months and get 1 month free.

How Barack Obama won the 2008 presidential election rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

The Leadership Quarterly 20 (2009) 483492

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

The Leadership Quarterly

journal homepage:

The enduring allure of charisma: How Barack Obama won the historic 2008 presidential election

Michelle C. Bligh a,, Jeffrey C. Kohles b,1

a School of Behavioral and Organizational Sciences, Claremont Graduate University, 123 East Eighth Street, Claremont, CA 91711, United States b Center for Leadership Innovation and Mentorship Building (CLIMB), College of Business Administration, California State University San Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096-0001, United States

a r t i c l e i n f o

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 909 607 3715; fax E-mail addresses: [email protected] (M.C. Bl

1 Tel: +1 760 750 4237; fax: +1 760 750 4250.

1048-9843/$ see front matter 2009 Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.03.013

a b s t r a c t

We apply charismatic leadership theory to the historic 2008 United States presidential election, in hopes of inspiring dialogue around how leadership theory can inform the critical process of evaluating and electing public leaders. While numerous leadership theories are relevant to understanding the 2008 election, charismatic leadership theory highlights aspects of the leader, followers, and the unfolding economic crisis that are particularly relevant in helping us to understand how a relatively inexperienced political outsider ascended to the US Presidency. Given the potential perils and challenges newly elected President Barack Obama faces in the months and years ahead, we also suggest four core strategies rooted in charismatic leadership theory that may help him capitalize on his early charismatic appeal, as well as avoid the pitfalls of charisma that have plagued some of his predecessors.

2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Charisma Politics Crisis Election Presidential

If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a placewhere all things are possible; who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time; who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answerChange has come to America. A new dawn of American leadership is at hand. Barack Obama, November 2, 2008 (cited in DeFrank, 2008).

You campaign in poetry, but you govern in prose. Hillary Rodham Clinton (citing Mario Cuomo, January 6, 2008).

The recent 2008 United States presidential election has been labeled historic, momentous, exciting, incredible, and even shocking. The somewhat overwhelming cacophony of media pundits, journalists, political commentators, and senior campaign staffers has provided over two years of commentary about the election, the candidates, and the leadership potential, experience, and background of the primary contenders. Noticeably absent from this dialogue, however, have been the voices of leadership scholars and researchers who develop, discuss, and test theories to describe and understand leadership. In addition, much of the commentary surrounding the presidential candidates remains primarily focused on the personal characteristics of the leaders themselves (e.g., Gibbs, 2008), with less attention paid to aspects of followers and the contextual backdrop of the election in understanding perceptions of leadership. The purpose of this essay is to explore the application of charismatic leadership theory to the 2008 presidential election, in hopes of inspiring future dialog about how leadership theory can inform the critical process of how we evaluate and ultimately elect public leaders.

In the following sections, we explore the application of charismatic leadership theory to the election of Barack Obama. We have chosen charismatic leadership not because it is the only leadership theory, or even necessarily the most appropriate leadership theory,

: +1 909 621 8905. igh), [email protected] (J.C. Kohles).

All rights reserved.

484 M.C. Bligh, J.C. Kohles / The Leadership Quarterly 20 (2009) 483492

for understanding the events as they unfolded in the recent election. On the contrary, many leadership perspectives and theories could inspire fruitful discussion surrounding the characteristics and potential effectiveness of political leaders, and therefore build needed bridges between leadership theory and the real world leadership and followership issues of the 21st century. In addition, there were of course numerous other major factors that came into play in this election, including Obama’s significant monetary advantage, demographic shifts, voter registration issues, the impact of the controversial choice of Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin, among many others, that we acknowledge were likely critical in understanding this historic election.

Charismatic leadership is ideally suited to our purposes for three reasons. First, due in part to its longstanding historical and sociological roots, it is a perspective that highlights the simultaneous roles of leaders, followers, and the situation in understanding leadership processes. In contrast, the dialogue around leadership is still primarily leader-focused, and the majority of political commentary continues to focus on aspects of leaders rooted in the trait-based Great Man approaches of the last century. Thus, one of our goals is to focus more attention on the equally important aspects of follower perceptions and moods, as well as situational contingencies, in evaluating leadership and leadership outcomes.

Second, charismatic leadership theory has been argued to be increasingly relevant to situations in which there is a large social distance between leaders and followers (Shamir, 1995). Therefore, it is well-suited to our purposes, as it is difficult to imagine a situation of greater social distance between leaders and followers than the election of a national leader. And third, we have utilized this theory in the past to explore perceptions of political leaders (see Bligh, Kohles, & Meindl, 2004a,b; Bligh, Kohles, & Pillai, 2005), presenting empirical evidence that charismatic leadership theory may be particularly relevant in crisis situations (e.g., President George W. Bush after 9/11) and when an outside candidate has demonstrated charismatic potential (e.g., Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in the California Recall Election). Therefore, we argue that it is particularly relevant in helping us understand how a relatively inexperienced African American political outsider could ascend to the US presidency.

In this essay, we hope to illustrate how charismatic leadership theory helps us understand the events that transpired in the historical election of 2008. We do so humbly, in full recognition of the fact that we speak from the safe pedestal of now knowing the outcome of the election, and with the clarity of vision that often reaches its zenith only with the benefit of hindsight. Thus, we hope to retain a sense of humility in this analysis; the 2008 election was close, complex, and riddled with experts ultimately proven both wrong and right (e.g., Why Obama Can’t Win Author Curses Stupid Silly Title; Neyfakh, 2008). In addition, we hope to present our analyses free of party rancor and biased partisanship. Indeed, if there is one thing the 2008 election has taught us, it is that the perceptual blinders of party affiliation are alive and well. Analysis of the same objective leadership behavior on media outlets leaning left or right on the political spectrum reminds us that processes of selective interpretation, social contagion, and projection continually surround even the most mundane leader behaviors. In this context, the fragmentation and polarization of different types of media make the role of academic analysis more important today than ever before. As consumers are increasingly free to choose media sources that reflect their own values, assumptions, and biases, there is a real danger of increasing polarization according to political party that can potentially negate most apolitical discussions of leadership altogether. For instance, a Zogby poll conducted two days after the 2008 election indicates that Americans rate the internet as the most trusted news medium over TV and print media combined, and Fox News the most trusted TV source. In addition, the online survey of 3472 adults found that three out of four people think that the media influenced the outcome of the election, and approximately the same number reported that they think the media in general is biased (Snyder, 2008).

Finally, we conclude our essay with some brief speculation, acknowledging that the ultimate relevance of the scientific application of leadership theory to real-life outcomes must make accurate predictions about the future in order to earn its place in the popular vernacular. We offer some suggestions, grounded in leadership theory, regarding what Obama needs to do to demonstrate, both symbolically and through concerted action, that he can eventually become the effective president 53% of Americans believed in and hoped for on Election Day.

1. Understanding the 2008 election: the three lenses of charismatic leadership theory

First introduced by German sociologist Max Weber, the word charisma comes from the Greek word (kharisma), meaning gift or divine favor. Following this original definition, charisma commonly refers to a leader with powerful personal appeal or magnetism that captivates others. The exact nature of this appeal is ephemeral, and is often referenced in quotes to convey its ambiguous or ethereal nature in popular descriptions. For example: Obama offers that something call it charm, charisma, a positive vision for the future, a voice for empowerment, a role model for youth Obama has it. (The Clarion Ledger, November 2, 2008).

Barack Obama has been described as follows:

An early Obama campaign slogan declared, We are the ones we’ve been waiting for. His critics deemed such rhetoric as too ethereal. Now it seems prescient, as the nation confronts a financial crisis of historic proportions, as well as all the other policy failures and debt-fueled excesses of the last eight years. The United States has to dig itself out. Barack Obama is the one to lead the way. (The Boston Globe, October 13, 2008; cited in WSJ, 2008).

On the other hand, rival Republican contender John McCain was endorsed as follows:

Democrat Barack Obama is a great orator. His message of hope and change is inspirational. Republican John McCain isn’t an inspiring speaker, which is one reason his running mate, Sarah Palin, seems to draw more attention than McCain himself.

485M.C. Bligh, J.C. Kohles / The Leadership Quarterly 20 (2009) 483492

But being president is about more than inspiring Americans. It’s about leadership. The choice between McCain and Obama comes down to one of experience (cited in WSJ, 2008).

As represented in these popular media endorsements, this approach to charisma emphasizes heroic leaders with that something, often encapsulated in their dynamic, dramatic personalities. When not referred to as that something, the term charisma itself has frequently been applied to describe an energetic and youthful Obama, from well before his bid for the presidency was announced (see Babington, 2006) to help explain after the election why his presidential bid ultimately succeeded (see Smith, 2008). In contrast, his less dynamic rival, John McCain, was described as ill-suited to lecterns, and his reputation as not a great orator only served to heighten the differences between the candidates in light of Obama’s ability to dazzle on stage (Leibovich, 2008).

Reproductive Governance, Reproductive Justice instant essay help: instant essay help


PO Box 311020 Atlanta, Georgia 31131 404.344.9629 (Office)

404.346.7517 (Fax) Email: [email protected]


Understanding Reproductive Justice

SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Health Collective

Loretta J. Ross, National Coordinator May 2006


Since the early 1990s, a number of groups, primarily those led by women of color, were thinking about the intersections of class, race, and gender issues in reproductive politics. Women of color coined the term Reproductive Justice in 1994 after the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The first step towards the reproductive justice framework occurred two months after the September Cairo conference. A group of African-American women (some of whom became SisterSong co-founders) spontaneously organized an informal Black Womens Caucus at a national pro-choice conference sponsored by the Illinois Pro-Choice Alliance in Chicago in 1994 and created the term Reproductive Justice. Reproductive justice, at that time, was defined as reproductive health integrated into social justice. Reproductive justice was further developed as an intersectional theory emerging from the experiences of women of color whose communities experience reproductive oppression. It is based on the understanding that the impact on women of color of race, class and gender are not additive but integrative, producing this paradigm of intersectionality. The concept of reproductive justice was further elaborated in a seminal paper written by Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice in 2005. ACRJ strengthened the Reproductive Justice analysis by analyzing the three main frameworks for fighting reproductive oppression: 1) Reproductive Health which deals with service delivery, 2) Reproductive Rights which address the legal regime, and 3) Reproductive Justice which focuses on movement building.

This background paper will address the following topics to help the reader understand the concept of Reproductive Justice by addressing the following questions: 1) What is Reproductive Justice? 2) How did the Reproductive Justice framework evolve? 3) How does SisterSong popularize the Reproductive Justice framework? 4) How does Reproductive Justice connect U.S. issues to global issues? 5) How can Reproductive Justice transform the Pro-Choice Movement? What is Reproductive Justice? Co-published by SisterSong and created by ACRJ, a new vision of Reproductive Justice is serving as the foundation for efforts to address reproductive oppression at the national, state and local level. The intersectional theory of Reproductive Justice is described as the complete physical, mental, spiritual, political, social, environmental and economic well-being of women and girls, girls, based on the full achievement and protection of womens human rights. It offers a new perspective on reproductive issue advocacy, pointing out that as Indigenous women and women of color it is important to fight equally for (1) the right to have a child; (2) the right not to have a child; and (3) the right to parent the children we have, as well as to control our birthing options, such as midwifery. We also fight for the necessary



SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Health Collective April 2006

enabling conditions to realize these rights. This is in contrast to the singular focus on abortion by the pro- choice movement.

Reproductive Justice posits that the ability of any woman to determine her own reproductive destiny is directly linked to the conditions in her community and these conditions are not just a matter of individual choice and access. Reproductive justice is an intentional impulse to shape the competing ideals of equality and the social reality of inequality. Reproductive justice points out the inequality of opportunity in controlling our reproductive destiny. Reproductive Justice helps make the connections between women and their families, and the conditions necessary for women to make reproductive decisions about their lives: opportunities to work at living wages, opportunities for affordable quality education, responsible and accessible public services such as good health care, quality schools, and accessible and affordable child care, freedom from personal and state violence, and environmentally safe communities. One of the key problems addressed by Reproductive Justice is the isolation of abortion from other social justice issues that concern communities of color. Abortion isolated from other social justice/human rights issues neglects issues of economic justice, the environment, immigrants rights, disability rights, discrimination based on race and sexual orientation, and a host of other community-centered concerns directly affecting an individual womans decision making process. By shifting the definition of the problem to one of reproductive oppression (the control and exploitation of women, girls, and individuals through our bodies, sexuality, labor, and reproduction) rather than a narrow focus on protecting the legal right to abortion, we are developing a more inclusive vision of how to move forward in building a new movement. Because reproductive oppression affects womens lives in multiple ways, a multi-pronged approach is needed to fight this exploitation and advance the well-being of women and girls. There are three main frameworks for fighting reproductive oppression: 1) Reproductive Health which deals with service delivery, 2) Reproductive Rights which address the legal regime, and 3) Reproductive Justice which focuses on movement building. Although the frameworks are distinct in their approach, they work in tandem with each other to provide a complementary and comprehensive solution. Ultimately, as in any movement, all three components of service, advocacy and organizing are crucial to advancing the movement. (See Reproductive Justice report from Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice available at

Previous models do not adequately address the multiple systems that contribute to reproductive oppression, nor do they help develop strategies to engage all women and their communities in ending reproductive oppression. The reproductive health framework, a service delivery model which identifies the lack of access to reproductive health services as the core problem, does not address the root causes of health disparities. The reproductive rights framework, a legal and advocacy-based model that works to protect an individual womans legal right to reproductive health care services, fails to take into account the social contexts in which individuals make choices and ignores communities that have historically been disenfranchised. Reproductive Justice is a base-building analysis that focuses on organizing women, girls and their communities to challenge structural power inequalities in a comprehensive and transformative process of empowerment. The Reproductive Justice analysis offers a compelling and more defensible framework for empowering women and girls and is relevant to every American family. Instead of focusing on the means a divisive debate on abortion and birth control that neglects the real-life experiences of women and girls the reproductive justice analysis focuses on the ends: better lives for women, healthier families, and sustainable communities. This is a clear and consistent message for the movement. Using this analysis,




SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Health Collective April 2006

we can integrate multiple issues and bring together constituencies that are multi-racial, multi-generational, and multi-class in order to build a more powerful and relevant grassroots movement.

How Did the Reproductive Justice Framework Evolve? The timeline below explains the evolution of the term Reproductive Justice, showing how it differs from the reproductive rights standards from the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. Not only is Reproductive Justice a paradigm shift, it is also meant to be used as a bridge-building connector and applied only to the United States because of our history of American exceptionalism that has limited our national familiarity with the human rights framework, even among social justice movements. It is likely that this term (like the term women of color) will not have universal applicability beyond our borders. Reproductive justice is a U.S.-specific expression of the reproductive health and sexual rights standards from the Cairo conference and represents a more nuanced understanding of what the agreements from Cairo and Beijing did and did not — contain. It is more widely embraced in the United States because it most closely correlates with our familiarity with the terms reproductive rights and social justice. 1984 The first International Women and Health Meeting (IWHM) was organized by feminists in 1975. Since then, the meeting held every three years has continued to provide women’s health advocates a forum to develop and shape the international women’s health agenda from the ground up. The IWHM has its roots in the global women’s movement and includes a wide range of organizations, networks, and grassroots women’s groups. The 1984 IWHM in Amsterdam developed the term Reproductive Rights to offer rights-based claims for gender equality and reproductive freedom. According to the Womens Global Network for Reproductive Rights which grew out of the Amsterdam meeting, reproductive rights are a series of rights that enable all women – without discrimination on the basis of nationality, class, ethnicity, race, age, religion, disability, sexuality or marital status – to decide whether or not to have children. This includes the right to have access to safe, legal abortion. This articulation of a legal regime of reproductive rights was in opposition to the Mexico City Policy announced by President Reagan in 1984 that required nongovernmental organizations to agree as a condition of their receipt of Federal funds that such organizations would neither perform nor actively promote abortion as a method of family planning in other nations. This policy was in effect until it was rescinded on January 22, 1993 by President Clinton, and then re-instated by George W. Bush in January 2001, now called the Global Gag Rule. The relationship between international bans on abortion and domestic restrictions was painfully clear, particularly since at that time in the U.S., Reagan had promised to promote a Human Life Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would have totally prohibited abortions. This definition of reproductive rights was popular in the United States because it emphasized individual rights (a concept familiar to Americans based on the U.S. Constitution), but it did not make the explicit connection between an individual woman and the status of her community. 1993 Feminists at the 1993 Vienna Human Rights Conference declared that Womens Rights are Human Rights. This was a phrase originally coined by Filipino activists in Gabriela in 1984 who were challenging the Marcos dictatorship in the mid-1980s. Feminists in Vienna organized by the Center for Womens Global Leadership at Rutgers confronted the traditional Western-oriented human rights movement and its failure to understand gender-specific human rights violations. Feminists from the North and South understood that making claims for civil and political rights for women were not enough; they pointed out that social, economic and cultural subordination of women place women at greater risk of human rights violations than men. Gender inequality is the basis of sexual inequality and sexual inequality is a human rights violation. Through this declaration, feminists changed the course and basic paradigm of the human rights movement. First, civil and political rights were re-connected to economic, social and cultural rights (a linkage that was severed by Cold War politics and beyond the scope of this paper to address). The declaration also claimed that women deserve both public and private enjoyment of




SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Health Collective April 2006

human rights. It affirmed the power of collective or group rights. Women as a group are more vulnerable to human rights violations in the private sphere whereas men are more vulnerable in the public arena. They used as a powerfully unifying example the concept of domestic violence that historically had been exempted from human rights claims because the violence occurs at the hands of a private individual, not a state. Until then, the dominant perception was that human rights claims could only be made against state actors to address violations by the government. In declaring that human rights violations could occur in either public or private spheres, the Womens Rights as Human Rights declaration set the stage for fast- moving developments in both the human rights movement and the global womens movement. 1994 The term Sexual Rights was created by the international womens health movement in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development but was rejected for inclusion in the Cairo Programme of Action because of opposition by conservative and fundamentalist countries. Instead the term Reproductive Rights was included in the Programme as a way to reach consensus among the womens rights, health advocates, and the population establishment to counter the united opposition of conservatives and fundamentalists who feared the direct assault on gender inequality offered by the sexual rights claims of feminists. The primary consensus reached at Cairo was the link made between development, poverty and reproductive health. As many of the Cairo participants noted, the lack of sexual health for women results from poverty as well as gender inequality, particularly in sexual relationships, such as with HIV/AIDS and violence against women. This was another explicit acknowledgement of the connection between the achievement of individual human rights and community conditions that may limit or enhance those rights. Although some of the participants from the U.S. and Europe were more concerned about reducing population growth pressures, feminist reproductive health activists challenged them to take the concept of development as seriously as they expressed concerns about population reduction through managing the fertility of women. This exposed a serious rift within the reproductive rights movement between those who supported family planning as a womans right and those who supported it as a population control strategy, a critical distinction women of color in particular pointed out. Cairo became an excellent example of how international conferences have a direct impact on the lives of women and girls in the United States. Because the ICPD took place during the Clinton Administration, it offered a rare and unprecedented opportunity for cooperation between grassroots activists and the federal government at an international conference. Feminists had significant input into the selection of the U.S. delegation to Cairo, as well as the opportunity to influence the language of the agreements. This debate on sexual rights in Cairo bore fruit one year later at the Beijing Conference. 1995 The Beijing Fourth World Conference for Women catalyzed special prominence for Sexual Rights as a central issue by declaring that the achievement of sexual rights requires gender equality. The meanings of these concepts were hotly debated in Beijing. This was despite incredible pressure from fundamentalists around the world (including the United States) who were uncomfortable with discussing sex and sexuality. The central debate was whether women should be allowed to make independent sexual decisions. The fundamentalists did succeed, however, in keeping advocacy for sexual freedom, sexual pleasure and sexual orientation formally out of the Beijing agreements that focused instead on sexual health services. They were joined by representatives of the global South who were concerned that the progressive articulation and definition of sexual rights by feminists would undermine family relations, especially gender inequalities. They believed that debates on sexual orientation would divert attention from the link between sexual health and poverty. There were Global South groups that supported Sexual Rights at Beijing, and sexual orientation was initially included in the Beijing preparatory documents but eventually excluded from the Beijing agreement because of the concerns noted above. In another key concession, proponents of sexual rights claimed that affirming sexual rights did not mean creating a new set of rights, but they were contained and inferred from other existing human rights documents. They said that sexual rights are human rights already recognized in international agreements and national laws.

Politics, of the body and in government service compare and contrast essay help

Refer to at least three of the learning resources for the week in your response to one or more of the questions below. Include specific examples from your life, history, the news, or the media.

What does it mean to you to say that “the personal is the political?”

What are some of the ways women can gain political power? Why is it important for women to have a voice in government and policy? Why is it important that women exercise their right to vote?

What reasons does Susan B. Anthony give in for why women need to be acknowledged as citizens with equal rights (including the right to vote) under the constitution?

Should women be considered as a voting group? What are the arguments for and against thinking about women as a single constituency?

What do you think would be the most effective way to move more women into political office, particularly on the national level?

Did this reading help you gain a different understanding of the term “body politics?” How are women’s bodies politicized?

How are gender roles and expectations connected to violence against women? What role do governments and political organizations have in finding solutions?

Why is reproductive choice such a controversial political issue? Do you think the fact that most issues of reproductive choice center on women and womens bodies have contributed to the belief that government has a role to play in managing reproductive choice? Are there any aspects of male health or sexuality that are equally politicized? Should it be a political issue at all?

Margaret Sangers campaign to legalize birth control was met with sometimes violent protest by those who objected that she was essentially promoting lewd behavior. Why do you think people were so strongly against her campaign? What were people worried would happen if women gained access to birth control?

Like Margaret Sanger, feminism (and Women’s Studies) has traditionally supported a pro-choice position on abortion. Do you agree with this position? What would a pro-life feminist position look like?

Original Post: Provide your initial post which responds to the Discussion prompt by 11:59 pm on friday. Initial question responses posted after friday but before the end of the class week on Tuesday earn a maximum of 70/80 possible points for the original post. Your initial post should be at least 250-300 words in length, excluding the discussion prompt and the references. Posts should engage meaningfully with at least three assigned learning resources.

References: Use APA parenthetical citations in your text and include a reference list at the end of your post. When you refer to and/or discuss any resources, you need to include a citation for that source, such as: (Braincraft, 2015).

Women in Politics: A very short history

Constitutional Argument: Speech After Being Convicted Of Voting
In The 1872 Presidential Election

Graves, K. (2020, September 10. Womens political participation after 1920: myth and reality. National Women’s History Museum (NWHM).

Milestones for women in American politics. (2021). Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP).

Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP). (n.d.). Current numbers.

Facts and figures: Womens leadership and political participation

Tarr-Whelan, L. (2010). The impact of the Beijing Platform for Action 1995 to 2010. Human Rights, 37(3), 223.

Kang, M., Lessard, D., Heston, L., & Nordmarken, S. (2017). Medicine, health, and reproductive justice. Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies.

Croft, L. H. (2019). Margaret Sanger. Salem Press Biographical Encyclopedia.

Intersectionality in real life: an interview with Loretta Ross. (2008). Against the Current, 23(1), 2526.

Ending violence against women. (2021). UN Women.

Statistics. (2021). National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV).

Professional leadership in social care high school essay help: high school essay help

Presentation on power point:

The project should be carried out in a collaborative manner. All participants should have opportunities to contribute, all voices should be heard

Discussion should identify key themes in case studies related to social locations and addressing oppressions; linking practice and personal experience to theory

The group should give an appropriate visual form to this discussion, attempting to synthesise main points of the discussion

The group should present the work to the lecturer, explaining the process and the outcome of their work together


The purpose of this assignment is to enable you to develop your own thinking about managing and leading in the broad social care sector and share your insights with each other as students on this module.


Each of you is required to prepare and facilitate one 40min online class period to your fellow students on a topic from the list below on a designated date.

What Du Bois means by double-consciousness assignment help sydney

The attached is the reading that covers the below answer to the question

Required Textbooks:

Social Theory Re-Wired edited by Weley Longhofer and Daniel Winchester (2nd edition)

Assignment 3: 300 word minimum

What does Du Bois mean by double-consciousness and how does this concept play out in his own experience? Provide examples of how this occurs in one’s life, perhaps draw from your own experiences.

The Progression and Regression of Civil Rights popular mba argumentative essay help

300 words

The 1960s marked a period of civil rights that were expanded in the 1970s. However, in the late 1980s, these efforts seemed to take a different direction, with a more conservative Supreme Court.

Given the current composition of the Supreme Court:

Do you think civil rights continue to be reversed or expanded for certain groups? Support your claim with evidence from the scholarly or research literature.
Which groups may benefit from the current Supreme Court, and which groups may suffer? You may have to review current events to answer this part of the question.
Identify two different groups whose civil rights are suffering current infringement but may not be receiving public attention.
How does the NASW Policy Statement on Civil Liberties and Social Justice address these discrimination and equity issues?

Writing your Formal Research Assignment essay help tips: essay help tips

To prepare for writing your Formal Research Assignment, you will seek out5scholarly sources published within the last five years. (As you move into Week 3, you will need to collect additional sources as the requirement for the finalFormal Research Assignment is7-9current, scholarly sources.) By submitting the first five here, you will have the benefit of instructor feedback on the appropriateness and usefulness of the sources. You will also receive feedback on the construction of the APA reference entries.Each entry should consist of an APA formatted reference and an annotation of 150-175 words composed in third person point of view. The annotation must include:
A summary of the source, which will comprise about half of the annotation. In your own words, what is the focus of this source? What issues does it cover? What is its argument? What are its findings or conclusions?
One or two sentences explaining how the source is credible. For example: is the source current? Who is the author or publisher? What are the authors qualifications to write about this topic? Is the argument supported by current evidence? Has the source been peer-reviewed? Be specific.
One or two sentences that explains how you intend to use the source in your research. How does the source support, expand, or challenge your argument? Where will you integratethe source and for what purpose?

A theory of Generative Interactions popular mba argumentative essay help

Annotated Bibliography

Bernstein, R. S., Bulger, M., Salipante, P. & Weisinger, J. Y. (2020, December). From diversity

to inclusion to equity: A theory of Generative Interactions. Journal of Business Ethics,

167(3), 395-410.

This source explores the issue of continued challenges regarding diversity and inclusion.

Its main point is that inconsistencies in understanding diversity still exist. The source lists

self-segregation, communication apprehension, and stereotyping as the main causes of

persistent problems in diversity and infers that these problems undermine the ability to

overturn social phenomena. Generative interactions and adaptive cognitive processes two

concepts that can overturn the negative social phenomena, if implemented properly.

While the article promotes the idea of using favorable conditions to create change, it also

warns that unfavorable conditions must also be avoided. Some of the organizational

practices that support high-frequency and high-quality interactions are mixed-oncome

communities, youth organizations, nonprofit governing boards, and voluntary

associations. This source is credible because it is authored by multiple experts in the field

with academic credentials and was published in a peer-reviewed journal. This source is

useful for the research because it identifies the varied options available for overturning

the consistent and regular challenges found in attempting to create diversity and


Caldwell, C. & Peters, R. (2018). New employee onboarding-Psychological contracts and ethical

perspectives. The Journal of Management Development, 37(1), 27-39.

This source explores how ethical treatment of new employees streamlines the

psychological contract that occurs between employers and employees. In most cases,

onboarding practices do not take into account the value of the psychological contract and,

instead, look solely at the role of pay and benefits. This actually works against the hiring

process and can easily result in inefficiency in the organization. Employees who have

strong credentials and can offer the most to a company expect to be treated as an integral

part of the organization. In essence, the organization must create value-added options and

onboarding helps to generate the starting point for this action. Employees who do not feel

highly valued will opt to seek out an organization that does acknowledge and practice the

high-trust and personalized approach to the onboarding process. This source also

identifies 12 ethical perspectives, the virtuous continuum, and the ten-step model for

onboarding. The source is credible because it is authored by experts in the field and was

published in a peer-reviewed journal. The source is useful because it provides the

onboarding practices that can help make an organization successful by retaining quality


Commented [AMF1]: Alphabetize the entries.

Commented [AMF2]: Reference entries should follow the 7th edition of APA. The correct format can be located by Googling online scholarly journals APA and accessing the information found at the OWL at Purdue. Note that this format uses double space and a hanging indention. Pay close attention to the formatting for the different types of titles. Note that the sources for this assignment should only come from peer-reviewed journal articles that are no older than five years.

Commented [AMF3]: The narrative should include three components. The majority of the entry should be a summary of the source. You can see the summary in this example goes through line ten. The next sentence should be a statement of assessment or credibility. It should clearly indicate why the source is credible. The last sentence should identify how the source will be useful to the research. Be specific here. Indicate what the source contains (processes, statistics, accounts) that makes it useful for your research. Notice that the narrative is written solely in objective point of view, is single-spaced, and uses a half-inch indention for all lines.

Commented [AMF4]: The narrative should be 150-175 words.

Cesrio, F. & Chambel, M. J. (2019). On-boarding new employees: A three-component

perspective of welcoming. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 27(5), 1465-


This source explores the onboarding process, most specifically related to a structured

corporate welcome, a manager welcome, and coworker welcome. Based on the findings,

a strong effort multi-layered effort at onboarding using the three-component process will

more likely help to develop commitment by employees and foster camaraderie.

Promoting the three-component process generates strong hosting by all employee levels

and can strengthen the company, as a whole. Formal boarding processes generally are

already in place but the article encourages onboarding practices that also consider

manager and co-worker attitudes. When all employees have a healthy respect and

appreciation for one another, all support the success of the company. In turn, the

company helps to promote success in its employees. This source is credible because the

authors are directly associated with experts who hold academic credentials and because it

was published in a peer-reviewed journal. The source is useful because it offers a more

defined approach to inclusionary onboarding techniques.

Galetic, L. & Klindic, M. (2020, June). The role of benefits in sustaining HRM outcomes: An

empirical research study. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues,

25(1), 117-132.

This source address reward strategies that are aimed at retaining quality employees. High

motivation generally results in high organizational performance, but employees must be

provided the type of benefits that will generate action from them. Salary is usually the

most highly regarded aspect of compensation. However, benefits are still a considerable

element in the hiring process. Creating the right balance for employee compensation is a

crucial component of being able to onboard and retain highly competitive employees.

Employers who undervalue salary and benefits generally find that retaining quality

employees becomes more difficult and can affect the companys success. Some of the

findings reveal that absenteeism rates were lower when employees were offered non-

mandatory health insurance, remote work opportunities, and social activities. This source

is credible because it was published in a peer-reviewed journal. The source is useful to

the research because it highlights the opportune elements that can satisfy a new hire but

also address the potential for employee retention if the company effectively

communicates the benefits being offered.

Margallo, D. N., Billner-Garcia, R. & Bradley Kathleen. (2021). The show must go on: Using

technology for rapid onboarding and orientation during COVID-19 and beyond. The

Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 52(3), 115-117.

This source explores the opportunity to use technology for the onboarding process for

new hires in the middle of a pandemic and how best to navigate the challenges during this

type of crises and still make new employees feel that they are an integral part of the

organization. Intranet, mobile access, and the use of a hybrid model made it possible to

bring on new hires despite social distancing. Because the pandemic occurred so rapidly,

technology needed to be developed and integrated that would streamline the hiring

process in such a way as to ensure completion of requirements and to tailor individual

needs. This source also revealed that incorporating strong orientation skills could be

addressed easily while still keeping the overall satisfaction level for employer and

employees alike if development and design were carefully considered. This source is

credible because it was authored by experts in the field and was published in a peer-

reviewed journal. The source is useful because it highlights how one organization was

able to easily transition to remote onboarding and still be effective.

Self-Reflection in Becoming Ethically Professional essay help writer: essay help writer

reflect growth, change, professionalism, readiness to practice, and goals of your professional development. Use this assignment to demonstrate your use of knowledge, skills and values of the social work profession

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Bowen Family Systems Theory and Practice: Illustration

and Critique

By Jenny Brown

This paper will give an overview of Murray Bowens theory of family systems. It will describe the models

development and outline its core clinical components. The practice of therapy will be described as well as recent

developments within the model. Some key criticisms will be raised, followed by a case example which highlights

the therapeutic focus of Bowens approach.

This is the authors version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Australian Academic Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The

definitive version was published in Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy (ANZJFT) Vol.20 No.2 1999 pp 94-103).


Murray Bowen’s family systems theory (shortened to ‘Bowen theory’ from 1974) was one of the first

comprehensive theories of family systems functioning (Bowen, 1966, 1978, Kerr and Bowen, 1988). While it has

received sporadic attention in Australia and New Zealand, it continues to be a central influence in the practice of

family therapy in North America. It is possible that some local family therapists have been influenced by many of

Bowen’s ideas without the connection being articulated. For example, the writing of Guerin (1976, 1987), Carter

and McGoldrick (1980, 1988), Lerner (1986, 1988, 1990, 1993) and Schnarch (1991, 1997) all have Bowenian

Theory at the heart of their conceptualisations.

There is a pervasive view amongst many proponents of Bowen’s work that his theory needs to be experienced

rather than taught (Kerr, 1991). While this may be applicable if one can be immersed in the milieu of a Bowenian

training institute, such an option, to my knowledge, is not available in this country. Bowen’s own writings have

also been charged with being tedious and difficult to read (Carter, 1991). Hence it seems pertinent to present this

influential theory in an accessible format.

Development Of The Model

Murray Bowen was born in 1913 in Tennessee and died in 1990.

He trained as a psychiatrist and originally practised within the psychoanalytic model. At the Menninger Clinic in

the late 1940s, he had started to involve mothers in the investigation and treatment of schizophrenic patients. His

devotion to his own psychoanalytic training was set aside after his move to the National Institute of Mental Health

(NIMH) in 1954, as he began to shift from an individual focus to an appreciation of the dimensions of families as

systems. At the NIMH, Bowen began to include more family members in his research and psychotherapy with

schizophrenic patients. In 1959 he moved to Georgetown University and established the Georgetown Family

Centre (where he was director until his death). It was here that his developing theory was extended to less

severe emotional problems. Between 1959 and 1962 he undertook detailed research into families across several



generations. Rather than developing a theory about pathology, Bowen focused on what he saw as the common

patterns of all ‘human emotional systems’. With such a focus on the qualitative similarities of all families, Bowen

was known to say frequently, ‘There is a little schizophrenia in all of us’ (Kerr and Bowen, 1988).

In 1966, Bowen published the first ‘orderly presentation’ of his developing ideas (Bowen, 1978: xiii). Around the

same time he used his concepts to guide his intervention in a minor emotional crisis in his own extended family,

an intervention which he describes as a spectacular breakthrough for him in theory and practice (Bowen, 1972 in

Bowen, 1978). In 1967, he surprised a national family therapy conference by talking about his own family

experience, rather than presenting the anticipated formal paper. Bowen proceeded to encourage students to

work on triangles and intergenerational patterns in their own families of origin rather than undertaking individual

psychotherapy. From this generation of trainees have come the current leaders of Bowenian Therapy, such as

Michael Kerr at the Georgetown Family Center, Philip Guerin at the Center for Family Learning, Betty Carter at

the Family Institute of Westchester, and Monica McGoldrick at the [Multicultural] Family Institute of New Jersey.

While the core concepts of Bowen’s theory have changed little over two decades, there have been significant

expansions: the focus on life cycle stages (Carter and McGoldrick, 1980, 1988) and the incorporation of a

feminist lens (Carter, Walters, Papp, Silverstein, 1988; Lerner, 1983; Bograd, 1987).

The Theory

Bowen’s focus was on patterns that develop in families in order to defuse anxiety. A key generator of anxiety in

families is the perception of either too much closeness or too great a distance in a relationship. The degree of

anxiety in any one family will be determined by the current levels of external stress and the sensitivities to

particular themes that have been transmitted down the generations. If family members do not have the capacity

to think through their responses to relationship dilemmas, but rather react anxiously to perceived emotional

demands, a state of chronic anxiety or reactivity may be set in place.

The main goal of Bowenian therapy is to reduce chronic anxiety by

1. facilitating awareness of how the emotional system functions; and

2. increasing levels of differentiation, where the focus is on making changes for the self rather than on

trying to change others.

Eight interlocking concepts make up Bowen’s theory. This paper will give an overview of seven of these. The

eighth attempts to link his theory to the evolution of society, and has little relevance to the practice of his therapy.

[However, Wylie (1991) points out in her biographical piece following Bowen’s death that this interest in

evolutionary process distinguishes Bowen from other family therapy pioneers. Bowen viewed himself as a

scientist, with the lofty aim of developing a theory that accounted for the entire range of human behaviour and its


1 – Emotional Fusion and Differentiation of Self

2 – Triangles

3 – Nuclear Family Emotional System

3a. Couple Conflict

3b. Symptoms in a Spouse

3c. Symptoms in a Child

4 – Family Projection Process

5 – Emotional Cutoff

6 – Multi-generational Transmission Process



7 – Sibling Positions

1 – Emotional Fusion and Differentiation of Self

‘Fusion’ or ‘lack of differentiation’ is where individual choices are set aside in the service of achieving harmony

within the system.

Fusion can be expressed either as:

* a sense of intense responsibility for another’s reactions, or

* by emotional ‘cutoff’ from the tension within a relationship (Kerr and Bowen, 1988; Herz Brown, 1991).

Bowen’s research led him to suggest that varying degrees of fusion are discernible in all families. ‘Differentiation’,

by contrast, is described as the capacity of the individual to function autonomously by making self directed

choices, while remaining emotionally connected to the intensity of a significant relationship system (Kerr and

Bowen, 1988). Bowen’s notion of fusion has a different focus to Minuchin’s concept of enmeshment, which is

based on a lack of boundary between sub-systems (Minuchin, 1974). The structural terms ‘enmeshment’ and

‘disengagement’ are in fact the twin polarities of Bowen’s ‘fusion’. Fusion describes each person’s reactions within

a relationship, rather than the overall structure of family relationships. Hence, anxiously cutting off the relationship

is as much a sign of fusion as intense submissiveness. A person in a fused relationship reacts immediately (as if

with a reflex, knee jerk response) to the perceived demands of another person, without being able to think

through the choices or talk over relationship matters directly with the other person. Energy is invested in taking

things personally (ensuring the emotional comfort of another), or in distancing oneself (ensuring one’s own). The

greater a family’s tendency to fuse, the less flexibility it will have in adapting to stress.

Bowen developed the idea of a ‘differentiation of self scale’ to assist in teaching this concept. He points out that

this was not designed as an actual instrument for assigning people to particular levels (Kerr and Bowen, 1988:

97-98). Bowen maintains that the speculative nature of estimating a level of differentiation is compounded by

factors such as stress levels, individual differences in reactivity to different stressors, and the degree of contact

individuals have with their extended family. At one end of the scale, hypothetical ‘complete differentiation’ is said

to exist in a person who has resolved their emotional attachment to their family (ie. shifted out of their roles in

relationship triangles) and can therefore function as an individual within the family group.

Bowen did acknowledge that this was a lifelong process and that ‘total’ differentiation is not possible to attain.

2 – Triangles

Bowen described triangles as the smallest stable relationship unit (Kerr and Bowen, 1988: 135). The process of

triangling is central to his theory. (Some people use the term ‘triangulation’, deriving from Minuchin (1974: 102),

but Bowen always spoke of ‘triangling’.) Triangling is said to occur when the inevitable anxiety in a dyad is

relieved by involving a vulnerable third party who either takes sides or provides a detour for the anxiety (Lerner,

1988; James, 1989; Guerin, Fogarty, Fay and Kautto, 1996). An example of this pattern would be when Person A

in a marriage begins feeling uncomfortable with too much closeness to Person B. S/he may begin withdrawing,

perhaps to another activity such as work (the third point of the triangle). Person B then pursues Person A, which

results in increased withdrawal to the initial triangled-in person or activity. Person B then feels neglected and

seeks out an ally who will sympathise with his/her sense of exclusion. This in turn leads to Person A feeling like

the odd one out and moving anxiously closer to Person B. Under stress, the triangling process feeds on itself and

interlocking triangles are formed throughout the system. This can spill over into the wider community, when family

members find allies, or enemies to unite against, such as doctors, teachers and therapists.

Under calm conditions it is difficult to identify triangles but they emerge clearly under stress. Triangles are linked

closely with Bowen’s concept of differentiation, in that the greater the degree of fusion in a relationship, the more

heightened is the pull to preserve emotional stability by forming a triangle. Bowen did not suggest that the

process of triangling was necessarily dysfunctional, but the concept is a useful way of grasping the notion that the

original tension gets acted out elsewhere. Triangling can become problematic when a third party’s involvement

distracts the members of a dyad from resolving their relationship impasse. If a third party is drawn in, the focus

shifts to criticising or worrying about the new outsider, which in turn prevents the original complainants from



resolving their tension. According to Bowen, triangles tend to repeat themselves across generations. When one

member of a relationship triangle departs or dies, another person can be drawn into the same role (eg. ‘villain’,

‘rescuer’, ‘victim’, ‘black sheep’, ‘martyr’). For example, in my own family of origin I found myself moving into the

role of peacemaker after the death of my mother, who had mediated the tension between my father and brother.

This ongoing triangle served to detour the anxiety that had been played out between fathers and sons in the

family over the generations.

3 – Nuclear Family Emotional System

In positing the ‘nuclear family emotional system’, Bowen focuses on the impact of ‘undifferentiation’ on the

emotional functioning of a single generation family. He asserts that relationship fusion, which leads to triangling,

is the fuel for symptom formation which is manifested in one of three categories. These are:

a. couple conflict;

b. illness in a spouse;

c. projection of a problem onto one or more children.

Each of these is expanded below.

Structural Family Therapy Discussion devry tutorcom essay help

Therapy Matters : Structural Family Therapy

Structural Family Therapy

Arlene Vetere

Structural Family Therapy was developed by Salvador Minuchin and

colleagues during the 1960s as part of the growing interest in systemic

ways of conceptualising human distress and relationship dilemmas, and in

working therapeutically with those natural systems and relationships,

thought to give rise to distress. Structural family therapy is underpinned by

a clearly articulated model of family functioning, and has been developed

and used most consistently in services for children and families. A growing

body of empirical evidence attests to the efficacy of structural family

therapy. As an approach it was extensively critiqued during the 1980s by

feminist writers and during the 1990s by those interested in the

implications of a social constructionist position. Structural family therapy

continues to evolve in response to challenges mounted from within and

outwith the systemic field, and as part of integrative practice and multi-

systemic approaches, with practitioners ever mindful of the need for

regular feedback from family members themselves.

Keywords : Structural family therapy


Structural family therapy is a body of theory and

techniques that approaches individuals in their social and

relational contexts. It was developed in the context of

therapeutic work with families and young people. It is

predicated on family systems theory, and brings with it

many of the strengths and weaknesses associated with the

appropriation of general system theory (von Bertalanffy,

1968) into the realm of social behaviour. This article

reflects my interpretation of structural family theory and

therapy, modified by my longstanding and continuing use

of the ideas and methods. For me, the central creative

thesis of structural family therapy is embodied within the

paradigm shift of the relational therapies, that distress can

be understood not only in the context of the relationships

within which it arises and is maintained, but also in seeing

the potential for relationships to be the cause of distress.

The excitement and challenge of structural family therapy

is in the focus on family members interaction and in the

broad definition of communication to be more than what

we say and the way in which we say it.

Structural family therapy is an approach mainly identified

with the work and writing of Salvador Minuchin, although

many other influential thinkers have worked in association

with the development of the ideas, such as Jay Haley,

Braulio Montalvo, Lynn Hoffman, Marianne Walters,

Charles Fishman and George Simon. Many of the

concepts are familiar, such as family rules, roles, co-

alitions, triangulation of conflict, subsystems and bound-

aries, organisation, feedback, stability and change. How-

ever, the thinking and practice of a structural family

therapist will likely be characterised by formulation of

family members difficulties in terms of family structure

and dynamic organisation and a preference for working in

the here and now. At this point, I wish to note that in my

experience in the UK, few working family therapists

adhere rigidly to one school of thought ; rather an

integrated pragmatic approach to conceptualisation and

practice is more likely, with a consideration of the fit

between family members style and preferences, therapist

style and the nature of the difficulties driving the domi-

nance of one family therapy model over another. Nor

would I want this article to reflect the view that family

therapy, of whatever approach, is always the treatment of

choice when confronted with human distress. It may be

the treatment of choice, or it may be part of an integrated

package of care.

Model of change

The term structure refers to the organisational charac-

teristics of the family at any point in time, the family

subsystems, and the overt and covert rules that are said to

Arlene Vetere

Child and Family


The Tavistock Centre,

120 Belsize Lane,

London NW3 5BA

Child Psychology & Psychiatry Review Volume 6, No. 3, 2001 133

Therapy Matters : Structural Family Therapy

influence interpersonal choices and behaviours in the

family. Thus an aim of this therapy is to alter the

organisational patterns, particularly where the modes of

communication are thought to be unhelpful and where

behaviours are considered to be abusive and neglectful or

to have the potential to be so. When the structure of the

relational group changes, the positions of members in the

group changes. Thus it is said, each individuals experience

changes and therein lies the potential to alleviate symp-

tomatic distress. Structural family therapy works with the

processes of feedback between circumstances and the

people involved, tracking how changes made to our

circumstances feedback into choices and decisions about

further change.

This is a competence model, encouraging people to explore

the edges of their known repertoires of responding,

assuming that family members have the ability to innovate

and draw on less tapped interpersonal and intrapersonal

resources. Enactment as a structural family therapy

technique is seen as central to this model of change

(Simon, 1995) i.e., encouraging family members to prob-

lem solve and generate alternative responses to each other

in the relative safety of the therapeutic relationship. Thus

intervention is promoted at three levels : challenging

symptomatic behaviour, challenging the family structure,

and challenging family belief systems. The therapy is

based on the tenet of action preceding understanding, and

vice versa, with the use of cognitive techniques such as

reframing. Family members are encouraged to think

beyond symptomatic behaviours and current complaints

and see their behaviour and choices in the context of

family structures and process and in the relationships

between the family group and other societal systems. The

structural family therapy model of change does not

exclude other models of change and structural therapists

can work alongside other therapeutic approaches to

change as part of a co-ordinated package of care.

Principal features of structural family theory

The theory is based on the clinical experience of Minuchin

and his associates with families in distress. The devel-

opment of the theory can be traced through their major

publications : Families of the slums (1967), which focused

on issues of parental authority and leadership in Black

American women who headed lone parent families where

children were in trouble with the law ; Families and family

therapy (1974), which outlined the key constructs, such as

enmeshment and disengagement ; Psychosomatic families

(1978), where conflict, its avoidance and resolution, and

styles of parent-child interaction are described ; Family

therapy techniques (1981), which detailed the different

techniques of structural family therapy ; Family kaleido-

scope (1984), which brought family systems thinking to a

general readership ; and Mastering family therapy (1996),

which provided a revision of some of the earlier principles

and methods of the approach.

The key features of the approach can be summarised thus :

E The family is seen as a psychosocial system, embedded

within wider social systems, which functions through

transactional patterns : these transactions establish

patterns of how, when and to whom to relate, and they

underpin the system;

E The family tasks are carried out within bounded

subsystems ;

E Such subsystems are made up of individuals on a

temporary or more permanent basis, and members can

be part of one or more subsystems, within which their

roles will differ ;

E Subsystems are organised hierarchically in a way that

regulates power within and between subsystems ;

E Cohesiveness and adaptability are key characteristics

of the family group, within which the balance between

emotional connectedness and developing autonomy is

seen to change as family members mature and live

through life cycle transitions.

Minuchin writes about family structure metaphorically, as

a device for describing family interaction in the here and

now. His writing is less concerned with how family

members evolve their interactional style and negotiate

their interpersonal tasks and expectations. The boundaries

of a subsystem are said to be the rules defining who

participates and how. The function of boundaries is to

protect the differentiation of the subsystem. Every family

subsystem is said to have specific tasks and make specific

demands on its members ; and the development of inter-

personal skills achieved in these subsystems is predicated

on the subsystems freedom from interference by other

subsystems, as might be seen with a diffuse subsystem

boundary. According to this approach, proper func-

tioning within subsystems implies clear boundaries. Clar-

ity is seen as more important than composition, for

example, the responsibility for proper supervision and

care of the children needs to be identified with person}s able to sustain and discharge such responsibilities.

Social Work Biopsychosocial Assignment college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

APA format with 7 peer reviewed articles. Assessment already completed.

Conduct a biopsychosocial assessment for a volunteer who is a representative of an at-risk or vulnerable population as defined in the course. Identify a specific issue that was the most salient to work on. Write 8-10 pages applying research and theory to your assessment of the person. The assessment MUST be conducted this semester, and if possible, a client from your field practicum should be interviewed (permission MUST be obtained both from the client and the field agency; all identifying information MUST be changed to protect confidentiality). You may interview a child, teen or adult.The assignment, in general, will include three major topic areas related to the client: application of relevant theory and research; use of interviewing and assessment skills; and intervention planning and implementation.

Freedom as a Constant Struggle essay rice supplement essay help



Freedom Is a Constant Struggle



Freedom Is a

Constant Struggle

Ferguson, Palestine, and the Foundations of a Movement

Angela Y. Davis

Edited by Frank Barat



2016 Angela Davis

Published in 2016 by Haymarket Books P.O. Box 180165 Chicago, IL 60618 773-583-7884 [email protected]

ISBN: 978-1-60846-564-4

Trade distribution: In the US, Consortium Book Sales and Distribution,

In Canada, Publishers Group Canada, In the UK, Turnaround Publisher Services, All other countries, Publishers Group Worldwide,

This book was published with the generous support of Lannan Foundation and Wallace Action Fund.

Cover design by Abby Weintraub.

Special thanks to Karen Domnguez Burke for transcribing the interviews.

Printed in Canada by union labor.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data is available.

1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2




FOREWORD by Cornel West


ONE Progressive Struggles against Insidious Capitalist Individualism

Email interview (2014)

TWO Ferguson Reminds Us of the Importance of a Global Context

Interview in Brussels (September 21, 2014)

THREE We Have to Talk about Systemic Change

Interview in Paris (December 10, 2014)

FOUR On Palestine, G4S, and the Prison-Industrial Complex

Speech at SOAS (December 13, 2013)

FIVE Closures and Continuities

Speech at Birkbeck University (October 25, 2013)

SIX From Michael Brown to Assata Shakur, the Racist State of America Persists




The Truth Telling Project: Violence in America Speech in St. Louis, Missouri (June 27, 2015)

EIGHT Feminism and Abolition: Theories and Practices for the Twenty-First Century

Speech at University of Chicago (May 4, 2013)

NINE Political Activism and Protest from the 1960s to the Age of Obama

Speech at Davidson College (February 12, 2013)

TEN Transnational Solidarities

Speech at Boazii University, Istanbul, Turkey (January 9, 2015)






Angela Davis is one of the few great long-distance intellectual freedom fighters in the world. From the revolutionary mass movements of the 1960s to the insurgent social motion in our day, Angela Davis has remained steadfast in her focus on the wretched of the Earth. In stark contrast to most leftists in the academy, her structural analysis and courageous praxis have come at a tremendous cost in her life and for her well-being. As a new assistant professor of philosophy, she was demonized by Governor Ronald Reagan in California. The University of California Board of Regents stripped her of her academic position owing to her membership in the Communist Party. She was put at the top of the FBIs Most Wanted list, on the run from the police forces of the US Empire, and incarcerated after her capture. Her grace and dignity during a historic court trial electrified the world. And her determination to remain true to her revolutionary vocationin the intense international spotlighthas been an inspiration.

After the systematic state execution or incarceration of Black warriors and government incorporation of Black professionals, Angela Davis still stands tall with intellectual power and moral fervor. During the thirty-year ice age of neoliberal rule, Angela Davis remained on fire for the freedom of the poor and working people. Her scholarship on women, workers, and people of color helped keep alive a radical vision, analysis, and praxis during the Reagan and Bush years. Her pioneering intellectual and political work on the boomtown growth of the prison system helped set the foundations for the age of Ferguson. And her ubiquitous lecturing, marvelous teaching, and courageous solidarity in every corner of the globe keep candles of hope burning in the cold and chilling days of neoliberal hegemony. She remainsafter more than fifty years of struggle, suffering, and servicethe most recognizable face of the left in the US Empire.



In this latest text of her magisterial corpus, Angela Davis puts forward her brilliant analyses and resilient witness here and abroad. In a clear and concise manner, she embodies and enacts intersectionalitya structural intellectual and political response to the dynamics of violence, white supremacy, patriarchy, state power, capitalist markets, and imperial policies.

On December 3, 2014, I was blessed to stand alongside my dear sister and comrade Angela Davis at the Oxford Union Debate in memory of the fiftieth anniversary of the great Malcolm Xs presence at the Oxford Union. It was a grand eventwith Angela bringing back the spirit of Malcolm in a magnificent way. This same spirit infuses this book and beckons us to partake of its long- standing joys of serving the people!





I am writing this sitting in my small office in Brussels. The month of June is nearly gone and the heat has just arrived.

I work in a building that hosts various organizations and charities working for global justice. Some focus on Western Sahara; some on Palestine; others on torture, Latin America, or Africa. It is a good environment to work in, surrounded by people who believe in a fairer and better society, and who have decided to act on their beliefs and dedicate their lives to trying to change the world. Sounds utopian, maybe. But the important word here is probably not the one you are thinking of. Its trying. Trying and trying again. Never stopping. That is a victory in itself. Everyone and everything tells you that outside you will not succeed, that it is too late, that we live in an epoch where a revolution cannot happen anymore. Radical changes are a thing of the past. You can be an outsider, but not outside the system, and you can have political beliefs, even radical ones, but they need to stay within the bounds of the permissible, inside that bubble that has been drawn for you by the elites.

My office is located a few steps away from the European Commission headquarters, an imposing building made of grayness and glass that I cycle past every morning. A place that is now flanked by military personnel as well as private security companies. I often wonder what their job is: to protect the people, the human beings inside, or to protect the place itself, the concept, the ideology embodied in it?

This morning, when I visualized Greece in the midst of anti-austerity protests, I saw the contested Europe. People in the streets, from all walks of life, from various generations, chanting, raising flags, rioting. I saw people organizing. I saw local assemblies, clinics run by volunteers. I saw the Acropolis, Exarchia, Syntagma Square. I saw olive trees. I saw the sun. I saw dmokratia. The rule, the power, of the people. The very concept that has lost



most of its meaning in todays world. This is a concept that to the big guns of Europe (Germany, France, Italy, the European Central Bank, and the European Commission itself) is only valid and celebrated when it does not diverge from their view of and plans for the world. In the last few months, since the groundbreaking and game-changing elections in Greece, for the first time in Europe a left-wing and anti-austerity party, Syriza, has come into power, and those big guns are trying to make sure that it crumbles and disappears. The party, but more importantly, the message, the idea the party embodies, is under threat. The concept that another way of organizing our lives collectively is possible, that we can be ruled by each other, the 99 percent, instead of technocrats, banks, and corporations. As I write this, the hope that finds expression in the streets and homes all over Greece is a movement. A movement in the midst of a huge loss of material wealth for ordinary Greeks. But theres a message there for everyone and it is that people can unite, that democracy from below can challenge oligarchy, that imprisoned migrants can be freed, that fascism can be overcome, and that equality is emancipatory.

The powerful have sent us a message: obey, and if you seek collective liberation, then you will be collectively punished. In the case of Europe, its the violence of austerity and borders where migrant lives are negated, allowed to drown in sea buffer zones. In the case of the United States, Black and Native lives are systematically choked by an enduring white supremacy that thrives on oppression and settler colonialism, and is backed by drones, the dispossession of territory and identity to millions, mass incarceration, the un-peopleing of people, and resource grabs that deny that indigenous lives matter and that our planet matters. All around us and up close, we are being told not to care. Not to collectivize, not to confront.

Angela What can we do? How can we do it? With whom? What tactics should be used? How should we define a strategy that is accessible to everyone, including a general public that has reached levels of depoliticization that can make atrocities seem acceptable? What is our vision? How can we make sure we are talking to everyone? How can we catalyze and connect sustainable, cross-border, and radical movements? These are the types of questions that many activists ask themselves on a daily basis, questions that are anchored in the present and will shape our future.



It is easy to feel discouraged and simply let go. There is no shame in that. We are, after all, engaged in a struggle that seems, if we look at it using a mainstream political framework and through a mass media prism, unwinnable. On the other hand, if we take a step back, look at things from a broader angle, reflecting on what is happening all over the world and the history of struggle, the history of solidarity movements, it becomes clear, sometimes even obvious, that seemingly indestructible forces can be, thanks to peoples willpower, sacrifices, and actions, easily broken.

When I first thought of producing a book with Angela Davis, my main goal was to talk about our struggle as activists. To try to define it in real and concrete terms. To try to understand what it means to people engaged in it. Where and how does it start? Does it ever end? What are the essential foundations for building a movement? What does it mean physically, philosophically, and psychologically?

It was crucial for me to discuss this struggle with Angela because she is, for me and many others, a source of knowledge and inspiration, and we need to learn from her experiences and use the lessons they offer for whatever fight we are involved in. Angela never stopped; she is still, every day, living the struggle. She is an embodiment of resistance and I see her ongoing work and presence reflected in and inspiring to many of the collective liberation movements we see today. Its reflected in the understanding of prison as part of an industrial complex, rooted in slavery and capitalism, and in the popularization of the abolition movement. Its reflected in her support for anticolonial struggles all over the world, including Palestine, where many activists, including me, have taken part in on-the-ground solidarity activism.

The idea of the book was, like the previous ones I edited with Noam Chomsky and Ilan Papp, to have a flowing conversation and to leave room for some more in-depth essays by Angela that would fill gaps or extend our conversations.

A strong focus of our interviews, with the one in Brussels conducted soon after Ferguson erupted and the one in Paris right after a jury let the police officer who had killed Michael Brown go free, was Palestine and how to build a truly global and social movement around what is today one of the most urgent issues to resolvean issue that should define where we stand as a movement and as people. The focus was on how to build links with other social struggles. How to explain to people in Ferguson that what is happening in Palestine is also about them, and vice versa for the people of Palestine. How to make the struggle a



truly global one, one in which everybody on the planet has a part to play and understands that role. How do we respond collectively to the militarization of our societies? What role can Black feminism play in this process? What does being a prison abolitionist means in concrete terms today?

The interviews addressed these points and more. Some are then developed further in lengthy and powerful essays by Angela, who talks about the struggles for justice in Ferguson and Charleston in particular, and how they go a long way in showing that the struggle for equality and freedom is far from over.

The last two pieces in this book are Angelas reflections on the political struggle from the sixties to the current era of Obama and on transnational solidarity. These are two groundbreaking contributions that should give people tools and arguments to take up the fight and motivate others to become active and join us.

Angela is a miracle, US author, poet, and activist Alice Walker told me one day. Angela is unique but not exceptional because her example and her work has helped to raise new voices, new scholars, and new activists who take her ideas and expand them. I think when Alice defined Angela as a miracle, she meant that Angela is living proof that it is possible to survive, withstand, and overcome the full force of corporate power and the state fixed on the destruction of one important individual because she inspires collective solidarity. Shes living proof that people power works, that an alternative is possible, and that the struggle can be a beautiful and exhilarating one. That is something we need, as human beings, to experience.

And its in everyones power to partake in the struggle.

Brussels June 2015




Progressive Struggles against Insidious Capitalist Individualism

Interview by Frank Barat (conducted via email over several months in 2014)

You often talk about the power of the collective and stress the importance of the movement, rather than talking about individuals. How can we build such a movement, based on those ethics in a society that promotes selfishness and individualism?

Since the rise of global capitalism and related ideologies associated with neoliberalism, it has become especially important to identify the dangers of individualism. Progressive struggleswhether they are focused on racism, repression, poverty, or other issuesare doomed to fail if they do not also attempt to develop a consciousness of the insidious promotion of capitalist individualism. Even as Nelson Mandela always insisted that his accomplishments were collective, always also achieved by the men and women who were his comrades, the media attempted to sanctify him as a heroic individual. A similar process has attempted to disassociate Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. from the vast numbers of women and men who constituted the very heart of the mid-twentieth-century US freedom movement. It is essential to resist the depiction of history as the work of heroic individuals in order for people today to recognize their potential agency as a part of an ever-expanding community of struggle.

What is left today of the Black Power movement? I think of the Black Power movementor what we referred to at the time as

the Black liberation movementas a particular moment in the development of the quest for Black freedom. In many ways it was a response to what were perceived as limitations of the civil rights movement: we not only needed to



claim legal rights within the existing society but also to demand substantive rightsin jobs, housing, health care, education, et ceteraand to challenge the very structure of society. Such demandsalso against racist imprisonment, police violence, and capitalist exploitationwere summed up in the Ten-Point Program of the Black Panther Party (BPP).

Although Black individuals have entered economic, social, and political hierarchies (the most dramatic example being the 2008 election of Barack Obama), the overwhelming number of Black people are subject to economic, educational, and carceral racism to a far greater extent than during the precivil rights era. In many ways, the demands of the BPPs Ten-Point Program are just as relevantor perhaps even more relevantas during the 1960s, when they were first formulated.

The election of Barack Obama was celebrated by many as a victory against racism. Do you think this was a red herring? That it actually paralyzed for a long time the left, including African Americans involved in the fight for a fairer world?

Many of the assumptions regarding the significance of Obamas election are entirely wrong, especially those that depict a Black man in the US presidency as symbolizing the fall of the last barrier of racism. But I do think that the election itself was important, especially since most peopleincluding most Black people did not initially believe that it was possible to elect a Black person to the presidency. Young people effectively created a movementor one should qualify this by saying that it was a cyber movementthat achieved what was supposed to be impossible.

Laboratory Dynamics and Communication custom essay help

Module 3: Laboratory Dynamics and Communication

Contrary to the popular media image of the lone scientist working in the lab late into the night, most scientists do not work in isolation. The lab is a dynamic workplace with teams of individuals, and, as manager, you will spend a large amount of time dealing with the interpersonal and social dynamics of your teams.

Your success as a manager will depend on your ability to understand and manage interactions in the lab. An awareness of the different types of communication and the cultural issues that can arise in workplace exchanges will help you not only to communicate more effectively with the members of your lab, but to identify and mitigate communication problems among employees, managers, organizations and industries, and cultures. In this module, we will discuss many aspects of open communication and conflict resolution.

Outcomes and Objectives

Course Learning Outcomes Addressed in this Module

foster effective laboratory communication and problem-solving using various approaches

Module 3 Learning Objectives

After completing this module, you should be able to

identify the components of effective communication

effectively use oral, written, and electronic communication in the lab

identify common types of conflicts and warning signs of conflict

describe the steps of conflict resolution




Section 1. The Importance of Effective Communication

Effective communication is the most important skill a manager can develop. In assessing our capacity to communicate, most of us rate our own communication skills as above average. Our coworkers, however, generally rate our skills as below average (Flauto, 1999). Narrowing the gap between these two perceptions is one goal of effective communication. If you fail, for example, to convey that samples need to be placed in the freezer, you could jeopardize an entire week’s worth of work. Remembering to communicate this information, and knowing how and to whom to communicate it, ensures a smooth workflow and unperturbed lab members.

Communicationis a cyclic process (see figure 3.1) involving a person sending a message (sender) and a person receiving the message (receiver). Psychologist Carl Rogers holds that the receiver needs to be able to extract the full, uncensored content of the message from the sender without any prejudices, biases, or assumptions getting in the way. He refers to this process asnondirective listening, arguing that listening is as important as sending the message in a communication exchange.

Figure 3.1 The Communication Process


Many of us believe that we have gotten a message across simply because we have told someone what to do. Effective communication, however, occurs only when a message has been received in the exact way in which the sender intended. Communication involves several stages, and each can give rise to confusion and misunderstanding. The sender of the message must encode his or her thoughts, and the receiver must decode the message to understand what the sender meant.

Use Your Knowledge 3.1

Read the following scenario. Use it below to reflect on a communication issue arising in a particular lab.

As Jeremy is leaving for a doctor’s appointment, he asks his technician, Candace, to prepare a stock solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for protein extraction. Jeremy is in a hurry, and does not have time to answer any questions. Candace looks in the lab’s protocol book for the recipe, but cannot find it. Knowing that Jeremy needs the solution later that day, she follows a recipe from her previous lab and makes 1 percent SDS.

When Jeremy returns that afternoon, he is upset; he did not want 1 percent SDS. The empty bottle of stock on his bench clearly indicates that a volume of 2 percent SDS is needed. Jeremy will need to re-make the SDS solution, and will not be able to begin his protein extraction until tomorrow. He feels that Candace did not follow his instructions.

Reflection Questions

1. How did Jeremy fail in the communication process?

2. What actions could both Jeremy and Candace have taken to improve their communication?

Section 2. Oral Communication in the Lab Environment

In the previous modules, we discussed the roles and responsibilities of lab personnel and the lab manager. In this section, we will focus on the communication skills you will need in order to fulfill your duties as both a manager and a scientist.

Working with a team of scientists has been compared to herding cats, with each individual resistant to the group dynamic and prone to ignoring the requests of management (Cohen & Cohen, 2005). To effectively communicate with and direct your team, you will first have to use your research and analytical skills to evaluate your personality and your approach to others. Your ability to understand yourself and to use this understanding to relate and respond to others will be critical to good communication in the lab.

Personality and Attitude

Our personality affects the ways in which we communicate and behave in the workplace, so it is important for a manager to understand the various personality types and some of the competencies associated with them. Table 3.1 lists some of the working behaviors common to different personality types as laid out in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test. One individual will exhibit traits of multiple types, with one in each row dominating.

Table 3.1 MBTI Personality Types and Associated Workplace Traits


enjoys participating in a variety of activities

often becomes impatient with paperwork or other tedious tasks

acts quickly without a lot of reflection

enjoys working in a team
enjoys working alone

prefers to work on one task at a time

prefers to think before acting

prefers to work in a quiet and calm environment


enjoys using facts and numbers

has good time management skills

works in the present and is not focused on the past or future

draws on previous experiences to make decisions
enjoys complex problems

focuses on the future

enjoys seeing the “big picture”

relies on intuition and hunches rather than on facts


enjoys finding logical solutions to problems

is task-oriented

makes decisions based on facts rather than feelings

has firm opinions and takes stands
enjoys coming up with solutions to problems

is people-oriented

values harmony

tries to avoid unpleasant news or situations


prefers for things to be planned and orderly

is task-oriented

likes to plot out work to avoid rushing to meet deadlines

uses lists to maintain order and control
takes a loose, casual approach to work

works in short bursts of energy

is stimulated by deadlines and not thrown by unexpected events

approaches work as play, or mixes work and play

Source: Adapted from Michael, 2003; The Myers & Briggs Foundation, n.d.

Our personality has a strong influence on our attitude. An introvert and an extrovert will display very different attitudes in the workplace and feel very differently about certain situations and people. In the lab environment, an extrovert may have several experiments running simultaneously and be outspoken during lab meetings, whereas an introvert may conduct one experiment at a time and prefer to work hours where there is little activity or distraction in the lab.

In module 1, we discussed the use of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter as a tool for self-evaluation. Recall thattemperamentis a combination of one’s thought processing and one’s actions, including characteristics such as communication style, values, skills, and personal perception of worth, both in the workplace and socially. Temperament and personality are similar, and they align in many ways. For example, if you fall into thethinkingcategory of the MBTI, you probably fit with therationalistcategory of Keirsey. Your management style and leadership probably reflect the attitudes typical of these categories.

In addition to taking shape from our personality and temperament, attitude is affected by our experiences. Our experiences of fear, success, defeat, and social pressure may influence our behavior and feelings in certain situations.

Can you change your attitude? Yes. The first step is to recognize the various aspects of your personality and the experiences that have led to your current modes of behavior. The second step is to use strategies that build a positive attitude and self-efficacy (Bandura, 1982).Self-efficacyis the awareness of how well you think you handle situations. How well do you handle tardy employees or mistakes made in following a lab protocol? Do others perceive your reactions as appropriate? As you encounter different situations in the lab, assess your behavior. Self-efficacy gives you the power to evaluate yourself and to alter your actions so as to bring about desired outcomes.

Attitude and Communication in the Lab

Scientists tend to be highly intuitive, analytical, logical thinkers, and are often judgmental (Cohen & Cohen, 2005).

These traits may lead us to overlook behavioral cues of our coworkers or to fail to notice how our actions affect others. If you are working in a research environment, many of your coworkers will share these traits. The question then becomes, how do you communicate openly in a productive, collegial manner that does not lead to conflict, and, when conflict occurs, how do you resolve it?

Scientists do also tend to be open and flexible in thought and behavior, possessing a willingness to learn and improve. Improvement in communication depends on self-awareness. Why is self-awareness important? In difficult situations or during an interpersonal conflict, a person who has a problem with your actions may never communicate this with you, or may communicate it poorly (Perlmutter, 2011).

To increase your self-awareness, note your feelings in specific work situations, anticipate how they will affect your behavior, and then determine whether or not your behavior will be appropriate to the situation (Cohen & Cohen, 2005). When presented with a difficult situation, how do you respond? Do you become withdrawn and remove yourself from the scene? If so, others may perceive this as indifference or as a sign of incompetence. Do you verbally lash out during confrontations, escalating feelings of anger and mistrust? Do you avoid eye contact and remain silent, giving the appearance of agreement while growing ever more furious? When next faced with a conflict or difficulty, observe your behavior. Use what you see to develop more appropriate reactions to situations and to heighten your effectiveness as a communicator.

In job interviews, you have probably been asked to respond to questions regarding yourknowledge,skills,and abilities (KSAs)(OPM, n.d.). In creating a job description, employers list the KSAs required to perform the job. These help them identify good candidates and distinguish one applicant from another.

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Discussion Responses


Discussion 1: Elisa


I chose a college farrier science lab. A farrier is someone who specializes in equine hoof care. A farrier lab is where students learn blacksmithing skills and apply those skills to the anatomy and physiology of the horse in terms of hoof care. I took a farrier class at a college years ago that was well run. At the time I had not considered that it was a legitimate science lab.

A farrier lab is equipped with forges, anvils, hammers, hoof stands, propane, natural gas, computers, and numerous specialized hand tools for working on the horses hoof (The Farrier Guide, 2021). A farrier lab needs to be designed and managed in a way that it is safe for multiple horses to be present at one time for farrier work. This type of lab would be considered academic and for profit. Students pay tuition to attend school in the lab and earn a certificate and credit towards an Animal Science degree.

A lab manager in a farrier lab has several responsibilities. The lab manager must maintain an inventory of equipment and handle any broken or damaged tools. A lab manager must ensure that everything is properly stowed and handled for the safety of the students and for the horses. A lab manager must also keep a schedule of students, horses, and handle issues where lab work was not able to be completed due to complications of behavior or health of the horse.


Farrier science certificate. Farrier Science. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2, 2021, from

Farrier Tools Guide: Learn what the most common tools do and when they’re used. The Farrier Guide. (2021). Retrieved December 2, 2021, from .


Response 1



Discussion 2: Emily



Specific Translational Genetics and Genomics Unit

Category: Research & Clinical

The Translational Genetics and Genomics Unit (TGGU) is under the category of research because they conduct research using genetic and bioinformatic approaches to advance scientific knowledge on rheumatic disease pathophysiology and inflammatory biology in hopes to find therapeutic targets (NIH). TGGU is also a clinical lab because they also conduct clinical studies through selecting individuals and families based on monogenic inflammatory diseases and clinical history (NIH).


The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases is a medical research organization because this unit is seeking to understand the mechanisms of disease-associated genetic variants that participate in disease pathophysiology and find therapeutic techniques to improve the quality of lives affected by inflammatory diseases (NIH).


Some of the recent publications from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Laboratory of Structural Biology Research which I am interested in is the “Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the MHC class I, IL10, and IL23R-IL12RB2 regions associated with Behcet’s disease” (Remmers, et al., 2010) and “Genetics, genomics, and their relevance to pathology and therapy” (Ombrello, et al., 2014). I am interested in studying genetic diseases and how specific alleles can impact specific expressions. I also think I would enjoy working in clinical labs comparing individual data and making conclusions based off the findings.


The general role of a lab manager at the National Institute of Health is to provide general administrative support to the laboratory chief, budget planning, review travel packages, and meet deadline requiring revisions (NIH).


Laboratory Manager – 303 – NIH: Office of Human Resources.

Ombrello, Michael J., et al. Genetics, Genomics, and Their Relevance to Pathology and Therapy.Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 28, no. 2, 2014, pp. 175189.,

Remmers, Elaine F, et al. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Variants in the MHC Class I, IL10, and IL23R-IL12RB2 Regions Associated with Behet’s Disease.Nature Genetics, vol. 42, no. 8, 2010, pp. 698702.,


Response 2

Religious significance of the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo ccusa autobiographical essay help

What is the religious significance of the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo, Japan? Why has it become a controversial topic in the past few decades? Identify some of the critiques and defenses put forth by each side of the debate. Where do you stand on this issue?

Discussion post, 1-2 references

Dont Blame Wahhabism for Terrorism college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Read the following article: (

Summarize the authors major claims in the article. Do you agree or disagree with the claims put forth in this article? Defend your position.

Quantitative methodological approach a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Within the quantitative methodological approach are several research designs. A research design simply provides more information on how and at what points data will be collected. The decision of design is driven by the research question and purpose of the study. For example, if your aim is to measure the effects of psychoeducation on social work clients, you might take measurements before and after the intervention (pretest-posttest).

Some designs are better than others in terms of validitythe accuracy of the measurement. For this Discussion, you explore threats to internal validity and determine which research design is the best at controlling for these threats.

To Prepare:

Review the Learning Resources on quantitative research.
Consider internal and external validity, the differences between them, and threats to validity when conducting research.
Reflect on which quantitative research design controls for all threats to internal validity.

By Day 3

Post your initial response to the following:

What is the difference between internal and external validity?
Select two internal validity threats and describe each.
After examining each category and list of designs, determine which design controls for all threats to internal validity. Explain how this design controls for all threats.

Please use the Learning Resources to support your post (i.e., cite and reference).

By Day 6

Respond to two colleagues by:

Comparing the threats of internal validity they chose with the ones you chose
Suggesting ways in which one of their identified threats could be eliminated or its effects reduced when conducting a study

Evaluation by critiquing a quantitative research study argumentative essay help online

As you may recall, evidence-based practice relies on best available evidence, which is drawn from current research studies. But, just because a research study is published, it doesnt mean it is without flaw. Social workers must make value determinations every time they interact with research they may apply to practice.

Imagine that you are a practicing social worker and encounter a question, issue, or challenge on which you need to learn more. You search in the social work literature and find a quantitative study on the topic. As you read it, you ask critical questions, closely analyze how the study was framed and conducted, monitor efforts toward validity, and ultimately decide whether to integrate the information in practice.

For this Assignment, you replicate this process of critical evaluation by critiquing a quantitative research study.

To Prepare:

Review the Learning Resources on critical reading and critique/evaluation.
Select one of the quantitative research articles your Instructor has provided.
Read the research article with a critical eye, taking notes and considering how the study was conducted.
Download the Critique Template in the Learning Resources for use in this Assignment.

By Day 7

Submit a 3-page critique of the peer-reviewed research study you have chosen from those provided by your Instructor.

In your Assignment, be sure to identify and evaluate the following, as described in the template:

Title and Authors
Literature Review
Strategy of Research (Descriptive, Exploratory, Explanatory)
Methodological Approach and Design
Threats to Internal Validity
Application to Practice

Based on your critique of this study, is this social work intervention or knowledge safe to integrate into your practice? Why or why not?

Use the Learning Resources to support your critique. Make sure to include appropriate APA citations and a reference list.

Quantitative Research Study Critique popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Quantitative Research Study Critique

Student Name

Walden University

SOCW 6301: Social Work Practice Research I

Instructor Name

Month XX, 202X

Quantitative Research Study Critique

Include an introductory paragraph that names the research study you are evaluating and previews the structure and focus of your critique. Provide your overall assessment of the study in a brief statement.

Title and Authors

In this section, evaluate the article title and the authors credibility. Do you think the title adequately describe the study and its key elements? Who are the authors and have they conducted and/or published previous research? Are they affiliated with a research institution or university?

Literature Review

Consider the following questions in your critique of the articles literature review: To what extent does the cited literature help you understand the problem? How does the literature reviewed put the problem in context? Be specific. Do the authors indicate how their research is different from and/or similar to earlier studies? Summarize what this article intends to add to the knowledge base.

Strategy of Research

Address the following questions in your critique of the research strategy: What is the strategy/aim of this quantitative studyis it descriptive, exploratory, or explanatory? Does this strategy align with the research question?

Methodological Approach and Design

Consider the following questions in your critique of the methodological approach and design: How does a quantitative approach (as opposed to a qualitative approach) correspond with the research questions and/or hypotheses? Is the specific research design appropriate? To what extent can the design answer the research questions or address the stated hypotheses?

Threats to Internal Validity

Consider the following questions in your critique of the internal validity: What have the authors done to address threats to internal validity? How does the presence or absence of information about validity affect your confidence in the quality of the study?

Application to Practice

Connect the information from the article to social work practice and provide your recommendations. Based on your critique of this study, is this social work intervention or knowledge safe to integrate into your practice? Why or why not?


(Include full references here for any sources that you have cited within the research study critique. Note that the following references are intended as examples only.)

American Counseling Association. (n.d.). About us.

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

Bach, D., & Blake, D. J. (2016). Frame or get framed: The critical role of issue framing in nonmarket management. California Management Review, 58(3), 66-87.

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of Power. Routledge.

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 225229.

Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A new history. HarperCollins.

Lindley, L. C., & Slayter, E. M. (2018). Prior trauma exposure and serious illness at end of life: A national study of children in the U.S. foster care system from 2005 to 2015. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 56(3), 309317.

Osman, M. A. (2016, December 15). 5 dos and donts for staying motivated. Mayo Clinic.

Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Wiley.

Walden University Library. (n.d.). Anatomy of a research article [Video].

Walden University Writing Center. (n.d.). Writing literature reviews in your graduate coursework [Webinar].

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety.

Community context of a social work agency essay help websites

How does your agency fit into the community in which it serves? What factors affect what it is able to do or what it claims to do? For the next slide in your Agency Presentation, due in full by Week 9, consider these questions as you present the community context of your agency.

For this Discussion in the Agency Presentation sequence, recall that you uploaded the indicated slide from your Agency Presentation for comparison and online Discussion this week, as well as possible Synchronous Video Conference Meeting Discussion next week.

To Prepare

Review the Week 9 Assignment instructions.
Develop the slide for the Week 9 Assignment focusing on the community context of a social work agency.

Recall that the goal of the Agency Presentation is to examine the characteristics of your agency in reference to the field of social work and the types of services offered to clients.

Note:Your complete Week 9 Final Project submission requires a reference page. Be sure to continue the process of compiling your reference list now and for each weeks submission prior to Week 9.

By Day 3

Upload the slide from your Agency Presentation that relates to how the agency interacts with the community or its role in the community.

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